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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 216 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Periodica Duellatorum     Open Access  
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arquivos de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access  
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Athletic Training & Sports Health Care     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
E-balonmano.com: Revista de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fruits     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gambling Research: Journal of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
GISAP : Culturology, Sports and Art History     Open Access  
Gymnasium : Revista de Educação Física, Desporto e Saúde     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Human Movement     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
İnönü Üniversitesi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Athletic Training     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Caffeine Research: The International Multidisciplinary Journal of Caffeine Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Kesehatan Rekreasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
New Zealand Physical Educator     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Pamukkale Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education and Sport Through the Centuries     Open Access  
Physical Education of Students     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Quality in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal  
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista da Educação Física : UEM     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal  
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sport Health     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Sport Sciences     Open Access  
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sport und Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift für Sportsoziologie, Sportphilosophie, Sportökonomie, Sportgeschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Sport- und Präventivmedizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportif Bakış : Spor ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal  

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Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
Published by MDPI Homepage  [230 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 91: Effects of Plyometric and Repeated Sprint
           Training on Physical Performance

    • Authors: Ivan Krakan, Luka Milanovic, Ivan Belcic
      First page: 91
      Abstract: The purpose of study was to resolve the effect of plyometric training and repeated sprint training on physical performance. The study was conducted on 41 subjects in two experimental groups (plyometric/repeated sprints training). Before and after the training program, subjects were subjected to diagnostic procedures that included standard test protocols. Results proved a statistically significant difference only after the plyometric training program compared to the repeated sprint group in countermovement jump (8.65% vs. 2.21%). In variable repeated jumps, an increased value was recorded (2.9% vs. 4.29%), like in sprint variables after the training program where certain trends of progress happened after the repeated sprint ability training and the specificity of the program (5 m = 0.89%, 10 m = 1.07% and 25 m = 1.35%), while plyometric training recorded unchanged values at 5 and 10 m, and a 0.27% improvement at 25 m. Stagnation of the 20-yard test was recorded in both groups. There was no difference between training programs in any variables of functional capacities, with similar measures recorded in repeated sprint ability. After six weeks of both training types, positive changes can be expected in explosive strength of lower extremities, increases in acceleration area, and maximum speed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070091
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 92: Physiological Predictors of Performance on the
           CrossFit “Murph” Challenge

    • Authors: Carreker, Grosicki
      First page: 92
      Abstract: We examined physiological predictors of performance on the CrossFit Murph challenge (1-mile run, 100 pullups, 200 pushups, 300 air squats, 1-mile run). Male CrossFit athletes (n = 11, 27 ± 3 years) performed a battery of physical assessments including: (1) body composition, (2) upper and lower body strength, (3) upper body endurance, (4) anaerobic power, and (5) maximal oxygen consumption. No less than 72 h later, participants completed the Murph challenge, heart rate was monitored throughout, and blood lactate was obtained pre-post. Correlations between physiological parameters and total Murph time, and Murph subcomponents, were assessed using Pearson’s correlations. Murph completion time was 43.43 ± 4.63 min, and maximum and average heart rate values were 185.63 ± 7.64 bpm and 168.81 ± 6.41 bpm, respectively, and post-Murph blood lactate was 10.01 ± 3.04 mmol/L. Body fat percentage was the only physiological parameter significantly related to total Murph time (r = 0.718; p = 0.013). Total lift time (25.49 ± 3.65 min) was more strongly related (r = 0.88) to Murph time than total run time (17.60 ± 1.97 min; r = 0.65). Greater relative anaerobic power (r = −0.634) and less anaerobic fatigue (r = 0.649) were related to total run time (p < 0.05). Individuals wanting to enhance overall Murph performance are advised to focus on minimizing body fat percentage and improving lift performance. Meanwhile, performance on the run subcomponent may be optimized through improvements in anaerobic power.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070092
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 93: Validation of Inertial Sensor to Measure Barbell
           Kinematics across a Spectrum of Loading Conditions

    • Authors: Abbott, Wagle, Sato, Painter, Light, Stone
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of agreement in measuring back squat kinematics between an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a 3D motion capture system (3DMOCAP). Kinematic variables included concentric peak velocity (CPV), concentric mean velocity (CMV), eccentric peak velocity (EPV), eccentric mean velocity (EMV), mean propulsive velocity (MPV), and POP-100: a proprietary variable. Sixteen resistance-trained males performed an incrementally loaded one repetition maximum (1RM) squat protocol. A series of Pearson correlations, 2 × 4 RM ANOVA, Cohen’s d effect size differences, coefficient of variation (CV), and standard error of the estimate (SEE) were calculated. A large relationship existed for all variables between devices (r = 0.78–0.95). Between-device agreement for CPV worsened beyond 60% 1RM. The remaining variables were in agreement between devices with trivial effect size differences and similar CV magnitudes. These results support the use of the IMU, regardless of relative intensity, when measuring EMV, EPV, MPV, and POP-100. However, practitioners should carefully select kinematic variables of interest when using the present IMU device for velocity-based training (VBT), as certain measurements (e.g., CMV, CPV) do not possess practically acceptable reliability or accuracy. Finally, the IMU device exhibited considerable practical data collection concerns, as one participant was completely excluded and 13% of the remaining attempts displayed obvious internal error.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070093
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 94: The Reliability and Validity of Current
           Technologies for Measuring Barbell Velocity in the Free-Weight Back Squat
           and Power Clean

    • Authors: Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Harry F. Dorrell, Alan Ruddock, Andrew Barnes
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This study investigated the inter-day and intra-device reliability, and criterion validity of six devices for measuring barbell velocity in the free-weight back squat and power clean. In total, 10 competitive weightlifters completed an initial one repetition maximum (1RM) assessment followed by three load-velocity profiles (40–100% 1RM) in both exercises on four separate occasions. Mean and peak velocity was measured simultaneously on each device and compared to 3D motion capture for all repetitions. Reliability was assessed via coefficient of variation (CV) and typical error (TE). Least products regression (LPR) (R2) and limits of agreement (LOA) assessed the validity of the devices. The Gymaware was the most reliable for both exercises (CV < 10%; TE < 0.11 m·s−1, except 100% 1RM (mean velocity) and 90‒100% 1RM (peak velocity)), with MyLift and PUSH following a similar trend. Poorer reliability was observed for Beast Sensor and Bar Sensei (CV = 5.1%‒119.9%; TE = 0.08‒0.48 m·s−1). The Gymaware was the most valid device, with small systematic bias and no proportional or fixed bias evident across both exercises (R2 > 0.42–0.99 LOA = −0.03–0.03 m·s−1). Comparable validity data was observed for MyLift in the back squat. Both PUSH devices produced some fixed and proportional bias, with Beast Sensor and Bar Sensei being the least valid devices across both exercises (R2 > 0.00–0.96, LOA = −0.36‒0.46 m·s−1). Linear position transducers and smartphone applications could be used to obtain velocity-based data, with inertial measurement units demonstrating poorer reliability and validity.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070094
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 95: Verifying Physiological and Biomechanical
           Parameters during Continuous Swimming at Speed Corresponding to Lactate

    • Authors: Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis S. Nikitakis, Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Argyris G. Toubekis
      First page: 95
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and biomechanical parameters measured during 30 min of continuous swimming (T30) at intensity corresponding to lactate threshold previously calculated by an intermittent progressively increasing speed test (7 × 200 m). Fourteen competitive swimmers (18.0 (2.5) years, 67.5 (8.8) kg, 174.5 (7.7) cm) performed a 7 × 200 m front crawl test. Blood lactate concentration (BL) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were determined after each 200 m repetition, while heart rate (HR), arm-stroke rate (SR), and arm-stroke length (SL) were measured during each 200 m repetition. Using the speed vs. lactate concentration curve, the speed at lactate threshold (sLT) and parameters corresponding to sLT were calculated (BL-sLT, VO2-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT). In the following day, a T30 corresponding to sLT was performed and BL-T30, VΟ2-T30, HR-T30, SR-T30, and SL-T30 were measured after the 10th and 30th minute, and average values were used for comparison. VO2-sLT was no different compared to VO2-T30 (p > 0.05). BL-T30, HR-T30, and SR-T30 were higher, while SL-T30 was lower compared to BL-sLT, HR-sLT, SR-sLT, and SL-sLT (p < 0.05). Continuous swimming at speed corresponding to lactate threshold may not show the same physiological and biomechanical responses as those calculated by a progressively increasing speed test of 7 × 200 m.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070095
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 96: Sociodemographic Determinants of Physical
           Activity and Sport Participation among Women in the United States

    • Authors: Jennifer R. Pharr, Nancy L. Lough, Angela M. Terencio
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Regular physical activity and sport participation have been shown to improve women’s health; however, research has found that better health is associated with sport participation. Little is known about the sociodemographic determinants of physical activity among women, especially among the different subcategories of physical activity (sport, conditioning exercise, recreation, and household tasks). Because of the added health benefits associated with sport participation, the purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic determinants among subcategories of physically active women in the United States by analyzing Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. We used data from the 2017 national BRFSS survey to conduct this secondary data analysis. Participants were asked an extensive set of questions about their physical activity. Seventy-six different activities were identified and categorized as either sport, recreation, conditioning exercise, or household tasks. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the sociodemographic determinants of the four physical activity subcategories, including age, income, education, employment, and race/ethnicity. There were significant differences in all sociodemographic variables among the four subcategories of physical activity. Women who participated in sport were more likely to be in the younger age groups; however, physical activity declined among all subcategories beyond the age of 64. Women who participated in sports were more diverse, likely to be employed, and college graduates compared to the other subcategories. Women who participated in recreational or household tasks were more likely to meet the criteria to be categorized as highly active; however, they exercised at a lower intensity. The sociodemographic characteristics of physical activity and sport participation can be used to create promotional strategies to increase physical activity and improve fitness and health among women who tend towards participation, and also to change programs to accommodate women from other sociodemographic groups.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070096
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 97: Evolution of Physical Fitness in Formative
           Female Basketball Players: A Case Study

    • Authors: David Mancha-Triguero, Nicolás Martín-Encinas, Sergio J. Ibáñez
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Over the last few years, team sports increased the amount of physical demand and its importance. Therefore, work related to physical fitness and its assessment is essential to achieving success. However, there are few studies on this subject at the formative stage. The purpose of this study was then to analyze the physical fitness of an under-18 (U18) women’s team divided by game positions. In addition, physical fitness at different times of the season was characterized to identify differences and determine its evolution. To assess physical fitness, tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, lower body strength, centripetal force, agility and speed were carried out as designed in the SBAFIT battery. Each player was equipped with an inertial microtechnology device for the collection of data. This research is classified as empirical, with quasi-experimental methodology. The results showed significant differences in variables of the test of aerobic and anaerobic capacities, speed, agility (generic and specific), and centripetal force (right) based on game position and the moment of the season. The results also showed the importance of the specific physical aspect in relation to an optimal improvement in physical fitness, since training sessions and competition do not allow all players to improve equally or efficiently.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070097
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 98: A Thirty-Five-Minute Nap Improves Performance
           and Attention in the 5-m Shuttle Run Test during and Outside Ramadan

    • Authors: Hsen Hsouna, Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Raouf Abdessalem, Achraf Ammar, Jordan M. Glenn, Nick Bott, Nizar Souissi, Paola Lanteri, Sergio Garbarino, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Hamdi Chtourou
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Ramadan observance is characterized by several changes in behaviors, such as food and sleep, which could affect physical and cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 35-min nap (N35) opportunity on physical performance during the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT); attention; feelings; mood states; and perceptual measures of stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness during Ramadan observance. Fourteen physically active men (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 4 cm, 76 ± 5 kg) were tested after a no-nap condition (N0), N35 15 days before Ramadan (BR), the last 10 days of Ramadan (DR), and 20 days after Ramadan (AR). Measures included the digit cancellation test (attention estimation), the profile of mood state (POMS), and the Hooper questionnaires. After a 5-min standard warm-up, participants performed the 5mSRT (6 × 30 s with 35 s in between; best distance (BD), total distance (TD), and fatigue index (FI) were recorded), along with the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after each test repetition. After the 5mSRT test, participants responded to the feeling scale (FS). The results showed that TD and FI during the 5mSRT were not affected by Ramadan observance. However, BD was significantly lower than DR compared to AR after N0 (∆ = −4.3 ± 1.3%; p < 0.01) and N35 (∆ = −2.6 ± 1.0%; p < 0.05). After N0, attention decreased significantly at DR in comparison with BR (p < 0.05) and AR (p < 0.001). BD and TD improved after N35 compared to N0 at BR (∆ = +4.4 ± 2.1%, p < 0.05 for BD and ∆ = +4.8 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01 for TD), DR (∆ = +7.1 ± 2.2%, p < 0.05 for BD and ∆ = +5.1 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01 for TD), and AR (∆ = +5.5 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01 for BD and ∆ = +5.2 ± 1.2%, p < 0.001 for TD). A significant increase in attention was observed after N35 in comparison with N0 at DR (p < 0.01) and AR (p < 0.01). However, no changes were found for the perception of mood states, stress, sleep, muscle soreness, and the FI during the 5mSRT. Also, N35 was better than N0 for RPE at DR (p < 0.05), feelings at AR (p < 0.05), and fatigue estimation at AR (p < 0.01). A 35-min nap opportunity may have beneficial effects on physical and cognitive performances before, during, and after Ramadan.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070098
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 99: Effect of ACTN3 Genotype on Sports Performance,
           Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, and Injury Epidemiology

    • Authors: Gabriel Baltazar-Martins, Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Millán Aguilar-Navarro, Carlos Ruiz-Moreno, Victor Moreno-Pérez, Álvaro López-Samanes, Raúl Domínguez, Juan Del Coso
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Genetic factors play a significant role in athletic performance and its related phenotypes such as power, strength and aerobic capacity. In this regard, the lack of a muscle protein due to a genetic polymorphism has been found to affect sport performance in a wide variety of ways. α-actinin-3 is a protein located within the skeletal muscle with a key role in the production of sarcomeric force. A common stop-codon polymorphism (rs1815739; R577X) in the gene that codes for α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) produces individuals with the XX genotype that lack expression of a functional α-actinin-3. In contrast, individuals with the R-allele (i.e., RX vs. RR genotypes) in this polymorphism can express α-actinin-3. Interestingly, around ~18% of the world population have the XX genotype and much has been debated about why a polymorphism that produces a lack of a muscle protein has endured natural selection. Several investigations have found that α-actinin-3 deficiency due to XX homozygosity in the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism can negatively affect sports performance through several structural, metabolic, or signaling changes. In addition, new evidence suggests that α-actinin-3 deficiency may also impact sports performance through indirect factors such a higher risk for injury or lower resistance to muscle-damaging exercise. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a clear explanation of the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency due to the ACTN3 XX genotype on sport. Key focus has been provided about the effect of α-actinin-3 deficiency on morphologic changes in skeletal muscle, on the low frequency of XX athletes in some athletic disciplines, and on injury epidemiology.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070099
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 100: Global Challenges of Being a Strength Athlete
           during a Pandemic: Impacts and Sports-Specific Training Considerations and

    • Authors: Christopher Latella, G. Gregory Haff
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The ongoing global pandemic brought about by Coronavirus II (SARS-Cov-2 or COVID-19) has caused an ongoing cessation of sporting competitions and training facility closures. This is a fundamental challenge for amateur and elite sporting professionals. Although recommendations have been provided for team-sport athletes to maintain general and sport-specific conditioning, these methods are often not optimal for strength athletes (i.e., powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL)) due to the unique and narrow set of performance requirements posed by these sports. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence-based information and recommendations and highlight potential strategies and approaches that may be used by strength (PL and WL) athletes during the current global crisis. Collectively, we provide evidence from resistance training literature regarding the loss of muscle strength, power and mass, minimum training frequencies required to attenuate such losses and training re-adaptation. Additionally, we suggest that time off training and competition caused by ongoing restrictions may be used for other purposes, such as overcoming injury and improving movement quality and/or mobility, goal setting, psychological development and emphasizing strength sports for health. These suggestions are intended to be useful for coaches, strength athletes and organizations where existing training strategies and recommendations are not suitable or no longer feasible.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8070100
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 75: Does the Order of Submaximal Lactate Threshold
           and Maximal Oxygen Uptake Testing Influence Test Outcomes'

    • Authors: Per-Øyvind Torvik, Roland van den van den Tillaar, Gaute Iversen
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate if the order of submaximal lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake testing would influence test outcomes. Twelve well-trained male cross-country skiers (mean age 19.6 years) performed two test sessions within a week in a within-subjects repeated measures with cross-over design study. A maximal oxygen uptake test (VO2max) followed by a lactate threshold (LT) test and vice versa, were performed. The test data included VO2, blood lactate (La-b), heart rate (HR), performance speed, Borg scale (RPE) at all stages and lactate accumulation throughout the whole test protocol including the breaks. No significant effect of testing order was found for: VO2max (74.23 vs. 73.91 mL∙min−1∙kg−1), maximal HR (190.7 vs. 189.9 bpm) and speed at LT during uphill running. Three out of four common definitions of LT resulted in the same La-b at the last two steps, 11 and 12 km/h respectively, in the two protocols. It is worth noting that VO2, HR and La-b were higher in the first two stages of the LT test when VO2max was tested first in the protocol. Well-trained cross-country skiers conclusively attained a similar VO2max and LT in both protocols, and the two tests did not seem to influence each other in terms of the degree of exhaustion that occurs in a single VO2max or an incremental LT test. However, when using a curvilinear function to define the LT, it is important to know that the VO2max test can influence levels of VO2, HR and La-b at the first two stages of the LT test.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060075
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 76: Can Countermovement Jump Neuromuscular
           Performance Qualities Differentiate Maximal Horizontal Deceleration
           Ability in Team Sport Athletes'

    • Authors: Harper, Cohen, Carling, Kiely
      First page: 76
      Abstract: This investigation aimed to determine the countermovement jump (CMJ) neuromuscular performance (NMP) qualities that differentiate between athletes with high or low horizontal deceleration ability. Twenty-seven male university team sport athletes performed a CMJ on vertical axis force plates and a maximal horizontal deceleration following a 20 m maximal horizontal sprint acceleration. The instantaneous velocity throughout the maximal horizontal deceleration test was measured using a radar device. The deceleration ability was evaluated using the average deceleration (HDEC, m·s−2) and change in momentum—referred to as the horizontal braking impulse (HBI, N·s·kg−1). Participants were dichotomised into high and low HDEC and HBI according to a median-split analysis, and CMJ variables calculated for the overall eccentric, eccentric-deceleration and concentric phases. When horizontal deceleration ability was defined by HDEC, the CMJ concentric (effect size (ES) = 0.95) and eccentric (ES = 0.72) peak forces were the variables with the largest difference between groups. However, when defined using HBI, the largest difference was the concentric (ES = 1.15) and eccentric (ES = −1.00) peak velocities. Only the concentric mean power was significantly different between the high and low groups for both HDEC (ES = 0.85) and HBI (ES = 0.96). These findings show that specific eccentric and concentric NMP qualities may underpin the horizontal deceleration abilities characterised by HDEC and HBI. Specific NMP training interventions may be beneficial to target improvements in either of these measures of horizontal deceleration abilities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060076
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 77: Intensity Thresholds and Maximal Lactate Steady
           State in Small Muscle Group Exercise

    • Authors: Florian Spendier, Alexander Müller, Markus Korinek, Peter Hofmann
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The aim of our study is to determine the first (LTP1) and the second (LTP2) lactate turn points during an incremental bicep curl test and to verify these turn points by ventilatory turn points (VT1 and VT2) and constant-load exercise tests. Twelve subjects performed a one-arm incremental bicep curl exercise (IET) after a one repetition maximum (1RM) test to calculate the step rate for the incremental exercise (1RM/45). Workload was increased every min at a rate of 30 reps/min until maximum. To verify LTPs, VT1 and VT2 were determined from spirometric data, and 30 min constant-load tests (CL) were performed at 5% Pmax below and above turn points. Peak load in IET was 5.3 ± 0.9 kg (Lamax: 2.20 ± 0.40 mmol·L−1; HRmax: 135 ± 15 b·min−1; VO2max: 1.15 ± 0.30 L·min−1). LTP1 was detected at 1.9 ± 0.6 kg (La: 0.86 ± 0.36 mmol·L−1; HR 90 ± 13 b·min−1; VO2: 0.50 ± 0.05 L·min−1) and LTP2 at 3.8 ± 0.7 kg (La: 1.38 ± 0.37 mmol·L−1; 106 ± 10 b·min−1; VO2: 0.62 ± 0.11 L·min−1). Constant-load tests showed a lactate steady-state in all tests except above LTP2, with early termination after 16.5 ± 9.1 min. LTP1 and LTP2 could be determined in IET, which were not significantly different from VT1/VT2. Constant-load exercise validated the three-phase concept, and a steady-state was found at resting values below VT1 and in all other tests except above LTP2. It is suggested that the three-phase model is also applicable to small muscle group exercise.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060077
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 78: Increased Liveliness of Trunk Muscle Responses
           in Elite Kayakers and Canoeists

    • Authors: Andrej Kocjan, Nejc Šarabon
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Trunk stability functions play an important role in sport and everyday movements. The aim of this study was to analyze trunk strength, trunk muscles onset of activity, and rate of electromyographic rise (RER) in the case of self-inflicted and unexpected trunk loading. Thirty-two healthy young adults (16 elite kayakers/canoeists and 16 non-athletes) were measured with a multi-purpose diagnostic machine. Trunk strength was assessed in standing position. Trunk muscles onset of activity and RER were assessed through unexpected loading over the hands and rapid shoulder flexion, respectively. In comparison with non-athletes, kayakers/canoeists did not significantly differ in trunk strength and showed lower trunk extension/flexion strength ratio (p = 0.008). In general, trunk muscles onset of activity did not significantly differ between the groups. On the contrary, kayakers/canoeists showed higher RER mean values in all the observed muscles (p < 0.041), except in multifidus muscle during self-inflicted movements. Similarly, higher RER variability was observed in the majority of the observed muscles among kayakers/canoeists. Higher RER among kayakers/canoeists could represent a protective mechanism that ensures spine stability and prevents low back pain.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060078
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 79: The Effects of Accentuated Eccentric Loading on
           Mechanical Variables and Agonist Electromyography during the Bench Press

    • Authors: Alexis H. Castro, Dylan Zangakis, Gavin L. Moir
      First page: 79
      Abstract: We compared the effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on mechanical variables and agonist muscle activation using low (30% 1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and high (80% 1RM) upward-phase loading with AEL (100% 1RM during downward phase) to traditional loading schemes (T) in the bench press. Twelve resistance-trained men (26 ± 6 years; 1RM: 134 ± 33 kg) performed sets of two repetitions with three-minute intervals using loading schemes of 30AEL, 30T, 80AEL, and 80T. AEL was applied using weight releasers while force plates and a 3D motion-analysis system were used to measure mechanical variables. Electromyographic activity of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles was also recorded. The greater downward-phase loads experienced during the AEL conditions allowed greater overall mean vertical forces (mean difference ( x ¯ Diff): 118 N, p < 0.001), greater work ( x ¯ Diff: 43 J, p < 0.001), and greater pectoralis major muscle activation ( x ¯ Diff: 27 µV, p = 0.002) compared to the corresponding traditional loading schemes. However, there was little evidence of potentiation of the mechanical variables or muscle activity during the subsequent upward phases caused by the AEL schemes. It is possible that the use of weight releasers may disrupt lifting technique particularly during low AEL schemes thereby diminishing any benefits.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060079
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 80: Cardiovascular Consequences of Skeletal Muscle
           Impairments in Breast Cancer

    • Authors: Zieff, Wagoner, Paterson, Lassalle, Lee
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Breast cancer survivors suffer from disproportionate cardiovascular disease risk compared to age-matched controls. Beyond direct cardiotoxic effects due to treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation, breast-cancer-related reductions in skeletal muscle mass, quality and oxidative capacity may further contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in this population by limiting the ability to engage in aerobic exercise—a known promoter of cardiovascular health. Indeed, 20%–30% decreases in peak oxygen consumption are commonly observed in breast cancer survivors, which are indicative of exercise intolerance. Thus, breast-cancer-related skeletal muscle damage may reduce exercise-based opportunities for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Resistance training is a potential strategy to improve skeletal muscle health in this population, which in turn may enhance the capacity to engage in aerobic exercise and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060080
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 81: Body Composition and Physical Fitness Profiles
           of Elite Female Japanese Wrestlers Aged <12 Years until >20 Years

    • Authors: Arakawa, Yamashita, Arimitsu, Kawano, Wada, Shimizu
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Studies evaluating the physical fitness levels of elite wrestlers during junior high school are limited. This study aimed to examine the body composition and physical fitness profiles of elite Japanese female wrestlers aged &lt;12 years until &gt;20 years. There were 114 elite female wrestlers enrolled. Measurements were conducted in the following age categories: &lt;12 years (U-12), &lt;15 years (U-15), &lt;17 years (U-17: cadet), &lt;20 years (U-20: junior), and &gt;20 years (senior). Body composition variables consisted of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, fat free mass, and fat free mass index (FFMI). Fitness measurements included grip strength, back strength, sit-up, rope-climbing, and endurance running tests. The wrestlers in this study demonstrated comparable or greater FFMI values (e.g., FFMI: 17.9 &plusmn; 0.4 kg/m2 for light and 19.8 &plusmn; 0.9 kg/m2 for heavy weight categories in U-20), when compared with young female wrestlers in previous studies, whereas stature, body mass, and BMI of the wrestlers in our study were unremarkable. Regarding the fitness assessment, a remarkable increase in back strength was observed after late puberty. An outstanding enhancement of muscle strength after late puberty, which is unlikely to occur in ordinary women, would be an important requirement to become the world&rsquo;s top female wrestler.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060081
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 82: Bilateral Deficit and Bilateral Performance:
           Relationship with Sprinting and Change of Direction in Elite Youth Soccer

    • Authors: Ascenzi, Ruscello, Filetti, Bonanno, Di Salvo, Nuñez, Mendez-Villanueva, Suarez-Arrones
      First page: 82
      Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in bilateral deficit (BLD) at different loadings during the half-squat jump (SJ) and horizontal countermovement jump (HCMJ) to determine if there is a relationship with linear sprint or change of direction (COD). The second goal was to check if fast players were more powerful in SJ and HCMJ than slow players in bilateral performance (BP). Twenty-seven male youth soccer players participated in the study. Players were divided in two groups, faster and slower, according to their sprint performance (10 and 40 m). BLD average power with body weight (BW) and 25%BW were significantly higher than 50%BW (p &lt; 0.01). BLD during HCMJ was significantly higher than BLD during SJ with BW, 25%BW and 50%BW (p &lt; 0.01). There were no statistical relationships between BLD and sprint or COD performance (p &gt; 0.05). Fast players showed significantly higher SJ power with all the different loads and HCMJ than slow players (p &lt; 0.01), and fast players lost more time executing COD-90&deg; than slow players (p &lt; 0.01). There were no statistical differences between fast and slow players in BLD. BLD seems to be dependent on motor task, contraction type and load and could not be a proper measure to estimate sprint and COD performance. Faster players are confirmed to be more powerful players than slow players, and decrements in COD could be a key benchmark to identify deficit between linear and COD performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060082
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 83: Daily School Physical Activity Improves Academic

    • Authors: Jesper Fritz, Marcus E. Cöster, Björn E. Rosengren, Caroline Karlsson, Magnus K. Karlsson
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Physical activity (PA) may improve brain development, cognition, concentration and academic performance. In this prospective controlled intervention study, we increased the level of PA in 338 children aged 6&ndash;8 years at study start, from the Swedish standard of 60 min per week to 200 min per week (40 min daily). The intervention continued in all nine compulsory school years until the students graduated between 2007&ndash;2012. All other 689,881 Swedish children who graduated the same years were included as a control group. We registered at graduation eligibility rate for upper secondary school and the final grade score (from 0 to 320 grade points). We also registered the same end points in the 295 students in the index school and in all other 471,926 Swedish students who graduated in 2003&ndash;2006, that is, those who graduated before the intervention study started. Before the intervention, academic performance was similar among children in the index school as for all other Swedish boys and girls. With the intervention, the eligibility rate increased for boys in the index school by 7.3 percentage points and the mean grade scores by 13.3 points. This should be compared with a decrease of 0.8 percentage points in eligibility rate and an increase by 2.7 points in grade score in other Swedish boys. No changes were seen for intervention girls, neither in eligibility rates or grade scores. By introducing daily school-based PA in compulsory school, more boys would probably reach the eligibility rate for higher education.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060083
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 84: The Athletics Injury Prevention Programme Can
           Help to Reduce the Occurrence at Short Term of Participation Restriction
           Injury Complaints in Athletics: A Prospective Cohort Study

    • Authors: Pascal Edouard, Emmanuelle Cugy, Romain Dolin, Nicolas Morel, Jean-Michel Serra, Frédéric Depiesse, Pedro Branco, Kathrin Steffen
      First page: 84
      Abstract: We aimed to determine whether an Athletics Injury Prevention Programme (AIPP), targeting the most common athletics injuries, can reduce the occurrence of injury complaints that lead to restrictions in athletics participation (participation restriction injury complaints) in the short (12 weeks) and long (40 weeks) terms. For our 40-week prospective cohort study (level of evidence 2), we invited inter-regional and national-level athletes to regularly perform the AIPP, which included 8 exercises addressing core stability, hamstring, leg and pelvic muscles strengthening and stretching, and balance exercises. A Cox regression was used to analyse the influence of AIPP on the occurrence of participation restriction injury complaint, adjusted to sex, age, height, body mass, discipline, and history of injury complaints during the preceding season, individual response rate, mean weekly training time, mean weekly number of competition, presented by hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). At 12 weeks (n = 62 athletes), the AIPP was significantly associated with a lower risk of participation restriction injury complaint HR = 0.36 (95%CI: 0.15 to 0.86), p = 0.02 and HR = 0.29 (95%CI: 0.12 to 0.73), p = 0.009, with cumulative weeks and cumulative training time as time scale, respectively, while at 40 weeks (n = 53 athletes) there was no significant association. An 8-exercise injury prevention programme can effectively help to reduce occurrence of injury complaints that would restrict an athlete&rsquo;s participation in athletics in the short term.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060084
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 85: Physical and Fitness Characteristics of Elite
           Professional Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Logan Posthumus, Campbell Macgregor, Paul Winwood, Katrina Darry, Matthew Driller, Nicholas Gill
      First page: 85
      Abstract: This study explored the physical and fitness characteristics of elite professional rugby union players and examined the relationships between these characteristics within forwards and backs. Thirty-nine elite professional rugby union players from the New Zealand Super Rugby Championship participated in this study. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry alongside anthropometrics. Fitness characteristics included various strength, power, speed, and aerobic fitness measures. Forwards were significantly (p = &lt; 0.01) taller and heavier than backs, and possessed greater lean mass, fat mass, fat percentage, bone mass, and skinfolds. Forwards demonstrated greater strength and absolute power measures than backs (p = 0.02), but were slower and possessed less aerobic fitness (p = &lt; 0.01). Skinfolds demonstrated very large correlations with relative power (r = &minus;0.84) and speed (r = 0.75) measures within forwards, while backs demonstrated large correlations between skinfolds and aerobic fitness (r = &minus;0.54). Fat mass and fat percentage demonstrated very large correlations with speed (r = 0.71) and aerobic fitness (r = &minus;0.70) measures within forwards. Skinfolds, fat mass, and fat percentage relate strongly to key fitness characteristics required for elite professional rugby union performance. Individual and positional monitoring is important due to the clear differences between positions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060085
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 86: Transversus Abdominis Thickness at Rest and
           Exercise in Individuals with Poststroke Hemiparesis

    • Authors: Kelli, Kellis, Galanis, Dafkou, Sahinis, Ellinoudis
      First page: 86
      Abstract: The activity of the transverse abdominal (TrA) muscle affects the stabilization of the trunk. It is known that after a stroke, people experience problems in performing daily activities. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in the transversus abdominal thickness between the two sides of the body in individuals with hemiparesis and controls. Eight patients with hemiparesis and nine controls matched for age and body mass index were examined by musculoskeletal ultrasound in four conditions: a) At rest, b) abdominal hollowing maneuver from the supine position, c) bridge, and d) abdominal hollowing maneuver from the bridge position. In each of the above conditions, the symmetry index was calculated as the absolute value of the difference in thickness between the two sides. Analysis of variance showed a lower TrA thickness at rest and exercise in patients compared to the control group (p &lt; 0.05). Further, patients showed a lower contraction thickness ratio during exercise compared to controls (p &lt; 0.05). The absolute symmetry of the TrA thickness was 12.59 &plusmn; 6.43% to 19.31 &plusmn; 10.43% in patients and it was significantly greater than the control group (3.01 &plusmn; 2.47% to 4.47 &plusmn; 2.87%). According to the above results, it seems that transverse abdominal activation exercises are particularly useful for improving the stability of patients with hemiparesis, as long as they are located and adapted to the deficit of each patient.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060086
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 87: Match Demands of Women’s Collegiate Soccer

    • Authors: Jagim, Murphy, Schaefer, Askow, Luedke, Erickson, Jones
      First page: 87
      Abstract: Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women&rsquo;s collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 &plusmn; 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 &plusmn; 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 &plusmn; 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 &plusmn; 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 &plusmn; 2588 m and 1019 &plusmn; 552 m at high speeds (&gt;249.6 m&middot;m&minus;1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 &plusmn; 14.7 m&middot;m&minus;1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 &plusmn; 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 &plusmn; 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060087
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 88: The Effects of Physical Education on Motor
           Competence in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and

    • Authors: Håvard Lorås
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Appropriate levels of motor competence are an integrated part of individuals&rsquo; health-related fitness, and physical education is proposed as an important context for developing a broad range of motor skills. The aim of the current study was to apply meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of curriculum-based physical education on the development of the overall motor competence of children and adolescents. Studies were located by searching seven databases and included according to predefined criteria. Random effects models using the standardized effect size (Hedges&rsquo; g) were used to aggregate results, including an examination of heterogeneity and inconsistency. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, and a total of 38 effect sizes were calculated. A statistically significant improvement in motor competence following curriculum-based physical education compared to active control groups was observed in children and adolescents (g = &minus;0.69, 95% CI &minus;0.91 to &minus;0.46, n = 23). Participants&rsquo; ages, total time for physical education intervention, and type of motor competence assessment did not appear to be statistically significant moderators of effect size. Physical education with various curricula can, therefore, increase overall motor competence in children and adolescents.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060088
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 89: Postural Stability in Athletes: The Role of Age,
           Sex, Performance Level, and Athlete Shoe Features

    • Authors: Albina Andreeva, Andrey Melnikov, Dmitry Skvortsov, Kadriya Akhmerova, Alexander Vavaev, Andrey Golov, Viktorya Draugelite, Roman Nikolaev, Serafima Chechelnickaia, Daria Zhuk, Alexandra Bayerbakh, Vladislav Nikulin, Erika Zemková
      First page: 89
      Abstract: The effects of different factors&mdash;such as age, sex, performance level, and athletic shoe features&mdash;on postural balance in athletes remain unclear. The main objective of our study is to identify the features of postural stability in athletes of different age, sex, performance level, and using different types of athletic shoes. This study assessed postural stability in athletes (n = 936, 6&ndash;47 years) in a normal bipedal stance with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Postural stability was evaluated based on the center of pressure (COP), sway area (AS), and velocity (VCP) while standing on a stabiloplatform. Children (6&ndash;12 years) and teen athletes (13&ndash;17 years) showed reduced AS-EO (p &lt; 0.01) and VCP-EO (p &lt; 0.01) compared to control (n = 225, 7&ndash;30 years). In male and female athletes aged 18+, only VCP-EC was lower versus control. In females (13&ndash;17 and 18+), VCP-EO and EC were lower than in males (p &lt; 0.05). Only in the Shooting group, the athletes&rsquo; performance levels had an effect on VCP-EO (p = 0.020). Long use of rigid athletic shoes with stiff ankle support was associated with reduced posture stability. Postural stability in athletes was mostly influenced by the athlete&lsquo;s age, and, to a lesser extent, by their sex, performance level, and athlete shoe features.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060089
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 90: Repeated Menthol Mouth Swilling Affects Neither
           Strength nor Power Performance

    • Authors: Russ Best, Dani Temm, Holly Hucker, Kerin McDonald
      First page: 90
      Abstract: This study aimed to assess the effects of repeated menthol mouth swilling upon strength and power performance. Nineteen (10 male) participants completed familiarisation and experimental trials of repeated menthol mouth swilling (0.1% concentration) or control (no swill) in a randomised crossover design. Participants performed an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP; peak and mean force; N), vertical jump (peak; cm) and six second sprint (peak and mean power; W) under each condition. Participants completed three efforts per exercise task interspersed with three-minute recoveries. Mean best values were analysed via a two-way mixed repeated measures ANOVA, and differences reported as effect sizes &plusmn; 95% confidence intervals, with accompanying descriptors and p values. Differences in peak IMTP values were unclear between familiarisation and experimental trials, and between menthol and control conditions. Mean IMTP force differed between familiarisation and control (0.51; &minus;0.15 to 1.14; p = 0.001) and familiarisation and menthol conditions (0.50; &minus;0.15 to 1.14; p = 0.002) by a small degree, but were unclear between control and menthol conditions. Unclear differences were also noted on vertical jump performance compared to familiarisation and between experimental conditions, with repeated six second peak and average power performance also showing unclear effects across all comparisons. We conclude that repeated menthol mouth swilling does not improve strength or power performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8060090
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 57: The Effects of Postprandial Resistance Exercise
           on Blood Glucose and Lipids in Prediabetic, Beta-Thalassemia Major

    • Authors: Kalliopi Georgakouli, Alexandra Stamperna, Chariklia K. Deli, Niki Syrou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Ioannis G. Fatouros, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are common consequences of iron overload in the pancreas of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) patients. Moreover, postprandial blood glucose elevations are linked to major vascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a bout of acute resistance exercise following breakfast consumption of glucose and fat on the metabolism in prediabetic, BTM patients. Six patients underwent two trials (exercise and control) following breakfast consumption (consisting of approximately 50% carbohydrates, 15% proteins, 35% fat), in a counterbalanced order, separated by at least three days. In an exercise trial, patients performed chest and leg presses (3 sets of 10 repetitions maximum/exercise), while in the control trial they rested. Blood samples were obtained in both trials at: pre-meal, 45 min post-meal (pre-exercise/control), post-exercise/control, 1 h post-exercise/control, 2 h post-exercise/control and 24 h post-exercise/control. Blood was analysed for glucose and lipids (total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides). Blood glucose levels increased significantly 45 min following breakfast consumption. Blood glucose and lipids did not differ between trials at the same time points. It seems that a single bout of resistance training is not sufficient to improve blood glucose and fat levels for the subsequent 24-h post-exercise period in prediabetic, BTM patients.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 58: Military-Type Workload and Footwear Alter Lower
           Extremity Muscle Activity During Unilateral Static Balance: Implications
           for Tactical Athletic Footwear Design

    • Authors: Christopher Hill, Hunter DeBusk, Adam Knight, Harish Chander
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Maintaining upright standing balance is critical for military personal. The impact of military footwear and occupation-related fatigue on muscle activity during balance performance has been previously documented. However, the current literature has not provided a muscle activation profile of the lower extremity during challenging conditions such as unilateral balance trials. Twenty-two recreationally active male participants (age: 22.2 &plusmn; 2.7 years; height: 177 &plusmn; 6.8 cm; mass: 79.8 &plusmn; 9.7 kg) donned two styles of military footwear (minimalist and standard) and performed a military style workload. Unilateral static balance was accessed before (PRE) and after (POST) the workload as surface electromyography was recorded on the right lower extremity. This study found that the minimalist footwear increased muscle activation prior to the workload compared to the standard footwear (co-contraction index mean difference: 0.149), whereas the standard footwear increased muscle activity after the workload (co-contraction index mean difference: 0.097). These findings suggest that footwear design characteristics affect lower extremity muscle activity differently depending on the workload condition. These findings intend to aid in the design of military footwear to maximize balance performance in a military population.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Effects of the Barbell Load on the Acceleration
           Phase during the Snatch in Elite Olympic Weightlifting

    • Authors: Ingo Sandau, Urs Granacher
      First page: 59
      Abstract: The load-depended loss of vertical barbell velocity at the end of the acceleration phase limits the maximum weight that can be lifted. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze how increased barbell loads affect the vertical barbell velocity in the sub-phases of the acceleration phase during the snatch. It was hypothesized that the load-dependent velocity loss at the end of the acceleration phase is primarily associated with a velocity loss during the 1st pull. For this purpose, 14 male elite weightlifters lifted seven load-stages from 70&ndash;100% of their personal best in the snatch. The load&ndash;velocity relationship was calculated using linear regression analysis to determine the velocity loss at 1st pull, transition, and 2nd pull. A group mean data contrast analysis revealed the highest load-dependent velocity loss for the 1st pull (t = 1.85, p = 0.044, g = 0.49 [&minus;0.05, 1.04]) which confirmed our study hypothesis. In contrast to the group mean data, the individual athlete showed a unique response to increased loads during the acceleration sub-phases of the snatch. With the proposed method, individualized training recommendations on exercise selection and loading schemes can be derived to specifically improve the sub-phases of the snatch acceleration phase. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of single-subject assessment when working with elite athletes in Olympic weightlifting.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Anaerobic Power Assessment in Athletes: Are
           Cycling and Vertical Jump Tests Interchangeable'

    • Authors: Micah Gross, Fabian Lüthy
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Regularly assessing anaerobic power is important for athletes from sports with an explosive strength component. Understanding the differences and overlap between different assessment methods might help coaches or smaller-scale testing facilities maximize financial and temporal resources. Therefore, this study investigated the degree to which cycling sprint and vertical jump tests are interchangeable for determining peak mechanical leg power output in strength-trained athletes. Professional skiers (n = 19) performed unloaded squat jumps (SJ) and other jump forms on a force plate and a six-second cycling sprint (6sCS) test on an ergometer on six occasions over two years. Along with cross-sectional correlations between cycling and jumping power, correlations between longitudinal percent changes and agreement between magnitude-based inferences about individual changes were assessed. Among the tested jump forms, SJ reflected 6sCS best. However, despite extremely large cross-sectional correlation coefficients (0.92) between 6sCS and SJ, and moderate (Pearson&rsquo;s r = 0.32 for 6sCS with SJ over one-year time spans) to large (r = 0.68 over shorter time spans) correlation coefficients on percent changes, magnitude-based inferences agreed in only around 50% of cases. Thus, for making qualitative assessments about the development of anaerobic power over time in athletes, cycling sprint and squat jump tests are not interchangeable. Rather, we recommend employing the test form that best reflects athletes&rsquo; strength and conditioning training.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Listening to Preferred Music Improved Running
           Performance without Changing the Pacing Pattern during a 6 Minute Run Test
           with Young Male Adults

    • Authors: Nidhal Jebabli, Urs Granacher, Mohamed Amin Selmi, Badriya Al-Haddabi, David G. Behm, Anis Chaouachi, Radhouane Haj Sassi
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Several studies have investigated the effects of music on both submaximal and maximal exercise performance at a constant work-rate. However, there is a lack of research that has examined the effects of music on the pacing strategy during self-paced exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preferred music on performance and pacing during a 6 min run test (6-MSPRT) in young male adults. Twenty healthy male participants volunteered for this study. They performed two randomly assigned trials (with or without music) of a 6-MSPRT three days apart. Mean running speed, the adopted pacing strategy, total distance covered (TDC), peak and mean heart rate (HRpeak, HRmean), blood lactate (3 min after the test), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Listening to preferred music during the 6-MSPRT resulted in significant TDC improvement (&Delta;10%; p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.80). A significantly faster mean running speed was observed when listening to music compared with no music. The improvement of TDC in the present study is explained by a significant overall increase in speed (main effect for conditions) during the music trial. Music failed to modify pacing patterns as suggested by the similar reversed &ldquo;J-shaped&rdquo; profile during the two conditions. Blood-lactate concentrations were significantly reduced by 9% (p = 0.006, ES = 1.09) after the 6-MSPRT with music compared to those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences were found between the test conditions for HRpeak, HRmean, and RPE. Therefore, listening to preferred music can have positive effects on exercise performance during the 6-MSPRT, such as greater TDC, faster running speeds, and reduced blood lactate levels but has no effect on the pacing strategy.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 62: Dietary Intake of Gaelic Football Players during
           Game Preparation and Recovery

    • Authors: Ciarán Ó Catháin, James Fleming, Michele Renard, David Kelly
      First page: 62
      Abstract: It is well established that dietary intake can influence performance and modulate recovery in field-based invasion team sports such as soccer and rugby. However, very limited research currently exists examining dietary intake of Gaelic football players. This research aimed to examine the dietary intake of Gaelic football players 2 days prior to competition, on game day, and for 2 days post-competition. A five-day paper-based food diary was completed by 45 players (25 elite and 20 sub-elite). Preliminary inspection of diaries eliminated 11 participants, and analysis of Goldberg cut-offs identified 1 player as an under-reporter, leaving 33 players in the final analysis. Playing level had no effect on energy, carbohydrate, or fat intake. Average intake of energy was 2938 &plusmn; 618 kcal.day&minus;1, carbohydrate was 3.7 &plusmn; 1.42 g.kgbm&minus;1.day&minus;1, and fat was 1.34 &plusmn; 0.61 g.kgbm&minus;1.day&minus;1. However, elite players consumed 24.1% more protein than sub-elite players (2.2 &plusmn; 0.67 vs. 1.8 &plusmn; 0.62 g.kgbm&minus;1.day&minus;1). Regardless of playing level, players consumed inadequate amounts of carbohydrate to support optimal performance and recovery and consumed protein and fat in line with general sport nutrition guidelines. Given the unique demands placed on Gaelic football players, it may be necessary to develop nutrition guidelines specific to Gaelic football. Additionally, the design and implementation of Gaelic football-specific education-based interventions may be necessary to address the highlighted nutritional inadequacies.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 63: The Relationship between Isometric Force-Time
           Characteristics and Dynamic Performance: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Danny Lum, G. Gregory Haff, Tiago M. Barbosa
      First page: 63
      Abstract: The purpose of this article was to review the data on the relationship between multi-joint isometric strength test (IsoTest) force-time characteristics (peak force, rate of force development and impulse) and dynamic performance that is available in the current literature. Four electronic databases were searched using search terms related to IsoTest. Studies were considered eligible if they were original research studies that investigated the relationships between multi-joint IsoTest and performance of dynamic movements; published in peer-reviewed journals; had participants who were athletes or active individuals who participate in recreational sports or resistance training, with no restriction on sex; and had full text available. A total of 47 studies were selected. These studies showed significant small to large correlations between isometric bench press (IBP) force-time variables and upper body dynamic performances (r2 = 0.221 to 0.608, p &lt; 0.05) and significant small to very large correlation between isometric squat (ISqT) (r2 = 0.085 to 0.746, p &lt; 0.05) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) (r2 = 0.120 to 0.941, p &lt; 0.05) force-time variables with lower body dynamic performances. IsoTest force-time characteristics were shown to have small to very large correlations with dynamic performances of the upper and lower limbs as well as performance of sporting movements (r2 = 0.118 to 0.700, p &lt; 0.05). These data suggest that IsoTest force-time characteristics provide insights into the force production capability of athletes which give insight into dynamic performance capabilities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Time Course of Recovery for Performance
           Attributes and Circulating Markers of Muscle Damage Following a Rugby
           Union Match in Amateur Athletes

    • Authors: Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Rodrigo Barboza da Silva, Edmar Lacerda Mendes, Bernardo Neme Ide, Moacir Marocolo, Jeffrey S. Martin, Gustavo R. Mota
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Background: We sought to determine the time course of changes in neuromuscular performance and muscle damage following a single rugby union match. Methods: Fourteen male amateur rugby players (28.9 &plusmn; 3.5 yrs; 1.7 &plusmn; 5.1 m; 86.1 &plusmn; 11.1 kg) participated. Plasma activity of creatine kinase ([CK]) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), L-run test (change of direction) and 30-m sprint (T30; speed) with 10-m lap time (T10; acceleration) were assessed on six occasions: one week before the match (PRE) and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-match. Results: Relative to PRE, LDH was elevated immediately post-match (+33.6% &plusmn; 13.6%; p &lt; 0.001) and [CK] was elevated immediately (+64.1% &plusmn; 38.8%, p = 0.001) and 24 h post-match (+352% &plusmn; 317%; p = 0.024). L-run test time increased 16.0 &plusmn; 8.7% relative to PRE at 24 h post (p &lt; 0.001) and remained elevated through 96 h post-match (p &lt; 0.05). T10 and T30 times increased relative to PRE immediately post-match (+12.0% &plusmn; 10.4%, p = 0.008; and +6.1% &plusmn; 4.9%; p = 0.006, respectively), though T30 times were similar to baseline by 48 h post-match whereas T10 times remained elevated through 72 h post-match. Conclusions: A single, competitive rugby union match induces significant muscle damage and performance decrements with distinct time courses of recovery in amateur athletes. Notably, change of direction attributes (i.e., L-run) appear to have the longest time course to full recovery.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Mechanisms of Hamstring Strain Injury:
           Interactions between Fatigue, Muscle Activation and Function

    • Authors: Shaun Huygaerts, Francesc Cos, Daniel D. Cohen, Julio Calleja-González, Marc Guitart, Anthony J. Blazevich, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Isolated injury to the long head of biceps femoris is the most common type of acute hamstring strain injury (HSI). However, the precise hamstring injury mechanism (i.e., sprint-type) is still not well understood, and research is inconclusive as to which phase in the running cycle HSI risk is the greatest. Since detailed information relating to hamstring muscle function during sprint running cannot be obtained in vivo in humans, the findings of studies investigating HSI mechanisms are based on modeling that requires assumptions to be made based on extrapolations from anatomical and biomechanical investigations. As it is extremely difficult to account for all aspects of muscle-tendon tissues that influence function during high-intensity running actions, much of this complexity is not included in these models. Furthermore, the majority of analyses do not consider the influence of prior activity or muscular fatigue on kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation during sprinting. Yet, it has been shown that fatigue can lead to alterations in neuromuscular coordination patterns that could potentially increase injury risk. The present critical review will evaluate the current evidence on hamstring injury mechanism(s) during high-intensity running and discuss the interactions between fatigue and hamstring muscle activation and function.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 66: Physical and Physiological Responses of U-14,
           U-16, and U-18 Soccer Players on Different Small-Sided Games

    • Authors: Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, Enrique Hernando, Leonor Gallardo
      First page: 66
      Abstract: As most existing studies in youth academies are focused on top players, the objective of this research is to analyze the physical and physiological demands of various small-sided games (SSGs) on different age categories within a sub-elite soccer academy. We evaluated 63 young players from a Spanish sub-elite academy (under 14 = 21; under 16 = 21; under 18 = 21). Players performed four different small-side games focused on possession game (3-a-side; 4-a-side; 5-a-side; 6-a-side). The global indicators of performance and high-intensity actions were recorded through global positioning systems, whereas the heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors. Results: Under 16 ran a greater distance at high-intensity velocity than under 14 in the small side games 3v3 and 6v6. Furthermore, under 16 also ran a greater distance at high-intensity velocity than under 18 in the small side game 3v3 (p &lt; 0.01). Under 14 showed greater acceleration at the highest intensity (&gt; 2.75 m/s2) than the other age groups, under 16 and U18 (p &lt; 0.01; ES (effect size) &gt; 1). According to the physiological load, SSG 3v3 presented lower outcomes in Zone 6 (&gt; 95% HRmax) than the small side game 4v4 and the small side game 5v5, in both under 14 and under 16. The workload of SSGs varies depending on the number of players, but also depending on the players&rsquo; ages. Therefore, when designing the SSGs it is important to consider both the players&rsquo; ages and the workload that want to be achieved.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050066
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 67: Lean Body Mass, Muscle Architecture, and
           Performance in Well-Trained Female Weightlifters

    • Authors: Nikolaos Zaras, Angeliki-Nikoletta Stasinaki, Polyxeni Spiliopoulou, Marios Hadjicharalambous, Gerasimos Terzis
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Lean mass and quadriceps muscle architecture have been associated with performance in male well-trained weightlifters, but no data exist for female weightlifters. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between lean mass, quadriceps cross sectional area (CSA), and muscle architecture with weightlifting performance in female weightlifters. Eight well-trained female weightlifters (age 23.5 &plusmn; 6.3 years, maximum total lifting performance = 147.4 &plusmn; 34.1 kg) participated in the study. Five of the athletes were members of the national team and three were among the nation&rsquo;s top-five performers of the respective body-weight category. Measurements included maximum lifting performance in snatch and clean and jerk, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, vastus intermedius (VI) muscle thickness and quadriceps muscles&rsquo; CSA and countermovement jump (CMJ). Very large to nearly perfect correlations were found between snatch and clean and jerk for trunk lean body mass (r = 0.959 and 0.929), for total CSA (r = 0.732 and 0.608), and CMJ power (r = 0.933 and 0.896). These results suggest that lean body mass, quadriceps&rsquo; CSA and CMJ should be monitored regularly in female weightlifters to detect potential modifications in lifting performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050067
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 68: Heart Rate Responses during Sport-Specific
           High-Intensity Circuit Exercise in Child Female Gymnasts

    • Authors: Andreas Salagas, Olyvia Donti, Christos Katsikas, Gregory C. Bogdanis
      First page: 68
      Abstract: This study examined heart rate (HR) responses during a sport-specific high-intensity circuit training session to indirectly assess cardiorespiratory stress in child athletes. Seventeen, female gymnasts, aged 9&ndash;11 years performed two 5-min 15 s sets of circuit exercise, interspersed by a 3 min rest interval. Each set included five rounds of five gymnastic exercises (7 s work, 7 s rest) executed with maximal effort. During the first circuit training set, peak heart rate (HR) was 192 &plusmn; 7 bpm and average HR was 83 &plusmn; 4% of maximum HR (HRmax), which was determined in a separate session. In the second set, peak HR and average HR were increased to 196 &plusmn; 8 bpm (p &lt; 0.001, d = 0.55) and to 89 &plusmn; 4% HRmax (p &lt; 0.001, d = 2.19), respectively, compared with the first set. HR was above 80% HRmax for 4.1 &plusmn; 1.2 min during set 1 and this was increased to 5.1 &plusmn; 0.4 min in set 2 (p &lt; 0.001, d = 1.15). Likewise, HR was above 90% of HRmax for 2.0 &plusmn; 1.2 min in set 1 and was increased to 3.4 &plusmn; 1.7 min in set 2 (p &lt; 0.001, d = 0.98). In summary, two 5-min 15 s sets of high-intensity circuit training using sport-specific exercises, increased HR to levels above 80% and 90% HRmax for extended time periods, and thus may be considered as an appropriate stimulus, in terms of intensity, for improving aerobic fitness in child female gymnasts.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 69: Monitoring Workloads of a Professional Female
           Futsal Team over a Season: A Case Study

    • Authors: Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Alejandro Jiménez-Loaisa, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Marián Fernández-Villarino, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Bruno Travassos, Ezequiel Rey
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The aims of this study were to describe the external and internal workloads in a professional female futsal team during a whole season and to compare workloads during different periods of the season. Ten professional female futsal players (age 22.8 ± 4.3 years; 5.1 ± 2.4 years of experience; weight 61.9 ± 7.1 kg; height 1.66 ± 0.06 m) participated voluntarily in this study during the whole season. The internal workload was measured by the session-Rate of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, while the external workload was indirectly measured by considering the training and match volume and the type of contents of each session over 43 weeks. Mean sRPE throughout the season was 319.9 ± 127.1 arbitrary units (AU). Higher internal loads (total weekly training load and strain) were reported during the pre-season compared with the in-season mesocycles (p &lt; 0.05); meanwhile, the fifth to eighth mesocycles of the in-season showed an oscillatory pattern. Finally, Monday was the most-demanding session during the in-season period over the Thursday (p &lt; 0.05; effect size: 1.33) followed by match day, meanwhile no statistical differences were reported during different sessions of the pre-season microcycle (p &gt; 0.05). This study suggests that microcycles of pre-season present a stable load pattern, meanwhile workloads during the in-season period report a tapering strategy in a professional female futsal team.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050069
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 70: Discrepancies Exist between Exercise
           Prescription and Dose in Elite Women’s Basketball Pre-Season

    • Authors: Craig Staunton, Daniel Wundersitz, Brett Gordon, Michael Kingsley
      First page: 70
      Abstract: This study assessed the influence of exercise prescription on the objectively measured exercise dose in basketball. Intensity (RPE) and volume (sRPE) were prescribed by a professional coach on a drill-by-drill basis during pre-season training for nine elite basketball players. Training drills were classified by prescribed intensity (easy-moderate, moderate-hard, hard&ndash;very hard, and very hard-maximal) and type (warm-up, skill-development, offensive- and defensive-technical/tactical, or match-simulation). Exercise intensity was objectively quantified using accelerometry-derived average net force (AvFNet) and time spent in accelerometry-derived relative intensity zones. The volume of exercise (exercise dose) was objectively quantified using accumulated impulse (AvFNet &times; duration). Relationships between prescribed volume and exercise dose were explored by correlations between sRPE and drill-by-drill accumulation of sRPE (dRPE) with impulse. Very hard-maximal drill intensity was greater than hard-very hard (p = 0.011), but not moderate-hard (p = 0.945). Very hard-maximal drills included the most time performing Supra-maximal intensity (&gt;100% V ˙ O2R) efforts (p &lt; 0.001), suggesting that intensity prescription was based upon the amount of high-intensity exercise. Correlations between impulse with sRPE and dRPE were moderate (r = 0.401, p = 0.197) and very-large (r = 0.807, p = 0.002), respectively, demonstrating that the coach misinterpreted the accumulative effect of drill volume over an entire training session. Overall, a mismatch existed between exercise prescription and exercise dose. Objective monitoring might assist coaches to improve precision of exercise prescription.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050070
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 71: The Effects of Lateral Bounds on Post-Activation
           Potentiation of Change-of-Direction Speed Measured by the 505 Test in
           College-Aged Men and Women

    • Authors: Ashley J. Orjalo, Robert G. Lockie, Katherine Balfany, Samuel J. Callaghan
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Forty recreationally-trained individuals completed four testing sessions to determine whether lateral bounds (LB) or weighted lateral bounds enhanced change-of-direction (COD) speed measured by the 505 COD speed test. Session 1 included vertical jump and lateral bound (LB) testing to measure power. Sessions 2&ndash;4 involved three randomized conditioning activities (CA): 3 &times; 5 LB; 3 &times; 5 weighted LB (10% body mass provided by a weighted vest); and a control condition (4-min rest). The 505 COD speed test was performed 5- and 2.5-min pre-CA, and ~15 s, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min post-CA. A 3 &times; 6 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated performance changes across time points post-CA. A 3 &times; 2 repeated measures ANOVA analyzed best potentiated performance. Smallest worthwhile change (SWC) measured within-subject 505 COD speed test performance. Partial correlations controlling for sex calculated relationships between the vertical jump, LB, and percent potentiation. There were no differences (p = 0.919) in 505 time relative to baseline for any CA, nor was the SWC exceeded. The best potentiated 505 time was faster (p &lt; 0.001) than baseline for all CA, with no between-CA differences. There were no significant (p = 0.056&ndash;0.993) correlations between power and potentiation. LB and weighted LB did not potentiate the 505 COD speed test, although performance was not hindered.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050071
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 72: Reliability of a Repeated High-Intensity Effort
           Test for Elite Rugby Union Players

    • Authors: Adrien Vachon, Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Jean-Baptiste Paquet, Tony Monnet, Laurent Bosquet
      First page: 72
      Abstract: This study aimed to adapt a repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) test to the rugby union physical demands and assess both sprint time and tackle indices reliability. Following a familiarization session, sixteen elite rugby union players completed two RHIE tests consisting of 12 &times; 20 m sprint + tackle. Total sprint time and total g-force during tackling, average sprint time and average g-force as well as percentage decrementsprint time and percentage decrementtackle were considered for the analysis. Sprint time indices showed high to very high absolute and relative reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) = 0.95, Standard Error Measurement (SEM) = 1.30%; ICC = 0.95, SEM = 1.44%; ICC = 0.73, SEM = 23.0%, for total sprint time, average sprint time and percentage decrementsprint time, respectively). Tackle indices showed moderate to high reliability (ICC = 0.54, SEM = 16.5%; ICC = 0.61, SEM = 15.6%; ICC = 0.71, SEM = 12.3%, for total g-force, average g-force and percentage decrementtackle, respectively). The RHIE test provides reliable measures of sprint time and tackle indices. Tackle indices should be used as a validation criterion of the test, whereas total time should be considered as the test final result.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050072
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 73: The Reliability of Neuromuscular and Perceptual
           Measures Used to Profile Recovery, and the Time-Course of such Responses
           following Academy Rugby League Match-Play

    • Authors: Aben, Hills, Higgins, Cooke, Davis, Jones, Russell
      First page: 73
      Abstract: In professional academy rugby league (RL) players, this two-part study examined; A) the within- and between-day reliability of isometric mid-thigh pulls (IMTP), countermovement jumps (CMJ), and a wellness questionnaire (n = 11), and B) profiled the responses with acceptable reliability (no between-trial differences and between-day coefficient of variation (CV) &le;10% and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) &ge;0.8) for 120 h (baseline: -3, +24, +48, +72, +96, +120 h) following RL match-play (n = 10). In part A, force at 200, and 250 ms, and peak force (PF) demonstrated acceptable within- (CV%: 3.67-8.41%, ICC: 0.89-0.93) and between-day (CV%: 4.34&ndash;8.62%, ICC: 0.87&ndash;0.92) reliability for IMTP. Most CMJ variables demonstrated acceptable within-day reliability (CV%: 3.03&ndash;7.34%, ICC: 0.82&ndash;0.98), but only six (i.e., flight-time, PF, peak power (PP), relative PP, velocity at take-off (VTO), jump-height (JH)) showed acceptable between-day reliability (CV%: 2.56-6.79%, ICC: 0.83&ndash;0.91). Only total wellness demonstrated acceptable between-day reliability (CV%: 7.05%, ICC: 0.90) from the questionnaire. In part B, reductions of 4.75% and 9.23% (vs. baseline; 2.54 m∙s-1; 0.33 m) occurred at +24 h for CMJ VTO, and JH, respectively. Acceptable reliability was observed in some, but not all, variables and the magnitude and time-course of post-match responses were test and variable specific. Practitioners should therefore be mindful of the influence that the choice of recovery monitoring tool may have upon the practical interpretation of the data.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050073
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 74: Individual Sprint Force-Velocity Profile
           Adaptations to In-Season Assisted and Resisted Velocity-Based Training in
           Professional Rugby

    • Authors: Johan Lahti, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Matt R. Cross, Pierre Samozino, Patrick Chassaing, Benjamin Simond-Cote, Juha P. Ahtiainen, Jean-Benoit Morin
      First page: 74
      Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that the degree of adaptation to highly focused sprint training at opposite ends of the sprint Force-Velocity (FV) spectrum would be associated with initial sprint FV profile in rugby athletes. Training-induced changes in sprint FV profiles were computed before and after an eight-week in-season resisted or assisted sprint training protocol, including a three-week taper. Professional male rugby players (age: 18.9 &plusmn; 1.0 years; body height: 1.9 &plusmn; 0.0 m; body mass: 88.3 &plusmn; 10.0 kg) were divided into two groups based on their initial sprint FV profiles: 1) Heavy sled training (RESISTED, N = 9, velocity loss 70&ndash;80%), and 2) assisted acceleration training (ASSISTED, N = 12, velocity increase 5&ndash;10%). A total of 16 athletes were able to finish all required measurements and sessions. According to the hypothesis, a significant correlation was found between initial sprint FV profile and relative change in sprint FV profile (RESISTED: r = &minus;0.95, p &lt; 0.01, ASSISTED: r = &minus;0.79, p &lt; 0.01). This study showed that initial FV properties influence the degree of mechanical response when training at different ends of the FV spectrum. Practitioners should consider utilizing the sprint FV profile to improve the individual effectiveness of resisted and assisted sprint training programs in high-level rugby athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8050074
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 39: Movement Competency Training Delivery: At School
           or Online' A Pilot Study of High-School Athletes

    • Authors: Simon A Rogers, Peter Hassmén, Alexandra H Roberts, Alison Alcock, Wendy L Gilleard, John S Warmenhoven
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Movement competency (MC) development of high-school athletes can prepare them for the requirements of physical preparation training and the demands of sport. The aim of this study was to explore the physical effects of and athlete compliance to coach-led versus self-directed training approaches in this population. Thirty-nine high-school athletes (19 male, 14.5 &plusmn; 0.3 years old; 20 female, 14.6 &plusmn; 0.3 years) were allocated into two groups for a physical preparation program to improve MC. Groups were prescribed either (i) one face-to-face and one online (F2F, n = 18), or (ii) two online (OL, n = 21) sessions per week for 16-weeks. Before and after the intervention, the Athlete Introductory Movement Screen (AIMS) was used to assess MC alongside common physical capacity measures (triple-hop, star-excursion balance, medicine ball throw, 40m sprint and countermovement jump). Dropout left 22 participants with pre-post physical scores. Compliance with online training was low and F2F session attendance moderate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess participant perceptions following the intervention. Assessing individual responses, the F2F group had a higher proportion of positive responders to AIMS scores, yet capacity measures were inconclusive across groups. Face-to-face coaching when acquiring MCs as part of physical preparation, may provide greater positive perceptions towards training compared to self-directed online prescriptions, and thereby greater compliance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Daily School Physical Activity from Before to
           After Puberty Improves Bone Mass and a Musculoskeletal Composite Risk
           Score for Fracture

    • Authors: Cronholm, Lindgren, Rosengren, Dencker, Karlsson, Karlsson
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This 7.5-year prospective controlled exercise intervention study assessed if daily school physical activity (PA), from before to after puberty, improved musculoskeletal traits. There were 63 boys and 34 girls in the intervention group (40 min PA/day), and 26 boys and 17 girls in the control group (60 min PA/week). We measured musculoskeletal traits at the start and end of the study. The overall musculoskeletal effect of PA was also estimated by a composite score (mean Z-score of the lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), total body lean mass (TBLM), calcaneal ultrasound (speed of sound (SOS)), and muscle strength (knee flexion peak torque)). We used analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) for group comparisons. Compared to the gender-matched control group, intervention boys reached higher gains in BMC, BA, muscle strength, as well as in the composite score, and intervention girls higher gains in BMC, BA, SOS, as well as in the composite score (all p &lt; 0.05, respectively). Our small sample study indicates that a daily school-based PA intervention program from Tanner stage 1 to 5 in both sexes is associated with greater bone mineral accrual, greater gain in bone size, and a greater gain in a musculoskeletal composite score for fractures.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 41: Are Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Stress
           Greater in Isometric or in Dynamic Resistance Exercise'

    • Authors: Anastasios Kounoupis, Stavros Papadopoulos, Nikiforos Galanis, Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively presents all human studies that directly compared the magnitude of hemodynamic responses between isometric and dynamic RE. We also discuss possible mechanisms controlling BP-response and cardiovascular adjustments during both types of RE. The most prominent finding was that isometric and dynamic RE using small-muscle mass evoke equal increases in BP; however, the circulatory adjustments contributing to this response are different in dynamic and isometric RE. In contrast, studies using large-muscle mass report inconsistent results for the magnitude of BP-response between the two types of RE. Thus, when the same muscles and workloads are used, the increase in BP during isometric and dynamic RE is more comparable to what is commonly believed. However, it should be noted that only a few studies equalized the workload in two types of RE, most used small sample sizes, and all studies employed healthy participants. More studies are needed to compare the cardiovascular risks associated with isometric and dynamic RE, especially in individuals with chronic disease.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Effect of Two Strength Training Models on Muscle
           Power and Strength in Elite Women’s Football Players

    • Authors: Martin Pacholek, Erika Zemková
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This study evaluates changes in power and strength after implementing two different models of 9-week strength training in elite women&rsquo;s football players. A group of 13 players (age 20.2 &plusmn; 3.3 years, body mass 57.2 &plusmn; 3.7 kg, height 163.6 &plusmn; 5.3 cm, VO2max 45.2 &plusmn; ml/min) underwent either a complex (the intermittent load type) or combined (the maximal strength and dynamic method) model of training. The training load was tailored to each athlete. Results showed that the complex model of training improved power (10 W/kg, p = 0.006) and height of vertical jump (5.3 cm, p = 0.001), weight of 1 Repeat Maximum (1RM) which was (5.8 kg, p = 0.015), power and speed in the acceleration phase of barbell half squats (BHS) at weights from 20 to 60 kg, and the number of repetitions in BHS (10.3%, p = 0.012). The combined model of training improved the time of shuttle run (0.44 s, p = 0.000), weight of 1RM in BHS (9.6kg, p = 0.000) and BP (4 kg, p = 0.000), power in the acceleration phase of BHS at weights from 50 to 60 kg, the number of repetitions in BP (14.3%, p = 0.000), BHS (9.4%, p = 0.002), barbell bench pulls (11.9%, p = 0.002) and sit-ups (7.7%, p = 0.001). These findings indicate that the complex model of training improves explosive abilities, whereas the combined model is effective for developing strength at weights close to players&rsquo; 1RM and for repeatedly overcoming resistance. Therefore, coaches should choose the training model based on the needs of individual players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 43: Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions Do Not
           Consistently Change Backstroke Start Time to 10 m

    • Authors: Gordon E. Barkwell, James P. Dickey
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Backstroke starts involve the athlete starting from a flexed position with their feet against the pool wall and then extending their ankles, knees, hips and back to push off; however, swimmers can start in different positions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees maximally flexed, and one with the knees less flexed. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with multi-axial force sensors. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position in the sagittal plane was recorded using high-speed cameras. There was no overall difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions (p = 0.36, dz = 0.12), but some participants showed differences as large as 0.12 s in time to 10 m between start conditions. We observed that starts performed from a setup position with less knee flexion had an average 0.07 m greater head entry distance (p = 0.07, dz = 0.53), while starts from a setup position with maximal knee flexion had an average 0.2 m/s greater takeoff velocity (p = 0.02, dz = 0.78). Both head entry distance and takeoff velocity are related to start performance, suggesting each position may optimize different aspects of the backstroke start. Coaches should assess athletes individually to determine which position is optimal.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 44: Ultramarathon Plasma Metabolomics:
           Phosphatidylcholine Levels Associated with Running Performance

    • Authors: Tracy B. Høeg, Kenneth Chmiel, Alexandra E. Warrick, Sandra L. Taylor, Robert H. Weiss
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify plasma metabolites associated with superior endurance running performance. In 2016, participants at the Western States Endurance Run (WSER), a 100-mile (161-km) foot race, underwent non-targeted metabolomic testing of their post-race plasma. Metabolites associated with faster finish times were identified. Based on these results, runners at the 2017 WSER underwent targeted metabolomics testing, including lipidomics and choline levels. The 2017 participants&rsquo; plasma metabolites were correlated with finish times and compared with non-athletic controls. In 2016, 427 known molecules were detected using non-targeted metabolomics. Four compounds, all phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were associated with finish time (False Discovery Rate (FDR) &lt; 0.05). All were higher in faster finishers. In 2017, using targeted PC analysis, multiple PCs, measured pre- and post-race, were higher in faster finishers (FDR &lt; 0.05). The majority of PCs was noted to be higher in runners (both pre- and post-race) than in controls (FDR &lt; 0.05). Runners had higher choline levels pre-race compared to controls (p &lt; 0.0001), but choline level did not differ significantly from controls post-race (p = 0.129). Choline levels decreased between the start and the finish of the race (p &lt; 0.0001). Faster finishers had lower choline levels than slower finishers at the race finish (p = 0.028).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 45: A Cluster Set Protocol in the Half Squat
           Exercise Reduces Mechanical Fatigue and Lactate Concentrations in
           Comparison with A Traditional Set Configuration

    • Authors: Varela-Olalla, Romero-Caballero, Del Campo-Vecino, Balsalobre-Fernández
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Splitting sets into clusters has been shown to maintain performance during resistance training. This study compared the acute fatigue produced by a traditional (TSC) versus a cluster (CSC) set configuration in the smith machine half squat exercise. Fifteen males performed a single bout of TSC and CSC separated by 72&ndash;96 h. In the TSC, participants performed as many repetitions as possible until reaching a 20% drop in barbell velocity (MPV), while in the CSC, they performed the same number of repetitions with 15 seconds inter-repetition rest. Effects of both protocols in MPV, countermovement jump height (CMJ), and blood lactate (BLa) were measured. Significant differences between protocols were found for MPV of the last repetition (0.4 vs 0.5 m/s TSC and CSC) and BLa (6.8 mmol/L vs 3.2 mmol/L TSC and CSC). Significant drop of velocity from the first to the last repetition of the set (19.9%), decrease in CMJ height (35.4 vs 32.6 cm), and increase in BLa (2.1 vs 6.8 mmol/L) pre&ndash;post-exercise was observed just for the TSC protocol. The results of the present study showed that CSC reduces the lactate response and mechanical fatigue produced by a single set on the half squat exercise in comparison with TSC.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 46: “Paralympic Brain”. Compensation and
           Reorganization of a Damaged Human Brain with Intensive Physical Training

    • Authors: Kimitaka Nakazawa, Hiroki Obata, Daichi Nozaki, Shintaro Uehara, Pablo Celnik
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The main aim of the study was to evaluate how the brain of a Paralympic athlete with severe disability due to cerebral palsy has reorganized after continuous training geared to enhance performance. Both corticospinal excitability of upper-limb muscles and electromyographic activity during swimming were investigated for a Paralympic gold medalist in swimming competitions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the affected and intact hand motor cortical area revealed that the affected side finger muscle cortical representation area shifted towards the temporal side, and cortico-spinal excitability of the target muscle was prominently facilitated, i.e., the maximum motor evoked potential in the affected side, 6.11 &plusmn; 0.19 mV was greater than that in the intact side, 4.52 &plusmn; 0.39 mV (mean &plusmn; standard error). Electromyographic activities during swimming demonstrated well-coordinated patterns as compared with rather spastic activities observed in the affected side during walking on land. These results suggest that the ability of the brain to reorganize through intensive training in Paralympic athletes can teach interesting lessons to the field neurorehabilitation.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Relationship of Performance Measures and Muscle
           Activity between a 180° Change of Direction Task and Different
           Countermovement Jumps

    • Authors: Hallvard Nygaard Falch, Håvard Guldteig Rædergård, Roland Van den Tillaar
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The ability to rapidly perform change of direction (COD) is crucial for performance in Soccer. COD speed is thought to share similarities with countermovement jumps in kinematics and muscle activation. Thus, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activities in performance measures of a modified 505-agility test and different countermovement jumps. Twenty-one experienced soccer players performed a COD test including the 505-agility test and uni- and bi-lateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jumps. The main findings were that the vertical bilateral and horizontal unilateral countermovement jump were able to predict total time to complete the COD, but not 505-agility time. Muscle activity in the COD and countermovement jumps was only distinguished by a higher peak muscle activity for the adductor longus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris in the COD to stabilize the hip and decelerate knee joint movements when turning compared with the jumps. Conclusively, the relationship between performance in countermovement jumps and total time to complete the COD test was due to longer sprint distances, which makes the distinction between performances bigger. Peak muscle activity of most muscles is similar between the jumps and the COD step, indicating similar muscular demands between these activities.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Effects of a Traditional versus an Alternative
           Strengthening Exercise Program on Shoulder Pain, Function and Physical
           Performance in Individuals with Subacromial Shoulder Pain: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Authors: Simon Schedler, Dennis Brueckner, Marco Hagen, Thomas Muehlbauer
      First page: 48
      Abstract: A manual shoulder-training device may represent an alternative training device to improve symptoms and function in patients with subacromial shoulder pain by strengthening the external rotators. Thus, we examined the effects of a traditional versus an alternative strengthening exercise program on shoulder pain/function and physical performance in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. Fifty-six adults with subacromial shoulder pain were randomly assigned to a passive control group (CON; n = 20), a traditional training group (TRA; n = 19), or an alternative training group (ALT; n = 17). Both training groups conducted a progressive home-based strengthening exercise program for the external rotators for eight weeks using elastic bands only (TRA group) or in combination with the shoulder-training device (Schulterhilfe&reg;) (ALT group). Pre- and post-training assessment included measures of shoulder pain/function (i.e., shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI)) and physical performance (i.e., shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance). We found significant test &times; group interactions in most of the investigated variables. Post hoc analyses showed significant training-related improvements for proxies of shoulder pain/function, shoulder flexibility, maximal isometric strength, and strength endurance in favor of the ALT and TRA group in comparison to the CON group. Further, larger and more frequent effects were found for the ALT compared to the TRA group. Measures of shoulder pain/function and physical performance can be significantly improved by both training regimens in individuals with subacromial shoulder pain. However, strength training using elastic bands with the manual shoulder device (ALT group) as compared to elastic bands (TRA group) only was more effective and may thus be a recommendable alternative in order to mitigate subacromial shoulder pain.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 49: The Federated Practice of Soccer Influences
           Hamstring Flexibility in Healthy Adolescents: Role of Age and Weight

    • Authors: Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González, José V. Gutiérrez-Manzanedo, Guillermo De Castro-Maqueda, Victor Jose Fernández-Torres, Jorge R. Fernández-Santos
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the hamstring flexibility between federated soccer and non-federated adolescents, and also to evaluate the effect of age and weight status on hamstring flexibility. The participants were 234 students (11&ndash;18 years old) divided into: (i) G1: non-federated (n = 127), and (ii) G2: federated in soccer (n = 107). The deep flexion of the trunk (DF) test and the sit and reach test (SRT) were performed. G2 showed higher values for the DF and SRT compared to G1 (p &lt; 0.05). Both flexibility tests correlated positively (r = 0.4, p &lt; 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with the DF test (r = &minus;0.3, p &lt; 0.001), but not with the SRT. Divided by BMI, the underweight and normal weight groups had higher scores in the DF test compared with the overweight and obese groups (p &lt; 0.001). BMI was negatively correlated with hamstring flexibility. Federated soccer students present higher scores of hamstring flexibility.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure
           Sports Context

    • Authors: John Allan, Ashley Hardwell, Chris Kay, Suzanne Peacock, Melissa Hart, Michelle Dillon, Eric Brymer
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Outdoor and adventure sports (OAS) have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. This Special Edition brings together cutting-edge research and thought on the implications of this link. An analysis of the papers in this Special Edition reveals important insights into (i) the diverse and powerful outcomes derived from adventure experiences, (ii) how adventure experiences facilitate these outcomes, (iii) how best to design outdoor and adventure experiences. The evidence in this edition indicates a need for a more systematic approach to the inclusion of OAS as important to good health and wellbeing. OAS should be included as part of education, health, policy and planning.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Reliability of Change of Direction and Agility
           Assessments in Youth Soccer Players

    • Authors: James H. Dugdale, Dajo Sanders, Angus M. Hunter
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Considering the vast physical and neural developments experienced throughout adolescence, the reliability of physical performance may vary in youth populations. This study aimed to examine the reliability of change of direction (COD) and agility tests in youth soccer players. Altogether, 86 youth soccer players, aged 13.6 &plusmn; 2.0 years, volunteered to participate. Data were collected from a modified 505 COD test (m505COD) and the Y-sprint drill in both pre-planned (Y-SprintPRE) and reactive (Y-SprintREACT) conditions during 2 sessions, 7 days apart. Anthropometric data including body mass, standing stature, and sitting height were also collected. COD and agility tests demonstrated good reliability (ICC = 0.81&ndash;0.91; CV = 1.2&ndash;2.0; d = 0.00&ndash;0.31; p &lt; 0.01) for our entire sample. However, we observed a small negative relationship between age and intersession differences for the Y-SprintPRE (r = &minus;0.28; p = 0.04), and moderate negative relationships between both age (r = &minus;0.41; p &lt; 0.01), and maturity offset (r = &minus;0.39; p &lt; 0.01) for the Y-SprintREACT. Although the COD and agility tests adopted within this study possess good intersession reliability, we observed greater intersession differences for younger and less mature individuals. We suggest that while COD and agility tests may provide meaningful objective data for monitoring the development of youth soccer players, these tests should be used with caution when evaluating younger, more immature athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 52: Effects of One Versus Two Doses of a
           Multi-Ingredient Pre-Workout Supplement on Metabolic Factors and Perceived
           Exertion during Moderate-Intensity Running in Females

    • Authors: Jamie R. Erickson, Clayton L. Camic, Andrew R. Jagim, Paige M. Pellersels, Glenn A. Wright, Shaine E. Henert, Carl Foster
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of one versus two doses of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on energy expenditure during moderate-intensity treadmill running. In addition, our second aim was to investigate the responses of associated metabolic factors (i.e., substrate utilization, measures of gas exchange), perceived exertion, and resting cardiovascular variables with one and two doses of the pre-workout supplement. Twelve females (mean &plusmn; SD: age = 25.3 &plusmn; 9.4 years; body mass = 61.2 &plusmn; 6.8 kg) completed three bouts of 30 min of treadmill running at 90% of their ventilatory threshold on separate days after consuming one dose of the pre-workout supplement (1-dose), two doses (2-dose), and a placebo. There were no differences among conditions for energy expenditure, fat or carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio, oxygen consumption, or heart rate across exercise time. The two-dose group, however, had lower (p = 0.036) ratings of perceived exertion (11.8 &plusmn; 1.7) than the one-dose (12.6 &plusmn; 1.7) and the placebo (12.3 &plusmn; 1.2) at the 20-min time point of exercise as well as greater resting systolic blood pressure (110 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) compared to the one-dose (106 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) and the placebo (104 &plusmn; 10 mmHg) conditions. Both the one-dose and two-dose conditions had greater increases in diastolic blood pressure compared to the placebo. Thus, our findings indicated that the present pre-workout supplement had no performance-enhancing benefits related to energy metabolism but did attenuate feelings of exertion.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 53: Presenting Health Status in Children Using a
           Radar Plot

    • Authors: Asgeir Mamen, Lars Erik Braaum, Per Morten Fredriksen
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Background: To try out the feasibility of presenting the health status of children 6 to 12 years old by using radar plots. Methods: With data from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) we have described the health status for 1340 children aged 6 to 12 years. We collected or calculated: stature, body mass, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, accelerometer assessed physical activity, endurance interval running performance, and quality of life. Pertinent variables were presented through a radar plot for both individual cases and groups. Results: The boys showed better endurance and recorded more moderate to vigorous physical activity than the girls. The activity level dropped from age 6 to age 12 for both sexes. The girls showed a lower systolic blood pressure compared with boys. Self-rated quality of life was high among boys and girls. Conclusions: This cohort showed good health and the radar plot made it easy to visualise health status for groups and individuals.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Acute Caffeine Supplementation Does Not Improve
           Performance in Trained CrossFit® Athletes

    • Authors: Jesse A. Stein, Melitza Ramirez, Katie M. Heinrich
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Caffeine&rsquo;s ergogenic effects persist during various exercise modalities; however, information establishing its efficacy during CrossFit&reg; protocols is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine supplementation on CrossFit&reg; performance. Twenty CrossFit&reg;-trained men (age = 26.7 &plusmn; 6.2 years, experience = 3.7 &plusmn; 2.9 years) were randomized in a double-blind, crossover design. Participants completed two sessions separated by a seven-day washout period, 60 min after consuming 5 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. In each session, participants completed as many rounds as possible in 20 min of five pull-ups, 10 push-ups, and 15 air squats. CrossFit&reg; performance was the total number of repetitions completed in 20 min. Paired-samples t-tests were used to compare CrossFit&reg; performance between caffeine and placebo conditions and to test for a potential learning effect between the first and second sessions. CrossFit&reg; performance was not significantly different during the caffeine condition compared to the placebo (468.6 &plusmn; 114.7 vs. 466.7 &plusmn; 94.3 repetitions, p = 0.861). A significant learning effect was identified between the first and second sessions (452.4 &plusmn; 101 vs. 483.8 &plusmn; 106.5 repetitions, p = 0.001), with no significant effect of treatment order (p = 0.438). Caffeine&rsquo;s ergogenic effect were not present during the CrossFit&reg; workout &ldquo;Cindy&rdquo;; however, future research should include familiarization sessions and examine other CrossFit&reg; workouts in novice and women participants.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Backward Running: Acute Effects on Sprint
           Performance in Preadolescent Boys

    • Authors: Dimitrios Petrakis, Eleni Bassa, Anastasia Papavasileiou, Anthi Xenofondos, Dimitrios A. Patikas
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of backward running (BwR) during warm-up on a 20-m sprint of boys&rsquo; performance, compared to forward running (FwR). Fourteen recreationally active preadolescent boys (aged 12.5 &plusmn; 0.5 years) were examined in 3 protocols: warm-up (control condition), warm-up with 3 &times; 10 m additional BwR sprints and warm-up with 3 &times; 10 m additional FwR sprints. Participants were evaluated 4 minutes after each protocol on a 20-m sprint and intermediate distances, as well as the rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Sprint speed across 10-20 m was significantly higher for the BwR warm-up compared to the regular warm-up (p &lt; 0.05) and a significantly higher RPE after the BwR and FwR protocols compared to the control condition was recorded (p &lt; 0.05). No significant difference was detected across the distances 0&ndash;5, 5&ndash;10, 0&ndash;10 and 0&ndash;20 m. Although adding 3 &times; 10-m sprints of BwR or FwR after the warm-up did not enhance performance in a 20 m sprint of preadolescent boys, the positive effect of BwR across 10&ndash;20 m distance suggests that BwR could be an alternative means for enhancing performance for certain phases of a sprint for this age. However, preadolescent boys&rsquo; response to different sprint conditioning exercise stimuli and the optimization of rest time to maximize performance remain to be determined.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Strategies and Solutions for Team Sports
           Athletes in Isolation due to COVID-19

    • Authors: Igor Jukic, Julio Calleja-González, Francesc Cos, Francesco Cuzzolin, Jesús Olmo, Nicolas Terrados, Nenad Njaradi, Roberto Sassi, Bernardo Requena, Luka Milanovic, Ivan Krakan, Kostas Chatzichristos, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      First page: 56
      Abstract: In December of 2019, there was an outbreak of a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) in China. The virus rapidly spread into the whole World causing an unprecedented pandemic and forcing governments to impose a global quarantine, entering an extreme unknown situation. The organizational consequences of quarantine/isolation are: absence of organized training and competition, lack of communication among athletes and coaches, inability to move freely, lack of adequate sunlight exposure, inappropriate training conditions. Based on the current scientific, we strongly recommend encouraging the athlete to reset their mindset to understand quarantine as an opportunity for development, organizing appropriate guidance, educating and encourage athletes to apply appropriate preventive behavior and hygiene measures to promote immunity and ensuring good living isolation conditions. The athlete&rsquo;s living space should be equipped with cardio and resistance training equipment (portable bicycle or rowing ergometer). Some forms of body mass resistance circuit-based training could promote aerobic adaptation. Sports skills training should be organized based on the athlete&rsquo;s needs. Personalized conditioning training should be carried out with emphasis on neuromuscular performance. Athletes should also be educated about nutrition (Vitamin D and proteins) and hydration. Strategies should be developed to control body composition. Mental fatigue should be anticipated and mental controlled. Adequate methods of recovery should be provided. Daily monitoring should be established. This is an ideal situation in which to rethink personal life, understanding the situation, that can be promoted in these difficult times that affect practically the whole world.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8040056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 27: Y-Balance Test Performance Does Not Determine

    • Authors: Luedke, Geisthardt, Rauh
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Collegiate American football has a high rate of injury. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ), a dynamic assessment of lower extremity strength, mobility, and balance, has been purported to identify athletes at risk for injury in different sports including football. Previous studies examining the association between YBT-LQ and injury have reported varied findings; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess if preseason YBT-LQ performance predicted whether football players would sustain a non-contact lower extremity or low back (lower quarter (LQ)) injury during the season. Fifty-nine male collegiate American football players (age 20.8 &plusmn; 1.3 y, height 1.8 &plusmn; 0.1 m, body mass 94.6 &plusmn; 14.2 kg) completed a survey of training and injury history and had their YBT-LQ performance assessed at the start of the season. Athletic training staff tracked the occurrence of non-contact LQ injuries during the season. There were no significant relationships found between preseason YBT-LQ values and incidence of non-contact LQ injury in this population of collegiate American football players. This study is consistent with recent reports that have not found a significant association between preseason YBT-LQ values and LQ injury. These results suggest that, in isolation, the YBT-LQ may have limited utility as a screening test for non-contact injury in collegiate football players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 28: Acute Effects of Intermittent and Continuous
           Static Stretching on Hip Flexion Angle in Athletes with Varying
           Flexibility Training Background

    • Authors: Donti, Gaspari, Papia, Panidi, Donti, Bogdanis
      First page: 28
      Abstract: &Tau;his study examined changes in hip joint flexion angle after an intermittent or a continuous static stretching protocol of equal total duration. Twenty-seven female subjects aged 19.9 &plusmn; 3.0 years (14 artistic and rhythmic gymnasts and 13 team sports athletes), performed 3 min of intermittent (6 &times; 30 s with 30 s rest) or continuous static stretching (3 min) of the hip extensors, with an intensity of 80&ndash;90 on a 100-point visual analogue scale. The order of stretching was randomized and counterbalanced, and each subject performed both conditions. Hip flexion angle was measured with the straight leg raise test for both legs after warm-up and immediately after stretching. Both stretching types equally increased hip flexion angle by ~6% (continuous: 140.9&deg; &plusmn; 20.4&deg; to 148.6&deg; &plusmn; 18.8&deg;, p = 0.047; intermittent: 141.8&deg; &plusmn; 20.3&deg; to 150.0&deg; &plusmn; 18.8&deg;, p = 0.029) in artistic and rhythmic gymnasts. In contrast, in team sports athletes, only intermittent stretching increased hip flexion angle by 13% (from 91.0&deg; &plusmn; 7.2&deg; to 102.4&deg; &plusmn; 14.5&deg;, p = 0.001), while continuous stretching did not affect hip angle (from 92.4&deg; &plusmn; 6.9&deg; vs. 93.1&deg; &plusmn; 9.2&deg;, p = 0.99). The different effect of intermittent vs. continuous stretching on hip flexion between gymnasts and team sports athletes suggests that responses to static stretching are dependent on stretching mode and participants training experience.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Gastrocnemius Medialis Architectural Properties
           in Flexibility Trained and Not Trained Child Female Athletes: A Pilot

    • Authors: Ioli Panidi, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Vasiliki Gaspari, Polyxeni Spiliopoulou, Anastasia Donti, Gerasimos Terzis, Olyvia Donti
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) architecture and ankle angle were compared between flexibility trained (n = 10) and not trained (n = 6) female athletes, aged 8&ndash;10 years. Ankle angle, fascicle length, pennation angle and muscle thickness were measured at the mid-belly and the distal part of GM, at rest and at the end of one min of static stretching. Flexibility trained (FT) and not trained athletes (FNT) had similar fascicle length at the medial (4.19 &plusmn; 0.37 vs. 4.24 &plusmn; 0.54 cm, respectively, p = 0.841) and the distal part of GM (4.25 &plusmn; 0.35 vs. 4.18 &plusmn; 0.65 cm, respectively, p = 0.780), similar pennation angles, and muscle thickness (p &gt; 0.216), and larger ankle angle at rest (120.9 &plusmn; 4.2 vs. 110.9 &plusmn; 5.8&deg;, respectively, p = 0.001). During stretching, FT displayed greater fascicle elongation compared to FNT at the medial (+1.67 &plusmn; 0.37 vs. +1.28 &plusmn; 0.22 cm, respectively, p = 0.048) and the distal part (+1.84 &plusmn; 0.67 vs. +0.97 &plusmn; 0.97 cm, respectively, p = 0.013), larger change in joint angle and muscle tendon junction displacement (MTJ) (p &lt; 0.001). Muscle thickness was similar in both groups (p &gt; 0.053). Ankle dorsiflexion angle significantly correlated with fascicle elongation at the distal part of GM (r = &minus;0.638, p &lt; 0.01) and MTJ displacement (r = &minus;0.610, p &lt; 0.05). Collectively, FT had greater fascicle elongation at the medial and distal part of GM and greater MTJ displacement during stretching than FNT of similar age.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Physical Fitness after Anterior Cruciate
           Ligament Reconstruction: Influence of Graft, Age, and Sex

    • Authors: Robert Csapo, Helmut Pointner, Christian Hoser, Peter Gföller, Christian Raschner, Christian Fink
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Functional tests are used to facilitate return-to-sports decisions after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study presents comprehensive physical fitness test data acquired in highly active patients within the first year after ACLR, for comparison between different grafts, age groups, and sexes. The outcomes from a specific seven-item test battery and isokinetic strength test data were extracted from a patient database. Results were compared to normative data from age- and sex-matched controls and between subgroups of patients. A total of 245 patients (94 women, 23.8 &plusmn; 8.4 years, pre-injury Tegner 7.4 &plusmn; 1.6) were tested 185 &plusmn; 44 days after surgery. In 116 patients (47.3%), one or more test results were classified as &ldquo;poor&rdquo; or &ldquo;very poor&rdquo; after comparison with normative data, with failures being most frequent during single-leg squat jump and plyometric strength tests. Test failures were more prevalent in adults than in adolescents &lt;19 years (61.4%&ndash;62.2% vs. 24.5%, p &lt; 0.001) and in men (61.6% vs. 24.5%, p &lt; 0.001), but no differences were found between grafts. Isokinetic knee extensor strength was lower by 24.1% on the injured side. Six months after ACLR, nearly 50% of highly active patients presented with strength and functional fitness deficits. These deficits are particularly prevalent in older patients and men.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 31: Which are the Nutritional Supplements Used by
           Beach-Volleyball Athletes' A Cross-Sectional Study at the Italian
           National Championship

    • Authors: Amatori, Sisti, Perroni, Impey, Lantignotti, Gervasi, Donati Zeppa, Rocchi
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Beach volleyball is an intermittent team sport played under high temperature and humidity. Given that some nutritional supplements can enhance sports performance, this study aimed to evaluate the quantity and the heterogeneity of the nutritional supplementation practices of amateur (n = 69) and professional (n = 19) beach volley athletes competing in the Italian National Championship; an online form was used to collect data about the supplementation habits. The latent class analysis was used to find sub-groups characterised by different habits regarding supplements consumption. The most frequently used supplements (more than once a week) are vitamins B and C (39.2% of athletes), protein (46.8%), and caffeine (36.9%). The latent class analysis revealed three different sub-groups of athletes: the first class (56.7%) included athletes who were used to take very few supplements, the second class (17.0%) was characterised by higher consumption of supplements and the third class (26.2%) was in the middle between the others two. Groups were characterised not only by the quantity but also by the category of supplements used. Our results highlighted a high heterogeneity in supplementation habits. A pragmatic approach to supplements and sports foods is needed in the face of the evidence that some products can usefully contribute to enhancing performance.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 32: The Assessment and Relationship Between Quality
           of Life and Physical Activity Levels in Greek Breast Cancer Female
           Patients under Chemotherapy

    • Authors: Maria Maridaki, Argyro Papadopetraki, Helen Karagianni, Michael Koutsilieris, Anastassios Philippou
      First page: 32
      Abstract: A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a complementary intervention during breast cancer (BCa) treatment, contributing to the alleviation of the chemotherapy-related side-effects. The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity (PA) levels and quality of life (QoL) parameters of BCa patients undergoing chemotherapy and compare them with healthy controls. A total of 94 BCa female patients and 65 healthy women were recruited and self-reported QoL and PA levels. The results reveal that women suffering from BCa spent only 134 &plusmn; 469 metabolic equivalents (MET)/week in vigorous PAs compared with the healthy females who spent 985&plusmn;1508 MET/week. Also, BCa patients were spending 4.62&plusmn;2.58 h/day sitting, contrary to the 2.34&plusmn;1.05 h/day of the controls. QoL was scored as 63.43&plusmn;20.63 and 70.14&plusmn;19.49 while physical functioning (PF) as 71.48&plusmn;23.35 and 84.46&plusmn;15.48 by BCa patients and healthy participants, respectively. Negative correlations were found between QoL and fatigue, PF and pain, and fatigue and dyspnea, while a positive correlation was found between QoL and PF. This study indicated that the BCa group accumulated many hours seated and refrained from vigorous Pas, preferring PAs of moderate intensity. Additionally, BCa patients&rsquo; levels of functioning and QoL were moderate to high; however, they were compromised by pain, dyspnea and fatigue.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Associations Between Two Athlete Monitoring
           Systems Used to Quantify External Training Loads in Basketball Players

    • Authors: Aaron Heishman, Keldon Peak, Ryan Miller, Brady Brown, Bryce Daub, Eduardo Freitas, Michael Bemben
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Monitoring external training load (eTL) has become popular for team sport for managing fatigue, optimizing performance, and guiding return-to-play protocols. During indoor sports, eTL can be measured via inertial measurement units (IMU) or indoor positioning systems (IPS). Though each device provides unique information, the relationships between devices has not been examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the association of eTL between an IMU and IPS used to monitor eTL in team sport. Retrospective analyses were performed on 13 elite male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I basketball players (age: 20.2 &plusmn; 1.2 years, height: 201.1 &plusmn; 7.6 cm, mass: 96.8 &plusmn; 8.8 kg) from three practices during the off-season training phase. A one-way analysis of variance was used to test differences in eTL across practices. Pearson&rsquo;s correlation examined the association between the Distance traveled during practice captured by IPS compared to PlayerLoad (PL), PlayerLoad per Minute (PL/Min), 2-Dimensional PlayerLoad (PL2D), 1-Dimensional PlayerLoad Forward (PL1D-FWD), Side (PL1D-SIDE), and Up (PL1D-UP) captured from the IMU. Regression analyses were performed to predict PL from Distance traveled. The eTL characteristics during Practice 1: PL = 420.4 &plusmn; 102.9, PL/min = 5.8 &plusmn; 1.4, Distance = 1645.9 &plusmn; 377.0 m; Practice 2: PL = 472.8 &plusmn; 109.5, PL/min = 5.1 &plusmn; 1.2, Distance = 1940.0 &plusmn; 436.3 m; Practice 3: PL = 295.1 &plusmn; 57.8, PL/min = 5.3 &plusmn; 1.0, Distance = 1198.2 &plusmn; 219.2 m. Significant (p &le; 0.05) differences were observed in PL, PL2D, PL1D-FWD, PL1D-SIDE, PL1D-UP, and Distance across practices. Significant correlations (p &le; 0.001) existed between Distance and PL parameters (Practice 1: r = 0.799&ndash;0.891; Practice 2: r = 0.819&ndash;0.972; and Practice 3: 0.761&ndash;0.891). Predictive models using Distance traveled accounted for 73.5&ndash;89.7% of the variance in PL. Significant relationships and predictive capacities exists between systems. Nonetheless, each system also appears to capture unique information that may still be useful to performance practitioners regarding the understanding of eTL.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 34: Relationships between Resisted Sprint
           Performance and Different Strength and Power Measures in Rugby Players

    • Authors: Santiago Zabaloy, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Tomás T. Freitas, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Lucas Pereira, Irineu Loturco, Thomas Comyns, Javier Gálvez-González, Pedro E. Alcaraz
      First page: 34
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between a specific isometric-strength sprint test (SIST) and unresisted maximum velocity (Vmax), sprint times across different loading conditions, and the velocity loss (Vloss) loads required to achieve each intended Vloss condition during resisted sprint training (RST) in rugby players. Additionally, the investigation examined the relationship between strength in the back-squat one-repetition maximum (1RM-SQ) as well as isometric squat (ISQT), jumps, and sprint performance variables. Twenty (n = 20) male amateur rugby players performed, on two separate occasions, a structural multiple-joint assessment of jumps, strength, and sprint performance. Interestingly, SIST revealed moderate correlations (r = 0.453 to 0.681; p &lt; 0.05) between 1RM-SQ and ISQT. The SISTrel (relative to body mass), but not SIST, used in the present study showed moderate correlations (r = 0.508 to 0.675; p &lt; 0.05) with the loads needed to reach 10%, 30%, and 50% of Vloss during RST. The SISTrel that measures resultant force application in a more sprint-related position explains much of the individual response of each athlete during sprinting towing a sled and can also be used to prescribe and quantify loads in the RST in a more objective and individual manner.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Factors Affecting Training and Physical
           Performance in Recreational Endurance Runners

    • Authors: Daniel Boullosa, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Arturo Casado, Leonardo A. Peyré-Tartaruga, Rodrigo Gomes da Rosa, Juan Del Coso
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Endurance running has become an immensely popular sporting activity, with millions of recreational runners around the world. Despite the great popularity of endurance running as a recreational activity during leisure time, there is no consensus on the best practice for recreational runners to effectively train to reach their individual objectives and improve physical performance in a healthy manner. Moreover, there are lots of anecdotal data without scientific support, while most scientific evidence on endurance running was developed from studies observing both recreational and professional athletes of different levels. Further, the transference of all this information to only recreational runners is difficult due to differences in the genetic predisposition for endurance running, the time available for training, and physical, psychological, and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this review is to present a selection of scientific evidence regarding endurance running to provide training guidelines to be used by recreational runners and their coaches. The review will focus on some key aspects of the training process, such as periodization, training methods and monitoring, performance prediction, running technique, and prevention and management of injuries associated with endurance running.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 36: Off-Season Training Habits and BMI, Not
           Preseason Jump Measures, Are Associated with Time-Loss Injury in Female
           Collegiate Soccer Players

    • Authors: Jason Brumitt, Alma Mattocks, Amy Engilis, Jill Sikkema, Jeremy Loew
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the standing long jump (SLJ) and the single-leg hop (SLH) tests to discriminate lower quadrant (low back and lower extremities) injury occurrence in female collegiate soccer players. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine associations between injury and off-season training habits or anthropometric measures. SLJ, SLH, and anthropometric measures were collected during a preseason screening clinic. Each subject completed a questionnaire providing demographic information and off-season training habits. Each athlete performed three SLJ and three SLH per leg. SLJ and SLH scores were not associated with an increased risk of a noncontact time-loss lower quadrant (LQ) injury. Athletes with a higher BMI or who reported less time training during the off-season were two times more likely to sustain an injury. Athletes who had both a higher body mass index (BMI) and lower off-season training habits were three times (relative risk = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 5.5) p-value = 0.0001) more likely to sustain a noncontact time-loss lower quadrant injury. Preseason SLJ and SLH scores do not discriminate injury risk in female collegiate soccer players. Higher BMI and lower off-season training habits are associated with an increased risk of LQ injury.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 37: An Acute Bout of Self-Myofascial Release Does
           Not Affect Drop Jump Performance despite an Increase in Ankle Range of

    • Authors: Mark Godwin, Edward Stanhope, James Bateman, Holly Mills
      First page: 37
      Abstract: This study examined the acute effects of self-myofascial release plus dynamic warm up versus dynamic warm up alone on ankle range of motion and drop jump performance. Twenty-five recreationally active participants (male: 16, female: 9) were randomly assigned into a foam rolling (FR) or a dynamic warm up group (CON) (age: 22.8 &plusmn; 3.9 years, body mass 75.9 &plusmn; 13.2 kg, stretch stature: 174.1 &plusmn; 10.1 cm). In a randomised crossover design, each participant completed two experimental sessions that were separated by seven days. Ankle range of movement was assessed while using a weight-bearing lunge test and drop jump performance was recorded via bilateral force plates. Following a 5 min cycle, the foam rolling group undertook self-myofascial release to the lower limb and thoracic/lumbar regions, followed by a dynamic warm up. The control group undertook the same initial warm up plus the dynamic exercises. The level of significance was set at p &le; 0.05. There was a significant increase (p &lt; 0.001) in ankle range of motion immediately after the warm up for both groups (pre CON: 37.5 &plusmn; 5.31, post CON: 39.8 &plusmn; 5.76; pre FR 38.7 &plusmn; 7, post FR: 40.3 &plusmn; 7.3 deg). No significant difference was found between the conditions (p &gt; 0.05). There were no significant differences for any indices of jump performance (p &gt; 0.05). Based on these results, foam rolling plus dynamic exercises does not appear to impair or enhance drop jump performance, despite the increases in ankle range of movement.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Relationships between Change of Direction,
           Sprint, Jump, and Squat Power Performance

    • Authors: Luis Suarez-Arrones, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Irene Carrasquilla, Jose Asián-Clemente, Alfredo Santalla, Pilar Lara-Lopez, F. Javier Núñez
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between countermovement jump (CMJ) height and inertial power in squat and sprint variables with change of direction (COD) performance. Fifty young healthy active males participated in the study. To determine these relationships, we carried out a 10-m linear sprint test (T 10 m), vertical jump tests (CMJ and CMJ Abalakov), an assessment of power relative to bodyweight in a flywheel squat (Pbw), and 10-m COD sprints with two different turn types (COD-90&deg; and COD-180&deg;). T10 m showed statistically large and moderate correlations with T10 m COD-180&deg; (r = 0.55) and T10-m COD-90&deg; (r = 0.41), respectively. Moderate to large correlations between jumping height, linear sprinting, and sprints with COD were found (r = &minus;0.43 to r = &minus;0.59), and there were unclear correlations between jumping height and the loss of speed caused by executing COD (DEC-COD). Pbw showed a large correlation with CMJ Abalakov and CMJ jump height (r = 0.65 and r = 0.57, respectively), and a moderate and large correlation with T 10 m, T 10 m COD-180&deg;, and T10 m COD-90&deg; (r = &minus;0.33, r = &minus;0.38, and r = &minus;0.54, respectively). Despite the existence of substantial correlations between variables, straight linear sprinting, jumping performance, CODs and squat power were, for the most part, separate motor qualities (R2 from 14% to 34%), suggesting that all of them should be specifically assessed and trained.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-03-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8030038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 11: The Effectiveness of a Primary School Based
           Badminton Intervention on Children’s Fundamental Movement Skills

    • Authors: Duncan, Noon, Lawson, Hurst, Eyre
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of the Badminton World Federation (BWF) Shuttle Time program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in English children. A total of 124 children; 66 in key stage 1 (ages 6&ndash;7 years) and 58 in key stage 2 (10&ndash;11 years) undertook the Shuttle Time program, once weekly for six weeks (n = 63) or acted as controls (n = 61). Pre, post and ten-weeks post, both process and product FMS were determined. Children in the intervention group, aged 6&ndash;7 years, had higher total process FMS (via test of gross motor development-2) compared to the control group at post and ten-weeks post intervention (both p = 0.0001, d = 0.6 and 0.7, respectively). There were no significant differences in process FMS scores for children aged 10&ndash;11 years. Ten-meter sprint speed decreased pre to post and was maintained at ten-weeks post for the intervention groups aged 6&ndash;7 years (p = 0.0001, d = 0.6) and 10&ndash;11 years (p = 0.001, d = 0.2) compared to control. Standing long jump distance increased pre to post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.8) and was maintained at ten-weeks post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.5) for the intervention group. Medicine ball throw performance increased pre to post (p = 0.0001, d = 0.3) for the intervention group. The BWF Shuttle Time program is beneficial in developing FMS for key stage 1 children (ages 6&ndash;7).
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Effects of Creatine Supplementation on
           Lower-Limb Muscle Endurance Following an Acute Bout of Aerobic Exercise in
           Young Men

    • Authors: Vieira, de Paula, Gentil, Pichard, Candow, Pimentel
      First page: 12
      Abstract: We aimed to determine whether creatine supplementation influences lower-limb muscle endurance following an acute bout of aerobic exercise (AE) in young healthy men. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 11 men (26.5 &plusmn; 6.2 years, body mass index 26.6 &plusmn; 2.1 kg/m2),with 12 months of experience in strength training (three times/week) and AE (two times/week) were randomized to receive creatine (20 g/day plus 20 g/day maltodextrin) and placebo (40 g/day maltodextrin) for 7 days, separated by a washout period of 14 days, before performing an acute bout of AE (30 min on treadmill at 80% baseline maximum velocity) which was followed by four sets of bilateral leg extension endurance exercise using a 10-repetition maximum protocol (10 RM)). There was a significant decrease in the number of repetitions performed in the third (Placebo: &minus;20% vs. Creatine: &minus;22%) and fourth set (Placebo: &minus;22% vs. Creatine: &minus;28%) compared with the first set (p &lt; 0.05), with no differences between creatine and placebo. Additionally, no differences were observed between creatine and placebo for the total number of repetitions performed across all four sets (Placebo: 33.9 &plusmn; 7.0 vs. Creatine: 34.0 &plusmn; 6.9 repetitions, p = 0.97), nor for total work volume (Placebo: 3030.5 &plusmn; 1068.2 vs. Creatine: 3039.8 &plusmn; 1087.7 kg, p = 0.98). Short-term creatine supplementation has no effect on lower-limb muscle endurance following an acute bout of aerobic exercise in trained young men.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 13: The Effect of ProHydrolase® on the Amino Acid
           and Intramuscular Anabolic Signaling Response to Resistance Exercise in
           Trained Males

    • Authors: Townsend, Morimune, Jones, Beuning, Haase, Boot, Heffington, Littlefield, Henry, Marshall, VanDusseldorp, Feito, Mangine
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This double-blind study examined effects of a protease enzyme blend (Prohydrolase&reg;) added to whey protein on post-resistance exercise aminoacidemia and intramuscular anabolic signaling were investigated in ten resistance-trained males. Participants completed 4 sets of 8&ndash;10 repetitions in the leg press and leg extension exercises at 75% of 1-repetition maximum. Participants then consumed either 250 mg of Prohydrolase&reg; + 26 g of whey protein (PW), 26 g whey alone (W), or non-nutritive control (CON) in counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained prior to exercise (baseline) and then immediately-post (IP), 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, and 180-min post-exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, 1-h (1H), and 3-h (3H) post-exercise. Phosphorylation of AKTSer437 was decreased (3H only: p &lt; 0.001), mTORSer2448 was increased (1H: p = 0.025; 3H: p = 0.009), and p70S6KThr412 remained unchanged similarly for each condition. Plasma leucine, branch-chained amino acids, and essential amino acid concentrations for PW were significantly higher than CON (p &lt; 0.05) at 30 min and similar to W. Compared to IP, PW was the only treatment with elevated plasma leucine levels at 30 min (p = 0.007; ∆ = 57.8 mmol/L, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 20.0, 95.6) and EAA levels at 180 min (p = 0.003; ∆ = 179.1 mmol/L, 95% CI: 77.5, 280.7). Area under the curve amino acid analysis revealed no differences between PW and W. While no different than W, these data indicate that PW was the only group to produce elevated amino acid concentrations 30-min and 180-min post-ingestion.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Absolute and Relative Strength, Power and
           Physiological Characteristics of Indian Junior National-Level Judokas

    • Authors: Harris, Kendall, Haff, Latella
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The physical qualities that underpin successful junior judokas requires continuing investigation. We investigated the physical and physiological characteristics of junior national level judokas. We tested 25 (15 male, 10 female) Indian judokas for absolute and relative strength (back-squat and bench-press one-repetition maximum (1RM) as well as isometric handgrip), aerobic (RAMP test) and lower-body anaerobic power (Wingate 6-s sprint and countermovement jump), change-of-direction (5-0-5 test) and speed (30 m sprint). Athletes were grouped according to national-level competition placing (gold-medal winners (GM; n = 8), all medal winners (MW; n = 13), non-medallists (NM; n = 12), and NM plus silver and bronze; all others (AO; n = 17)). Stepwise discriminant function analysis determined characteristics likely to predict successful performance. Independent t-tests and effect size (Hedge&rsquo;s g) analyses were performed between groups. GM demonstrated greater lower-body absolute (20.0%; g = 0.87, p = 0.046) and relative 1RM strength (21.0%; g = 0.87, p = 0.047), and greater lower-body absolute (25.4%; g=1.32, p=0.004) and relative (27.3%; g = 1.27, p = 0.005) anaerobic power compared to AO. Furthermore, anaerobic power can correctly predict 76.5% and 62.5% of AO and GM athletes, respectively. No differences were observed between MW and NM groups. The results suggest the importance of lower-body strength and power for junior national-level judokas and provides information for professionals working with these athletes.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Effect of a Single Bout of Acute Aerobic
           Exercise at Moderate-to-Vigorous Intensities on Motor Learning, Retention
           and Transfer

    • Authors: Lorås, Haga, Sigmundsson
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Acute exercise influences human cognition, and evidence suggests that learning can be improved. According to the cognitive&ndash;energetic approach towards exercise cognition, exercise represents a stressor that elevates physiological arousal, which, in turn, increases the availability of mental resources. However, the degree of arousal is hypothesized to have optimal and suboptimal states, and moderate intensity exercise is thus considered to be favorable compared to low intensity and vigorous exercise. The current evidence for such a moderating effect of exercise intensity on motor learning, however, appears somewhat mixed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the effect of aerobic exercise conducted with different exercise intensities on immediate practice, transfer, and 24-hour retention of a motor skill. To this end, young adults (n &thinsp;= &thinsp;40, mean (SD) age: 23.80 (1.98) years) were randomized to exercise at either 50% or 75% of age-predicted maximal heart rate according to the Karvonen formulae. Immediately after exercising, participants practiced a high-precision golf putting task in a blocked design. Retention and transfer of skill were assessed after 24 h. Results indicated that both groups demonstrated motor learning, retention, and transfer at a similar level. Further works are thus needed to establish the specific relationship between exercise and learning and establish the factors that have an influence.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Bioenergetics and Biomechanics of Handcycling at
           Submaximal Speeds in Athletes with a Spinal Cord Injury

    • Authors: Fischer, Figueiredo, Ardigò
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Background: A study aimed at comparing bioenergetics and biomechanical parameters between athletes with tetraplegia and paraplegia riding race handbikes at submaximal speeds in ecological conditions. Methods: Five athletes with tetraplegia (C6-T1, 43 &plusmn; 6 yrs, 63 &plusmn; 14 kg) and 12 athletes with paraplegia (T4-S5, 44 &plusmn; 7 yrs, 72 &plusmn; 12 kg) rode their handbikes at submaximal speeds under metabolic measurements. A deceleration method (coasting down) was applied to calculate the rolling resistance and frontal picture of each participant was taken to calculate air resistance. The net overall Mechanical Efficiency (Eff) was calculated by dividing external mechanical work to the corresponding Metabolic Power. Results: Athletes with tetraplegia reached a lower aerobic speed (4.7 &plusmn; 0.6 m s&minus;1 vs. 7.1 &plusmn; 0.9 m s&minus;1, P = 0.001) and Mechanical Power (54 &plusmn; 15 W vs. 111 &plusmn; 25 W, P = 0.001) compared with athletes with paraplegia. The metabolic cost was around 1 J kg&minus;1 m&minus;1 for both groups. The Eff values (17 &plusmn; 2% vs. 19 &plusmn; 3%, P = 0.262) suggested that the handbike is an efficient assisted locomotion device. Conclusion: Handbikers with tetraplegia showed lower aerobic performances but a similar metabolic cost compared with handbikers with paraplegia at submaximal speeds in ecological conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 17: The Prevalence and Severity of External Auditory
           Exostosis in Young to Quadragenarian-Aged Warm-Water Surfers: A
           Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Vini Simas, Wayne Hing, James Furness, Joe Walsh, Mike Climstein
      First page: 17
      Abstract: External auditory exostosis (EAE) has previously only been shown to occur in cold water surfers. We assessed young surfers living and surfing in Queensland, Australia, for EAE in water temp ranges from 20.6 &deg;C (69.1 &deg;F, Winter) to 28.2 &deg;C (82.8 &deg;F, Summer). All participants underwent a bilateral otoscopic examination to assess the presence and severity of EAE. A total of 23 surfers participated with a mean age of 35.4 years (8.3 years) and a mean surfing experience of 20.0 years (9.9 years). Nearly two-thirds of participants (n = 14, 60.9%) had regular otological symptoms, most commonly water trapping (n = 13, 56.5%), pain (n = 8, 34.8%), and hearing loss (n = 6, 26.1%). Only 8.7% (n = 2) of all surfers reported regular use of protective equipment (e.g., earplugs) on a regular basis. The overall prevalence of exostosis was 69.6% (n = 16), and the majority (n = 12, 80.0%) demonstrated bilateral lesions of a mild grade (&lt;33% obstruction of the external auditory canal). This is the first study assessing EAE in young surfers exposed to only warm waters (above 20.6 &deg;C). The prevalence of EAE in this study highlights that EAE is not restricted to cold water conditions, as previously believed. Warm water surfing enthusiasts should be screened on a regular basis by their general medical practitioner and utilize prevention strategies such as earplugs to minimize exposure to EAE development.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 18: Utilizing Video-Based Trainings to Improve
           Decision Making in High School Quarterbacks

    • Authors: Powless, Steinfeldt, Fisher, McFadden, Kennedy, Bellini
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Despite the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in decision making, there is a dearth of empirical literature concerned with working memory and how it relates to tactical decision making in sport. The temporal occlusion paradigm has often been used by sport researchers to improve tactical decision making and, thus, provides a well-established foundation for creating decision-making trainings. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to explore the implementation of computer-based learning modules to improve the tactical decision making of four high school quarterbacks with varying levels of WMC, utilizing a single-subject, multiple baseline design. The learning modules utilized a temporal occlusion paradigm and present a novel intervention aimed at improving decision making in quarterbacks. Data were analyzed using visual analysis and improvement rate difference (IRD). Overall, results did not demonstrate a causal relationship between changes in accuracy of decision making after implementation of the learning modules but did provide moderate evidence for improvement in reaction time for decision making due to the learning modules. The learning modules were met with positive perceptions from the four participants, and the participant with the lowest WMC showed evidence of improvement in both accuracy and speed of decision making. Limitations as well as implications will be discussed.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Changes in Duration and Intensity of the
           World’s Top-Level Badminton Matches: A Consideration of the Increased
           Acute Injuries among Elite Women’s Singles Players

    • Authors: Taro Iizuka, Kanako Hirano, Tomoaki Atomi, Miho Shimizu, Yoriko Atomi
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there have been any specific changes in the characteristics of the world&rsquo;s top-level women&rsquo;s singles badminton matches compared to men&rsquo;s singles matches after the current badminton scoring system was implemented in 2006. We compared the characteristics of the matches between the Super Series tournaments in 2007 and 2017. Match duration increased as the rally and rest times increased in both men&rsquo;s and women&rsquo;s singles matches. Specifically, in women&rsquo;s singles, it was suggested that a further increase in physical demands because of the increased number of shots per second may have resulted in longer rest time in proportion to rally time. Moreover, increases in match duration (final eight, 53.3 &plusmn; 6.6 min; early rounds, 42.1 &plusmn; 3.6 min; P &lt; 0.05) and number of shots per rally (final eight, 10.4 &plusmn; 1.2; early rounds, 8.7 &plusmn; 1.1; P &lt; 0.05) in women&rsquo;s singles were more prominent in the final eight rounds (quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals) than in the early rounds (rounds 1 and 2). The recent changes in characteristics of the world&rsquo;s top-level badminton matches may account for the increased acute injuries that are frequently observed in elite women&rsquo;s singles players. Thus, appropriate training programs are crucial to effectively improve performance and prevent injuries among elite badminton players.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Reconsidering McKenzie’s Six Adventure
           Education Programming Elements Using an Ecological Dynamics Lens and Its
           Implications for Health and Wellbeing

    • Authors: King, Hardwell, Brymer, Bedford
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Two decades ago, McKenzie&rsquo;s meta-analysis of literature provided six fundamental elements of adventure education programme design still used to guide research and practice today. While the value of McKenzie&rsquo;s early work should not be underestimated, adventure education has undergone considerable changes. Adventurous activities are now available in urban and indoor contexts and used to facilitate a growing health and wellbeing agenda. The use of risk as part of adventure education programming has also been critiqued. This paper reflects on contemporary notions of adventure, risk and the emergent narratives emphasising the associated psychological benefits. The Ecological Dynamics framework, along with representative design delivery, are presented as a viable way of building on McKenzie&rsquo;s work. Both consider how effective outcomes in adventure education programmes are achieved through designs that focus on the unique relationship between the individual and their environment. While McKenzie&rsquo;s six elements recognise the importance of human relationships, Ecological Dynamics forefronts relational elements, not just between participants but, importantly, the task and the environment. Individual participant needs in relation to their everyday life therefore become the focus of adventure education expanding beyond the traditional long-standing narratives of risk and danger. Through these two important concepts, this paper advocates an approach to the design of adventure representative of a participant&rsquo;s everyday environment. In this way, adventure education outcomes translate beyond the adventure-specific context and align more holistically with the needs of individual participants while also assuring emphasis on individual health and wellbeing.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Injuries in Novice Participants during an
           Eight-Week Start up CrossFit Program—A Prospective Cohort Study

    • Authors: Rasmus Tolstrup Larsen, Andreas Lund Hessner, Lasse Ishøi, Henning Langberg, Jan Christensen
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Background: Previously published studies have reported injury rates ranging from 0.74 to 3.3 per 1000 h of exposure in CrossFit participants. However, the existing body of evidence is mainly based on experienced participants; therefore, the injury incidence and injury rate within novice CrossFit participants remains relatively unknown. The aim of this study wasto investigate the injury incidence and injury rate among novice participants in an eight-week CrossFit program. Methods: This survey-based prospective cohort study included CrossFit Copenhagen&rsquo;s novice members who began an eight-week, free-of-charge membership period. A questionnaire was distributed at baseline and at eight-week follow-up. Information about exposure was retrieved through the online booking system. Injury incidence, defined as proportion of participants who sustained an injury, and injury rates per 1000 h of exposure were calculated. Results: Among the 168 included participants, a total of 28 injuries (14.9%) were reported. The number of injured participants and total exposure time resulted in an injury rate per 1000 h of exposure of 9.5. Conclusions: Compared to the existing body of evidence, the findings in this study indicate that the risk of injuries is higher among novice participants than among experienced CrossFit participants.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Acute (-)-Epicatechin Consumption: Effects on
           Local Vasodilation Following Resistance Exercise and High-Intensity
           Exercise Performance

    • Authors: Neil A. Schwarz, Andrew P. Theodore, Brandon R. Funderburg, Andy Waldhelm, Sarah K. McKinley-Barnard, Geoffrey M. Hudson
      First page: 22
      Abstract: (-)-Epicatechin is a polyphenol previously shown to enhance vascular health. The purposes of the current studies were to determine the effect of acute (-)-epicatechin supplementation on local vasodilation in conjunction with resistance exercise (study 1) and on high-intensity exercise performance (study 2). For study 1, 11 men participated in two resistance exercise sessions, where they performed three sets of barbell curls while consuming 200 mg of 98% pure (-)-epicatechin or placebo. Measurements of total serum nitrate/nitrite and brachial artery diameter were acquired at baseline (pre-supplement), 90 min after supplement consumption (post-supplement), immediately post-exercise (post-exercise), and 30 min post-exercise (30 min post-exercise). For serum nitric oxide metabolites, no significant interaction between supplement and time nor significant main effect of time was observed (p = 0.38 and p = 0.20; respectively). For brachial artery diameter, no significant interaction between supplement and time was observed (p = 0.24). A significant main effect of time was observed for brachial artery diameter (p &lt; 0.01) with post-exercise brachial artery diameter significantly greater diameter than all other time points (all p &lt; 0.01). For study 2, six women and five men completed the 15.5 CrossFit&reg; Open Workout three times. A familiarization session was performed first where the workout was performed without the consumption of a supplement. In a randomized, balanced fashion, 100 mg of 98% pure (-)-epicatechin or cellulose (placebo) was consumed two times per day for two days before testing sessions two and three. On the day of testing sessions two and three, 60 to 90 min before completing the workout, 200 mg of the assigned supplement was ingested with water. No significant difference was observed for time to complete the workout between testing sessions (p = 0.49). In conclusion, under the conditions of the current studies, acute (-)-epicatechin supplementation did not augment vasodilation in combination with resistance exercise, nor did it increase exercise performance in humans.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 23: Validating Physiological and Biomechanical
           Parameters during Intermittent Swimming at Speed Corresponding to Lactate
           Concentration of 4 mmol·L−1

    • Authors: Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Ioannis S. Nikitakis, Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Argyris G. Toubekis
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Background: Physiological and biomechanical parameters obtained during testing need validation in a training setting. The purpose of this study was to compare parameters calculated by a 5 &times; 200-m test with those measured during an intermittent swimming training set performed at constant speed corresponding to blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙L&minus;1 (V4). Methods: Twelve competitive swimmers performed a 5 &times; 200-m progressively increasing speed front crawl test. Blood lactate concentration (BL) was measured after each 200 m and V4 was calculated by interpolation. Heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL) were determined during each 200 m. Subsequently, BL, HR, SR and SL corresponding to V4 were calculated. A week later, swimmers performed a 5 &times; 400-m training set at constant speed corresponding to V4 and BL-5&times;400, HR-5&times;400, RPE-5&times;400, SR-5&times;400, SL-5&times;400 were measured. Results: BL-5&times;400 and RPE-5&times;400 were similar (p &gt; 0.05), while HR-5&times;400 and SR-5&times;400 were increased and SL-5&times;400 was decreased compared to values calculated by the 5 &times; 200-m test (p &lt; 0.05). Conclusion: An intermittent progressively increasing speed swimming test provides physiological information with large interindividual variability. It seems that swimmers adjust their biomechanical parameters to maintain constant speed in an aerobic endurance training set of 5 &times; 400-m at intensity corresponding to 4 mmol∙L&minus;1.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Retraction: Stein, J.A. et al. The Effects of
           Acute Caffeine Supplementation on Performance in Trained CrossFit
           Athletes. Sports 2019, 7, 95

    • Authors: Stein, Ramirez, Heinrich
      First page: 24
      Abstract: All authors of the published article [1] have agreed to retract it based on the basis of a data entry error (Figure 1) [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 25: Epidemiology of Acute Injuries in Surfing: Type,
           Location, Mechanism, Severity, and Incidence: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Katherine McArthur, Darcy Jorgensen, Mike Climstein, James Furness
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Prospective and retrospective studies have examined traumatic injuries within competitive and recreational surfers worldwide using online surveys and health care facility (HCF; e.g., hospital, emergency department, medical record) data. However, few studies have provided a synthesis of all available literature. The purpose of this study was to obtain, critique and synthesise all literature specific to acute surfing injuries, and evaluate differences in injury type, mechanism and location between HCF and survey data. A systematic literature review design was used to identify relevant articles from three major databases. Peer-reviewed epidemiological studies of musculoskeletal surfing injuries were included. A modified AXIS tool was used for critical appraisal, and objective data was extracted and synthesized by lead researchers. Overall frequencies for injury location, type and mechanism were calculated from raw injury data. A total of 19 cross-sectional articles of fair to good quality (Modified AXIS 54.2&ndash;83.3%) were included in this study; 17 were National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) level III-2 (retrospective) and two were level II (prospective). Articles examined competitive, recreational and combined populations. Injury data from Australia, Brazil, UK, USA, Portugal, Japan, Norway, and worldwide were represented. Skin (46.0%; HCF 50.1%, survey 43.8%) and being struck by own surfboard (38.6%; HCF 73.4%, survey 36.7%) were the most common injury type and mechanism. Head, face and neck injuries were most common in HCF (43.1%) versus lower limb injuries (36.4%) in survey data. Incidence proportion was highest in aerialists (0.48). Incidence rate (number of injuries per 1000 h) ranged from 0.74 in Australian surfers (Melbourne) to 6.6 in international contest surfers from medical record data. This review highlights the prevalence of skin, board-related, head, face and neck, and lower limb surfing injuries across available literature. Proposed use of protective equipment and foam-based surfboards in dangerous or crowded surf locations may reduce injury risk.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 26: Interventions to Promote Positive Affect and
           Physical Activity in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults—A Systematic

    • Authors: Leon Klos, Katharina Feil, Tanja Eberhardt, Darko Jekauc
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Interventions to promote physical activity (PA) in children, adolescents and young adults based on social-cognitive theories often fail to increase PA. In recent years, affect-based approaches have gained interest, but the current state of research is not sufficiently reported. Therefore, a systematic review about the influence of interventions to promote positive affect and PA enjoyment and PA in children, adolescents and young adults was conducted. Literature searches were carried out including studies published between September 2009 and April 2019. Intervention studies targeting healthy children, adolescents or young adults and measuring enjoyment and PA were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including five group-based PA interventions, three multi-component school interventions, two internet-based interventions and three exergaming interventions. Most studies use multiple components in their intervention. Group-based PA programs incorporating task-oriented teaching styles and opportunities for voluntary PA are most consistently associated with positive findings. This review shows moderate evidence of interventions for children, adolescents and young adults being effective in increasing enjoyment and PA. Besides physical education and comprehensive school interventions, heterogenous intervention designs limit the comparability of studies. Future research should focus on theory-based, multi-component interventions with mediator analyses.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8020026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 3: The Effects of Chest Wall Loading on Perceptions
           of Fatigue, Exercise Performance, Pulmonary Function, and Muscle Perfusion

    • Authors: Giuriato, Gundersen, Verma, Pelletier, Bakewell, Ives
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Background: Load carriage (LC), which directly affects the chest wall and locomotor muscles, has been suggested to alter the ventilatory and circulatory responses to exercise, leading to increased respiratory muscle work and fatigue. However, studies exploring the impact of LC on locomotion increased internal work, complicating their interpretation. To overcome this issue, we sought to determine the effect of chest wall loading with restriction (CWL + R) on cycling performance, cardiopulmonary responses, microvascular responsiveness, and perceptions of fatigue. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 23 young healthy males (22 &plusmn; 4 years) completed a 5 km cycling time trial (TT) in loaded (CWL + R; tightened vest with 10% body weight) and unloaded conditions. After baseline pulmonary function testing (PFT; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1; forced vital capacity, FVC), cardiopulmonary indices (HR, heart rate; O2 uptake, VO2; ventilation, VE; tidal volume, VT; and breathing frequency, Bf), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), lactate (BLa), and microvascular responses (oxy-, deoxy-, total hemoglobin; and tissue saturation; StO2) of the vastus lateralis using near infrared spectroscopy were collected during the TT; and PFT was repeated post-exercise. Results: Pre-exercise, CWL + R reduced (p &lt; 0.05) FVC (5.6 &plusmn; 0.8 versus 5.5 &plusmn; 0.7 L), FEV1 (4.8 &plusmn; 0.7 versus 4.7 &plusmn; 0.6 L), and FEV1/FVC (0.9 &plusmn; 0.1 versus 0.8 &plusmn; 0.1). CWL + R modified power output (PO) over time (interaction, p = 0.02), although the 5 km time (461 &plusmn; 24 versus 470 &plusmn; 27 seconds), VT (3.0 &plusmn; 0.3 versus 2.8 &plusmn; 0.8 L), Bf, VE, HR, VO2, microvascular and perceptual (visual analog scale, or VAS, and RPE) responses were unchanged (p &gt; 0.05). CWL + R increased (p &lt; 0.05) the average BLa (7.6 &plusmn; 2.6 versus 8.6 &plusmn; 3 mmol/L). Conclusions: Modest CWL + R negatively affects pre-exercise pulmonary function, modifies cycling power output over time, and increases lactate production during a 5 km cycling trial, although the cardiorespiratory, microvascular, and perceptual responses were unaffected.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 4: Acute Low-Dose Hyperoxia during a Single Bout of
           High-Intensity Interval Exercise Does Not Affect Red Blood Cell
           Deformability and Muscle Oxygenation in Trained Men—A Randomized
           Crossover Study

    • Authors: Nils Freitag, Tim Böttrich, Pia D. Weber, Giorgio Manferdelli, Daniel A. Bizjak, Marijke Grau, Tanja C. Sanders, Wilhelm Bloch, Moritz Schumann
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Recent technological developments provide easy access to use an artificial oxygen supply (hyperoxia) during exercise training. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a commercially available oxygen compressor inducing low-dose hyperoxia, on limiting factors of endurance performance. Thirteen active men (age 24 &plusmn; 3 years) performed a high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) session (5 &times; 3 min at 80% of Wmax, separated by 2 min at 40% Wmax) on a cycle ergometer, both in hyperoxia (4 L∙min&minus;1, 94% O2, HYP) or ambient conditions (21% O2, NORM) in randomized order. The primary outcome was defined as red blood cell deformability (RBC-D), while our secondary interest included changes in muscle oxygenation. RBC-D was expressed by the ratio of shear stress at half-maximal deformation (SS1/2) and maximal deformability (EImax) and muscle oxygenation of the rectus femoris muscle was assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. No statistically significant changes occurred in SS1/2 and EImax in either condition. The ratio of SS1/2 to EImax statistically decreased in NORM (p &lt; 0.01; &Delta;: &minus;0.10; 95%CI: &minus;0.22, 0.02) but not HYP (p &gt; 0.05; &Delta;: &minus;0.16; 95%CI: &minus;0.23, &minus;0.08). Muscle oxygenation remained unchanged. This study showed that low-dose hyperoxia during HIIE using a commercially available device with a flow rate of only 4 L&middot;min&minus;1 may not be sufficient to induce acute ergogenic effects compared to normoxic conditions.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Relative Age Effect of Sport Academy Adolescents,
           a Physiological Evaluation

    • Authors: Ek, Wollmer, Karlsson, Peterson, Thorsson, Olsson, Malmborg, Dencker
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The relationship between birth quarter distribution and physiological characteristics related to athletic skills, in adolescent sport academy students has not been fully investigated. In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 86 boys and 52 girls aged 12&ndash;14 years during their first term at a sport academy school. We measured body size, cardiac size, pulmonary function, body composition, lower body power, cardiorespiratory fitness parameters, and running endurance by standard methods and analyzed these estimates in relation to birth quarter by ANOVA. Birth quarter distribution in our cohort was compared with birth quarter distribution in the same ages in the whole of Sweden and analyzed by logistic regression. The academy had an overrepresentation of students born in the first quartile of the year compared to those born in the last quartile (odds ratio 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1&ndash;4.7)). When comparing the physiological characteristics between birth quarters, uniformity is prominent since out of 26 performed physiological and anthropometric tests only four showed statistically significant group differences. We thus believe that the selection process to the sport academy favours athletes with higher chronological age, i.e., a so-called relative age effect is present.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Assessing the Wider Implementation of the SHARP
           Principles: Increasing Physical Activity in Primary Physical Education

    • Authors: Emma Powell, Lorayne Angela Woodfield, Alexander James Powell, Alan Michael Nevill
      First page: 6
      Abstract: To assess the wider application of the SHARP (Stretching whilst moving, High repetition of skills, Accessibility, Reducing sitting and standing, and Promotion of physical activity) Principles intervention on children&rsquo;s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in physical education (PE), when applied by teachers and coaches. A quasi-experimental intervention was employed in nine primary schools (experimental, n = 6: control, n = 3) including teachers (n = 10), coaches (n = 4), and children (aged 5 to 11 years, n = 84) in the West Midlands, UK. Practitioners applied the SHARP Principles to PE lessons, guided by an innovative behaviour change model. The System for Observing Fitness and Instruction Time (SOFIT) was used to measure children&rsquo;s MVPA in 111 lessons at pre- (n = 60) and post-intervention (n = 51). Seven interviews were conducted post-intervention to explore practitioners&rsquo; perceptions. Two-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) revealed that teachers increased children&rsquo;s MVPA by 27.7%. No statistically significant change in children&rsquo;s MVPA was observed when taught by the coaches. The qualitative results for teachers were &lsquo;children&rsquo;s engagement&rsquo;, a &lsquo;pedagogical paradigm shift&rsquo;, and &lsquo;relatedness&rsquo;; and for coaches &lsquo;organisational culture&rsquo; and &lsquo;insufficient support and motivation&rsquo;. The SHARP Principles intervention is the most effective teaching strategy at increasing MVPA in primary PE when taught by school based staff (rather than outsourced coaches), evidencing increases almost double that of any previously published study internationally and demonstrating the capacity to influence educational policy and practice internationally.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Skeletal Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Abundance Is
           Higher in Resistance-Trained Men, and Aging in the Absence of Training May
           Have an Opposite Effect

    • Authors: Christopher G. Vann, Paul. A. Roberson, Shelby C. Osburn, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Carlton D. Fox, Johnathon H. Moore, Cody Haun, Darren T. Beck, Jordan R. Moon, Andreas N. Kavazis, Kaelin C. Young, Veera L. D. Badisa, Benjamin M. Mwashote, Victor Ibeanusi, Rakesh K. Singh, Michael D. Roberts
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Resistance training generally increases skeletal muscle hypertrophy, whereas aging is associated with a loss in muscle mass. Interestingly, select studies suggest that aging, as well as resistance training, may lead to a reduction in the abundance of skeletal muscle myofibrillar (or contractile) protein (per mg tissue). Proteomic interrogations have also demonstrated that aging, as well as weeks to months of resistance training, lead to appreciable alterations in the muscle proteome. Given this evidence, the purpose of this small pilot study was to examine total myofibrillar as well as total sarcoplasmic protein concentrations (per mg wet muscle) from the vastus lateralis muscle of males who were younger and resistance-trained (denoted as YT, n = 6, 25 &plusmn; 4 years old, 10 &plusmn; 3 self-reported years of training), younger and untrained (denoted as YU, n = 6, 21 &plusmn; 1 years old), and older and untrained (denoted as OU, n = 6, 62 &plusmn; 8 years old). The relative abundances of actin and myosin heavy chain (per mg tissue) were also examined using SDS-PAGE and Coomassie staining, and shotgun proteomics was used to interrogate the abundances of individual sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins between cohorts. Whole-body fat-free mass (YT &gt; YU = OU), VL thickness (YT &gt; YU = OU), and leg extensor peak torque (YT &gt; YU = OU) differed between groups (p &lt; 0.05). Total myofibrillar protein concentrations were greater in YT versus OU (p = 0.005), but were not different between YT versus YU (p = 0.325). The abundances of actin and myosin heavy chain were greater in YT versus YU (p &lt; 0.05) and OU (p &lt; 0.001). Total sarcoplasmic protein concentrations were not different between groups. While proteomics indicated that marginal differences existed for individual myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins between YT versus other groups, age-related differences were more prominent for myofibrillar proteins (YT = YU &gt; OU, p &lt; 0.05: 7 proteins; OU &gt; YT = YU, p &lt; 0.05: 11 proteins) and sarcoplasmic proteins (YT = YU &gt; OU, p &lt; 0.05: 8 proteins; OU &gt; YT&amp;YU, p &lt; 0.05: 29 proteins). In summary, our data suggest that modest (~9%) myofibrillar protein packing (on a per mg muscle basis) was evident in the YT group. This study also provides further evidence to suggest that notable skeletal muscle proteome differences exist between younger and older humans. However, given that our n-sizes are low, these results only provide a preliminary phenotyping of the reported protein and proteomic variables.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Modelling Training Adaptation in Swimming Using
           Artificial Neural Network Geometric Optimisation

    • Authors: Justin Carrard, Petr Kloucek, Boris Gojanovic
      First page: 8
      Abstract: This study aims to model training adaptation using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) geometric optimisation. Over 26 weeks, 38 swimmers recorded their training and recovery data on a web platform. Based on these data, ANN geometric optimisation was used to model and graphically separate adaptation from maladaptation (to training). Geometric Activity Performance Index (GAPI), defined as the ratio of the adaptation to the maladaptation area, was introduced. The techniques of jittering and ensemble modelling were used to reduce overfitting of the model. Correlation (Spearman rank) and independence (Blomqvist &beta;) tests were run between GAPI and performance measures to check the relevance of the collected parameters. Thirteen out of 38 swimmers met the prerequisites for the analysis and were included in the modelling. The GAPI based on external load (distance) and internal load (session-Rating of Perceived Exertion) showed the strongest correlation with performance measures. ANN geometric optimisation seems to be a promising technique to model training adaptation and GAPI could be an interesting numerical surrogate to track during a season.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 9: The Weather Impact on Physical Activity of 6–12
           Year Old Children: A Clustered Study of the Health Oriented Pedagogical
           Project (HOPP)

    • Authors: Iana Kharlova, Wei Hai Deng, Jostein Mamen, Asgeir Mamen, Maren Valand Fredriksen, Per Morten Fredriksen
      First page: 9
      Abstract: It is commonly known that children do not engage in a sufficient amount of physical activity. Weather conditions and day length may influence physical activity of children. Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and seasons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between weather conditions and physical activity in 6&ndash;12 year old children based on hip-worn Actigraph wGT3X&ndash;BT accelerometer data. The study sample consisted of 2015 subjects aged 6&ndash;12 years from the Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP) study carried out in Horten municipality and Akershus county, Norway. Six days of sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity data was gathered in January&ndash;June and September&ndash;October, 2015, presented as daily averages. The accelerometer-monitored physical activity of children grouped within nine schools was matched with regional weather conditions and assessed with the means of linear mixed models. Increased day length was associated with decreased sedentary behavior. Warmer temperature and dry weather were associated with increased moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after adjusting for age and sex. One-hour increase in daylight resulted in a decrease of sedentary time by, on average, 2 min (95% CI = (&minus;2.577, &minus;0.798)). For every 5 &deg;C increase in temperature (range: &minus;0.95 and 15.51 &deg;C) and dry weather, average moderate-to vigorous physical activity increased by 72 and 67 min (males and females, respectively) (p &lt; 0.001). Days with precipitation had, on average, 10 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with days without precipitation (95% CI = (&minus;16.704, &minus;3.259)). Higher temperatures and dry weather led to higher physical activity levels, seeing larger increases among boys than girls. A school-based physical activity intervention program should be adjusted regarding local weather conditions in line with the present findings.
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
  • Sports, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Sports in 2019

    • Authors: Sports Editorial Office Sports Editorial Office
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal&rsquo;s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...]
      Citation: Sports
      PubDate: 2020-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/sports8010010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2020)
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