A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 1)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

              [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Perceptual and Motor Skills
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.349
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0031-5125 - ISSN (Online) 1558-688X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Increased Cognitive Demands Affect Agility Performance in Female Athletes
           - Implications for Testing and Training of Agility in Team Ball Sports

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Büchel, Alli Gokeler, Pieter Heuvelmans, Jochen Baumeister
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Agility, a key component of team ball sports, describes an athlete´s ability to move fast in response to changing environments. While agility requires basic cognitive functions like processing speed, it also requires more complex cognitive processes like working memory and inhibition. Yet, most agility tests restrict an assessment of cognitive processes to simple reactive times that lack ecological validity. Our aim in this study was to assess agility performance by means of total time on two agility tests with matched motor demands but with both low and high cognitive demands. We tested 22 female team athletes on SpeedCourt, using a simple agility test (SAT) that measured only processing speed and a complex agility test (CAT) that required working memory and inhibition. We found excellent to good reliability for both our SAT (ICC = .79) and CAT (ICC =.70). Lower agility performance on the CAT was associated with increased agility total time and split times (p < .05). These results demonstrated that agility performance depends on the complexity of cognitive demands. There may be interference-effects between motor and cognitive performances, reducing speed when environmental information becomes more complex. Future studies should consider agility training models that implement complex cognitive stimuli to challenge athletes according to competitive demands. This will also allow scientists and practitioners to tailor tests to talent identification, performance development and injury rehabilitation.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T12:33:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221108698
       
  • Special Section: Relationships Between Executive Function and Sports /
           Exercise

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: J.D. Ball
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      This short article is a commentary on this special section of Perceptual and Motor Skills entitled Relationships between Executive Function and Sports/Exercise. Given the vast executive function research in sports already published, this moment is opportune for highlighting (a) progress to date, (b) research limitations yet to address, and (c) inspirational new findings. The articles that follow illustrate these themes.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T05:37:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221108550
       
  • Postural Balance in Young Tennis Players of Varied Competition Levels

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Selim Srihi, Ghada Jouira, Fatma Ben Waer, Haithem Rebai, Amal Majdoub, Sonia Sahli
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of young tennis players’ expertise on their postural balance (PB) under sensorial conditions with eyes open (EO) and with eyes closed (EC). Our participants were 75 healthy adolescents aged 15–18 years, divided into three groups based on their skill levels: (a) national tennis players (NAT; n = 25), regional tennis players (REG; n =25), and a control group of non-sport practitioners (CG; n = 25). We recorded center of pressure area and mean velocity on a force platform while participants stood in bipedal and unipedal stances in EO and EC conditions for all three groups. Statistical analyses showed that NAT participants swayed less than CG participants in all conditions and less than REG participants in the bipedal stance with EC and in the unipedal stance, both with EO and EC. Thus, tennis practice/experience may have improved PB in this sample, as high-level tennis players had better PB compared to novices, especially in challenging conditions.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T03:39:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221108913
       
  • Self-Perceived and Self-Tested Endurance: Associations with Objective
           Measures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anders Aandstad
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Use of self-report (questionnaires) is often the most realistic means of screening physical fitness in large participant samples because this method is quicker and cheaper than objective testing. Yet, previous studies have reported equivocal validity to reports of self-perceived fitness. A hybrid self-report variant is the use of self-administered/reported objective measurement. We sought to investigate the relative validity of this variant method compared to self-perception reports. In total 26,452 young Norwegian men and women participated in this study. We collected data during obligatory selection for military conscript service. Approximately half of the participants were asked to rate their endurance level on a five-point Likert scale in an online questionnaire. The other half performed a self-administered 3000 m run and reported the result online. Within 18 months, all participants completed an objective maximal treadmill test at a conscript selection center. We used Spearman correlations (rs) and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) to investigate the relationships between these two self-report methods and the observed objective treadmill performance. Self-perceived and self-tested endurance were both identically correlated with the other-observed treadmill run for men (rs = 0.59; p < .001) and for women (rs = 0.50, p < .001); and ANOVAs revealed significant effects of self-perceived and self-tested endurance on treadmill run time, with higher self-reported endurance related to higher treadmill run time. In conclusion, self-perceived and self-tested endurance produced the same correlation coefficients with objectively measured treadmill run time. While there was a moderate relationship between self-reported and objectively measured endurance at the group level, there was substantial individual measurement error that should be considered for individual reports.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T07:27:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221107852
       
  • Experimental Study: Children’s Perceptions Expressed Through
           Drawings and Coloring

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aleksandar Trifunović, Dalibor Pešić, Svetlana Čičević
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      A large body of literature has addressed processes underlying human perception, with some assertions that children do not perceive space or colors in the same way as adults. Since children express themselves easily and acquire knowledge through graphic symbols, when determining psycho-motor maturity and perceptions of a preschool aged children, observers must evaluate their use of non-verbal graphics. Thus, we used young children’s drawings to examine their use of color and spatial perception, as well as to identify differences between children in rural and urban communities. Of 94 participants from rural and urban communities, 46 were kindergarten aged (5.5–6.5 years), and 48 were preschool aged (4.5–5.5 years). Comparing children from urban and rural areas, there were significant differences in their perception of different colors and spatial relations. Motor abilities were significantly different between children of different ages and gender. We argue that the applied assessment methods, such as children’s drawings, could be a basis for measuring effective learning and practicing of children’s abilities as expressed in the classroom, and that tools may be useful for creating individualized educational plans and programs for developing children’s skills through play.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T03:21:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221104780
       
  • Adapting the Short Grit Scale with Exploratory Structural Equation
           Modeling for Portuguese College Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Roberta Frontini, Diogo Monteiro, Filipe Rodrigues, Rui Matos, Raúl Antunes
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The Short Grit Scale (Grit–S) is a self- and informant-report version of the longer Grit Scale, and it retains the 2-factor structure of the original scale. Our purpose in this research was to measure trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals by translating and validating the Grit-S for Portuguese respondents. Our participants were 572 college students (135 female, 437 male; age range 18–30 years, M age = 21.47, SD = 2.29 years) from twelve Portuguese universities. Our data confirmed the scale’s two-factor structure (“consistency of interests” and “perseverance of effort”) and demonstrated appropriate adjustment values (CFI = 0.999, TLI = 0.981, SRMR = 0.017, RMSEA = 0.001, CI90%= 0.000–0.041). We found the adapted scale to be invariant for sex. Use of the scale confirmed an association between grit and well-being. These results imply that other investigators and practitioners interested in this scale may now apply it with Portuguese young adults.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-06-04T07:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221107140
       
  • Effectiveness of Yoga versus Exercise for Reducing Falling Risk in Older
           Adults: Physical and Psychological Indices

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Luis J. Bartos, Geoffrey A. Meek, Bonnie G. Berger
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our purpose in this study was to examine the effectiveness of yoga to address multiple risk factors of falling in active and low active older adults. Community–dwelling older adults (N = 35) over the age of 65 actively participated in either a yoga program, an exercise program, or a no–program control. Participants completed measures associated with falling risks. Physical measures included lower body strength, static balance, and lower body flexibility. Psychological measures included perceived self-efficacy with respect to falls and health–related quality of life. We determined between–group differences using planned comparisons, effect size, confidence intervals, and probability of superiority. Results of planned comparisons and practical significance testing indicated that yoga participants scored higher than the exercise and control participants on both right and left lower body flexibility tests. Yoga participants also scored higher than the control participants on right leg static balance, and the right and left lower body flexibility tests. The exercise participants scored higher than yoga participants on the RAND-36 Quality of Life subscales of Energy/Fatigue, Pain, and General Health. The probability of superiority results indicated that the no–program older adult participants would benefit by enrolling in the yoga rather than the exercise program to reduce physical risks of falling. These findings were discussed in relation to promoting physical activity programs to reduce risks of falling, and the roles of the protocol, practical significance, and measures employed when determining program effectiveness.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T05:12:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221100820
       
  • Self-Paced Endurance Performance and Cerebral Hemodynamics of the
           Prefrontal Cortex: A Scoping Review of Methodology and Findings

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert Hyland-Monks, David Marchant, Lorcan Cronin
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has suggested that top-down executive function associated with the prefrontal cortex is key to the decision-making processes and pacing of endurance performance. A small but growing body of literature has investigated the neurological underpinnings of these processes by subjecting the prefrontal cortex to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measurement during self-paced endurance task performance. Given that fNIRS measurement for these purposes is a relatively recent development, the principal aim of this review was to assess the methodological rigor and findings of this body of research. We performed a systematic literature search to collate research assessing prefrontal cortex oxygenation via fNIRS during self-paced endurance performance. A total of 17 studies met the criteria for inclusion. We then extracted information concerning the methodology and findings from the studies reviewed. Promisingly, most of the reviewed studies reported having adopted commonplace and feasible best practice guidelines. However, a lack of adherence to these guidelines was evident in some areas. For instance, there was little evidence of measures to tackle and remove artifacts from data. Lastly, the reviewed studies provide insight into the significance of cerebral oxygenation to endurance performance and the role of the prefrontal cortex in pacing behavior. Therefore, future research that better follows the guidelines presented will help advance our understanding of the role of the brain in endurance performance and aid in the development of techniques to improve or maintain prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation to help bolster endurance performance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T07:52:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221101017
       
  • Comparison of Visual Motor Integration, Participation and Hand Skills in
           Children with and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mehtap Kılıçöz, Seval Kutlutürk Yıkılmaz, Ayşegül Yüksel, Ozgün Kaya Kara
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim in this study was to compare hand skills, visual-motor integration ability, and participation in daily living activities of children with and without Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). In this prospective cross-sectional study, we included 44 children withT1DM (17 males, 27 females; aged 8–12 years) and a control group of 45 healthy age-matched children without T1DM (22 males, 23 females). We compared group scores on the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT), the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Visual Motor Integration Test (Beery VMI), and on the Participation and Environment Measure - Children and Youth (PEM-CY). The JTHFT and Beery VMI scores of children with T1DM were significantly lower than those of the control group (p ≤ 0.005); on the PEM-CY, children with T1DM were found to have more barriers in the community than controls. Relative deficits in hand skills and visual motor integration of children with T1DM should be managed with greater attention and assistance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T10:42:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221101008
       
  • The Effect of Think Aloud on Performance and Brain Oxygenation During
           Cycling – An Exploratory Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amy Whitehead, Catharine Montgomery, Laura Swettenham, Nicola J. Robinson
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Think Aloud (TA) on performance in trained and untrained participants, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy, during incrementally paced cycling. A mixed design was implemented with cycling expertise (10 untrained vs. 9 trained) as the between groups variable and trial stage (5 stages of increasing effort), and condition (silent vs. TA) as within groups independent variables (IVs). Dependent measures were changes in cortical oxygenation (O2Hb) in 12 areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and physiological indicators of percentage heart rate maximum (%HRmax), average power output (APO), peak power output (PPO), rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate ([La]b) over time. Trained cyclists had higher APO and significantly higher PPO from stages 2–5, in addition to a greater increase in PPO over the duration of the test (range 168W–480 W vs. 133W–313 W). There were significant main effects of stage on %HRmax, Bla and RPE (p < .001), with effect sizes (ήp2) ranging from .31 to .97. On average, HRmax%, [La]b and RPE were significantly lower after stage 2 onwards within the TA trial than the silent trial, even though similar power outputs were obtained. Thus, the TA trial elicited a better pacing strategy. There was no main effect of group on changes in O2Hb, though O2Hb did change as a function of stage in four areas of the PFC, and as a function of condition in one area. In this first study to assess the effects of TA on performance during self-paced cycling, TA did not disrupt performance outcomes at low through to high levels of physical exertion for either untrained or trained participants.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-22T02:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221104769
       
  • Exercise Dependence and Anxiety in Cross-Trainers, Bodybuilders and Gym
           Exercisers During COVID19

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rogério Salvador, Roberta Frontini, Catarina Ramos, Pedro Lopes, Janete Oliveira, Joana Maia, Diogo Monteiro
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 pandemic an international public health emergency in January 2020, and, soon thereafter, a worldwide adoption of quarantine and physical isolation measures restricted regular practitioners of indoor group physical exercise from many of their usual practices. Some, with exercise dependence (ED), may have experienced exercise withdrawal symptoms that triggered unhealthy anxiety levels. In February 2021, during Portugal’s second COVID-19 lockdown, we characterized and compared ED and anxiety levels among different groups of indoor exercise practitioners (cross trainers [CG], bodybuilders [BG] and gym practitioners [GG]). In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 234 adult participants through the internet. To assess participants’ ED and anxiety levels, we used Portuguese versions of the ED Scale-21 (EDS-21) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State; STAI-Trait). ED symptoms were evident in all participant subgroups, and we found no gender differences in ED. Anxiety was higher among women than men in CG and GG groups, and there were significant differences in ED between groups such that BG practitioners showed higher ED than GG and CG practitioners (small effect size). Bodybuilders reported most ED behavior, followed by CG and regular gym exercisers, but on some criteria BG and CG groups had similar ED levels. Our results are in line with prior ED prevalence reports conducted before COVID-19 restrictions among regular GG, but these are the first data to report a higher ED prevalence among BG and CG, relative to GG.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T08:55:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221098326
       
  • The Development of Executive Functions in High-Level Female Soccer Players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adam Beavan, Jan Spielmann, Paul Ehmann, Jan Mayer
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Executive functions (EFs) are higher-level cognitive functions that help keep an individual’s goal-oriented thoughts and actions aligned. While many studies have shown the importance of EFs in sport, a limitation in this literature is that female participants have been underrepresented. In this mixed-longitudinal study, we examined the development of EFs in a cohort of high performing female athletes. We collected data over five seasons in a large sample of 175 female soccer players (aged 12–29 years old) from the U14 - senior age groups of a professional German soccer club. Players undertook a large battery of cognitive tasks aimed at measuring higher-level cognitive functioning: a sustained attention task, a stop-signal task, a Go-No-go test, an N-Back Test, and both a 180°- and 360°-multiple-object tracking task. We used linear and non-linear mixed effect regressions to examine the relationship between age and EFs. Second order polynomial curves explained many of these relationships between age and EFs compared to their linear relationships. Negatively accelerated curves reveal that these players’ cognitive abilities mainly developed before players reached early adulthood, with a performance plateau evident at around 21 years of age. Age explained low to moderate proportions of the variance in EFs (
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T10:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221096989
       
  • Associations Between Smartphone Use for Physical Activity by South Korean
           College Students and Behavioral Change Constructs of the Transtheoretical
           Model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Byoung-hoon Kim, Hyo Lee
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We examined associations between smartphone uses to assist physical activity (PA) and change constructs of the transtheoretical model (TTM) among Korean college students. Our participants were 242 college students who completed a cross-sectional survey of their smartphone use, PA, and TTM constructs. We applied Poisson regression models to test the associations between stages of change and smartphone PA use frequencies in four categories over the previous week: 1= watching PA instruction videos; 2 = tracking PA; 3 = searching and booking sites for PA; and 4 = finding and making appointments with PA partners. The associations between these smartphone uses and participants’ self-efficacy, decisional balance, processes of change, and PA were tested via ordinary least squares regression models. Results were that participants in the precontemplation and maintenance stages were the least and most frequent users of the smartphones in all four categories, respectively. Category one usage was positively associated with participants’ scores on pros (β = .22, p = .004), cognitive processes of change (β = .30, p < .001), and behavioral processes of change (β = .28, p < .001). Category two usage was positively associated with PA (β = .06, p = .048). While category three usage was not significantly associated with any TTM constructs except for stages of change, category four usage was positively associated with self-efficacy (β = .28, p < .001), pros (β = .30, p < .001), cognitive processes of change (β = .31, p < .001), behavioral processes of change (β = .06, p
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T02:11:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221099258
       
  • Degree of Meaningfulness of an Event’s Ending Can Modulate Mixed
           Emotional Experiences Among Japanese Undergraduates

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mariko Shirai, Toshiaki Kimura
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      While people may experience mixed emotions when confronting a meaningful ending; it is unclear how much an ending’s meaningfulness contributes to evoking these mixed emotions. This study examined, among Japanese undergraduate students, whether different degrees of meaningfulness of an ending affected emotional experiences, and how time passage changed emotional intensity. Sixty-one Japanese students (37 females, 24 males; M age = 20.75, SD = 0.80) reported their emotional experiences and the degree of meaningfulness they assigned to the ending of the Heisei era at two time points-before and after the ending. As expected, participants who placed high meaningfulness to the ending of the Heisei era experienced a high level of mixed emotions, indicating that the degree of meaningfulness given to an ending can modulate emotional experiences. Furthermore, the specific emotions experienced (i.e., sadness or happiness) differed depending on the assessment time point, such that the meaningfulness of the ending played a key role in producing mixed emotional experiences in this sample.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T07:06:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221096991
       
  • Contextual Interference Effects on Approach Motivation When Learning
           Timing Tasks: A Frontal Electroencephalography (EEG) Alpha Asymmetry Study
           in Older Adults

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Meysam Beik, Hamidreza Taheri, Alireza Saberi Kakhki, Majid Ghoshuni, Davoud Fazeli
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of contextual interference on motivational regulation, as measured by EEG (frontal alpha asymmetry), in older adults. Participants practiced a sequenced timing task in random, algorithmic, or blocked schedules in both similar and dissimilar task difficulty conditions, with task difficulty defined by absolute timing goals (in ms) that were either close to each other (1350, 1500, 1650) or far from each other (1050, 1500, 1950), respectively. We assessed older participants’ timing accuracy in these conditions, during acquisition and delayed retention learning, using the frontal alpha asymmetry index, recorded during practice, to measure motivation. On the accuracy measure in delayed retention, the algorithm practice schedule (in both similar and dissimilar conditions) was associated with significantly more accurate performance than random and blocked practice schedules. Also during delayed retention and in both task difficulty conditions, performance was better with a random schedule than a blocked schedule. On the EEG motivational measure, frontal alpha asymmetry was more often higher as practice progressed in the algorithm practice condition than in other practice conditions. However, in the random practice schedule, in late, versus early, acquisition, motivational regulation was higher. The blocked groups showed decreased motivation as practice progressed. We interpreted these findings to be in accordance with the challenge point framework and with OPTIMAL motor learning theory and valence hypothesis.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T05:41:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221098325
       
  • “I Can Help Them Become Better Teachers, But I Can’t Help Them With
           Educative Teacher Performance Assessment”: Cooperating Teachers’
           Knowledge and Experience of the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment
           in Physical and Health Education

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Craig Parkes, Shelley L. Holden, Nick O’Leary, Jamie Brunsdon
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Utilizing a thematic analysis approach, this case study investigated cooperating teachers’ (CTs) knowledge and experience of the educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) in physical and health education. Participants were 14 certified physical education (PE) and/or health education CTs from a single school district in Alabama. Data were collected through one-on-one interviews; Nvivo software was employed to store, organize, and code the data, and data analysis utilized analytic induction and constant comparison techniques. Five themes emerged regarding edTPA preparation of these participants: (a) a lack of teacher training and resources, (b) receipt of informal information from teacher candidates (TCs), (c) perceptions of providing inadequate support, (d) CT experience with obtaining parental waivers and class recordings, and (e) a perceived edTPA tradeoff of increased stress for teacher development. There was a clear need in this district to: (a) better promote edTPA training opportunities, (b) consider compulsory edTPA training for CTs who supervised TCs, (c) share edTPA training handouts and resources with CTs, and (d) ensure that university faculty clearly communicate edTPA requirements to CTs.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T05:07:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221095933
       
  • Effect of Teaching Method on Exercise Execution in Adolescents’ Use of
           Outdoor Fitness Equipment

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago, Adrián Paramés-González, Iván Prieto-Lage
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The use of outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) is an effective strategy to promote physical activity. The equipment normally includes information panels with phrases and images describing appropriate exercises. However, as using this equipment inappropriately is a potential problem, it is important to find an optimal unsupervised instruction method for correct exercise execution. Our objective in this study was to determine which of several exercise prescription methods, without direct professional supervision, might best instruct adolescents to correctly engage in upper limb motor execution on outdoor flexion-extension equipment. A total of 54 adolescents from a middle socioeconomic level in northwest Spain participated in this descriptive and quasi-experimental study. We randomly assigned members of this convenience sample into three groups who received either video instruction, instruction via images or written panel instructions. We used observational methodology in videographic analysis to evaluate the mistakes participants made in motor execution with each instructional method. We utilized different analytic techniques from observational methodology: statistical analyses (means, standard deviation, confidence intervals, ANOVA, etc.) and detecting T-Patterns with Theme and polar coordinate analysis using HOISAN. Participants who relied on video instructions committed fewer errors than those who relied on panel instructions. The video method prevented loss of information that occurred when instructional images were used. We suggest including a QR code on outdoor fitness equipment in open-air parks to permit users to download an explanatory video to their mobile phones.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T05:06:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221098635
       
  • Enhancing Executive Functions and Handwriting with a Concentrative
           Coordination Exercise in Children with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shao-Hsia Chang, Jung-Jiun Shie, Nan-Ying Yu
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Handwriting difficulties are common in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and they have been associated with lower academic achievement and self-esteem. Our aim in this study was to determine if training coordination of the head, eyes, and arm and engaging in the necessary visual concentration associated with table tennis would improve executive functions and school-based handwriting among children with ADHD. We designed a randomized controlled trial to explore the therapeutic efficacy of this table tennis training and recruited 48 children with ADHD that we randomly assigned to one of three equal-sized training groups: (a) actual table tennis, (b) simulated table tennis (exergame), or (c) a control group receiving no additional training. The training intervention lasted 12-weeks in which the two different table tennis trainings (i.e., actual or simulated) were scheduled for three one-hour sessions per week. Outcome measures included a computerized handwriting evaluation, the Stroop test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Participants in each table tennis training group showed significant improvements in handwriting performance, response time, and required time to achieve automation. Both intervention groups also showed significant improvements on the Stroop Color-Word test, but only the actual table tennis training group showed a significant improvement on the WCST. This study provided evidence of at least short-term improvements in executive functions and handwriting problems in children with ADHD through their participation in table tennis motor coordination activities.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T06:15:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221098324
       
  • Construct Validity Evidence in the Motor Coordination Test with Ball -
           MCTB

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Schelyne Ribas, Layla M. C. Aburachid, João Marôco, Tatiane Mazzardo, Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Pablo Juan Greco
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our purpose with this study was to analyze construct validity evidence for the Motor Coordination Test with Ball (MCTB). Our participant sample included 1620 students (741 girls; 879 boys) aged between 10-12 years. Evidence for construct-validity of the four tasks using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and adequacy indices confirmed a good fit of a final two-dimensional model (BTS = .000; KMO = .83; loading .53 to .91; communalities ranging from .31 to .86; explained variance of 63.5%; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = .99; adjusted GFI (AGFI) = .97; RMSR = .03), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (X2/df = 4.9; GFI = .97; comparative fit index (CFI) = .92; TLI = .90; Root-Mean-Square Error of Aproximation (RMSEA) = .03). We concluded that, in a Brazilian sample, the MCTB has good construct validity for motor coordination tests with balls; this helps qualify this test for use in schools and in the sports context.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T01:20:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221098318
       
  • Convergent Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Unsupported Upper
           Limb Exercise Test in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Zeynep Busra Karazeybek, İlknur Naz
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Chronic neck pain (CNP) causes decreased functionality of the upper extremity. A standardized measurement tool is needed for evaluating upper limb capacity in patients with CNP. The unsupported upper-limb exercise test (UULEX) is a simple, inexpensive field test developed to measure peak arm exercise capacity, but there has been no report of its validity and reliability for use with patients with CNP. Our aim in this study was to determine the validity and test-retest reliability of the UULEX for this purpose. In this cross-sectional observational study, 44 patients (33 women, 11 men; M age = 37.7, SD = 13.2 years), performed the UULEX twice, within a 1-week interval for test-retest reliability as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We correlated the UULEX with the Six Minute Pegboard Ring Test (6PBRT), the 30-second Push-Up Test, and the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) to assess its convergent validity. The UULEX demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with ICC = 0.97 and 0.95 for test duration and the final weight on board, respectively. We found moderate to strong correlations between the UULEX and the 6PBRT (r = 0.844), the 30-second Push Up Test (r = 0.741) and the DASH (r = −0.639), and all were significant, (p < 0.05). MDC values were determined to be 57.7 seconds for test duration and 0.22 kg for final weight on board. Thus, the UULEX test was valid and reliable for assessing upper extremity functional capacity in patients with CNP.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T09:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221096400
       
  • Effects of Baby Swimming on Motor and Cognitive Development: A Pilot Trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Federica Borioni, Valentina Biino, Valeria Tinagli, Caterina Pesce
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Contact with water, even from birth, may be an important experience for child development. In this work, we aimed to investigate if baby swimming might influence infant development in motor and cognitive domains. We assigned infants to either a 10-week baby swimming intervention (n = 12; M age = 13 months (SD) = 7) or a control group (n = 15; M age = 22 months (SD) = 6). We assessed motor development with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (2nd edition, PDMS-2) and cognitive development with core tests of executive functions: delayed response for working memory, object retrieval for inhibition, and A-not-B for response shifting. Non-parametric analyses revealed that infants in the baby-swimming group improved in gross, fine, and total motor skills, and showed marginally better inhibition speed and shifting accuracy, with associated gains of shifting accuracy and fine and total motor skills. Even with in this small-sized convenience sample, this pilot study revealed promising benefits from baby swimming on motor development that warrant further study. This preliminary work paves the way for replication and illustrates what effect sizes may be expected in sufficiently powered well-designed follow-up research targeted to aid the joint development of motor and cognitive skills as early as infancy.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T03:08:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221090203
       
  • Exploring the Impact of Mental Fatigue and Emotional Suppression on the
           Performance of High-Intensity Endurance Exercise

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Clara Schlichta, Luana Loss Cabral, Caroline Kemela da Silva, Marcelo Bigliassi, Gleber Pereira
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the extent to which mental fatigue and emotional suppression affected exercise endurance. Twelve participants performed cycling endurance tests at 80% of their peak power up to the point of exhaustion. Two experimental conditions (mental fatigue [MF] and emotion suppression conditions [ES]) and a control condition (CO) were administered. Participants responded to psychological measures throughout the exercise trials. Both MF and ES conditions hindered exercise performance relative to the CO, and there was no statistically significant difference between the negative effects of both MF and ES conditions. Of note, however, higher levels of subjective fatigue were reported in MF, prior to commencing the exercise test. High cognitive loads that induce MF and/or engaging in ES may reduce high intensity endurance exercise performance among young adults, but further research with greater numbers of participants is needed to replicate and extend these findings.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T03:29:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221093898
       
  • Kinetic and Kinematic Analyses of Countermovement Jump in a Small Sample
           of Individuals with Congenital Vision Loss

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Masaki Iguchi, Shojiro Nozu, Toru Sakuma
      First page: 349
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, we aimed to explore whether countermovement jumps (CMJs) performed by young adults with and without visual impairment (VI) differ. We compared three participants with congenital VI to 10 participants without congenital VI when both groups performed CMJs with maximum effort. Although the maximum jump height did not differ between groups, all three participants with VI showed such reduced maximum downward velocity of the center of body mass and a relative net negative vertical impulse that, on these measures, they fell beyond two standard deviations from the mean scores of participants without VI. The range of motion for the leg joints and countermovement depth did not differ between groups. Although findings from our small sample should be cross-validated and trainers should take care to protect athletes from falls, it appears from our preliminary data that a path to improved CMJ performance for athletes with VI is to increase their movement velocity in the countermovement phase of the jump.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T03:56:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125211073024
       
  • Sex Differences in the Visuomotor Control of Obstacle Crossing When
           Walking are not Age-Related

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sho Kunimune, Shuichi Okada
      First page: 362
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To ensure stable obstacle crossing when walking, visual information is required two steps before reaching the obstacle. As possible age-related sex differences in visuomotor control have not been investigated, we assessed sex differences in obstacle crossing while walking, as examined by toe clearance (TC) and postural stability. Participants were 14 younger and 14 older adults (equal numbers of men and women) who wore goggles for visual field adjustment while obstacle crossing during gait. We manipulated three visual field occlusion conditions (total, lower, and no visual field occlusions) two steps before the obstacle and analyzed the TC of the lead limb, and the participants’ step width and root mean square of trunk acceleration as indices of postural stability. We found a significant interaction between sex and visual condition in step width, with men showing larger step width values than women in all visual field conditions. Moreover, while women showed no step-width differences across visual field conditions, men had a larger step width with the lower visual field occluded than in the other visual conditions. We found no other significant sex differences. Our results suggest that men may be more dependent than women on the upper visual field for postural stability during obstacle crossing. Sex differences in visuomotor control were not affected by age.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T12:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221077566
       
  • Managing Increased Cognitive Load in a Guided Search

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Josée Turcotte, Bruce Oddson
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the Sternberg item recognition task and its variants, an individual’s mean reaction time increases with the number of items to be retained in the memory set. An increase in reaction time has also been seen when a secondary task was added. The usual interpretation for this increased reaction time is that adding cognitive load makes tasks more difficult. In a series of three experiments, we manipulated cognitive load through increases in the memory set or through a second task. In each experiment, high cognitive load was associated with higher mean response times but a reduced slope, based on the target position in a series of probes. Thus, in a Sternberg task with multiple word targets and multiple word probes, participants searched more efficiently per probe under high load than under low load. This pattern was replicated with the addition of a working memory task requiring participants to calculate a cumulative price based on the price per target word item. By considering both initial response times and reaction time slopes in large memory sets, this study provides a challenge to the traditional interpretation of cognitive load effects on search performance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-03-22T07:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221076440
       
  • How Untidiness Moves the Motor System

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Francesca Fiori, Andrea Ciricugno, Maria Luisa Rusconi, Ryan J. Slaby, Zaira Cattaneo
      First page: 399
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Humans tend to prefer order to disorder. Orderly environments may provide individuals with comfort due to predictability, allowing a more efficient interaction with objects. Accordingly, a disorderly environment may elicit a tendency to restore order. This order restoration tendency may be observed physiologically as modulation within corticospinal excitability; the latter has been previously associated with motor preparation. To test these hypothesized physiological indices of order restoration, we measured possible changes in corticospinal excitability, as reflected by the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex while participants viewed ordered and disordered rooms. We found that images depicting disorderly environments suppressed excitability within the corticospinal tract, in line with prior findings that motor preparation is typically associated with decreased corticospinal excitability. Interestingly, this pattern was particularly evident in individuals that displayed subclinical levels of obsessive-compulsive traits. Thus, a disorderly environment may move the motor system to restore a disorderly environment into a more orderly and predictable environment, and preparation for “order” may be observed on a sensorimotor basis.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T06:28:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221086254
       
  • The Use of Caregivers’ Smartphones to Assist Infants’
           Circadian Sleep–Wake Cycles

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Akiko Tange, Mitsuo Hayashi
      First page: 415
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Parents and caregivers lack knowledge regarding young children’s sleep routines due to an absence of general guidelines about sleep development, and this knowledge gap has been associated with infants’ sleep problems. Approximately 30% of infants develop sleep problems, including difficulty with falling asleep and night-waking. In this study, we sought to develop a new indicator of regularity in infants’ circadian sleep–wake patterns. Our participants were healthy Japanese mothers and their infants (n = 172 infants; Mage = 4.9, SD = 3.5 months). Mothers used their smartphones to record the time when their infants fell asleep and woke up in their natural home environments over 7 days. We conducted least-squares spectrum analysis, a time-series analysis often used in chronobiology, to calculate the percentage variance (PVA) of the best-fitted cosine waves with a 24-hr periodicity in the infants’ sleep records. We found that the PVA of the 24-hr cycles in the infants’ sleep records were significantly correlated with the infants’ age in months (r = 0.554, p < 0.001), variations in their waking-up (r = −0.316, p < 0.001) and falling asleep times (r = −0.430, p < 0.001), and sleep duration (r = −0.343, p < 0.001). Apart from these normative data, which are of potential comparative use by other investigators, we showed in this study that PVA data can be collected by infants’ parents and caretakers through smartphones to provide parents an indicator of the regularity of an infant’s 24-hr periodicity.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T04:49:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221088531
       
  • Joint Specificity and Lateralization of Upper Limb Proprioceptive
           Perception

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Najib M. Abi Chebel, Nadege A. Roussillon, Christophe Bourdin, Pascale Chavet, Fabrice R. Sarlegna
      First page: 431
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Proprioception is the sense of position and movement of body segments. The widespread distribution of proprioceptors in human anatomy raises questions about proprioceptive uniformity across different body parts. For the upper limbs, previous research, using mostly active and/or contralateral matching tasks, has suggested better proprioception of the non-preferred arm, and at the elbow rather than the wrist. Here we assessed proprioceptive perception through an ipsilateral passive matching task by comparing the elbow and wrist joints of the preferred and non-preferred arms. We hypothesized that upper limb proprioception would be better at the elbow of the non-preferred arm. We found signed errors to be less variable at the non-preferred elbow than at the preferred elbow and both wrists. Signed errors at the elbow were also more stable than at the wrist. Across individuals, signed errors at the preferred and non-preferred elbows were correlated. Also, variable signed errors at the preferred wrist, non-preferred wrist, and preferred elbow were correlated. These correlations suggest that an individual with relatively consistent matching errors at one joint may have relatively consistent matching errors at another joint. Our findings also support the view that proprioceptive perception varies across upper limb joints, meaning that a single joint assessment is insufficient to provide a general assessment of an individual’s proprioception.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T02:52:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221089069
       
  • Immaturity of Oculomotor Capabilities During a Reading Task in Children
           Born Prematurely: An Eye Tracker Study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maria Pia Bucci, Simona Caldani, Béatrice Boutillier, Alice Frérot, Caroline Farnoux, Anne-Laure Virlouvet, Aline Rideau-Batista-Novais, Clémence Trousson, Valerie Biran
      First page: 454
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To our knowledge, there are no studies recording the reading eye movements of children born prematurely. We examined the oculomotor patterns during reading of 23 children born prematurely (M age = 7.8, SD = 0.2 years) to compare them with those from two groups of children born at full-term who were matched for chronological age or reading age, respectively. We found the oculomotor reading pattern in children who were preterm to be similar to that of children who were full-term and matched for reading age; this shared pattern was characterized by longer duration of fixations, frequent prosaccades of smaller amplitude and several backward saccades. In contrast, when these two groups were compared to full-term children matched for chronological age, the latter group showed significantly shorter duration of fixations, less frequent saccades and larger amplitude prosaccades. Thus, the oculomotor pattern we observed in 7-year-old children who were either preterm or reading-delayed, relative to their age-matched peers, reflected delayed development of brain areas involved in reading-related eye movements.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T07:14:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221088548
       
  • Preventing Children From Developing Dyslexia: A Premature Writing
           Hypothesis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David S. Mather
      First page: 468
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      It has been argued that dyslexia may develop in strongly left eye dominant children through learning to write using ipsilateral, right hemisphere motor pathways. New light on this theory has been cast by recent findings of atypical enhanced corpus callosum white matter in children with dyslexia, reflecting right to left hemisphere communication that is resistant to intensive remedial reading intervention. Enhanced corpus callosum white matter is consistent with uninhibited right to left hemisphere ipsilateral mirror-motor innervation, manifested as frequent mirror-letter writing errors in children with dyslexia. Delaying writing instruction until 7–8 years of age may prevent these errors and as well as the development of dyslexia. During the 7–8-year age period, visual-proprioceptive integration enables a child to mentally map whole word visual images onto kinesthetic/proprioceptive letter engrams (memory representations). Hypothetically, this process is facilitated by anterior commissure activity involving interhemispheric transfer of ipsilateral mirror-to-non mirror-motor movement. This postulate, involving delayed writing instruction pending further maturation, also receives indirect support from the remarkable proficiency leap among second graders reading Hebrew as Hebrew involves a leftward orthography in which ipsilateral right to left hemisphere innervation is uninhibited. Additionally, and more directly, normal reading comprehension for learning English among children with agenesis of the corpus callosum suggests that letter-sound decoding is not the sole route to proficient reading comprehension. In this paper, I make recommendations for obtaining empirical evidence of premature writing as a cause of dyslexia.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T01:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221075001
       
  • Video Game Play Does Not Improve Spatial Skills When Controlling for
           Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off: Evidence From Mental-Rotation and Mental-Folding
           Tasks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ali Safaei, Mahdieh Rahmanian, Mohammad Oraki, Artyom Zinchenko
      First page: 488
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have been divided on the efficacy of computerized cognitive training (CCT) for enhancing spatial abilities, transfer of training, and improving malleability of skills. In this study, we assessed the effects of puzzle video game training on subsequent mental rotation (MR) and mental folding (MF) performance among adults with no cognitive impairment. We assessed participants at baseline with the Shepard-Metzler MR test followed by the differential aptitude test: space relations MF test (i.e., far transfer). We ranked participants’ skills on these pre-tests and used a matching technique to form two skill groups from which we then randomly assigned members of each skill group either to an experimental group or a wait-list control group. The experimental group played two puzzle video games closely related to two-dimensional and three-dimensional MR tasks during 4-week training sessions (total of 12 hour of video games). Post-training, participants completed the MR and MF tests again. Two months later, we re-assessed only the experimental group’s spatial skills to explore the sustainability of the trained performance. In addition to response times (RT) and error scores (ES), reported separately, we combined these variables into rate correct scores (RCS) to form an integrated measure of potential speed-accuracy trade-offs (SAT). As a result, we did not find significant improvements in MR performance from CCT engagement, nor did participants show a transfer of skills obtained by practicing MR-related puzzle games to a MF task. Based on the current findings, we urge caution when proposing a game-based intervention as a training tool to enhance spatial abilities. We argue that separately interpreting individual test measures can be misleading, as they only partially represent performance. In contrast, composite scores illuminate underlying cognitive strategies and best determine whether an observed improvement is attributable to enhanced capacities or individual heuristics and learned cognitive shortcuts.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T02:24:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221078982
       
  • Judokas Show Increased Resilience to Unpredictable Stance Perturbations

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marina T. Betelli, Julia Á. de Oliveira, Daniel B. Coelho, Luis A. Teixeira
      First page: 513
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Combat sports are characterized by frequent large-scale stance perturbations that may lead to falls. In the present investigation, we compared compensatory arm and leg movements in response to unpredictable stance perturbations between judokas and other athletes whose sports present reduced balance demand, relative to combat sports. Specifically, we tested judokas (n = 9), and a group of swimmers and runners (n = 11, controls) in sudden support base displacements in the mediolateral direction, generated by a movable electronic platform, in the following modes: (a) rotation, (b) translation, and (c) combined rotation-translation. The platform was displaced to either side, in three peak velocities (cm/second or o/second) of 20 (low), 30 (moderate), or 40 (high), resulting in 18 distinct perturbations. We evaluated postural responses with a scale for analyzing the stability of compensatory arm and leg movements (CALM). Results showed that, in the most challenging perturbations, judokas had higher stability scores (arm, leg, and global) than did the comparison group. Higher scores for judokas reflected their increased rate of motionless arm and leg responses and absence of near-falls, compared to 30% falls in the most challenging perturbations for the swimmers and runners. As a practical application, judo training may help achieve stable compensatory limb movements in a way that parallels the benefits obtained from perturbation-based balance training in laboratory settings.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T01:01:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087581
       
  • The Effect of Simulating Climbing Movements on Rock Memory and Exploratory
           Movement in Rock Climbing

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Takahiro Sugi, Anda-Maria Nițu, Masami Ishihara
      First page: 528
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Simulating climbing movements on a given route is important for fluent rock climbing. We investigated the effect of simulated action during rock climbing route finding on memory and exploratory movement. Participants were 12 climbers and 12 non-climbers who completed three experimental tasks: (a) a questionnaire, the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) for measuring vividness of motor imagery, (b) a memory task requiring recognition of rock climbing holds on the route, and (c) a traversing task requiring participants to climb a given route and count the number of exploratory movements made during climbing. During route finding in the memory/traversing task, we experimentally manipulated the simulative body action with motor imagery. Results showed that the simulative action affected exploratory movement during climbing, but it did not affect memorization of the holds. In the traversing task, climbers showed more exploratory movement when the simulative action was present during route finding, while the non-climbers showed an opposite trend. Moreover, for non-climbers, the effect of the simulative action was modulated by the vividness of kinesthetic imagery. We concluded that simulative body action during route finding facilitated motor imagery and spatial information processing for subsequent climbing involving exploratory movement.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T02:30:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221093909
       
  • Quantitative Assessment of Prewriting Skills in Children: The Development
           and Validation of a Tablet Assessment Tool

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Virginia Chu, Kavitha Krishnan
      First page: 554
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our purpose in this study was to determine the feasibility of assessing children’s prewriting with a new tablet tool, the Quantitative Assessment of Prewriting Skills (QAPS), while determining the validity of the QAPS for identifying visual motor skill differences. We recruited 10 children who were receiving occupational therapy (OT) services for visual motor deficits from a local OT clinic and 10 age-matched typically developing (TD) children from the local community. The QAPS assesses the accuracy of copying patterns on a tablet that records the child’s finger position on the tablet, and the data are then analyzed for different dimensions of pattern copying. We found a large effect size difference in the QAPS total score between our two participant groups, with the OT group showing poorer performance than TD children; and, among nine assessment dimensions, roundness of a drawn circle showed the largest effect size difference between groups. The QAPS appears to be a promising tool for assessing visual motor skills, and it warrants additional testing in larger participant samples.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T06:11:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087802
       
  • Interrelationships of Touch and Proprioception with Motor Impairments in
           Individuals with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Camila A. S. Santana, Mariana M. dos Santos, Ana Carolina de Campos
      First page: 570
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Considering that somatosensory impairments may impact motor performance in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP), a better understanding of these relations is relevant to planning interventions. To synthesize research evidence to date on the interrelationships between the somatosensory functions of touch and proprioception with motor functions in persons with CP, we systematically searched Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Medline databases for studies relating these variables that were published in English from the inception of these databases to November 2020. We targeted the following content categories in our literature search: (a) cerebral palsy; (b) sensory functions; (c) tactile functions; (d) proprioception functions; and (e) motor functions. The selection, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment of these studies were performed in duplicate. We retrieved and analyzed information regarding the studies’ methodological approaches and synthesized results. The 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria showed that, in individuals with CP, impairments in tactile discrimination, proprioception, and stereognosis are related to motor functions in terms of overall manual ability, grip strength, postural control and locomotion. Thus, clinical practitioners should attend to somatosensory aspects of motor impairment in individuals with CP. More research is needed to clarify the direction of these associations.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T11:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221093904
       
  • Analysis of Verticality Perception in Older Adults With and Without Acute
           Stroke in Half-Lying Versus Sitting Positions

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lívia S. Agostini, Priscila S. M. Rodrigues, Rodrigo Bazan, Jussara A. de Oliveira Baggio, Luciane A. P. S. de Souza, Gustavo J. Luvizutto
      First page: 591
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Currently, there is no research consensus regarding the influence of body position on verticality perception in acute stroke. In this study, we aimed to compare the influence of half-lying and sitting positions on measurements of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the subjective haptic vertical (SHV) of individuals in the acute stroke phase. In this cross-sectional study, we compared these positional experiences in two groups of participants: adults in the acute stroke phase and elderly individuals without stroke. Independent variables were stroke versus no-stroke groups, in half-lying versus sitting positions. Analyzed variables of related interest were cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE), stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or NIHSS), and trunk control (Trunk Impairment Scale or TIS). Dependent variables were visual and haptic verticality, as evaluated by SVV and SHV. There were observed differences in absolute SVV in sitting position between groups (p = 0.021), absolute SVV in half-lying position between groups (p = 0.033), absolute SHV in sitting position between groups (p = 0.003), absolute SHV in half-lying position between groups (p = 0.002), and constant SVV in half-lying position between groups (p = 0.007). In the stroke group there was a higher coefficient of variation of SVV and SHV in the half-lying position compared to sitting position. In the sitting position, we observed a very strong correlation between the TIS and absolute SHV (p = 0.008). We concluded that individuals in the acute phase of stroke had greater misperceptions of visual and haptic verticality than older adults without strokes and that individuals in the acute phase of stroke showed less variability in visual and haptic vertical perception in the sitting position than in the half-lying position. By implication, we should encourage the sitting position in the acute stroke phase and develop early strategies to increase the verticality perception.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T06:01:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221091344
       
  • Perceptual Responses and Future Exercise Intentions of Individuals With
           Systemic Arterial Hypertension

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mirelle Vieira Moreira, Victor Ribeiro Neves, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Sergio Rodrigues Moreira
      First page: 606
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      To analyze the perceptual responses and future intentions (FI) to engage in continuous moderate aerobic exercise (CE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) of individuals with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), we had 25 participants with SAH (M age = 48.0, SD = 8.0 years) perform, on different days and in randomized order, 33 minute sessions of CE and 30 minutes of HIIE. Twenty seconds after each 3-minutes of these sessions, we obtained participant responses to Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE), the Feeling Scale (FS), the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), and attentional focus (AF). We assessed their FI to engage in CE and HIIE at the end of each session. We analyzed results using two-way ANOVAs with repeated measures, Spearman correlation coefficients, a simple linear regression, and Wilcoxon test. We found a significant time by session type (CE and HIIE) interaction effect for RPE (p < .001), FAS (p = .002), and AF (p = .004). Participants’ FI to engage in HIIE were only significantly correlated with FAS (r = −.424; p = .035) and AF (r = .431; p = .032) responses. FAS responses (βz = −.455; R2 = .207; p = .022) and AF responses (βz = .467; R2 = .218; p = .019) predicted FI for engaging in HIIE. There were no significant differences in participants’ FI to engage in CE sessions (M = 76.4, SD =22.5%) versus HIIE sessions (M = 71.8, SD = 22.9%; p = .177). Individuals with SAH had more positive perceptions of CE than HIIE, as seen by their greater dissociative AF in the CE sessions. Furthermore, these results supported the application of strategies aimed at manipulating AF in this population, possibly as a tool to increase participants’ FI to engage in subsequent physical exercise.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:06:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125211073280
       
  • Semantic Versus Orthographic Preferences in Aphasia: Behavioral Evidence

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Susan M. DeMetropolis, Robert Goldfarb
      First page: 624
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we compared the orthographic and semantic preferences of healthy adults and age and gender matched adults with aphasia, an acquired language disorder. Previous research in word retrieval and word associations has addressed semantic and phonological connections, but it has not as often included analyses of orthographic skills. We matched (on age and gender) 10 neurotypical adults and 11 older adults with aphasia and administered to both groups a lexical discrimination task requiring them to select, from 18 choices, those words that were most different from three words (daughter, laughter, son). Among the choices were foil words (e.g., daughter), orthographic similarities (laughter) and semantic similarities (son). Results revealed that individuals with aphasia focused on orthographic differences, while healthy adults chose semantic differences. Further studies should further explore this orthographic focus to develop treatment strategies, using behavioral and objective measures, for word-finding deficits in aphasia.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T09:40:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221080922
       
  • Kindergarten-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Enhances
           Attention and Executive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sana Jarraya, Mohamed Jarraya, Florian A. Engel
      First page: 644
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, we assessed the impact of kindergarten-based progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on attention and executive functioning of 5–6-year-old children. In this randomized-controlled trial, 52 children (26 female; 26 male; M age = 5.4, SD = 0.2 years) from two private Tunisian kindergartens were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Over 12 weeks, 18 children performed PMR in two 30-minute sessions/week, another 17 children performed generic physical education (PE) for two 30-minute sessions/week, and 17 children in a control group (CG) had no systematically guided physical activity and engaged in usual self-chosen activities like free play or artisanal activities during kindergarten hours. Prior to (T0) and after (T1) the 12-week PMR intervention, all participants completed the Visuomotor Precision and Statue subtests of the Neuropsychological Evaluation Battery (NEPSY-2), the Teddy Bear Cancellation Test, and the Rey Simple Figure Test. Although there were no significant group differences at T0, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed higher scores for the PMR group relative to both the PE and CG groups on measures of attention, visuomotor precision, memory, and motor inhibition. PMR provided an effective relaxation technique and enhanced attention and executive functioning of these 5–6-year-old children, with important implications for assisting learning and academic achievement among young children.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T05:16:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221080334
       
  • Dispositional Mindfulness May Have Protected Athletes from Psychological
           Distress During COVID-19 in Australia

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Edward J. O’Connor, Alyson J Crozier, Alistair Murphy, Maarten A Immink
      First page: 670
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Promoting athlete wellbeing has become a priority in elite sport, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated the need for a comprehensive understanding of risk and protective factors. Existing sport research has not yet considered whether specific cognitive factors such as dispositional mindfulness and executive function may protect athletes against psychological distress. In a sample of high-performance Australian football athletes (n = 27), we administered measures of dispositional mindfulness (MAAS), executive function (AOSPAN; eStroop), and psychological distress (APSQ) at pre-season, coinciding with the initial (2020) COVID-19-related sport shutdown in Australia. Measures of executive function and psychological distress were re-administered at the end of the COVID-19 affected competitive season in 2020. Athletes reported significantly elevated psychological distress relative to previous estimates of distress among high-performance athletes established in prior studies. Executive functions, including working memory and inhibitory control were not significantly associated with psychological distress or dispositional mindfulness at either timepoint. However, baseline mindfulness was associated with reduced distress at both pre-season (r = −0.48, p = .03) and end of season (r = −0.56, p = .004), suggesting that dispositional mindfulness may have afforded protective buffering against symptoms of distress. Correlation data alone does not establish a directional connection from mindfulness to reduced distress, and future research is required to elucidate this association and/or establish the mechanism/s by which dispositional mindfulness may protect against psychological distress in this population.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T04:14:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087523
       
  • Physical Exercise Affects Quality of Life and Cardiac Autonomic Modulation
           in Patients With Chronic Kidney Failure Submitted to Hemodialysis: A
           Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ana Beatriz Nunes Pereira, Larissa Lopes Santana, Letícia De Barros Rocha, Katiane Da Costa Cunha, Larissa Salgado De Oliveira Rocha, Marcio Clementino De Souza Santos, Valéria Marques Ferreira Normando, Daniel Da Costa Torres, Rodrigo Santiago Barbosa Rocha
      First page: 696
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Performing physical exercise during hemodialysis has been debated regarding safety and efficacy for improving life quality for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, we explored the influence of physical exercise during hemodialysis on both autonomic modulation of heart rate and quality of life for patients with CKF in a randomized clinical trial. We randomly allocated participants requiring hemodialysis to an experimental exercise group (EG) and a control no-exercise group (CG) and assessed their quality of life with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form—KDQOL-SF™ 1.3 and with Polar RS800CX to monitor their heart rate variability (HRV) before and three months after the end of the exercise intervention. EG participants reported a significant increase in their quality of life (p = .05, physical function, physical aspects, pain, emotional well-being, emotional function; p = .03, energy and fatigue) and showed HRV improvement (p = .05, RMSSD, SDNN, and SD2; p = .004, SD1) after three months of exercise. Thus, we recommend supervised physical exercise during hemodialysis for carefully selected patients.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T11:42:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221085811
       
  • Effectiveness of a Telerehabilitative Home Exercise Program on Elder
           Adults’ Physical Performance, Depression and Fear of Falling

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fatih Tekin, Nilufer Cetisli-Korkmaz
      First page: 714
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Our aim in this study was to analyze the effects of a home exercise program of calisthenic exercises delivered through telerehabilitation on physical performance, depression, and risk of falling in elder adults. Our participants were elder adults aged 65 and over, divided into exercise and control groups. We initiated a 4-week telerehabilitation calisthenic exercise program in the exercise group following initial assessments, while our control group received no formal exercise training. Both groups were evaluated online before and after this 4-week period with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). In total, 255 elder adults participated, with 132 (males = 72, females = 60) allocated to calisthenic exercise and 123 (males = 66, females = 57) allocated to the control group. While the groups did not differ significantly on any of our parameters before the exercise, there were statistically significant post-exercise group differences in GDS (p ≤ .001) and MFES (p ≤ .001) scores related to remarkable physical improvements achieved in the calisthenic exercise group. The exercise group showed significant increases in their scores on the SPPB Balance Test (p = .049), SPPB Chair Test (p = .009), and SPPB Total (p = .002) while there was no significant increase in any of these scores among control group participants (p> .05). Thus, calisthenic exercises performed via telerehabilitation significantly improved elder adults’ physical performance, fear of falling, and depression. Telerehabilitation is a useful remote means of assessing, inducing, and following-up exercise training, particularly during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T05:29:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087026
       
  • Topical Review: Optometric Considerations in Sports Versus E-Sports

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marc Argilés, Lluïsa Quevedo-Junyent, Graham Erickson
      First page: 731
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Electronic sports (e-sports) have recently emerged to become a rapidly growing form of videogame competition, requiring gamers to spend many hours in front of a visual display. The nature of this new modality raises important considerations for ocular health, and visual and perceptual functioning, compared to traditional sports. In general, sports performance has been associated with open spaces, gross motor movement, and balance, while electronic sports require visual and attentional stamina at near distances with fine motor control. From an optometric viewpoint, visual perception is specific to both the sports modality and the environment where sports take place. In this topical review, we consider e-sport optometric factors such as screen time and digital eyestrain, visual skill demands, and perceptual cognitive skills such as visual attention. We compare training considerations for traditional sports and training in gaming platforms, with recommendations for future research in this growing modality. The goal of this review is to raise awareness of the various elements to consider when providing vision care to e-sport participants.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:01:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125211073401
       
  • Improving Soccer Players’ Memorization of Soccer Tactics: Effects of
           Visual Realism, Soccer Expertise, and Visuospatial Abilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hatem Ben Mahfoudh, Bachir Zoudji
      First page: 747
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of visual realism on soccer players’ memorization of soccer tactics according to their level of expertise and visuospatial abilities. We divided 48 volunteers into novice and expert soccer players and had them first perform a multitask visuospatial abilities (VSA) test and then undergo training with three dynamic soccer scenes, each presented with varied levels of realism (schematic, moderately realistic, and highly realistic). We then tested players’ memorization and reproduction of the soccer scenes and measured their visual processing with eye-tracking glasses to identify their cognitive processes during memorization. We found that reducing visual realism improved visual processing and memorization when compared to higher realism (p < .001). Second, both higher (vs. lower) player expertise and higher (vs. lower) VSA influenced visual processing and enhanced memorization efficiency (p < .001). Third, there were significant interaction effects between visual realism, player expertise, and player VSA (p < .001) such that players with high VSA benefited more from reduced (vs. accentuated) visual realism than did players with low VSA. Thus, increasing visual realism can hinder tactical learning effectiveness, especially for learners who lack domain expertise and visuospatial abilities. Practically speaking, coaches and educators might improve their communications by tailoring tactical instructions to learners’ cognitive skills.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:03:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221076448
       
  • Burpee Interval Training Is Associated With a More Favorable Affective
           Valence and Psychological Response Than Traditional High Intensity
           Exercise

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Erika Mayr Ojeda, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, Micaela Reich, Todd A. Astorino, Stefano Benítez-Flores
      First page: 767
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Acute psychological responses to physical activity may help explain long-term adherence to it. Thus, we compared acute psychological responses to different exercise protocols with identical durations. Eighteen moderately active young adults [Mage = 23, SD = 3 years; MVO2max (maximum oxygen consumption) = 42.8, SD = 4.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; MBMI (body mass index) = 24, SD = 2 kg·m−2] completed three low-volume exercise sessions in a crossover research design: (a) sprint interval training (SIT), (b) burpee interval training (BIT) requiring 10 × 5 second efforts with 35 seconds of passive recovery, and (c) a single bout of vigorous intensity continuous training (VICT) requiring 6 minutes and 5 seconds of running at ∼85% of peak heart rate (HRpeak). We assessed participants’ ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), affective valence, enjoyment, intention, preference, and self-reported recovery and wellness before, during, and after each session. BIT was associated with significantly greater enjoyment, preference, and exercise intention (at 5 × week) than VICT (p ≤ .05). SIT elicited greater RPE (M = 5.38, SD = 2.00) than both BIT (M = 2.88, SD = 1.23) and VICT (M = 3.55, SD = 1.38) (p ≤ .05), and we observed a higher increase in RPE over time with SIT versus BIT (p = .019). For affective valence, SIT (M = 0.55, SD = 2.12) elicited a more aversive response than both BIT (M = 2.55, SD = 1.09) and VICT (M = 1.94, SD = 1.51) (p ≤ .05), and there was a higher increase in this aversive response to SIT over time (p < .05). Forty-eight-hour postexercise session muscle soreness was significantly lower with VICT than with BIT (p = .03). Overall, BIT was associated with more positive psychological responses than SIT and VICT.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T09:01:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221083180
       
  • Instructions for External Focus of Attention Improved Taekwondo Kicking
           Performance Only Among Less Skilled Youth

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simo Siltanen, Reijo Bottas
      First page: 787
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      External focus of attention (EFA) studies among children have yielded more equivocal results than have those among adults. Some investigators have found an internal focus of attention (IFA) advantage in children and have explained their results by children’s generally lower skill levels, compared to adults. According to the constrained action hypothesis, children’s lower skill levels are not yet associated with over-learned automatic movement patterns, so their motor performance is not disrupted by IFA instructions. In this study, our objective was to examine a possible interaction effect between children’s skill levels and their exposure to either IFA or EFA instructions on motor performance. Our participants were 40 10–15-year-old taekwondo competitors of higher and lower skill levels (based on both the participant’s experience and their test performance) who engaged in a taekwondo kicking movement before and after either IFA or EFA instructions. We found improved kicking performance with EFA versus IFA instructions only among less versus more skilled participants.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T08:59:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221083748
       
  • Transcultural Adaptation and Psychometric Support for a Brazilian
           Portuguese Version of the Flow State Scale (FSS-)

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: William F. Garcia, José Roberto A. Nascimento Junior, Marcus V. Mizoguchi, Maria R. F. Brandão, Lenamar Fiorese
      First page: 800
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The flow experience in sports is a construct of great interest to recreational and competitive athletes, coaches, and psychologists in pursuit of optimal performance. As there are no validated instruments for evaluating flow in the Brazilian Portuguese language, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Brazilian version of the Flow State Scale (FSS-2) through three steps. Initially, four translators and five sports psychology specialists adapted the FSS-2 content for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Second, 371 athletes of both sexes who were engaged in group and individual sport modalities and who participated in national university sports competitions from 24 states responded to the adapted version of the FSS-2. Third, an independent sample of 34 athletes from Paraná responded to both the adapted FSS-2 and the dispositional flow scale (DFS-2) to permit analysis of the external validity and temporal stability of the adapted FSS-2. We found that the Brazilian version of the FSS-2 contains clear and pertinent items with a good content validity coefficient (CVC = 0.94) and satisfactory internal consistency (α> 0.88/CC> 0.80). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the adapted 36-item model presented adequate fit [X2 (558) = 1258.85; X2/df = 2.256; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.92; non-normed fit index (NNFI) = 0.90; Tucker–Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.91; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06 (0.05–0.06); (RMSEA 0.344) and temporal stability (0.53 < intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) < 0.86) were satisfactory. We conclude that the Brazilian version of FSS-2 is adequate to evaluate flow states experienced by Brazilian athletes following a sports competition.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T05:09:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221093917
       
  • Mental Fatigue Prior to Aerobic Exercise Reduces Exercise Pleasure and
           Negatively Affects Implicit Attitudes Toward Future Exercise

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Felipe de Azevedo Pessoa, Lucas Camilo Pereira, Andressa de Oliveira Araújo, Gledson Tavares Amorim Oliveira, Daniel Carvalho Pereira, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy
      First page: 816
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      We investigated the effects of mental fatigue (MF) on affective responses during an aerobic exercise session at moderate intensity. We submitted 12 insufficiently active adults (50% women; M age = 24.9 years, SD = 3.0; M BMI = 24.3 kg/m2; SD = 2.6) to two 30-minute pre-exercise conditions: an MF condition (Stroop Color-Word task) and a control condition (watching a documentary) prior to their performance of 20 minutes of aerobic treadmill exercise at 40–59% of heart rate reserve. The minimum washout interval between conditions was two days. Perceived MF and motivation to perform physical exercise were assessed before and after conditions with a visual analog scale of 100 mm. We assessed participants’ affective and exertion responses with the Feeling Scale, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and heart rate during every two minutes of physical exercise. Implicit attitudes toward physical exercise were assessed by the Implicit Association Test before the MF and control conditions and after the physical exercise session. The participants in the MF condition reported lower pleasure (M difference = −1.57, 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.50, d = 0.93, p = .008) and higher exertion (RPE) (M difference = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.04 to 2.27, d = 0.66, p = .043) compared to those in the control condition. Participants who experienced MF also reported a more negative implicit attitude toward physical exercise than in the control condition (β = −0.47, 95% CI= −0.73 to −0.21, d = 1.41, p < .001). While these findings should be cross-validated in subsequent research with a larger and more diverse participant sample, there appears to be value in minimizing pre-exercise mental fatigue to avoid negative MF effects on the exercisers’ affective experience.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T10:44:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221091158
       
  • Effects of Sleep Restriction on Self-Reported Putting Performance in Golf

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Masaki Nishida, Taishi Chiba, Yusuke Murata, Kohei Shioda
      First page: 833
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In the present study, we aimed to explore the effects of sleep restriction (SR) on self-reported golf putting skills. Eleven collegiate golfers participated in a self-reported, counterbalanced experimental study under two conditions: (a) a SR condition in which sleep on the night prior to putting was restricted to 4–5 hours, and (b) a habitual normal sleep (NS) condition on the night before the putting test. Following each sleep condition, participants engaged in ten consecutive putting tests at 7 am, 11 am, and 3 pm. Participants reported their subjective sleepiness before each time frame, and their chronotype, defined as their individual circadian preference, was scored based on a morningness–eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). Participants restricted sleep to an average period of 267.6 minutes/night (SD = 51.2) in the SR condition and 426.2 (SD =38.0) minutes/night in the NS condition. A two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of the sleep condition on the lateral displacement of putts from the target (lateral misalignment) (p = 0.002). In addition, there was a significant main effect of time on distance from the target (distance misalignment) (p = 0.017), indicating less accuracy of putting in the SR condition. In the SR condition, the MEQ score was positively correlated with distance misalignment at 3 pm (ρ = 0.650, p = 0.030), suggesting that morningness types are susceptible to the effects of SR on putting performance. Our findings suggest that golfers should obtain sufficient sleep to optimize putting performance.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T02:31:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087027
       
  • Do Perfectionism Traits Predict Team Cohesion and Group Conflict Among
           Youth Athletes'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gabriel Lucas M. Freire, Lenamar Fiorese, José Fernando V. N. d. Moraes, Renan Codonhato, Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto de A. d. Nascimento Junior
      First page: 851
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the predictive power of perfectionism on 413 Brazilian athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion and conflict. Participants responded to the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2, the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire, and the Group Conflict Questionnaire. In data analysis, we used Pearson correlations, multiple regression, latent profile analysis (LPA), and multiple analysis of variance. Regression analysis revealed that perfectionistic standards were positively associated with both task and social cohesion (p < .01), while doubts about action were negatively associated with task cohesion (p < .01). Furthermore, concern over mistakes, parental pressure, and doubts about action were positively associated with social conflict (p < .01), and concern over mistakes was positively associated with task conflict (p < .01). LPA revealed two profiles of perfectionism that we termed perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic striving. Perfectionistic striving was positively correlated with social cohesion (p < .001), and perfectionistic concerns were positively correlated with both task conflict (p < .001) and social conflict (p < .001).
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T12:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221087025
       
  • Psychological Responses to Progressive Exercise Until Voluntary
           Exhaustion: A Study of Adolescent Male Basketball Players

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Adam Laki, Ferenc Ihász, Attila Szabo
      First page: 869
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The affective experience during and after exercise helps determine motivation, commitment, and adherence to sports. Choice reaction time (RT) is critical in decision-making and sports performance. In this within-subjects laboratory experiment, we scrutinized core affect and choice RT in 18 male adolescent basketball players during exercise sessions performed to voluntary exhaustion and during a control condition. The adolescents performed choice RT tasks in one of two exercise conditions and in the control session. Participants’ feeling states differed between exercise and control sessions and decreased slightly even after moderate exercise intensity. Core affect also declined as the workload increased, but it remained pleasant-activated in all conditions. The RT errors increased at the peak exercise intensity. These results suggest that while high-intensity training might negatively affect young athletes’ feeling states and impair their decision-making, their core affect remained positive, with large inter-individual variability. We discuss the practical implications of these results in adolescents’ sports.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:45:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221091686
       
  • Practical Applications for Designing Soccer’ Training Tasks From
           Multivariate Data Analysis: A Systematic Review Emphasizing Tactical
           Training

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega, Gibson Moreira Praça, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      First page: 892
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      Novel viewpoints have led to an understanding that good soccer performers are capable of continuous decision-making and performing excellent motor skills in a well-conditioned mental state. Our aims in this review were to (a) summarize the effects of different conditions and constraints on a soccer player’s response and (b) identify potential training designs for varied soccer tasks from a multivariate perspective, emphasizing tactical training. We performed a systematic literature review according to PRISMA guidelines and identified multiple different player constraints, including model strategies for play, drills designed for varied conditions, and training regimens for the dimensions of the physical demands soccer players will face. The use of match-sized training spaces may improve physical fitness and collective tactical behavior, while smaller spaces may contribute to improving tactical behavior from micro-structures (e.g., 1 vs. 1). Pre-session exercises that accelerate the appearance of fatigue during training may help delay the onset of match fatigue and boost players’ creativity. Pitch modifications (dimensions or boundary modifications), modification of game principles (defending strategies or team formations), and altering the number of players involved or coach instructions may contribute to different player improvements. Differential learning, as a non-linear pedagogy, may induce improvements in all dimensions, but especially in creative thinking.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T02:02:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125211073404
       
  • Effects of a Short Video Physical Activity Program on Physical Fitness
           Among Physical Education Students

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yeşim Bulca, Emre Bilgin, Figen Altay, Gıyasettin Demirhan
      First page: 932
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      The Brain Break (BB) short video program is designed to improve physical activity (PA), motor skills, and fitness in children. In this study, we examined the effects of an 8-week short video-based Brain Break (HOPSports Company) PA program within physical education (PE) lessons on fitness and fitness knowledge among students. We studied 62 fifth-grade students (experimental group = 28; control group = 34) in the Ankara, Turkey school district. The experimental group received PE lessons once per week for eight weeks with the BB PA program, with extra videos viewed at home three days per week, while the control group received routine PE lessons during this period. We collected student responses to the Fitness Knowledge Test for Children and the Fitnessgram Test Battery before and after the experimental BB program. Results revealed that the experimental group showed increased fitness and fitness knowledge compared to the control group, showing that the BB PA videos can increase fitness and fitness knowledge in students.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T12:18:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221088069
       
  • Physical Activity Time and Intensity in Physical Education During the
           COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Joana Lourenço, Catarina Rodrigues, Fábio Flôres, Denise Soares
      First page: 946
      Abstract: Perceptual and Motor Skills, Ahead of Print.
      With the COVID-19 outbreak, schools have experienced difficulty providing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to their students, which should normally account for at least 50% of children’s physical education (PE) class time. We aimed to determine the intensity of physical activity (PA) within PE classes at various grade levels to compare children’s in-class PA with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended guidelines. Thus, 301 students (1st to 12th grade) participated in the investigation. Children were evaluated during the PE classes with different typologies and durations. We assessed PA intensity using accelerometry and grouped data into either sedentary-to-light PA (SEDLI) or MVPA. Each child was assessed using both the time spent in PA (hours:minutes:seconds) and the percentage of time spent in PA versus other class activities. We found that, in the second-grade level group (fifth and sixth grades), girls spent more time in MVPA intensity than boys. Additionally, two-hour PE classes doubled the SEDLI for students in the third-grade group, and polythematic classes (those with more than one sport) promoted more MVPA level time than monothematic classes (only one sport). Concerning PA intensity during PE classes, 31–43% of the PE class total time was spent in MVPA but presented short duration and did not usually persist for 10 consecutive minutes (59% of the time). Children spent a large amount of time at the SEDLI intensity, considered insufficient for PA health benefits. Finally, to meet WHO guidelines for PA intensity, PE classes will need to increase MVPA time and reduce non-active periods between activities.
      Citation: Perceptual and Motor Skills
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T11:55:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00315125221093906
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 18.207.133.27
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-