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Perceptual and Motor Skills
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.349
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0031-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1558-688X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Preventive Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in First-Year
           University Students at Risk for Depression: A Non-Randomized Controlled
           Trial

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      Authors: Sayaka Ogawa, Masaki Hayashida, Jun Tayama, Tatsuo Saigo, Naoki Nakaya, Toshimasa Sone, Masakazu Kobayashi, Peter Bernick, Atsushi Takeoka, Susumu Shirabe
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      High scores on Harm Avoidance (HA) on Cloniger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) have been identified as a risk factor for depression. Group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) has been found effective in preventing depression and improving depressive symptoms among university students. However, no randomized controlled trials of GCBT have been conducted with university students with high HA. Although we initiated a randomized controlled trial in this study, some participants submitted incomplete questionnaires at baseline interfering with assured randomization; therefore, we report this study as a non-randomized controlled trial. We evaluated whether a GCBT intervention would be effective at reducing HA and, thereby, preventing depression in university students with high HA. We performed final analysis of data on 59 participants in the intervention group and 60 in a control group. We used scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as the primary outcome measure and analysis of covariance to assess group differences on mean BDI-II change scores before the intervention and at six months and one year after the intervention. The intervention group had lower BDI-II scores than the control group at six months after the intervention. GCBT may have facilitated cognitive modification in individuals with high HA, or GCBT may have fostered mutual modeling by group participants. Thus, GCBT may contribute to reducing depressive symptoms in university students with high HA, and associated risk for developing depression.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T02:51:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125231153778
       
  • Snowboard Landings from Different Heights: Electroencephalography Activity
           in Motor Preparation and Lower Limb Electromyography Changes

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      Authors: Bowen Ouyang, Jiaming Chen
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The neural strategies for movements of the lower extremities for landings from different landing heights in trained half-pipe snowboarders are not well known. We observed changes in brain activity as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) and lower limb muscle activity as measured by electromyography (EMG) in trained and untrained half-pipe snowboarders landing from different heights (30 and 60 cm). There were 12 trained male half-pipe snowboarders (HS) and 12 untrained participants (UP). We recorded EEG signals during motor preparation prior to dropping and EMG signals from right lateral rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscles during landings. Generally, theta power in the frontal cortex significantly increased in the preparation period compared to the resting state, while the alpha 1 and alpha 2 power values in central and parietal cortical areas decreased as dropping heights increased. Additionally, the HS group displayed greater magnitudes of change in power values in three frequency bands compared to the UP group. The HS group (relative to UP group) also showed higher normalized EMG amplitudes for RF and GL during contact, especially at 60 cm. The HS group (relative to the UP group) presented lower antagonist EMG activity and a higher GL/TA ratio at the 60 cm dropping height. Long-term specialized training might lead to greater neural modulation of predictive sensorimotor control and specific neuromuscular activation patterns during landing.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T08:22:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221148637
       
  • Using the Grooved Pegboard Test as an Embedded Validity Indicator in a
           Mixed Neuropsychiatric Sample with Varying Cognitive Impairment:
           Cross-Validation Problems

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      Authors: Fini Chang, Brian M. Cerny, Phoebe Ka Yin Tse, Andrew A. Rauch, Humza Khan, Matthew S. Phillips, Noah B. Fletcher, Zachary J. Resch, Gabriel P. Ovsiew, Kyle J. Jennette, Jason R. Soble
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Embedded validity indicators (EVIs) derived from motor tests have received less empirical attention than those derived from tests of other neuropsychological abilities, particularly memory. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPB) may function as an EVI, but existing studies were largely conducted using simulators and population samples without cognitive impairment. In this study we aimed to evaluate the GPB’s classification accuracy as an EVI among a mixed clinical neuropsychiatric sample with and without cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study comprised 223 patients clinically referred for neuropsychological testing. GPB raw and T-scores for both dominant and nondominant hands were examined as EVIs. A known-groups design, based on ≤1 failure on a battery of validated, independent criterion PVTs, showed that GPB performance differed significantly by validity group. Within the valid group, receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that only the dominant hand raw score displayed acceptable classification accuracy for detecting invalid performance (area under curve [AUC] = .72), with an optimal cut-score of ≥106 seconds (33% sensitivity/88% specificity). All other scores had marginally lower classification accuracy (AUCs = .65–.68) for differentiating valid from invalid performers. Therefore, the GPB demonstrated limited utility as an EVI in a clinical sample containing patients with bona fide cognitive impairment.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-12T07:24:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125231151779
       
  • The Mediation Role of Perceived Benefits and Barriers in the Relationship
           Between Support Provided by Significant Others and Physical Activity of
           Adolescents

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      Authors: Filipe Rodrigues, Diogo Monteiro, Vítor P. Lopes
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated whether the relationship between significant others’ social support and adolescents’ physical activity (PA) is mediated by perceived barriers and benefits of PA. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 497 adolescents (girls = 272, boys = 225) aged between 12-18 years (M = 15.87, SD = 1.43) from six different middle and secondary schools. We collected data regarding social cognitive variables and PA with self-report measures and calculated the metabolic equivalent of total amount PA. We performed structural equation modeling and mediation analyses and found our proposed models fit the data. In girls, perceived PA benefits mediated the association between support provided by friends (β = .13; IC 95% = .02 .29), a best friend (β = .14; IC 95% = .03, .33), and parents (β = .07; IC 95% = .01, .18), and PA. Similarly in boys, perceived PA benefits partially mediated the association between support provided by parents (β = .09; IC 95% = .04, .37), friends (β = .11; IC 95% = .05, .40), and a best friend (β = .10; IC 95% = .05, .40) and PA. Perceived barriers to PA did not display any significant mediation role for either sex. Interventions to foster others’ support for PA, especially from a best friend, are important for promoting PA among adolescents.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T03:26:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125231151780
       
  • Turkish Translation/Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Analyses of the
           Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale
           (AHEMD-IS)

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      Authors: Umut Apaydın, Rabia Eraslan, Aymen Balıkçı, Bülent Elbasan
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study we translated the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) into Turkish, adapted the instrument culturally, examined its psychometric properties within a Turkish population, and identified its limitations. We administered the AHEMD-IS to families of 65 premature or full-term Turkish infants and repeated this testing for 17 families after one-two weeks to establish test-retest reliability. We calculated the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach alpha coefficient to assess reliability, and we evaluated test validity using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient and correlations with the Bayley-III motor development score. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.846, and, for test-retest reliability, the ICC score was 0.830. The Turkish AHEMD-IS total score was moderately correlated with the Bayley-III fine motor development score (r = 0.469, p < 0.001), the Bayley-III gross motor development score (r = 0.533, p < 0.001), and the Bayley-III total motor development score (r = 0.526, p < 0.001). The Turkish version of the AHEMD-IS was found to be valid and reliable for children born prematurely or at full-term. The use of this questionnaire in Turkey will facilitate the creation of a home environment that will support motor development in children between 3-18 months of age.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-09T01:02:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221149343
       
  • The Effect of Mental and Muscular Fatigue on the Accuracy and Kinematics
           of Dart Throwing

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      Authors: Najmeh Parhiz Meymandi, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Alireza Farsi
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we analyzed the effect of mental and muscular fatigue on the accuracy and kinematics of dart throwing. For this purpose, 28 young adults (19 females and 9 males) aged 25–35 years, without any regular experience in dart throwing, participated in this study. We evaluated their dart throwing skills in mental fatigue, muscular fatigue, and non-fatigue conditions. To induce mental fatigue, we used the Stroop task for 70 minutes and a simulated dart throwing exercise with an elastic band. In all three conditions, we collected accuracy data, based on the score of the dart on the board and the kinematic properties with a motion capture device. For analyzing the data and testing the research hypotheses, we employed ANOVA analyses with repeated measures after examining the normality of data distributions using skewness and kurtosis. We observed a significant decrease in the accuracy of dart throwing following mental fatigue (p = 0.027) and muscular fatigue (p = 0.001) compared to non-fatigue and following muscular fatigue compared to mental fatigue (p = 0.001). In the kinematic results, we observed a significant difference in the mean velocity of the elbow between different experimental conditions (p = 0.001). This variable decreased due to muscular fatigue, compared to the other two conditions. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the three experimental conditions for the variables of elbow range of motion, shoulder range of motion, and mean velocity of the shoulder joint. These findings affirm mental and muscular fatigue effects on dart throwing and provide further detail regarding the specific aspects of these effects on dart throwing skills or other fine motor activities.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-06T11:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221146613
       
  • Multifractal Nonlinearity Moderates Feedforward and Feedback Responses to
           Suprapostural Perturbations

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      Authors: Damian G. Kelty-Stephen, Jinhyun Lee, Keith R. Cole, Richard K. Shields, Madhur Mangalam
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      An adaptive response to unexpected perturbations requires near-term and long-term adjustments over time. We used multifractal analysis to test how nonlinear interactions across timescales might support an adaptive response following an unpredictable perturbation. We reanalyzed torque data from 44 young and 24 older adults who performed a single-leg squat task challenged by an unexpected mechanical perturbation and a secondary visual-cognitive task. We report three findings: (a) multifractal nonlinearity interacted with pre-perturbation torque production and task error to presage greater pre-voluntary feedforward increases and greater voluntary reductions, respectively, in post-perturbation task error; (b) multifractal nonlinearity presaged relatively smaller task error than standard deviations of both pre-perturbation torques and pre-perturbation task error; and (c) increased task demand (e.g., age-related changes in dexterity and dual-task settings) led to multifractal nonlinearity presaging reduced task error. All these results were consistent with our expectations, except that a pre-perturbation knee torque-dependent increase in post-perturbation task error appeared later for older than for younger participants. This correlational multifractal modeling offered theoretical clarity on the possible roles of nonlinear interactions across timescales, moderating both feedforward and feedback processes, and presaging greater stability when the standard deviation is relatively large and task demands are strong. Thus, multifractal nonlinearity usefully describes movement variability even when paired with classical descriptors like the standard deviation. We discuss potential insights from these findings for understanding suprapostural dexterity and developing rehabilitative interventions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T05:44:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221149147
       
  • Student-Athlete Identity Variation Across the Undergraduate Period: A
           Mixed-Methods Study

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      Authors: Ricardo T. Quinaud, Kauana Possamai, Carlos E. Gonçalves, Humberto M. Carvalho
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the influence of individual and contextual characteristics on student-athlete identities and then explored identity variations across the undergraduate college years. Our main analysis relied on a quantitative study of a large sample of cross-sectional data (n = 862: females = 490, males = 372) with follow-up data for 102 participants. We also used qualitative semi-structured interviews within a small sub-sample (n = 4) who participated in international competitions to provide deeper insight into their identities across time. We used the Portuguese version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (BIMS) to explore student-athlete identities, and we examined the influence of sex, student-athlete status (based on institution documents), the participant’s competitive level in the sport, and the student athlete’s university type. We modelled response probability on BIMS items with multilevel ordinal regression in a cumulative model based on the Bayesian framework. For the follow-up in-depth qualitative interviews of four participants competing at the international level, we used thematic analysis, with two independent researchers generating thematic codes. We found a non-significant trend toward a decreased student-athlete identity across the undergraduate years. Participants' statements reflected their difficulty combining both aspects of the student-athlete identity, such that they tried to shift their identities, depending on the circumstances, while their athletic identity seemed to be privileged. Hence, participants had difficulty combining a dual academic-sport career within a context oriented toward academic achievement and transition to professional life. The higher education context was unprepared to support student-athletes toward a dual academic-sport career.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-05T05:33:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221150476
       
  • Relationship Between Mindfulness and Physical Activity in College
           Students: The Mediating Effect of Eudaimonic Well-Being

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      Authors: Zhanjia Zhang, Zhonghui He, Junwei Qian, Xin Qi, Jiajin Tong
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research has shown many benefits of mindfulness for physical and psychological health, including its link to such health behaviors as increased physical activity (PA). We re-examined the association between mindfulness and PA to better understand a possible mediating role of eudaimonic well-being in this association, while controlling for participants’ age, gender, and affect. We had 738 undergraduate student participants (45.0% females; M age = 19.58 years) complete measures of trait mindfulness, eudaimonic well-being, and PA, and we used age, gender, and affect as covariates in a single-wave assessment. We conducted this mediation analysis with a bootstrapping technique to produce 10,000 resamples. We replicated findings of a significant relationship between mindfulness and enhanced eudaimonic well-being (β = 0.474, p < 0.001), which in turn contributed to increased PA (β = 0.193, p < 0.001). The bootstrapping method indicated a significant indirect effect of eudaimonic well-being (β = 0.092, 95% CI = [0.043, 0.142]) in the relationship between mindfulness and PA through eudaimonic well-being. Thus, eudaimonic well-being may mediate the connection between mindfulness and PA. College administrators should consider incorporating mindfulness into health promotion programs as a means of enhancing college students’ well-being and health behaviors.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T03:23:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221149833
       
  • Aged Patients With Severe Small Vessel Disease Exhibit Poor Bimanual
           Coordination During the Anti-Phase Horizontal Line Drawing Task

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      Authors: Hóngyi Zhào, Hans-Leo Teulings, Cuiqiao Xia, Yonghua Huang
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The present study explores whether SVD affects bimanual coordination, which is easier to detect than by conventional, MRI-based methods. We tested nine severe SVD patients, eight non-severe (i.e., moderate or mild) SVD patients, eleven healthy age-matched controls, and eight young adults. They were grouped according to Fazekas scale and by age. Participants performed horizontal line drawings with both hands simultaneously on two pen tablets. The movements consisted of rhythmic patterns where participants used both hands to draw horizontal lines in anti-phase on two pen tablets. Each participant underwent a series of neuropsychiatric assessments. Results showed that SVD patients exhibited in each hand smaller horizontal movement amplitudes with variability larger compared to the healthy age-matched controls. Only movement amplitudes appeared to decrease significantly with severity of SVD. Interestingly, we found no relevant differences between the age-matched, elderly controls and the young controls. Therefore, this effect appeared indicative of SVD. The variability of the lines orthogonal to the horizontal lines of the left, non-dominant hand differed only between the severe SVD group and the other groups. Furthermore, partial correlations demonstrated that the mean horizontal movement amplitude of the left hand was positively associated with the clock drawing test score, and the inter-manual asynchrony of the horizontal movements was positively associated with the Trail Making Test-B time. These results indicated that SVD patients show poor bimanual coordination, as reflected by spatial features such as movement amplitudes and variabilities, and abnormal bimanual coordination was associated with executive dysfunction.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-23T12:15:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221146230
       
  • Green and Pleasant Lands: The Affective and Cerebral Hemodynamic Effects
           of Presence in Virtual Environments During Exercise

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      Authors: Leighton Jones, Jonathan Wheat
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Pleasant exercise experiences increase the likelihood of exercise adherence, and innovative strategies to promote consistently pleasant exercise experiences are needed. In this study we compared a novel nature-based virtual reality environment, a nature-based 360° video, and a control condition to test the hypothesis that greater presence in virtual space would promote positive affective experiences during exercise. Moreover, we assessed prefrontal cerebral hemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy to explore possible neural underpinnings of dissociative strategies during exercise. Twelve participants (M = 26.2, SD = 7.7 years; M BMI = 25.5, SD = 5.2 kg/m2) completed a maximal aerobic test and three exercise conditions (Control, Virtual Reality [VR], and 360° video). The two experimental conditions differed in terms of the participants’ sense of presence (VR eliciting greatest presence), and all conditions utilized similar exercise intensity. The VR condition setting was a virtual mountain forest trail, and the 360° video was of a forest road. The 360° video was perceived as the most distracting (p = .023, d = 1.07), pleasant (p = .007, d = .75), and enjoyable (p = .029; d = .82) condition. ΔHbDiff data indicated that the control condition caused the greatest prefrontal brain activation (p = .008, d = .84). Presence was not a salient factor in distracting participants from bodily sensations during exercise, but immersion in a stimulus was. These results provide support for using head-mounted displays during exercise as a strategy to increase pleasure, with practical implications for practitioners, researchers, and individuals.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-21T09:23:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221146614
       
  • Exploring Kinetic and Kinematic Finger Individuation Capability in
           Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

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      Authors: James V. McCall, Xiaogang Hu, Derek G. Kamper
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      While fine manual dexterity develops over time, the extent to which children show independent control of their digits in each hand and the impact of perinatal brain injury on this individuation have not been well quantified. Our goal in this study was to assess and compare finger force and movement individuation in 8–14 year old children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (hCP; n = 4) and their typically developing peers (TD; n = 10). We evaluated finger force individuation with five independent load cells and captured joint movement individuation with video tracking. We observed no significant differences in individuation indices between the dominant and non-dominant hands of TD children, but individuated force and movement were substantially reduced in the paretic versus non paretic hands of children with hCP (p < 0.001). In TD participants, the thumb tended to have the greatest level of independent control. This small sample of children with hCP showed substantial loss of individuation in the paretic hand and some deficits in the non-paretic hand, suggesting possible benefit from targeted training of digit independence in both hands for children with CP.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T05:30:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221145220
       
  • The Development and Validation of the English Writing Enjoyment Scale

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      Authors: Yinxing Jin
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To develop the English Writing Enjoyment Scale, I surveyed 30 Chinese-as-First-Language university students of English (Group 1) through a self-narrative inquiry that included but was not limited to psychological, motivational, behavioral, cognitive, and physiological factors. Using a grounded theory approach to analyzing the participants’ self-reports, I extracted 30 thematic categories. From the 11 categories that were most often endorsed, I developed the English Writing Enjoyment Scale and subjected it next to other psychometric analyses using three other groups of larger samples of university students. This included first a Principal Components Analysis (Group 2: n = 220) and then a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (Group 3: n = 357) that narrowed the instrument to 9-items with satisfactory internal reliability and construct validity. Finally, I conducted correlational analyses between this instrument and four other measures in and outside second language acquisition research (Group 4: n = 62). I discuss these findings and their implications and outline directions for further research.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-12T03:52:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221137649
       
  • Gait Variability Relates to Prosocial, Emotional and Risk-Taking Behavior
           in Typically Developing Children

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      Authors: Stephanie Klupp, Alexander Grob, Wenke Möhring
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Motor skills enable multi-facetted interactions with the environment and allow children to develop social skills and respond appropriately to situational social demands when interacting with peers and adults. Previous research with clinical samples (e.g., children diagnosed with Developmental Coordination Disorder) showed that children’s motor skills are closely linked to their psychosocial behavior (e.g., prosocial, hyperactive, inattentive, interpersonal), but studies with typically developing children are rare. We sought to fill this research gap by examining relationships between gait variability as an indicator of motor skills and prosocial behavior, problem behavior, and risk-taking behavior in typically developing children. Participants were a large cross-section of 7-13-year-olds (N = 221). They were asked to walk normally across an electronic pathway (GAITRite). We assessed their gait variability (i.e., stride time, stride length and stride velocity). Their parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire that assessed their child’s prosocial behavior, hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, and any conduct or peer relationship problems. Parents also provided information on an adapted scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire assessing risk-taking behavior. We used multilevel modeling to account for individual interdependence and to analyze the maximum number of strides for each participant. Children with greater stride length variability and velocity showed significantly less prosocial behavior, had more emotional symptoms and demonstrated less risk-taking behavior. Stride time variability was not significantly related to any variables. These results align with past findings that gait is sensitive to motor skill differences, and they extend past findings of these associations between gait and facets of intra- and interpersonal characteristics among children within clinical disorders to typically developing children.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-07T12:01:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221143966
       
  • The Effects of Listening to Non-preferred or Self-Selected Music during
           Short-Term Maximal Exercise at Varied Times of Day

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      Authors: Emna Bentouati, Mohamed Romdhani, Syrine Khemila, Hamdi Chtourou, Nizar Souissi
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this investigation, we examined the effects of listening to non-preferred (neutral) or self-selected motivational music while warming-up for the Wingate test at varied times of day. Participants were 10 male physical education students who were randomly assigned in a counterbalanced order to perform the Wingate test after a 10-minute warm-up with (a) self-selected motivational music (WUMM), (b) non-preferred music (WUNPM) or (c) no music (WUWM) at morning (0700) or afternoon (1700) times of day. We measured their peak powers (PP) and mean powers (MP) during the Wingate test, and we measured their ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) immediately after each of the warm-up and Wingate performances. PP and MP were higher in the afternoon, compared to the morning for all conditions. Both WUNPM and WUMM conditions were associated with enhanced PP in the morning (WUNPM: p < 0.001, d = 1.82; WUMM: p < 0.001, d = 2.59) and in the afternoon (WUNPM: p < 0.001, d = 1.24; WUMM: p < 0.01, d = 1.76) compared to WUWM, with greater enhancements after WUMM (0700: p < 0.05, d = 0.77; 1700: p < 0.05, d = 0.81) than after WUNPM. After the Wingate test, participants reported lower RPE scores for the WUMM condition, compared to either the WUWM condition (0700: p < 0.001, d = 0.20; 1700: p < 0.001, d = 0.84) or the WUNPM condition (0700: p < 0.01, d = 0.10; 1700: p < 0.05, d = 0.79). Thus, a warm-up with self-selected motivational music improved muscle power and decreased perceived exertion at both time points, with greater improvements at the morning hour (0700).
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T09:12:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221142662
       
  • Tactile and Auditory Stimuli Can Improve the Specific Physical Performance
           of Para-Judo Athletes With Varied Origins of Visual Impairment

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      Authors: Rafael Lima Kons, Jacqueline Martins Patatas, Emerson Franchini, Jaime Roberto Bragança, Daniele Detanico
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim in this study was to compare performance adaptations based on tactile or sonorous stimuli in para-judo athletes with congenital or acquired visual impairment. Twenty judo athletes with a type of visual impairment performed both the adapted Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) with tactile and sonorous stimuli and the standard SJFT. We used two-way ANOVA with repeated measurements in the second factor to compare the SJFT performance of athletes with visual impairment between two groups (acquired or congenital) in the two test situations, with the level of significance set at p < .05. Both groups of participants performed better on the adapted SJFT with tactile and sonorous stimuli compared to the standard condition on number of throws (p = .029 and p < .001) and showed lower final and post 1-minute heart rates (HR) (p < .05). There were no group differences in performance on any SJFT adaptations (p> .05). Thus, both SJFT adaptations (tactile and sonorous stimuli) enhanced the judo-specific performance of athletes with both acquired and congenital visual impairments. However, athletes with either origin of impairment showed a better HR in the adaptive tactile stimuli testing compared to the standard SJFT testing condition.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-12-02T06:58:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221143256
       
  • Turkish Adaptation of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines
           Scale: Validity and Reliability Among Children with Dyslexia

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      Authors: Gokcen Akyurek, Ayşegül Efe, Gonca Bumin
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the present study was to provide a Turkish cultural adaptation (EFORTS-T) of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines Scale (EFORTS) and to investigate its psychometric quality in children with dyslexia. We culturally adapted the original English version of this instrument with internationally suggested methods. Participants included the mothers of either randomly selected children with dyslexia (study group, n = 158) or age and sex-matched typically developing children (control group, n = 167). These participants completed a demographic form, the EFORTS-T, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parent form (BRIEF-P). For internal consistency, the alpha coefficient of the new instrument was excellent (.93), and it showed satisfactory test-retest reliability over a 14-day interval (.91). The criterion-related validity between the EFORTS-T and the BRIEF-P was moderate (.73). Fit indices of the model supported its factor structure. In conclusion, our findings support the validity and reliability of the new Turkish version of EFORTS for evaluating EF and contributing to the daily occupational routines of children with dyslexia for Turkish respondents. Further studies are needed to apply this instrument to children of different age groups and psychiatric conditions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-29T06:27:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221142650
       
  • The Influence of Active and Passive Motion Experience on Infants’
           Visual Prediction Ability

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      Authors: Gloria Gehb, Bianca Jovanovic, Amanda Kelch, Gudrun Schwarzer
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study we examined whether infants' visual prediction abilities were related to different types of motion experiences. We tested 30 6-month-old infants on a visual-spatial prediction task in which they had to visually anticipate the locational reappearance of temporarily occluded moving objects. We assigned infants to one of three experience groups: active locomotion training, passive motion experience, and a no-training control group. We tested the infants’ visual prediction abilities before and after these trainings. We found improved infant predictions at a post-training test only for passively trained infants (p = .015, d = −1.033; Bonferroni corrected). Thus, we conclude that infants’ visual-spatial predictions of temporally occluded moving objects was facilitated by mere movement experience, even if passive. Visual information gathered during even passive movement seemed sufficient for visual prediction.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T08:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221137949
       
  • The Inhibition of Return of Sanda Athletes in Three Dimensional Static and
           Dynamic Scenes

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      Authors: Yanyan Liu, Yu Zhang, Yue Qin, Xianyun Hou, Qichao Zhao, Jie Li
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Sanda is a combat sport in which athletes adopt offensive and defensive techniques for barehanded confrontations. Inhibition of return (IOR) describes a phenomenon in which an individual’s response time to a target appearing at a previously cued location is slower than to a target appearing at an un-cued location. Because Sanda requires attention skills and fast response times in dynamic situations, a good understanding of IOR among Sanda athletes is important for enhancing their performance. We recruited 180 research participants for a 3-part study — 90 Sanda athletes (age M = 21.56, SD = 2.68; 52 males, 38 females) and 90 college student controls (age M = 21.64, SD = 2.40; 45 males, 45 females). We used the IOR paradigm with virtual reality technology to explore Sanda athletes’ IOR in three experimental conditions: three-dimensional (3-D) static, dynamic, and mixed. There was a robust IOR effect in the 3-D static scenario, with the IOR effect larger among Sanda athletes than controls. There were different IOR spread patterns between Sanda athletes and controls, and the IOR effect was weaker or absent when the objects moved. There was a speed advantage for Sanda athletes once a static object started moving. In conclusion, the Sanda athletes’ faster response times and more fine-graded IOR in 3-D environments may benefit their visual search in combat, and the reference of the static location may be critical for the IOR effect.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-10T07:17:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221139001
       
  • How Do Looming and Receding Emotional Faces Modulate Duration
           Perception'

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      Authors: Yeji Min, Sung-Ho Kim
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The direction of visual motion has been shown to affect the perception of interval duration; objects moving towards an observer (i.e., looming) are perceived to last longer than objects moving away (i.e., receding), and this has been explained in terms of arousal- or attention-based modulation. To dissociate the two competing accounts, we investigated how the influence of motion direction on duration perception is modulated by the emotional content of stimuli. Participants were given the temporal bisection task with images of emotional faces (angry, happy, and neutral) presented in a static (Experiment 1) or dynamic (Experiment 2) display. In Experiment 1, we found no influence of facial emotion on perceived duration. In Experiment 2, however, looming (i.e., expanding) stimuli were perceived as lasting longer than receding (contracting) ones. More importantly, we found an interaction between participant-rated arousal to faces and motion direction: The looming/receding asymmetry was pronounced when the stimulus arousal was rated low, but this asymmetry diminished with increasing arousal ratings. Thus, looming/receding temporal asymmetry seems to be reduced when arousing facial expressions enhance attentional engagement.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-10T05:14:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221138394
       
  • Age and Gender Differences in Achievement Goal Orientations in Relation to
           Physical Activity

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      Authors: Jianmin Guan, Ping Xiang, William Land, Xiaofen D Hamilton
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim in the study was to examine age and gender differences in achievement goal orientations and their impact on self-reported persistence toward physical activities of middle school, high school, and college students. A total of 1254 students from four middle schools, two high schools, and one university participated in this study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, as a continuous variable, had a significant and positive effect on students’ mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals, mastery-avoidance goals, and their persistence toward physical activities. In contrast, the endorsement of performance-avoidance goals was negatively related to students’ age. However, no significant gender differences or age-by-gender interactions were found for the four achievement goals. These findings suggest that future investigators should consider age (vs. grade) when examining maturational differences in young people’s achievement goal orientation in physical activity settings.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T08:36:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221139000
       
  • Sex Does Not Sell: The Effect of Sexual Content on Advertisement
           Effectiveness and Interference with Memory for Program Information

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      Authors: Roberta-Maria Ciuvat, Adrian Furnham, Alastair McClelland
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Does increasing the sexual content of advertisements lead, though memory processes, to greater sales' By employing a between-participants design, we aimed to explore how sexual advertising affects explicit and implicit memory, and whether it impairs memory for information preceding the commercials (retroactive interference) or following the commercials (proactive interference). We randomly assigned 182 young participants in the UK to one of two groups who watched the same TV program containing an advertisement break during which either sexual or nonsexual advertisements were shown, while brands were held constant across conditions. Participants were then tested on their explicit and implicit memory for both the advertising content and program information. Results revealed that implicit memory was better for nonsexual than for sexual advertisements. Unexpectedly, there was no group difference in participants’ explicit memory for the advertisements. Further, sexual advertising resulted in retroactive interference with program information, whereas proactive memory for program information was not impaired. We acknowledge various study limitations and discuss proposals for future research.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T01:05:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221138395
       
  • Body Weight Dissatisfaction and Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

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      Authors: Leticia Gonçalves, Suellem Zanlorenci, Leandro Lima Borges, Tiago Rodrigues de Lima, Diego Augusto Santos Silva
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Body weight dissatisfaction has been described as a marker for various health diseases, given its direct association with social, physical, and emotional suffering. We investigated the association between body weight dissatisfaction and health risk behaviors in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 668 adolescents aged 14–19 years in the city of São José, southern Brazil. Body weight satisfaction/dissatisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire validated for the investigated population. Health risk behaviors included smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs, medication, non-prescription anabolic steroids, not using seatbelt, unsafe sexual behavior and not knowing how to deal with day-to-day stress. Among males, 66.1% were dissatisfied with their body weight (32.1% due to thinness and 34.0% due to overweight). Among females, 80.0% were dissatisfied with their body weight (24.5% due to thinness and 55.5% due to overweight). There were no significant differences regarding health risk behaviors according to body weight satisfaction/dissatisfaction and sex. Compared to males who were satisfied with their body weight, those who were dissatisfied due to being overweight were more likely to be using tobacco (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.1–4.2), alcohol (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.5–1.9) and anabolic steroids (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–5.7). Compared to females who were satisfied with their body weight, those who were dissatisfied due to thinness were more likely to be consuming alcoholic beverages (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0) and less likely to be consuming illicit drugs (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8). Interventions aimed at health education regarding the non-adoption of risk behaviors such as alcohol and tobacco use, as well as the non-use of anabolic steroids, and favoring the maintenance of general health, may be important for adolescents with body dissatisfaction. These data suggest that health risk behaviors such as adolescent male use of tobacco, alcohol, and anabolic steroids and the use of alcohol and drugs by female adolescents can be related to body weight dissatisfaction.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T08:30:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221137678
       
  • Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the KIDSCREEN-27 for
           Individuals With Cerebral Palsy

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      Authors: Hasan Bingol, Mintaze Kerem Gunel, Sinem Asena Sel, Eda Burc, Hande Fidan
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aims in this study were to examine the construct/concurrent validity and internal/test-re-test reliabilities of both the self-report and parent-report questionnaires of a Turkish version of the KIDSCREEN-27 for adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). We used a convenience sample of 135 children and adolescents with CP aged 8–18 years (65 males, 70 females; M age = 12.39, SD = 3.57) and their parents/caregivers (123 mothers, seven fathers, and five grandmothers). We explored structural construct validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Concurrent validity was examined via Spearman’s correlations between the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaires and the self-report and primary caregiver report forms of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CP QOL-Child) and adolescents (CP QOL-Teen). We explored test-retest and internal consistency reliabilities utilizing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha (α), respectively. CFA goodness-of fit indices verified that the predefined model of the KIDSCREEN-27 was a good fit for data from the CP population (X2/df0.90, AGFI>0.90, RMSEA0.70). Both versions of the KIDSCREEN-27 have satisfactory psychometric properties for use in evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in children and adolescents with CP.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T06:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221136947
       
  • Motor Competence Among Irish Adolescents: An Investigation of Sex
           Differences and Relatedness Between Fundamental Movement Skills and
           Functional Movement

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      Authors: Conor Philpott, Brian Donovan, Sarahjane Belton, Diarmuid Lester, Fiona Chambers, Wesley O’Brien
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In prior research, Irish youth displayed poor motor competence across fundamental movement skills (FMS) and functional movements (FM). Our purpose in this study was to compare FMS and FM across male and female Irish adolescents and to determine whether there are associations between these movement domains. We collected data on 373 adolescents (178 females; M age = 14.38, SD = 0.87 years) from six Irish secondary schools, including motor competence testing of 10 FMS, and 7 FM. Overall levels of motor competence of both FMS and FM were low, and certain levels of dysfunctional movement were high. We observed significant sex-based differences in both FMS and FM, and there was a moderate association between FMS and FM that warrants further investigation. There is a need for societal intervention and policy changes to address low levels of motor competence among adolescent youth.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T09:30:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221137182
       
  • Another Look at Fatigued Individuals with and without Chronic Ankle
           Instability: Posturography and Proprioception

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      Authors: Nili Steinberg, Gal Elias, Aviva Zeev, Jeremy Witchalls, Gordon Waddington
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Fatigue can impair function of the three sensory systems (vestibular, visual, and somatosensory) that control postural balance. Yet impairment may be greater among individuals with than those without chronic ankle instability (CAI). The present study used posturography assessment to extend previous findings demonstrating reduced function of the three systems in CAI participants following fatigue. Our aim in this study was to examine the influence of anaerobic and aerobic protocols on the function of these three sensory systems in individuals with and without CAI. We assessed 60 healthy physical education students (Mage = 24.3, SD = 3.4) by a Tetrax® Posturography device for Stability-Index and Fourier-frequencies [low sway (F1) visual input, medium-low sway (F2–F4) vestibular input, medium–high sway (F5–F6) somatosensory input] and by the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Assessment (AMEDA) for active ankle somatosensory ability, before and after performing anaerobic or aerobic protocols. Among participants, 45% were identified with CAI. We found significant Time effect (pre-post), CAI effect, and CAI X Time interactions for Fourier frequencies, Stability-Index, and AMEDA scores, indicating greater pre-post deterioration for those with CAI compared to those without CAI (p < .05). CI (95%) showed that, although there was a Time effect for F1, F2–F4, and F5–F6, only F5–F6 frequencies (i.e., somatosensory input) showed the CAI effect and the Time X CAI interaction. Thus, participants with and without CAI showed reduced visual, vestibular, and somatosensory ability following fatigue. While we found greater deterioration in both passive and active somatosensory ability (F5-6 and AMEDA) among individuals with CAI compared with those with no-CAI, we recommend intervention programs for improving vestibular abilities following fatigue in both those with and without CAI.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-29T03:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221134153
       
  • Ghost Fat: Altered Female Body Perception After Bariatric Surgery

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      Authors: André Luiz L. Souza, Perciliany M. de Souza, Bruna E. F. Mota, Christian L. F. Xavier, Fernando G. Santiago, Juliano S. Oliveira, Samir A. Borges, Eduardo Bearzoti, Eliane F. Gama, Gabriela G. L. Souza
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Body perception is an individual’s ability to recognize their body in attitudinal and/or dimensional aspects. We investigated women’s body perceptions before and after bariatric surgery. Participants were 31 women (M age = 36.23, SD = 7.95 years old) with an average pre-operative body mass index of 44.58 (SD = 4.65) kg/m2. We collected anthropometric and body perception measures (attitudinal body image [ABI] and dimensional body image [DBI]) before bariatric surgery and 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after it. There was an average decrease of 21.09% in participants’ body weight over the 120 days. Regarding ABI, 51.61% of participants had high body dissatisfaction before surgery, and this proportion of dissatisfied participants decreased to 3.23% 120 days after surgery. We observed no statistically significant differences in DBI perceptions. Fast weight loss caused by bariatric surgery appeared to generate a perception of ghost fat. Somatosensory interventions and/or a longer follow-up are needed to alter this persistent distortion of body dimensions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-28T10:26:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221133868
       
  • Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire in Sport: Psychometric Analysis With
           Romanian Professional Athletes

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      Authors: Dan Iulian Alexe, Buzoianu Cristina Cîrtiţă, Dragos Ioan Tohănean, Alin Larion, Cristina Ioana Alexe, Paul Dragos, Rafael Burgueño
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Building upon self-determination theory, our objective in this research was to adapt and analyze psychometrically the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ) in sport. Our participants were 642 professional athletes (55.14% men, Mage = 22.81) who completed an online survey measuring their perception of coaching behaviors, need satisfaction, need frustration, and motivation. The results showed a good fit for the 24-item IBQ with a six-factor correlated model (χ2/df = 4.178; CFI = .925; TLI = .912; SRMR = .048; RMSEA = .070), and we obtained evidence supporting its convergent and discriminant validity. The analyses also underpinned measurement invariance across gender, age, and sport, and confirmed good reliability. Criterion validity was met by positive associations of autonomy-supportive, competence-supportive, and relatedness-supportive behaviors with need satisfaction and autonomous motivation; and of autonomy-thwarting, competence-thwarting and relatedness-thwarting behaviors with need frustration, controlled motivation and amotivation. The adapted IBQ can be applied to the assessment of professional Romanian athletes’ perceptions of need-supportive and need-thwarting coaching behaviors.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-22T10:25:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221135669
       
  • Psychometric Support for a Japanese Version of the Sport Imagery Ability
           Questionnaire

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      Authors: Seung-Min Lee, Hiroyuki Horino
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this two-part study, we addressed psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ-J). We analyzed the SIAQ-J factor structure, assessed gender, competitive level, sport type and years of experience differences on the SIAQ-J, and we investigated whether the SIAQ-J was predicted by goal clarity. In Study 1, we translated the original SIAQ (15 items) into Japanese and performed an exploratory factor analysis (n = 366). In Study 2 (n = 422), we verified the measurement model established in Study 1 with exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Study 1 found five exploratory factors—skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery imagery—and these were confirmed through the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted in Study 2. Structural equation modelling supported a model wherein goal clarity positively predicted all SIAQ-J subscales. This study provided additional validation of the original SIAQ. Overall, the SIAQ-J demonstrated good factorial validity, temporal reliability and gender invariance and discriminated among athletes of different competitive levels and years of experience.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-15T04:20:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221134314
       
  • Time-of-Day Effect on Postural Balance and Its Associations with
           Menopausal Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

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      Authors: Mariam Lahiani, Fatma Ben Waer, Fatma Bouchaala, Rabeb Laatar, Haithem Rebai, Sonia Sahli
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Postmenopausal women suffer from postural balance issues. During a 24-hour time span, postural performance undergoes radical changes as influenced by the circadian rhythm. In this study, we aimed to investigate time-of-day effects on postural balance in postmenopausal women and balance relationships with menopausal symptoms. Two groups of women, aged 40–50 years, participated in this study: a menopausal group and a control group. We evaluated their postural balance and menopausal symptoms (mood, sleepiness and fatigue) in five sessions over the course of a day: at 06:00 hours, at 10:00, at 14:00, at 18:00 and at 22:00. The results showed that postural balance (center of pressure area (CoParea)) values of postmenopausal women were significantly worse (p < .05) at 22:00. Moreover, at this time-of-day, participants in the menopausal group were more tired, less vigilant and experienced a lower mood. We found negative correlations between postural balance and both mood and fatigue levels. However, there was no time-of-day effect on postural balance, mood, fatigue, and sleepiness among participants in the control group. Thus, time-of-day should be considered a factor to control when assessing postural balance and designing intervention studies for postmenopausal women; and it is important for these women to be cautious of fall risks at night, as they are then less stable than at other times-of-day.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-14T05:03:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221133599
       
  • Dynamic Visual Acuity After Small Incision Lenticule Extraction for Myopia
           Patients

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      Authors: Yuexin Wang, Yining Guo, Shanshan Wei, Tingyi Wu, Yifei Yuan, Yu Zhang, Xuemin Li, Yueguo Chen
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study we compared dynamic visual acuity (DVA) of 84 eyes (for 42 adults with myopia; M age = 28.4, SD = 6.6 years; males = 38.1%, females = 61.9%) at 40 and 80 degree per second (dps) before surgery with eyeglass corrections and after a surgical procedure – a small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Participants underwent binocular SMILE surgery with plano refraction targets. Their eyeglass-corrected binocular DVA at 40 and 80 dps was evaluated preoperatively, and their uncorrected binocular DVA was assessed post-operatively at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. The mean logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities (UDVA and CDVA) were −0.09 and −0.11 respectively, 3 months postoperatively. The mean preoperative eyeglass-corrected DVAs at 40 and 80 dps were 0.141 and 0.184, respectively, and significant improvements were observed for 40 dps and 80 dps DVAs 3 months postoperatively. Pearson’s correlations were statistically significant between the postoperative DVAs at 3 months and for both the preoperative DVA and postoperative UDVA at both 40 dps and 80 dps. The change in the DVAs at 3 months were significantly associated with the preoperative DVAs at 40 dps and 80 dps. In conclusion, myopic patients’ DVAs significantly improved following SMILE in comparison to corrected preoperative visual acuity when wearing eyeglasses. The post-SMILE DVA was associated with both the preoperative DVA and the postoperative UDVA.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T07:14:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221133434
       
  • The Relative Age Effect in Male and Female Brazilian Elite Volleyball
           Athletes of Varied Competitive Levels

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      Authors: Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Gustavo De Conti Teixeira Costa, Sérgio Adriano Gomes, Rubens Venditti Júnior, Ivan Wallan Tertuliano, Vivian de Oliveira, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Lorenzo Laporta, Lucas Savassi Figueiredo
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Volleyball is a popular sport in Brazil, and the relative age effect (RAE) is known to occur within it; but less is known of how RAE relates to elite Brazilian volleyball players’ age, sex, and competitive levels. We aimed to investigate RAE prevalence with data from two seasons of play among players in the Superliga A (2020/2021 and 2021/2022 seasons), and Superliga B (2021 and 2022 seasons) made available from the Brazilian Volleyball Confederation (CBV), the club’s official website, or direct consultation with the CBV. After removing duplicate data, we grouped these 1,063 athletes by their dates of birth, sex, and competition level (Superliga A or B). We divided players’ birth dates into quarters (Q1: January-March, Q2: April-June, Q3: July-September and Q4: October-December) and into semesters, and we performed chi-square (χ2) tests to investigate RAE prevalence according to the players’ sex and competitive level. RAE was prevalent overall (χ2 = 33.198; p < .001), among males (χ2 = 24.48; p < .001) and females (χ2 = 11.23; p < .011). Regarding competition level, RAE was evident among males in both Superliga A (χ2 = 14.581; p = 0.002), and B (χ2 = 13.985; p = 0.003), and among females in Superliga B (χ2 = 9.204; p = 0.027), but not Superliga A (χ2 = 4.012; p = 0.26). Thus, the RAE phenomenon operated differently for male and female Brazilian volleyball players according to their competitive level. We discuss the implications of these findings.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T04:14:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221134316
       
  • Biopsychosocial Factors Related to Postural Sway During Sit-to-Stand
           Movement in Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional
           Study

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      Authors: Maria Fernanda Pauletti Oliveira, Camila Resende Gâmbaro Lima, Silvia Letícia Pavão, Gisele Moreira Pena, Bruna Romão da Silva, Ana Carolina de Campos, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated factors related to postural sway during sit-to-stand movement in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Our assessment of participants followed the biopsychosocial model. Body function and structure were represented by muscle strength and postural sway during sit-to-stand movement, which were assessed by manual muscle testing and kinetics analysis, respectively. The Gross Motor Function Measure and Pediatric Balance Scale depicted the activity component. In addition, we included these relevant contextual factors: age, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment, family income, and maternal schooling. A correlation analysis verified a suspected association between biopsychosocial and postural sway variables. There were significant separated correlations between postural sway in the three phases of the sit-to-stand movement, and age, GMFM-88 dimension D, and muscle strength. Thus, postural control in sit-to-stand movement was related to biopsychosocial factors involving different life aspects of children and adolescents with DS, and these factors should be addressed in rehabilitation therapy intended to improve postural control among these individuals.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-12T07:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221133432
       
  • In-Vehicle Interaction Systems, Eye Movements, and Safety

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      Authors: Sanjram Premjit Khanganba, Sajad Ahmad Najar
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In-vehicle interactive systems are widely used in modern vehicles. While these systems serve various purposes, they are also potential distracters for drivers. In this study we investigated the effect of in-vehicle spatial distractions on driving errors and driver gaze behavior by developing an experimental paradigm named, “Direction Following in Distracted Driving – Spatial: Simultaneous and Sequential (D3-SSS).” Twenty-seven drivers voluntarily participated and were required to drive an instrumented vehicle on a two-lane test-track, following directions shown on direction signboards. While driving, drivers were required to respond to in-vehicle spatial distracting stimuli presented to them through a monitor attached to the dashboard. The drivers were randomly assigned to in-vehicle spatial-simultaneous and spatial-sequential distraction conditions. Our results demonstrated that, in comparison with spatial-sequential distractions, there were shorter eye fixation durations and fewer eye fixation counts on areas of interest (AOIs) during spatial-simultaneous distractions. We also found that drivers committed more driving errors during in-vehicle spatial-simultaneous distractions than when these were not occurring. In conclusion, drivers committed more slips than lapses, and spatial-simultaneous distraction was more detrimental to driving performance than was spatial-sequential distraction.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T01:44:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221132086
       
  • Adolescents’ Flexibility Can Affect Motor Competence: The Pathway from
           Health Related Physical Fitness to Motor Competence

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      Authors: Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Lisa M. Barnett
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Motor competence has been shown to predict health-related physical fitness (HRPF) components in youth, but there is indeterminate evidence for the reverse path. Even less is known about the specific relationship between motor competence and flexibility. Our aims in this study were to analyze the relationship between flexibility and motor competence among adolescents; and, secondarily, to examine the relationships between motor competence and other HRPF components (body composition and musculoskeletal fitness). We conducted a longitudinal study (14-months follow-up) with two measurement points of 128 participants (55.5% girls; 45% boys) aged 12–13 years at baseline. We assessed HRPF components at the first time point and determined motor competence at the second time point. We assessed HRPF in terms of body composition (body fat percentage), musculoskeletal fitness (sit-up test), and flexibility (sit and reach). We determined motor competence using the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK). We employed multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) to examine the effect of HRPF on motor competence through three models, in which each HRPF component was considered an independent variable. Sex, age, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) z-scores were considered confounders. In our crude models all HRPF components significantly affected motor competence. In adjusted models, flexibility (p = .002) and body composition (p < .001) significantly affected motor competence. Overall, these results supported the assumptions that HRPF components are related to motor competence in adolescence, and that flexibility can affect motor competence in young people.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T04:07:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221128638
       
  • Effects of Music Listening on Postural Balance in Adolescents with Visual
           Impairment

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      Authors: Hana Maatoug, Rym Baccouch, Rihab Borji, Haithem Rebai, Sonia Sahli
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We aimed to investigate the effect of music on visually impaired adolescents’ postural balance across different somatosensory and vestibular input conditions. We recruited 19 adolescent participants (9 males, 10 females) with severe congenital visual impairment. We recorded their mean center of pressure velocity (CoPVm) during static upright bipedal standing under somatosensory (firm and foam surfaces) and vestibular (head facing forward (HFF), head rotated 90° to the right (HRR), and head rotated 90° to the left (HRL)) perturbations in three auditory conditions (no-music, listening to Jupiter, and listening to their preferred music). We found that CoPVm decreased significantly when listening to both Jupiter and preferred music, compared to the no-music condition on both firm (p < .05) and foam (p < .001) surfaces and with the HFF (p < .05), rotated to the right (p < .001) or rotated to the left (p < .001). Moreover, CoPVm values increased significantly with somatosensory manipulation (p < .001) in all the auditory conditions and with vestibular manipulation (p < .01) only in the no-music condition. We concluded that listening to both Jupiter and preferred music improved postural balance in visually impaired adolescents, even in challenged postural conditions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T06:03:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221130548
       
  • “Feeling Good” After Exercise During a Weight Loss Program: Subjective
           Well-Being in Support of a Hedonic Paradigm

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      Authors: Bonnie G. Berger, Lynn A. Darby, David R. Owen, Robert A. Carels
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      A large portion of the U.S. population desires to lose weight, but only a small portion maintains a desirable body weight. We examined weight loss success and the psychological benefits of exercise among men and women who were obese and initially sedentary (N = 33). These participants completed anthropometric assessments and psychological inventories before and after graded exercise tests (GXTs) at the beginning and end of their enrollment in a 6-month behavioral weight loss program (BWLP). Participants significantly decreased their body weight, body mass index (BMI), and % body fat; they also increased their aerobic capacity and exercise time. They reported long-term increases in their stage of change, self-efficacy, exercise enjoyment and processes of change. They also reported immediate changes toward more positive affect, as measured with pre-to post-GXTs on both the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State Anxiety Subscale (A-State) at the beginning and again at end of the BWLP. Mood benefits were reported on the POMS subscales of Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, and Confusion. At the end of the BWLP, Fatigue and Confusion continued to improve after a 20-min post-GXT recovery period. Finally, reductions in Depression and Fatigue after the first GXT were correlated with program success, as indicated by decreases in BMI, percent body fat, and body weight. Initial scores on trait enjoyment were associated with decreased BMI and body weight. Psychological benefits of exercise may help individuals who are obese and sedentary change their behavior and exercise perceptions from something they “should do” to something they “want to do.” Feeling good during weight loss efforts is an important pathway to change and should be an explicit component goal of BWLPs.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-30T04:10:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221130444
       
  • Evaluation of Predictive Motor Control With Two Touchscreen Tablet-Based
           Tests: Reliability and Validity in School-Aged Children

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      Authors: Rudolf Psotta, Daniel Dostál, Javad Sarvestan, David Prycl, Ondřej Kašpar, Ivana Křížová
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      As predictive motor control is an important index of neuromotor development and maturation, we developed two touchscreen tablet-based tests of this function. Our aim was to investigate the reliability and validity of both a rapid manual interception test and a pursuit tracking test, using a sample of 124 children (62 boys and 62 girls) from two age groups (7-8-year-oldss and 9–10-year-olds). Participants performed both tablet tests with a stylus (sample rate 100 Hz) with both a visible and a temporarily invisible moving target. Confirmatory factor analyses and omega coefficients showed that both tests were univariate methods that provided a reliable assessment of the latent factor related to predictive visuomotor control. As would be expected, compared to younger children, older children performed better on both manual interception and pursuit tracking. The correlations between the latent factors of the two tests at 95% confidence intervals (−.276, −.608) suggested shared variance. Thus, the touchscreen-tablet based tests of rapid manual interception and manual pursuit tracking appear psychometrically suitable for assessing the neuromotor ability of predictive control in 7-10-year-old children.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T03:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221130815
       
  • New Methods for Unraveling Imitation Accuracy Differences Between Children
           with Autism and Typically Developing Peers

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      Authors: Laura Sparaci, Domenico Formica, Francesca Romana Lasorsa, Luigi Raiano, Paola Venuti, Olga Capirci
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      This study applies methods used in sign language and gesture research to better understand reduced imitation accuracy (IA) of actions and gestures in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and we addressed contrasting theories on IA in ASD and the role of objects and meanings in imitation. Eight male children with ASD with a mean chronological age (CA) of 86.76 months (SD = 10.74, range 70.5–104.4) and 22 male and female peers with typical development (TD) and a mean CA of 85.44 months (SD = 7.95, range 73.4–96.7) imitated videos of an adult performing actions with objects, representational gestures, conventional gestures and meaningless gestures. We measured accuracy as ability to effectively reproduce features (handshape, palm orientation, location, movement direction and type) and timing (speed) of observed actions/gestures, after ruling out cases of specular (i.e., mirror-like) versus anatomical imitation. Results highlighted significantly lower feature and timing accuracy in children with ASD with respect to the TD group across tasks, and these findings supported sensory-motor theories of IA in ASD. Our data also showed the different impact of objects and meanings within groups. Overall, these results suggest validity to our assessment method and suggested the importance of considering both discreet variables (i.e., variables describing action/gesture feature accuracy, e.g. handshape, movement direction) and continuous variables (i.e., kinematic variables, e.g. speed) in evaluating IA in autism.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T05:53:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221126215
       
  • Pupil Dilation Reflects Emotional Arousal Via Poetic Language

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      Authors: Keiyu Niikuni, Ming Wang, Michiru Makuuchi, Masatoshi Koizumi, Sachiko Kiyama
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated pupillary responses to the world’s shortest fixed verses, Japanese haiku as aesthetic poetry (AP) and senryu as comic poetry (CP), in comparison with non-poetry control stimuli (NP) comprised of slogans that had the same rhythm patterns. Native Japanese speakers without literary training listened to these stimuli while we recorded their pupil diameters. We found that participants’ pupils were significantly dilated for CP compared to NP in an early time window. While AP also evoked larger dilations than NP, the latency for AP-related pupil dilation was relatively long. Thus, lay people experience quick and intense arousal in response to funny and humorous words, while aesthetic properties of words may also elicit intense but slower changes in listeners’ arousal levels, presumably because they evoke more implicit and subtle emotional effects. This study is the first to provide evidence that poetic language elicits human pupillary dilation. A better understanding of the cognitive and neural substrates for the sensitive awareness of pleasures expressed via poetic language will provide insights for improving mental and physical health. Hence, pupillometry can act as a useful convenient measurement to delineate the sympathetic activation of emotional contexts via language.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T05:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221126778
       
  • The Function of the Proprioceptive, Vestibular and Visual Systems
           Following Fatigue in Individuals With and Without Chronic Ankle
           Instability

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      Authors: Nili Steinberg, Gal Elias, Aviva Zeev, Jeremy Witchalls, Gordon Waddington
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To maintain postural balance, the proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual systems continuously provide body position and movement data to the central nervous system. In this study, our main aim was to examine, for the first time, the influence of anaerobically or aerobically induced fatigue on these separate functions in persons with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). We obtained assessments pre- and post-fatigue protocols from 60 physical education students (Mage = 24.3, SD = 3.4) Twenty-seven students had CAI, and 33 students did not have CAI). To measure proprioception, we used the AMEDA device; for vision, we used near point of convergence (NPC); and, for vestibular function, we used subjective visual vertical (SVV). We found a pre-post proprioception (AMEDA) effect in the aerobic group (p < .001), and a visual (NPC) effect in both anaerobic and aerobic participant groups (both p < .001). There were no visual system (NPC) fatigue effect differences among aerobic or anerobic participants who had or did not have CAI (p = .047); there was a significant aerobic fatigue effect on proprioception (AMEDA) (p = .010) that favored participants without CAI. There was a significant interaction effect between time of testing and CAI for visual (NPC) (p = .003) in the aerobic group only. In both the anaerobic and aerobic groups, post-fatigue vestibular function (AMEDA) was significantly lower for those with than those without CAI (anaerobic: p = .030; and aerobic: p =.016). Thus, post-fatigue, participants with CAI showed worse proprioceptive, visual, and vestibular function than those without CAI. Future investigators should further examine each movement sense system in individuals with CAI.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T03:43:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221128634
       
  • Gait and Sit-To-Stand Motor Compensation Strategies in Children and
           Adolescents With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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      Authors: Mariana De Abreu Rays Dazzi, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso De Sá
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), the most common form of muscular dystrophies, is characterized by progressive and generalized muscle weakness. The weakness of the trunk and other muscle groups leads these patients to perform motor compensation strategies to maintain their lower limb functionality for gait quality and for tasks such as getting up from a sitting position. In this cross-sectional observational study, we described and quantified trunk, gait, and sit-to-stand motor compensation strategies in different stages of this disease. Thirty-one ambulatory 5–18-year-old children and adolescents with a diagnosis of DMD, underwent cognitive assessment with the Mental Mini-Examination (MMSE) and motor assessment with the Vignos scale, Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control (SATCo-BR), Timed Up and Go test (TUG Test), and 10-m walk test. We found strong correlations between trunk and gait compensations, and identified motor compensation strategies characteristic of certain DMD classifications. Also, these lower limb and trunk compensations related to disease staging (Vignos) such that compensations were fewer for patients at relatively better disease staging.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-19T11:59:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221128129
       
  • Adaptation and Validation of the Arabic Version of the Mindfulness
           Inventory for Sport

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      Authors: Manel Ben Salha, Laurence Kern, Fatah Abdelatif, El Hassane Nabli, Abderrahim Baria, Jean F. Fournier
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our goal for this study was to adapt the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport (MIS) into written Arabic that would be easily understood in North African countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco or TAM). Assessment tools in Arabic, such as this MIS-TAM version, are rare but essential for evaluating the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions. We adopted a committee approach to obtain a first Arabic version of the MIS. We asked a team of translators to adapt the items to the level of understanding of 13-year-old athletes by selecting words common to the culture of the three countries. The validation process underwent three phases. In Study 1, we tested MIS-TAM for clarity and deemed it acceptable. In Study 2 we tested the construct validity of two different models with confirmatory factorial analyses. These analyses confirmed that the structure of the 15-item MIS-TAM was psychometrically similar to the original version; it had a first order model encompassing three dimensions: Awareness, Non-Judgement and Refocusing. Analyses also found the internal consistency of the MIS-TAM acceptable. We assessed convergent validity in Study 3 with the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, but no correlations between the two instruments were significant. In conclusion, the MIS-TAM has acceptable psychometric properties, though further work is needed regarding convergent validity. The rigorous work of translation and adaptation focused on shared linguistics in three target countries, and this questionnaire will also prove useful in other countries where Arabic is the main language.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T12:59:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221127513
       
  • Reliabilities of the Two-Point Discrimination Test and the Two-Point
           Estimation Test for Use in the Lumbar Spine Area in Healthy Young Adults

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      Authors: Koterba Jakub, Saulicz Oskar, Saulicz Mariola, Sikora Damian, Saulicz Edward
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Two-point discrimination (TPD) testing and two-point estimation (TPE) methods are often used to determine tactile acuity, but their reliability is uncertain. Our aim in this study was to assess the reliability of TPD and TPE measurements in the same lumbar spine region of healthy young adults. Participants were 37 young adults (16 females and 21 males; age range: 20–27 years – M age = 21.65, SD = 1.9), who received two tests (TPD and TPE) to determine their tactile acuity. The tests were performed in the lumbar spine area, at the level of the L3 segment, bilaterally, with a 10-minute interval between the measurements. The first test session assessed the reliability of measurements performed by two examiners (inter-rater reliability); and, after 7 days, another examiner repeated the measurements (intra-rater reliability). The reliability of both tests was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and results revealed high intra-rater, and inter-rater repeatability for immediate administration of TPD and TPE tests (i.e, after 10 minutes) and moderate repeatability when they were performed at a 7-day interval. Thus, we confirmed high reliability of TPD and TPE assessments of tactile acuity repeated at a short time interval and moderate reliability after 7 days. There was slightly higher reliability for the TPE method.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-17T02:54:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221127775
       
  • A Meta-Analysis of Social Ecological Correlates of Physical Activity Among
           Koreans

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      Authors: Jonghwa Lee, Youngho Kim
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      From the viewpoint of behavioral medicine, analyzing various factors that determine physical activity (PA) is necessary to promote PA participation. In this study we aimed to identify the impact of constructs within the social ecological model (SEM) on PA within the Korean population. We reviewed journal articles and dissertations published between February 2012 and May 2022 in this meta-analysis. We searched the Korean Education Research Information Service (KERIS), Korean Information Service System (KISS), National Digital Library (NDL), PubMed Central (PMC), SCOPUS, and Web of Sciences; and we located 13 studies to include in this review. Collectively, these studies indicated that most SEM constructs were significantly correlated with PA. Self-efficacy was most strongly correlated (0.67), followed by perceived benefits (0.48), quality of exercise facilities (0.37), accessibility of exercise facilities (0.33), friend support (0.29), and family support (0.23). These data provide practical information for basing a PA promotion strategy on SEM to enhance community health through behavioral psychology.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T03:08:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221126775
       
  • Ankle Inversion Proprioception Impairment in Persons with Chronic Ankle
           Instability Is Task-Specific

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      Authors: Jia Han, Zonghan Yang, Jeremy Witchalls, Charlotte Ganderton, Roger Adams, Gordon Waddington
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      While investigators have often compared ankle proprioception between groups with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI), findings have been inconsistent. Possibly this is because ankle proprioceptive impairment in this population is task-specific. Thus, we aimed to compare ankle inversion proprioception in individuals with and without CAI in two task conditions: (i) when standing (not challenging) and (ii) when on a step-down landing (minimally-challenging). Ankle inversion proprioception was measured in both conditions for 38 recreational sport player volunteers with CAI (n = 19) and without CAI (n = 19). We used the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA) for the standing condition and the Ankle Inversion Discrimination Apparatus-Landing (AIDAL) for step-down landing. From analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests, CAI and non-CAI participants performed equally well on the AMEDA when standing; but the CAI group performed significantly worse than the non-CAI group on the AIDAL step-down landing task (p = 0.03). Within the non-CAI group, the AIDAL proprioceptive scores, as area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), were significantly higher than their AMEDA AUC scores (p = 0.03), while there was no significant difference between AIDAL and AMEDA AUC scores in the CAI group. Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool CAIT scores were significantly correlated with AIDAL scores (Spearman’s rho = 0.391, p = 0.015), but not with the AMEDA scores; and there was no significant correlation between the AIDAL and AMEDA scores. Thus, an ankle inversion proprioceptive deficit was evident for persons with CAI on the step-down AIDAL, and in a dose-response way, but not evident on the standing AMEDA, suggesting that ankle proprioceptive impairment is task-specific. Selected proprioceptive tests must present some minimal degree of challenge to the ankle joint in a functional task in order to differentiate CAI from non-CAI participants.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T09:23:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221125608
       
  • A Feasibility Study of Bilateral Wrist Sensors for Measuring Motor Traits
           in Children With Autism

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      Authors: Jeffrey Konrad, Natasha Marrus, Catherine E. Lang
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Direct, quantitative measures of hyperactivity and motor coordination, two motor characteristics associated with impairment in autism, are limited. Wearable sensors can objectively index real-world movement variables that may relate to these behaviors. Here, we explored the feasibility of bilateral wrist accelerometers for measuring upper limb activity in 3–10-year-olds with autism (n = 22; 19 boys, 3 girls; M age = 5.64, SD = 2.73 years) and without autism (n = 26; 15 boys, 11 girls; M age = 6.26, SD = 2.47 years). We investigated the relationships between movement characteristics related to duration, intensity, complexity, and symmetry on the one hand and parent-reported hyperactivity and motor coordination on the other. Participants with and without autism wore the sensors for 12-hour periods. Sensor variables varied by age but not sex, with movement intensity and complexity moderately related to motor coordination. These findings lend preliminary support to wearable sensors as a means of providing ecologically-valid metrics of motor characteristics that impact adaptive function in children with autism.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T09:08:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221125275
       
  • Bilateral Training Improves Agility and Accuracy for Both Preferred and
           Non-Preferred Legs in Young Soccer Players

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      Authors: Ahmed Ben Kahla, Yousri Elghoul, Achraf Ammar, Liwa Masmoudi, Khaled Trabelsi, Jordan M. Glenn, Riadh Dahmen
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      As laterality of the lower limbs is regarded as a relevant influence on soccer performance, we assessed whether a bilateral training program for both the preferred leg (PL) and non-preferred leg (NPL) would improve soccer players’ lateral asymmetry, agility, and accuracy. Sixty right-foot-dominant young soccer players were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (EXP) that underwent bilateral training or a control group (CONT) that performed their usual training schedule without bilateral exercise. We assessed the players’ lateral asymmetries before and after training on four soccer skill tasks: a zigzag test with and without a ball, a receiving and direct volley-shooting accuracy test, and a passing accuracy test. Results showed post-test versus pre-test performance improvements for the EXP group on the index of technical skills and agility (p < .001). A post-hoc analysis further revealed a pre-test to post-test performance improvement on shooting and passing accuracy with both legs only for the EXP group (p < .001). These results support the role of bilateral practice in improving lateral asymmetries, agility, and accuracy.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T05:30:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221124373
       
  • Effects of Different Sources of Low-Dose Caffeine on Mood/Arousal and
           Cognitive Performance

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      Authors: Christopher Irwin, Danielle McCartney, Gary Grant, Nathan Delang, Karly Bartrim, Gregory R Cox, Ben Desbrow
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study we investigated the effects of variously derived sources of low-dose caffeine on mood/arousal and cognitive performance. Twenty-two participants (15 men, 7 women; M age: 28.2, SD = 9.0 years) undertook five randomized, crossover trials in which they consumed either a water control (CON) or 80 mg of caffeine from one of four sources (coffee [COF], energy drink [END], capsule [CAP], and dissolvable mouth strip [STR]). We measured the participants’ perceived efficacy of these varied caffeine sources pre-treatment; and we measured mood/arousal at pre-treatment, and again at 15 and 45 minutes post-treatment. We also measured choice reaction-time at 15 and 45 minutes post-treatment, and participants completed the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) 45 minutes post-treatment. Caffeine increased participant ratings of alertness and decreased their ratings of tiredness irrespective of source (p’s < .05), and all sources of caffeine decreased reaction time on the PVT (p’s < .05), with ex-Gaussian distributional analysis localizing this to the tau-parameter, indicating lower variability. However, only the COF source was associated with improved ‘overall mood’ (p’s < .05). Participants expected to perform better on the PVT with COF compared to CON, but there were no other significant associations between source expectancy and performance. In sum, a modest dose of caffeine, regardless of source, positively impacted mood/arousal and cognitive performance, and these effects did not appear to be influenced by expectations.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-30T12:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221124369
       
  • Can Prolongate Use of Social Media Immediately Before Training Worsen High
           Level Male Volleyball Players’ Visuomotor Skills'

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      Authors: Leonardo S. Fortes, Guilherme P. Berriel, Heloiana Faro, Carlos G. Freitas-Júnior, Leonardo A. Peyré-Tartaruga
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim was to analyze the effect of mental fatigue caused by prolonged social media use on high-level volleyball players' visuomotor skills. Eighteen high-level male young volleyball players participated in this randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design. All participants underwent a 2-week experiment in which we measured their response times when performing a visuomotor task with and without mental fatigue inducement through repeated use of social media immediately before training sessions. In the control condition, participants watched TV for 30-minutes, and in the social media condition, they used a social media app (Instagram®) on smartphones for 30-minutes. We found a significant Condition x Time interaction on visuomotor task response time (p = 0.03), but there was no significant main effect of either Time or Condition. Mental fatigue, induced by repeated app-based social media use for 30-minutes immediately before training sessions, affected elite male volleyball players’ visuomotor skills.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:29:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221123635
       
  • Acute Effects of a Haptic Anchor System on Postural Sway of Individuals
           with Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study

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      Authors: Thanielle S. S. Brito, Luciane A. P. S. de Souza, Gustavo J. Luvizutto
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Some investigators have demonstrated that an anchor system can improve postural control in elderly persons during balance tasks, but none have reported on the use of this approach in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of an anchor system on postural sway in elderly individuals with (n = 13) and without (n = 14) PD. In this cross-sectional study, we measured postural sway with a force platform based on the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction of Balance (CTSIB). We calculated center of pressure (COP) parameters, as a function of time, based on the ellipse sway area (cm2) and evaluated self-efficacy for postural control based on the degree of difficulty in each task. With the anchor system (i.e., handheld ropes attached to weights on the floor), we observed a significant reduction in the ellipse sway area in the semi-tandem position among individuals with PD (p = .04). For participants without PD, there was no significant difference in sway with or without the anchor system in all positions. Also, for participants with PD, there was an improvement in self-efficacy for postural control associated with the anchor system in several positions while there was only a self-efficacy improvement with the anchor system in the semi-tandem position for those without PD. Acute use of a haptic anchor system reduced postural sway in the semi-tandem position in individuals with PD, and the anchor system generally improved postural control self-efficacy for body sway in individuals with PD.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-23T01:10:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221121184
       
  • Conflict Adaptation Effect on Numerical Inductive Reasoning: An ERP Study

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      Authors: Luming Zheng, Shangqing Yuan, Xiaofei Wu, Tie Sun
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Conflict adaptation is of particular importance to human information processing, as it assists in efficient responding when confronted with inconsistent information. Past investigators have focused on the role and mechanisms of conflict adaptation effects in cognitive control tasks, but there have been few studies of conflict adaptation effects in numerical inductive reasoning. In this study we adopted identical, perceptual mismatch and rule violation conditions to investigate conflict adaptation in numerical inductive reasoning. Behaviorally, we found shorter response times on trials following our experimental condition, as compared to pre-trials. In our event-related potential (ERP) electroencephalogram (EEG) results, N2 reflected the improvement in processing efficiency of rule violations in numerical inductive reasoning. Thus, these data suggest the presence of a conflict adaptation effect in high-level processing.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-15T01:07:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221121185
       
  • Chunking in Visual Working Memory: Are Visual Features of Real-World
           Objects Stored in Chunks'

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      Authors: Tianrui Luo, Mi Tian
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Are visual features of real-world objects stored as bound units' Previous research has shown that simple visual features (e.g., colored squares or geometric shapes) can be effectively bound together when forming predictable pairs in memory tasks. Through a “memory compression” process, observers can take advantage of these features to compress them into a chunk. However, a recent study found that visual features in real-world objects are stored independently. In the present study, we explored this issue by using drawings of fruits as memory stimuli, presenting four pictures of fruit in separate test trials in which we required observers to remember eight total features (i.e., four colors and four shapes). In the congruent trials, the color of the fruit matched its natural appearance (e.g., a red apple), while in incongruent trials, the color of the fruit mismatched its natural appearance (e.g., a red banana). We paired the shape of the fruits randomly with a color (without replacement). According to chunking theory, if visual features of real-world objects are stored in a chunk, the highest memory capacity should be accompanied by the longest response time in congruent trials due to an extra decoding process required from the chunk. We did find that participants had the highest memory capacity in the congruent condition, but their response times in the congruent condition were significantly faster than in the incongruent condition. Thus, observers did not undergo a decoding process in the congruent condition, and we concluded that visual features in real-world objects are not stored in a chunk.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-13T01:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221121228
       
  • Perceiving Body Height From Connected Speech: Higher Fundamental Frequency
           Is Associated With the Speaker’s Height

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      Authors: Julio González-Alvarez, Rosa Sos-Peña
      First page: 1349
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To a certain degree, human listeners can perceive a speaker’s body size from their voice. The speaker’s voice pitch or fundamental frequency (Fo) and the vocal formant frequencies are the voice parameters that have been most intensively studied in past body size perception research (particularly for body height). Artificially lowering the Fo of isolated vowels from male speakers improved listeners’ accuracy of binary (i.e., tall vs not tall) body height perceptions. This has been explained by the theory that a denser harmonic spectrum provided by a low pitch improved the perceptual resolution of formants that aid formant-based size assessments. In the present study, we extended this research using connected speech (i.e., words and sentences) pronounced by speakers of both sexes. Unexpectedly, we found that raising Fo, not lowering it, increased the participants’ perceptual performance in two binary discrimination tasks of body size. We explain our new finding in the temporal domain by the dynamic and time-varying acoustic properties of connected speech. Increased Fo might increase the sampling density of sound wave acoustic cycles and provide more detailed information, such as higher resolution, on the envelope shape.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T01:36:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221110392
       
  • Planning and Executing Aiming Movements in Middle Childhood

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      Authors: Danielle S. V. de Oliveira, Sandra R. Alouche, Sandra M. S. F. de Freitas, Gabriela H. Oba, Vivian F. Giangiardi, Cristina dos Santos C. de Sá
      First page: 1362
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Harmonious voluntary movements require efficiency in their planning and execution. Throughout middle childhood structural changes in the central nervous and musculoskeletal systems influence these processes and resultant motor behavior. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of the motor planning and executing of aiming movements directed at targets located in different positions in space in children aged 7, 9, and 11 years. We divided 43 right-handed children, into three age groups and instructed them to perform aiming movements directed at targets using a stylus on a digital tablet. The children performed the movement with their dominant upper limbs from a starting point towards targets positioned ipsilaterally or contralaterally to this dominant limb. We analyzed temporal and spatial variables of motor performance. Younger (7-year-old) children made more errors in the initial movement direction and more frequently corrected their movements during task execution when compared to 9- and 11-year-old children who did not differ from each other. All age groups were similar in movement accuracy and precision. Movements toward contralateral targets were slower and more accurate than movements toward ipsilateral targets for all groups. These results show that performing aiming movements develop with the onset of middle childhood.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T01:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221112243
       
  • The Link Between Action Verb Processing and Action Observation: A
           Developmental Study

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      Authors: Christel Bidet-Ildei, Sophie-Anne Beauprez, Lucette Toussaint
      First page: 1381
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this work we aimed to assess the typical link in human development between action observation and language. For this, we studied, in 68 children aged 5–11 years of age, how action verbs can prime action representation. While children 7–8 years of age benefited from a congruent action verb prime when they had to judge an image representing an action, this effect was not present in 5–6-year-olds. Thus, the link between language and action observation changes during development at about age 7. We discussed these findings in consideration of current theories proposed to account for the action-language link.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T01:43:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221112244
       
  • Does Skill Performance Influence Young Children’s Perceived Physical
           Competence'

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      Authors: Jerraco L. Johnson, Danielle D. Wadsworth, Mary E. Rudisill, Jacqueline M. Irwin, Claire Bridges
      First page: 1396
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Children’s self-perceived competence is critical for their engagement in fundamental motor skills (FMS), although these perceptions are highly inaccurate until around age seven (grade 2). Moreover, FMS competence is highly correlated with physical activity engagement in childhood. In this study we examined: (a) if children’s perceptions of their FMS competence differed after they were allowed to perform the skill or observe their performance, and (b) if the accuracy of children’s perceived competence changed under those conditions. Child participants (N = 76; K-second grade) judged their own competence for three physical skills (running, skipping and dribble or hopping) on the Harter and Pike Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance under three conditions: (a) a no-performance baseline, (b) after performing each skill, and (c) after observing themselves performing the skill. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that their perceived competence differed across these conditions for running but not for skipping/hopping (p = .556) or for dribbling (p = .368). Spearman’s rho correlations showed that their perceived running competence scores better predicted their actual competence after observing their performance (rs = .25, p = .029) than after other conditions. Both performing and observing their performance were associated with changes in perceptions of running competence. Future research should focus on how and when children’s perceived competence is assessed and how perceptions relate to FMS and physical activity engagement.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-17T11:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221116756
       
  • Association Between Cross-Limb Transfer and Practice Organization

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      Authors: Lidiane A. Fernandes, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Enzo G. Azevedo, Joana A. R. Pinto, Guilherme Menezes Lage
      First page: 1413
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Although the importance of practice has been evidenced in early studies of cross-limb transfer, the association between cross-limb transfer and practice organization remains unknown. The two primary means of organizing practice are constant practice (CP) and variable practice (VP). When the same generalized motor program governs the motor responses, VP produces better transfer than CP. Thus, we hypothesized that VP would generate a higher cross-limb transfer level than CP. We assigned 40 participants to CP or VP groups and conducted an experiment consisting of three phases: pre-test, practice, and transfer test. At pre-test, all participants practiced eight trials of a sequence key-pressing task with the non-dominant hand (NDH). After the pre-test, all participants performed a practice phase of 72 trials with the dominant hand, but CP and VP groups underwent their different practice schedules (CP or VP) such that the CP group practiced a sequence key-pressing task in one sequence, and the VP group practiced four different sequences randomly. On the transfer test all partcipants completed eight trials with the NDH 24 hours after the practice phase. The CP group showed better performance than the VP group on the transfer test, and we concluded that the effects of practice organization in cross-limb transfer are distinct from intra- and inter-task transfer such that the specificity of practice explained the benefits of CG.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T12:51:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221119136
       
  • Adapting the Short Grit Scale with Exploratory Structural Equation
           Modeling for Portuguese College Students

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      Authors: Roberta Frontini, Diogo Monteiro, Filipe Rodrigues, Rui Matos, Raúl Antunes
      First page: 1428
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The Short Grit Scale (Grit–S) is a self- and informant-report version of the longer Grit Scale, and it retains the 2-factor structure of the original scale. Our purpose in this research was to measure trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals by translating and validating the Grit-S for Portuguese respondents. Our participants were 572 college students (135 female, 437 male; age range 18–30 years, M age = 21.47, SD = 2.29 years) from twelve Portuguese universities. Our data confirmed the scale’s two-factor structure (“consistency of interests” and “perseverance of effort”) and demonstrated appropriate adjustment values (CFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.981, SRMR = 0.017, RMSEA = 0.001, CI90%= 0.000–0.041). We found the adapted scale to be invariant for sex. Use of the scale confirmed an association between grit and well-being. These results imply that other investigators and practitioners interested in this scale may now apply it with Portuguese young adults.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T07:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221107140
       
  • Comparison of Dynamic Balance Performances of Adult Runners With
           Intellectual Disability Versus Their Sedentary Peers

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      Authors: Ghada Jouira, Selim Srihi, Fatma Ben Waer, Haithem Rebai, Sonia Sahli
      First page: 1443
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim in this study was to compare the dynamic balance between runners (100 sprint) and non-runners with intellectual disability (ID). Our participants were 36 healthy male adults with ID aged 17–29 years, divided into runners (n = 18) and sedentary non-runners (n = 18). We assessed dynamic balance in these participants, using the Y-Balance Test (YBT), the Expanded-Timed Up and Go Test (ETUGT) and the Functional Reach Test (FRT). Runners with ID had significantly better balance scores than their sedentary counterparts on YBT (p < .001), the two walking phases of the ETUGT (p < .05) and the FRT (p
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T04:05:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221116609
       
  • Analysis of Trunk Neuromuscular Activation During Equine-Assisted Therapy
           in Older Adults

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      Authors: Edneia C. de Mello, Luanna H. Diniz, Janaine B. Lage, Mariane F. Ribeiro, Domingos E. Bevilacqua Junior, Rodrigo C. Rosa, Fabrizio Antônio G. Cardoso, Alex A. Ferreira, Mara Lúcia F. Ferraz, Vicente de Paula A. Teixeira, Ana Paula Espindula
      First page: 1458
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The three-dimensional movement of the horse in physical therapy is a valuable kinesio-therapeutic phenomenon that simultaneously affects several body systems, including particularly the neuromuscular system. However, the effects of equine-assisted services (EAS) on neuromuscular activation patterns in older adults have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we evaluated the impact of a 10-weeks EAS program on trunk muscles in older adults who used a saddle and placed their feet in stirrups for the first 15 minutes and out of stirrups for the remaining 15 minutes of 30-minute EAS sessions. We gathered electromyographic (EMG) data of the trunk muscles five times each on the first, fifth, and 10th sessions: pre-EAS and post-EAS on a stationary horse and at 1-minute, 15-minutes, and 30-minutes on a horse in motion. Participants were 20 adults, aged 60–79 years. We analyzed normalized EMG data with 5 (session time) by 3 (session number) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with repeated measures and with Bonferroni’s testing (p ≤ .05). There was a significant difference over the number of interventions for the right thoracic paravertebral muscle (p = .025) and session time effect for the left trapezius (p = .042), right thoracic paravertebral (p < .001), right and left multifidus (p < .001), and right and left rectus abdominis muscles (p < .001). Thus, trunk muscles in older adults showed complex neuromuscular activation synchronized with the horse’s movement, which was influenced by session time and number of interventions. The practical implication of these findings is that EAS can reduce fall risk among elderly adults of both sexes.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T01:24:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221112249
       
  • Executive Functions, Physical Abilities, and Their Relationship with
           Tactical Performance in Young Soccer Players

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      Authors: Daniel Carnevale, Marije Elferink-Gemser, Alberto Filgueiras, Barbara Huijgen, Caique Andrade, Julia Castellano, Davi SiIva, Fabrício Vasconcellos
      First page: 1477
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      While tactical performance in soccer is associated with the players’ and teams’ collective actions in the context of game stimuli, how tactical performance relates to players’ executive functions (EFs) and physical abilities should be examined. In this study, we examined these relationships among 81 Under-15 male soccer players who underwent tactical evaluation (FUT-SAT), EF tests (i.e.,(Stop-Signal Test and Design Fluency Test)), and physical tests (i.e.,(Maturity Offset, Yoyo Endurance Test II, Sargent Jump Test, and Sprint Test)). Multiple linear regression modeling with the stepwise method showed that approximately 48% of overall game tactical performance variance was explained by inhibitory control, biological maturation, and sprint capacity (p = .004; d = .54; r2 = .479), whereas 35% of offensive tactical performance variance was explained by the same dimensions (p = .001; d = .91; r2 = .353). In addition, approximately 28% of defensive tactical performance variance was explained by cognitive flexibility and aerobic resistance (p = .007; d = .39; r2 = .280). These results reflect the combined importance of EFs and physical abilities for tactical performance in young soccer players, suggesting that these abilities may be targets for training when trying to improve young players’ performance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-07T03:43:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221112236
       
  • Self-Perceived and Self-Tested Endurance: Associations with Objective
           Measures

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      Authors: Anders Aandstad
      First page: 1492
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Use of self-report (questionnaires) is often the most realistic means of screening physical fitness in large participant samples because this method is quicker and cheaper than objective testing. Yet, previous studies have reported equivocal validity to reports of self-perceived fitness. A hybrid self-report variant is the use of self-administered/reported objective measurement. We sought to investigate the relative validity of this variant method compared to self-perception reports. In total 26,452 young Norwegian men and women participated in this study. We collected data during obligatory selection for military conscript service. Approximately half of the participants were asked to rate their endurance level on a five-point Likert scale in an online questionnaire. The other half performed a self-administered 3000 m run and reported the result online. Within 18 months, all participants completed an objective maximal treadmill test at a conscript selection center. We used Spearman correlations (rs) and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) to investigate the relationships between these two self-report methods and the observed objective treadmill performance. Self-perceived and self-tested endurance were both identically correlated with the other-observed treadmill run for men (rs = 0.59; p < .001) and for women (rs = 0.50, p < .001); and ANOVAs revealed significant effects of self-perceived and self-tested endurance on treadmill run time, with higher self-reported endurance related to higher treadmill run time. In conclusion, self-perceived and self-tested endurance produced the same correlation coefficients with objectively measured treadmill run time. While there was a moderate relationship between self-reported and objectively measured endurance at the group level, there was substantial individual measurement error that should be considered for individual reports.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T07:27:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221107852
       
  • Practice—Not Task Difficulty—Mediated the Focus of Attention Effect on
           a Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff Task

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      Authors: Masahiro Yamada, Keith R. Lohse, Christopher K. Rhea, Randy J. Schmitz, Louisa D. Raisbeck
      First page: 1504
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      External focus (attention to the movement effect) has been found effective in motor performance and learning. However, while some investigators have suggested that the effect of attentional focus varies with task difficulty, others reported external focus benefits regardless of difficulty. We hypothesized that attentional focus effects would vary with practice, due to changes in the individual’s processing efficiency. We had three 20-person participant groups (external focus instructions, internal focus instructions, control) practice three difficulty levels of a Fitts reciprocal tapping task over two days. Participants in the external/internal focus groups were instructed to “mentally focus on moving the pen/your hand as fast and accurately as possible,” while control participants were instructed to “mentally focus only on doing your best to achieve the task goal.” We then analyzed the effect of attentional focus by task difficulty at the initial performance (the beginning of the practice) and after learning (the retention/transfer phase), using movement time (MT) and number of error taps (Err) as performance measures. The internal focus group made more errors than the control group only at the retention/transfer phase. We found no error differences between the external and internal focus groups, and there were no MT differences between any groups. Our primary hypothesis about the differential effect of attentional focus by practice was supported. The attentional focus effect on Err differed in the retention/transfer phase from the immediate phase, suggesting that practice mediated the attentional focus effect. We discuss how information theory may supplement understanding of attentional focus interventions in motor skill acquisition.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T02:08:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221109214
       
  • The Effect of Using Goggles and Snorkel for Aquatic Skills Acquisition in
           Youth Learn-to-Swim Programs

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      Authors: Fatmir Misimi, Tanja Kajtna, Jernej Kapus
      First page: 1525
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our purpose in this study was to examine the effects of using goggles and snorkel during a learn-to-swim program on the aquatic skills of young non-swimmers with fear of water. 40 children volunteered to participate in the study and were randomly divided into two groups: one that used goggles and snorkel (GS) and one that did not (NGS). After four weeks (five sessions per week) of learn-to-swim interventions, both groups improved aquatic skills, but improvements in water entry, back gliding, and prone swimming were greater for the GS than for the NGS group. In contrast, the intervention effect on a blowing bubbles skill was smaller for the GS than for the NGS group. Thus, the use of goggles appears to be more beneficial in a learn to swim program for young swimmers with a fear of water than not using goggles for all lessons other than blowing bubbles.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T03:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221112258
       
  • Reducing Big Data to Principal Components for Position-Specific Futsal
           Training

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      Authors: Markel Rico-González, Jordi Illa, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, José Pino-Ortega
      First page: 1546
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Since training/competition loads must be quickly assessed and interpreted to inform exercise prescription, big data should be simplified through multivariate data analysis. Our aim in the present research was to highlight which variables from big data analyses provided the most relevant information for describing the behavior of top-level futsal players in their different playing positions (i.e., goalkeeper, defenders, wingers, and forwards). We collected data from four top-level Spanish teams that participated in the final rounds of a national tournament. Through principal component analysis (PCA) we grouped 6–9 variables in 3–4 PCs that explained 62–81% of total variance, depending on playing positions. The most relevant variables explaining goalkeepers’ performance were accelerations per minute, maximum acceleration (m/s2), 5–8 impacts per minute, and < 3 takeoffs per minute. Defenders’ behavior was best explained by absolute distance covered from 6-12 km/h (m/min) and from 18-21 km/h (m/min), from 5-8 landings per minute, and> 8 landings per minute. Wingers’ and pivots’ performances were mainly explained by accelerations and decelerations, together with a high level of aerobic endurance (especially for wingers). These findings allow for individualized training and game analysis.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T06:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221115014
       
  • Predicting Perceived Sport Performance via Self-Determination Theory

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      Authors: João Lourenço, Bartolomé J. Almagro, José Carmona-Márquez, Pedro Sáenz-López
      First page: 1563
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Sport performance depends in part on psychological factors. Self-determination theory emphasizes that the satisfisfaction of basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation may be linked to positive behavioral results and positive perceptions of performance. Our main objective in this study was to analyze the predictive power of such variables as perceived autonomy support, the satisfaction of psychological needs, and autonomous motivation on perceived sport performance. We recruited 447 young Portuguese athletes/participants (340 males, 107 females; Mage = 15.72 years, SD = 1.8). We had participants complete Portuguese sport versions of the Perceived Autonomy Support Exercise Climate Questionnaire, the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, the Behavior Regulation Sport Questionnaire and the Perceived Performance in Sport Questionnaire. A gender invariant structural equation model showed that the coach’s autonomy support significantly predicted the satisfaction of psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The satisfaction of these three psychological needs predicted autonomous motivation. Satisfying the need for competence positively predicted perceived sport performance, but autonomous motivation was not significantly related to perceived performance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T05:35:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221119121
       
  • Longitudinal Stability and Change in Young Students’
           Mastery-Approach Goals for Running

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      Authors: Ping Xiang, Jiling Liu, Weidong Li, Jianmin Guan
      First page: 1581
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, we examined the longitudinal stability and change in mastery-approach goals for running as offered in regularly scheduled physical education (PE) and athletics classes in the United States. There were five waves of data collection from 806 students (431 boys; 375 girls) who were tracked from fourth to eighth grade while participating in running activities in PE or athletics classes. We assessed the participants’ mastery-approach goals using four items on a 5-point scale. We found acceptable longitudinal construct validity, measurement invariance, and scale reliability for the scores of mastery-approach goals, and we found these goals to have moderate stability across this 5-year period. Latent growth modeling revealed a linear decline in mean mastery-approach goal scores over the five school years. We concluded that the assessment of mastery-approach goals over time was both valid and reliable and that these running mastery-approach goals were stable in most respects but became less intense over time.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-08-13T02:50:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221118469
       
  • Postural Balance in Young Tennis Players of Varied Competition Levels

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      Authors: Selim Srihi, Ghada Jouira, Fatma Ben Waer, Haithem Rebai, Amal Majdoub, Sonia Sahli
      First page: 1599
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of young tennis players’ expertise on their postural balance (PB) under sensorial conditions with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC). Our participants were 75 healthy adolescents aged 15–18 years, divided into three groups based on their skill levels: (a) national tennis players (NAT; n = 25), regional tennis players (REG; n =25), and a control group of non-sport practitioners (CG; n = 25). We recorded center of pressure area and mean velocity on a force platform while participants stood in bipedal and unipedal stances in EO and EC conditions for all three groups. Statistical analyses showed that NAT participants swayed less than CG participants in all conditions and less than REG participants in the bipedal stance with EC and in the unipedal stance, both with EO and EC. Thus, tennis practice/experience may have improved PB in this sample, as high-level tennis players had better PB compared to novices, especially in challenging conditions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T03:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221108913
       
  • A Review and Meta-Analysis of Interactive Metronome Training: Positive
           Effects for Motor Functioning

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      Authors: Hyo Keun Lee, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Bum Kim, Nyeonju Kang
      First page: 1614
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Interactive metronome training may be effective for improving motor performances through timing. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, 18 prospective studies met our eligibility criteria, and we summarized the effects of interactive metronome training protocols on motor functioning. We estimated effect sizes by quantifying differences in altered motor functions between participants in interactive metronome training and control groups. Two additional subgroup analyses determined whether the positive effects on motor function improvements were different among (a) three types of participants (i.e., athletes, healthy individuals, and patients with neurological disorders) and (b) two different training protocols (i.e., interactive metronome training only and interactive metronome training combined with an additional motor program). Random-effects model meta-analysis revealed moderate positive effects of interactive metronome training on motor function, with interactive metronome treatment effects significant across athletes, healthy individuals, and patients with neurological disorders. Interactive metronome training combined with additional motor programs showed comparable effects to those obtained after interactive metronome training alone. These findings suggest motor improvement benefits to strengthening or capitalizing on an individual’s motor timing.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:05:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221110403
       
 
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