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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Communication & Sport
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.385
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2167-4795 - ISSN (Online) 2167-4809
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Racing With a Purpose: Sustainability in Formula E

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      Authors: Walker J. Ross, Michael Pfahl, Sylvia Trendafilova
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the seasonal sustainability reporting of Formula E for its content, variation, and linearity. Formula E was chosen since it was built as a sustainable sport enterprise rather than one which integrated sustainability into existing operations and for the accessibility of its annual sustainability reports. Using an exploratory approach for content and variation, and the Green Waves of sport sustainability for linearity, eight seasons of sustainability reports from Formula E were collected and examined via content analysis. Findings revealed the major content areas for Formula E concerned event management, car design, and community engagement with these initiatives classified as internal or external efforts. Reports were inconsistent in their structure, language, scope, and focus. The Green Waves suggest that while some efforts progress, others may regress according to strategy or the initiative’s life cycle. Formula E is progressing overall in their sustainability efforts, but exemplifies the lack of an end point to sustainability efforts. It is suggested that better coordination could yield higher strategic success and recognition.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T06:55:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241233558
       
  • Loved It, Miss It, Would Never Go Back: Why U.S. Local Television Sports
           Broadcasters are Leaving the Industry

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      Authors: Kevin Hull
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      For decades, one of the most recognizable public faces of a local television news station was the sports anchor. However, as newsrooms across the United States struggle with employee burnout, sports departments have not been immune to low job satisfaction and high turnover. The purpose of this study is to examine what factors are causing sportscasters at local television stations to leave the profession. A survey of sports broadcasters who had left their positions at a television station for a job outside of broadcasting revealed that they felt overworked and underpaid, and many placed the blame for their problems directly on newsroom management.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T06:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241234822
       
  • Monsters and the Sports They Play: Squaring the Circle of Fan Allegiance
           and Cognitive Dissonance

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      Authors: Andrew C. Billings, Marie Hardin
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-21T03:17:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241234168
       
  • Rare Sites and White Saviours' Gendered Orientalism, Radicalization, and
           the Construction of Muslim Women Soccer Players in TSN’s Radical Play

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      Authors: Adam Ehsan Ali
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In 2016, Canada sports broadcaster TSN aired a documentary, Radical Play, which focuses on the players of football team Diverse City FC, many of whom are Muslim and wear hijabs. As posited in the documentary, following the lifting of FIFA’s ban on the wearing of the hijab, soccer became the women’s vehicle for gaining more confidence and agency, which they use to become social media “crusaders” who fight the online radicalization of girls and women. Utilizing theories of gendered Orientalism, I analyze Radical Play by exploring how Muslim sportswomen are constructed in relation to sport, radicalization, and empowerment. I argue that Radical Play frames Diverse City FC’s story through Western rescue discourses and construct a modernizing process where Muslim girls are said to be empowered by the power of Western sport. The constructed transformation of the women into radicalization informants that keep their communities’ safe acts as a preferred outcome of colonial benevolence and acceptance towards “development subjects.” While the main narrative of Radical Play is leveraged by gendered forms of Orientalism, a critical reading shows how the players voices create cracks in this overarching story that help unsettle dominant understandings of Muslim sportswomen.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T06:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241233557
       
  • Mapping the Field: A Content Analysis of Marketable NCAA Athletes’
           Social Media Self-Presentation

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      Authors: Claire V. Wanzer, Emily J. Pfender, Nicole P. Travis, Amy Bleakley
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The following study applies the framework of self-presentation theory to examine one year of posts (n = 1064) from the TikTok and Instagram accounts of 18 highly marketable NCAA athletes. A content analysis was used to examine differences by platform, gender, and content type following the approval of NIL compensation for collegiate athletes. Findings revealed significant differences between male and female athletes regarding the type of content posted, prevalent self-presentation themes, and engagement. Male athletes were found to post more frontstage athletic performance content and backstage marketable lifestyle content than female athletes. In contrast, female athletes posted more backstage content in the attractive appearance category, which also was the category with the highest engagement from audiences. Additionally frontstage content in athletic performance content categories was more prevalent on Instagram, while backstage content appeared more frequently on TikTok. These findings advance our understanding of athletes’ social media platform use and are in line with traditional media presentations of gender and sport.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-08T08:06:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241232404
       
  • The Construction of Human Rights Narratives in the 2022 World Cup: A
           Critical Examination of US and Qatari News Coverage

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      Authors: Harrison J. LeJeune, Téwodros W. Workneh
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the tensions in the representations of human rights discourses in the context of the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar. Primarily drawing from postcolonial approaches, it investigates how the construction of human rights narratives were deployed by two leading publications representing US (The New York Times—NYT) and Qatari (Gulf Times—GT) viewpoints. In doing so, the study probes the representation and self-portrayal of Qatari cultural, political, and socio-economic repertoire by the NYT and GT, respectively. Results from a qualitative content analysis highlight how the NYT emphasized the exotic Otherness of Qatar and its supposed inability-cum-illegitimacy to host the tournament. Alternatively, GT demonstrated a paradoxical disdain and desire for Western validation. Overall, the narratives in the NYT and GT tell a story of an ambivalent relationship between the West and Qatar situated in the historical context of colonialism and reflective of the ongoing, reciprocal dialogue between publications targeting English speaking audiences.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T04:30:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241230849
       
  • Sports News in Five Arab Countries: A Comparative Study of Journalistic
           Role Performance Across Platforms and Sources

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      Authors: Claudia Kozman, Lanfu (Randolph) Liu
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines journalistic role performance in sports news in five Arab countries in relation to country, geographic frame, platforms, and sources. The comparative content analysis of three journalistic roles – loyal-facilitator, watchdog, and infotainment – in Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) relies on 874 sports news stories from 40 print, broadcast, and online outlets, sampled in 2020 through a constructed, two-week stratified-systematic approach. Results point to variations in all roles as a function of some predictors more than others. Specifically, the UAE tended to be the most loyal/cheerleader, whereas Qatar led in the infotainment role. Loyalty was also apparent across the region in domestic news that was more loyalist than foreign news. Sources mattered in that political sources tended to predict higher levels of loyalist content, while sports sources did not have any impact on any role. Sources’ viewpoint of diversity, on the other hand, revealed multiple perspectives to be associated with more infotainment and watchdog content. The results indicate the loyalist cheerleader role that sports journalists in the West have been associated with for decades also applies to the Arab region, suggesting sports journalists behave in a similar manner irrespective of their country of origin.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-02-03T02:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241231004
       
  • The Role of Gender in Evaluating Athletes’ Endorsements of Corporate
           Social Advocacy Initiatives

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      Authors: Kenon A. Brown, Joshua R. Jackson, Mackenzie Quick, Vernon Ray Harrison
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      When considering that athletes are becoming more vocal about their beliefs related to social justice initiatives, the role of an athlete’s gender could have an impact on how sports fans view that athlete. When deciding to support or oppose a corporate social advocacy initiative, it can be argued that an individual’s perception of an athlete’s or team’s stance towards social justice can be influenced by elements of one’s social identity. Therefore, the current study expands on this idea by exploring how gender affects the perception of the credibility of an athlete as an endorser of CSA initiatives, considering both the gender of the participant and the gender of the athlete. Using both NBA and WNBA athletes, this experiment manipulates a league CSA initiative and players’ endorsements of the initiative to determine if (a) the participant’s reported gender and (b) the athlete’s gender will impact the perception of the athlete’s credibility. Results provided evidence that gender plays a significant role in that evaluation, such that the NBA player was perceived as more credible regardless of respondent gender, and while female respondents recorded no difference, male participants perceived the NBA player as more credible than his WNBA counterpart.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-25T04:47:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241227764
       
  • Azeem Rafiq, an Object or a Subject' “Can the Subaltern
           Speak'”

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      Authors: Umer Hussain, Steve Bien-Aimé
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In the extant scholarship, there remains a paucity of research underscoring how Western media frame the identity of Muslim men athletes from diverse backgrounds who challenge the colonial sporting institution (e.g., cricket) with the allegation of racism. There is also a significant lacuna in literature exploring how the identity of a Muslim man athlete is shaped in Eastern media, ensuing his racial accusations against a Western sporting institution. This study aimed to analyze the media’s depiction of Azeem Rafiq after his racism allegations against Yorkshire Cricket Club, contrasting British and South Asian perspectives through neo-Orientalism and postcolonial theory within media framing scholarship. We analyzed data through textual and thematic analysis. The study results unearth that while Rafiq was heralded as a voice against racism by the British media, some media outlets focused on the narratives of exoticism, otherness, and the mysterious “Orient” while discussing Rafiq’s personality. Further, some Pakistani and Indian media outlets portrayed the Western world as a monolithic entity. The study findings also uncovered that numerous times, the Club’s sponsors’ responses were framed within financial and administrative narratives, often overshadowing the underlying issue of structural racism.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-22T02:08:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241229624
       
  • Core and Catalyst Criteria Motivating CrossFit Athletes to Reveal or
           Conceal Their Non-Visible Health Conditions

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      Authors: Shana Makos, Charee M. Thompson
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Despite robust literature concerning the illness disclosure decision making process, it remains unclear how individuals choose to reveal and conceal non-visible health conditions in group exercise. At the intersection of non-visible illness management and group exercise, the purpose of this study is to apply communication privacy management theory (CPM) to better understand the core and catalyst criteria athletes with non-visible health conditions utilize when determining whether to reveal or conceal their conditions in the context of the CrossFit gym. CrossFit is an international fitness program with more than 14,000 affiliate gyms in more than 155 countries. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 CrossFit athletes. Findings indicate that core criteria prompted athletes to conceal because of identity and stigma threats but reveal as a way to break the stigma and advocate for themselves and others. Catalyst criteria shaped athletes’ disclosure decisions in two ways, including concealing to avoid burdening others and revealing to foster relationships. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-20T11:42:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241228386
       
  • Mechanisms of Emotional Experiences of Online Spectators of E-Sports
           Events From the Perspective of Interactive Ritual Chain

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      Authors: Jing Zhang, Danning Zhang, Guangquan Dai
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      E-sports events play a crucial role as significant entertainment activities and platforms for emotional interaction among the public. This study seeks to delve into the processes underlying the emotional experiences of online spectators during interactive rituals within e-sports events. It employs the core concept of emotional energy within interaction ritual chains as framework for analysis. To accomplish this, we conducted one-on-one semi-structured interviews with 20 online spectators actively engaged in the League of Legends professional league. These interviews specifically targeted their emotions, feelings, evaluations, behaviors, and other relevant experiences both preceding, during, and subsequent to spectating. Our analysis revealed four distinct stages within the emotional energy change process: emotional arousal, immersion, climax, and continuity. These stages collectively culminate in the formulation of a dynamic, continuous, and cyclical emotional energy model. Notably, spectators adeptly employ various emotional regulation strategies to mitigate the impact of disruptive factors. The integration of ritual symbols, coupled with the positive feedback loop of emotional energy, serves to connect the five identified stages and establish a cohesive cyclic upward mechanism. These findings not only offer unique insights into the micro-level emotional experiences of online spectators but also hold practical implications for the effective management of e-sports events.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-17T09:36:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241227771
       
  • Questioning Sports Journalists: Stereotypes, Work Routines, and
           Color-Blind Racism in Sports Press Conferences

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      Authors: Vincent Peña, Mary Angela Bock
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Sports scholars have long studied how stereotypes pervade sports. However, little if any of this research has examined the origins of these stereotypes and how they influence journalistic practice. This study explores sports journalists’ work routines, their perception of stereotypes in sports, and whether there is a connection between the two. The authors conduct a critical discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with 13 sports journalists from across the U.S. Results show that journalists are (sometimes) aware of stereotypes, downplay their role in perpetuating them, and engage in color-blind rhetoric about the prevalence of stereotypes in sports media coverage of college sports. Additionally, the sports journalists interviewed as part of this study outlined the various constraints on their jobs that might impact their ability to establish rapport with athletes, which might result in an increased likelihood of the perpetuation of stereotypes. The findings underscore the need for more scholarly inquiry about sports press conferences and the connection between journalistic practice and ideology, particularly as it relates to race.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-11T04:21:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795241226694
       
  • Alternative Media in Alternative Sport: Platforming Working Conditions in
           Professional Skateboarding

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      Authors: L. Dugan Nichols
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Alternative media enable marginalized people to voice their experiences, challenge dominant ideologies, and circumvent mainstream gatekeepers. Podcasts are an alternative medium that can be counterhegemonic, foregrounding such issues as antiracism, Indigeneity, LGBTQ rights, socialism, and workers’ perspectives. This article expands on alternative-media research by transporting it to the skateboarding subculture. I first depict the skateboard outlets Thrasher Magazine (1981) and The Berrics (2007) website as hegemonic and mainstream. By contrast, I depict podcasts The Bunt (2016) and Vent City (2019) as counterhegemonic and alternative. I then ask: To what degree do skate podcasts acknowledge professional skateboarders as workers' And: Do such shows allow skaters to express grievances with their industry' A discourse analysis of Thrasher and The Berrics demonstrates that they often mystify freelance work, class, and skaters’ working conditions. An analysis of The Bunt and Vent City suggests that podcasts offer unique and radical perspectives, though attention to working conditions is uneven. I find there may be too much overlap between the case studies for an alternative/mainstream distinction to be meaningful. Political currents within skateboarding are still promising, however, and digital media will be essential in making the subculture and industry more inclusive.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-08T03:05:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231223396
       
  • The Popularity Gap: Effects of Social Status on the Visibility of
           Lifestyle Sports Stars on Instagram

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      Authors: Joshua Woods, Leah Oldham, Stephanie House-Niamke, Matthew Hartwell
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Social media provides athletes with opportunities to enhance their personal brands, engage with fans, and access professional opportunities. Several studies have examined how athletes use social media to attract and engage large audiences. Less is known about the social forces that enable and constrain their popularity. Drawing on expectation states theory, this study considers how athletes’ social status affects their follower counts and engagement rates on Instagram. Based on a content analysis of 6240 images posted on Instagram by 112 professional disc golfers, we show that the gender, sport dominance, and physical attractiveness of athletes affect their popularity, controlling for their strategic efforts to self-brand. These findings offer new insight into the ongoing debate over social media’s impact on long-standing inequalities in the media-sport industry.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-05T05:23:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231225620
       
  • Modernity, Aesthetics, and Nation Re-branding in Olympics: A Multimodal
           Discourse Analysis of the Opening Ceremony of the 2022 Beijing Winter
           Olympic Games

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      Authors: Yilei Wang, Dezheng (William) Feng, Hua Wang
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The paper examines the construction of China’s country image in the opening ceremony of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games. It demonstrates how a country that has no winter sports tradition used the mega-event to showcase its national narrative and to promote winter sports industries. A semiotic framework is developed to model China’s country image as evaluative attributes and to elucidate how they are constructed through linguistic and visual resources in the theater, livestream, and video inserts. The analysis shows that the ceremony was narrated around four major themes—the world’s China, People’s China, the aesthetic China, and the modernized China. Instead of revealing a changeless, nostalgic and mythical China that speaks to a Western orientalistic imagination, these four themes work together to reshape a modern China identity, which brings the contrasting values of globalism, nationalism, Chinese traditional aesthetics, and neoliberalism into a coherent artistic performance. The characteristics of nation branding discourse reflect China’s urban regeneration policies on the one hand, and public diplomacies during the COVID-19 pandemic on the other.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-04T11:50:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231225202
       
  • Sports Media Research in the Slovenian Context: Mapping Trends and
           Suggestions for the Future

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      Authors: Kaja Poteko
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This article provides an overview and analysis of how the study of sport at the intersection with the media has developed in the Slovenian context over the last three decades. The first part of the article briefly explains the importance and role of sport and media in the broader social context. By looking in particular at sports journalism and introducing the Slovenian context, the purpose of the study is clarified. The second part identifies and reviews all academic research contributions published on the highlighted intersection and during the selected period. Based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the most frequently addressed aspects of the sports media system, the main research topics identified and the media outlets studied, the main findings are summarized and highlighted. While studies addressing different aspects of nationality predominate, attention to gendered nationalism is highlighted as particularly valuable in the context of studies focusing on gender and its intersections. Event-oriented and decontextualized sports content is problematized in the context of recent studies focusing on some aspects of sports journalism. In the final section of the article, some guidelines are formulated to encourage further research in (and of) this geographical area (and beyond).
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2024-01-03T04:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231223392
       
  • Communication, Disability, and Sport: The Paradox of Increasing Visibility

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      Authors: Marie Hardin, Andrew C. Billings
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-12-13T02:29:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231221613
       
  • Revisiting the Relationship Between Sports Fandom and the Black Criminal
           Stereotype: A Replication and Extension Study

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      Authors: Lauren C. Anderson, Arthur A. Raney
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In news media, one stereotype that is continually over-represented is Black men as criminals, leading to what many refer to as “the Black criminal stereotype.” Although research demonstrates that distorted news portrayals of criminals can provoke stereotypical responses in viewers, limited evidence connects these effects to sport media. Anderson and Raney (2018) explored this in an experimental study (n = 234) and found evidence of the Black criminal stereotype among sports fans. However, more research was needed to further explore this phenomenon. The current study employed a similar experimental design (n = 603) in an attempt to (1) replicate their 2018 study to examine whether sports fans’ perceptions of criminal athletes have changed over the past several years, especially in light of the Black Lives Matter movement, and (2) determine whether the sport played by an alleged criminal athlete might be linked to judgments regarding race and crime in sports. Our findings indicate that sports fandom still predicts stereotypical judgments. However, individual difference variables—particularly social conservatism, African American stereotype endorsement, and gender—were more strongly related. Our findings point toward the potential power of social movements in influencing attitudes and beliefs regarding race and crime.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-12-12T09:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231219742
       
  • “The Media Answer”: How Athletes Conceptualize Their Relationship to
           the Press in the Players’ Tribune

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      Authors: Michael Mirer
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Much of the content that feeds the sports-media system originates through the often-fraught interactions between athletes and journalists. For generations, broader perceptions of this relationship were shaped by sports journalists, who had the last word. The rise of social media and athlete-driven storytelling platforms has seen sports figures speaking with fans outside of this interaction, offering a challenge to the professional authority of the sports journalist and the renegotiation of one of the core routines of mediated sport. One topic athletes and others have taken up in these spaces is their relationship with the press. This textual analysis of 110 stories posted on The Players’ Tribune, an athlete-sourced storytelling portal, finds mixed opinions on the state of athlete-press relations, with some pointing out the limits of what sports journalists can ever know, while others openly question media practices and choices. These messages are significant as athletes are using their platforms to shape perceptions of the sporting press among those most likely to consume journalistic content.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T07:36:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231217169
       
  • Targeted Social Media Harassment: A Comparative Analysis of Toxicity
           Directed at Men and Women Sports Reporters

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      Authors: Rich G. Johnson, Samer Al-khateeb, Ali Forbes, Kyran Cupido
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars and professionals have discussed that women working in sports media are often targeted by hateful rhetoric on social media. Through the lenses of hegemonic masculinity and online toxicity theories, this study examines X (formerly known as Twitter) mentions directed at both men and women sports reporters, comparing how men and women are harassed and how often. The study also uses a network analysis to examine toxic behaviors and communities directed at sports journalists. The sample of nearly 350,000 mentions was gathered over a 12-year period. Results show that while toxic posts directed at women were no more common than those that were directed at men, the content of the toxic posts were markedly different. The toxic posts directed toward men contained many sports-related themes, such as coaches, games, or team names. The toxic posts toward women were more likely to contain discussions of gender, sex, and sexual assault.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-09T09:58:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231213330
       
  • Is the Whole Greater Than the Sum of its Parts' Aggregation of Sports
           Events as a Driver of Coverage of (the) European Championships on German
           TV News Shows

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      Authors: Lars-Ole Wehden, Lena Maria Küpper
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Various stakeholders have hailed the recently introduced “European Championships” – a multi-sport event comprising competitions for European titles in several sports – as a huge success, particularly because some previously overlooked niche sports received an extraordinary amount of media attention. Empirical evidence indicates that the event has elicited increased live broadcasting of the participating sports. However, retrospective coverage in popular news media also plays an important role in helping sports federations attract active members, fans, and sponsors. Based on mediatization and news value theory, we investigated whether “the European Championships” elicited increased coverage of the most popular German TV news show when compared with corresponding stand-alone competitions in previous years. We also assessed whether all participating sports benefitted equally from this mediatization strategy of aggregation. Employing quantitative content analysis using a quasi-experimental design with a non-equivalent control group in a field setting, we analyzed screen time from competitions during (the) European Championships, controlling for national success. The results overall indicate a significant positive aggregation effect, though not all sports profited equally. Our study contributes to a deeper understanding of aggregation as a mediatization strategy that might be particularly attractive to niche sports federations.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-11-04T02:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231194030
       
  • The Effect of Livestreaming Esports Media on Viewer Satisfaction, Flow
           Experience, and Media Loyalty

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      Authors: Yihan Huang, Daehwan Kim, Yong Jae Ko
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Electronic sports (esports) have become one of the fastest-growing forms of new media. As a result, esports livestreaming media is a necessary medium for connecting viewers and esports livestreams. Drawing on the media richness theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how livestreaming media attributes and viewers’ individual characteristics (esports involvement) influence the viewer’s experience (satisfaction and flow experience) and media loyalty. The results of a latent moderated structural equations (LMS) modeling analysis using a total of 568 viewers revealed that informativeness and convenience significantly influenced viewer satisfaction and flow experience, which in turn influenced media loyalty. Interestingly, interactivity was found to be a more important attribute for viewer satisfaction and flow experience among highly involved viewers while informativeness was an important attribute for less involved viewers. Furthermore, viewer satisfaction is pivotal in establishing media loyalty for less involved viewers, while flow experience is key for highly involved viewers. The findings of this research have theoretical implications for the literature on esports media and media consumption experiences and offer managers effective strategies for developing esports media loyalty.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-10-27T09:05:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231209899
       
  • Analyzing Discourses and the Communication of Sport: A Scoping Review and
           Suggestions for Future Endeavors

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      Authors: Ulrik Wagner, Katherine Sveinson
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have been increasingly engaging with discourse analysis as theory and method. At its essence, this approach is centered around communicative acts, and thus is foundational to the study of sport media and communication. However, to our knowledge, no overview of the use of discourse analysis in sport, exercise, and physical education studies exists. Therefore, we conducted a structured scoping review by identifying 1892 papers in 277 journals from 2000 to April 2022, then narrowed the sample to 587 papers that specifically conducted a discourse analysis of sport. We sought to understand which theoretical traditions are commonly utilized, which sub-disciplines embrace discourse analysis with specific attention to communication, and how this approach can enrich and add to the methodological and theoretical development of media and communication studies in sport. Our review illustrated a heavy reliance on Foucauldian discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis across a multitude of sport disciplines, though discourse analysis generally appears less frequently in sport communication journals. To advance our field’s use of discourse analysis, we suggest the need to emphasis a multimodal approach to discourse analysis, the integration of technology within this approach, and directions to theorize beyond dominant approaches to focus on mediated social interactions.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-10-25T09:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231206309
       
  • “All the Makings of an Eventual NFL Starter:” Racial/Ethnic
           Disparities in a Decade of National Football League Draft Profiles as
           Revealed by Natural Language Processing

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      Authors: David M. Markowitz
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Student-athletes are often treated differently and inequitably based on their race/ethnicity. For example, Black student-athletes often face unjust stereotyping and discrimination because they are seen for their athletic achievements over their academic achievements compared to White student-athletes. Using in-game broadcast data, Black athletes are also discussed differently than White athletes, with disparities in how broadcasters focus on players’ physical and cognitive abilities. The current paper draws on and extends this literature by using natural language processing techniques to identify how experts communicate about different National Football League (NFL) prospects. A decade of data (2014-2023), including nearly 4,000 draft profiles, suggested writers attending to Black draftees used fewer positive emotions in player narratives than writers attending to White draftees. Narratives of White players also mentioned the NFL more than narratives of Black players, revealing a possible disparity in perceived belonging to the league. Implications for theory and equity in sport are discussed.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-10-07T12:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231205751
       
  • “We Need to Wake Our World up”: Collegiate Athletes’ Communicative
           Constitution of Activism

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      Authors: Lillian B. Feder, Diane L. Jackson, Sean M. Eddington
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes’ experiences engaging in activism through the lens of the communicative constitution of organizations. Specifically, we investigated the modalities and approaches collegiate athletes employ in their activism. Findings indicate that collegiate athletes gravitate toward online and offline channels, and fiscal, ideological, and organizational activities as modalities for their activist efforts. We also uncovered that collegiate athletes’ inclination to call-in versus call-out is characterized by their willingness to engage with the recipients of their cause-related messages. This inquiry demonstrates the discursive and material nature of collegiate athlete activism, highlighting the call-in approach, and provides direction for athletes and athletic institutions in this time of heightened activist engagement.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T05:56:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231203863
       
  • “I’m Worried They Will Come Back to Haunt Me”: Examining How Retired
           National Football League Players Make Sense of Concussion Risks

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      Authors: Joseph McGlynn, David Cassilo
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This qualitative study examines how former National Football League (NFL) players retrospectively make sense of concussion risks post-retirement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with retired NFL players (N = 10) who sustained at least one official concussion during their professional career. Guided by sensemaking theory and reflexive thematic analysis, themes were generated to characterize player attitudes toward concussion risks. Themes identified include concussions represent an invisible threat, concussions create more concern than other injuries, and head injuries change player outlooks on career longevity. Player strategies to mitigate concussion risks included avoid thinking about the risks by focusing on the moment or on the financial rewards, rely on teammates to look out for each other’s health, and recognize the fine line between valor and discretion. The findings inform risk communication efforts geared toward reducing head injuries in football, as players must balance competing goals of elite performance and sustaining their football career versus prioritizing their long-term health.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-09-21T12:45:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231203366
       
  • ‘Deteriorating Our Relationship for no Good Reason’: Collegiate Beat
           Writers’ Perceptions of Their PR Counterparts

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      Authors: Jason Stamm, Brandon Boatwright
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the contemporary nature of the relationship between sport journalists and media relations personnel, particularly within the context of collegiate athletics. Despite years of sharing a “symbiotic relationship” wherein both sides benefited from the success of the other, sports media professionals have cited a strained rapport, as sports information directors (SIDs) and media relations personnel have taken internal positions aimed at producing content comparable to what sports media have traditionally developed. Through in-depth interviews with 16 beat writers, the current project identified three salient themes related to beat writers’ perceived relationships with SIDs and media relations professionals representing athletic programs they cover: (1) frustration over the control of information, (2) misperceptions about the media’s value to the organization, and (3) growing uncertainty about the future of the relationship between beat writers and media relations professionals. These findings contribute theory and practice within the context of the Strategic Sport Communication Model (SSCM).
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T10:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231201418
       
  • The Framing of ‘Playing Through the Pain’ in the Media: An
           Investigation of Rafael Nadal During the 2022 French Open

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      Authors: Daniel Read, Lauren M. Burch
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Analgesic medication (i.e., painkillers) provides a legal method for athletes to compete through pain. Masking injury presents the risk of injury exacerbation as well as potential organ damage, long-term musculoskeletal conditions, and dependence. The framing of elite athletes using medication to compete through injury could influence the attitudes and behaviors of other sportspersons including junior and recreational participants. This research explored the framing of tennis player Rafael Nadal’s anesthetic injections at the 2022 French Open via content analysis of 103 news articles. The results revealed global news lacked critical coverage, normalized competing through injury under moral frames, and valorized such behavior as heroic and courageous. Further, news coverage can be classified into four types: individual experience, medical, physical status, and policy. Identification of frames related to competing through injury can inform messaging to promote safer practices concerning painkiller use.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T05:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231199037
       
  • Sport Celebrities’ COVID-19 Prevention on Social Media: The Effect of
           Credibility, Social Distance, Identification, and Message’s Power Style
           on Health Behavioral Intentions

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      Authors: Kyu-soo Chung, Chad Goebert
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      During the COVID-19 outbreak, there emerged on social media an active cohort of sport celebrities, promoting through their messages virus-prevention behaviors. The study tested how people’s intentions to adopt COVID-19 prevention practices were affected by their perceived credibility of sport celebrities, perceived social distance of sport celebrities, and identification with sport celebrities. The study also tested how the message’s power style moderated those relations. The researchers selected four sport celebrities who were active on social media and applied powerful and powerless linguistic styles in developing their social media messages. College students (N = 284) were randomly exposed to one of eight stimuli and asked the questions in the self-administered online survey. The perceived credibility positively affected COVID-19 prevention intentions regardless of the message’s power style. The perceived social distance was effective for intentions only in the powerless message. Identification with sport celebrities was effective regardless of the message’s power style, with the powerless message being more effective than the powerful one. The study provides a theoretical perspective on how people utilize sport celebrities’ characteristics as peripheral cues during health information processing. Also, the study offers practical implications for leveraging social media and sports celebrities to promote virus prevention.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-09-06T06:17:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231200014
       
  • Embracing Computational Approaches to Social Media Research: Implications
           for Theory and Praxis in Sport Communication

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      Authors: Brandon C. Boatwright
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T01:38:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231196429
       
  • Athletic Insiders or Nowhere Men' NBC’s Primetime Television Coverage of
           Male Figure Skaters at the 2018 Olympic Games

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      Authors: Lauren Reichart Smith, Paul J. MacArthur
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies of NBC’s primetime Olympic commentary have revealed differences in how the network describes male figure skaters as compared to the composite of other male Olympians. To determine if NBC presented male Olympic figure skaters differently than the composite of other male Olympians during its 2018 primetime Winter Olympic broadcast, all 63.5 hours of NBC’s primetime broadcast television coverage of the PyeongChang Games were examined using a taxonomy that categorized NBC’s commentary about Olympic athletes into macro categories of success/failure, and personality/physicality. This study revealed 10 significantly-different mediated dialogue trends between male figure skaters and the aggregate of other male Winter Olympians. Male figure skaters were more likely to receive success comments related to strength, composure, and commitment, and failure comments related to a lack of concentration, strength, and composure. They were also more likely to receive comments related to being outgoing/extroverted. Other male Olympians were more likely to receive success comments related to intelligence and were more likely to receive comments about their size/body parts and comments in the “other/neutral” category. The findings are analyzed in the context of the PyeongChang broadcast and longitudinal research.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-08-17T05:59:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231184128
       
  • From Prohibition to Promotion: Framing and Sourcing the Legalization of
           Sports Betting in the U.S.

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      Authors: Brian A. Petrotta
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study is to examine a massive shift in the framing of sports betting legalization in the United States. Thematic analysis from newspaper reports covering seminal moments in sports betting between 1991 (when public hearings were held prior to the passage of PASPA) and June 2018 (to include reports that immediately followed the fall of PASPA) identifies dominant frames and sources found in U.S. newspapers. Findings from this study reveal important implications for journalism and future policy making in a new era of widespread state-sponsored sports betting in the United States. Findings suggest that over time economic frames smothered moral/social and integrity frames surrounding legal sports betting. The discourse transformed from one of protecting vulnerable populations and the integrity of the games to one of protecting “consumers” who might gamble in a “safe, regulated” environment while contributing taxes to the state. Further, data revealed that official sources (e.g., professional sports representatives and elected officials) used access to newspaper reporting to assert tremendous influence over policy by shifting the narrative from prohibition to promotion of legalized sports betting.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-08-08T10:51:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231193132
       
  • Towards Normalization of Women’s Football in Spanish Sports Journalism:
           Analysis of 2021 UEFA Women’s Champions League Final Broadcasts

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      Authors: Raúl Martínez-Corcuera, Xavier Ginesta, Joan Frigola-Reig
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This research focuses on the audiovisual broadcasts of the UEFA Women’s Champions League final won by FC Barcelona in 2021. The primary aim of this study is to analyze Spanish media discourses with three specific objectives: to determine the presence or absence of sexism; to identify alternative narratives that may emerge in the broadcasts; and to evaluate whether sports media normalizes these narratives or generates more subtle forms of sexism in the representation of women in football. Sports broadcasting often features sensationalist narratives that can escalate to sexist speech, configured as hate speech, inciting different degrees of aggression or violence. This condition diminishes the potential of sports as a space for coexistence. This article presents a qualitative and quantitative thematic analysis. Following Fuller (2006), Hesse-Biber (2017), and Martínez-Corcuera et al. (2022), we applied coding techniques to examine content related to the representation and participation of women in football. Conclusion reveals a minimal presence of discourses that belittle or marginalize female football players, although multiple alternative narratives that demand equality and recognition are also observed. These findings are consistent with numerous European studies that recognize women's football, although bias against female athletes compared to their male counterparts still persists.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-07-19T08:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231190369
       
  • Is it in the Game' Reflections of Race-Based Stereotypes in EA SPORTS
           FIFA 22

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      Authors: Johnathan Anderson
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have long worked to explore the existence of race-based stereotypes and narratives within sports media. Video game scholars share in this curiosity of understanding the extent to which racial stereotypes are being embedded into games and the role that they may play in cultivating or perpetuating racial stereotypes among their players. Utilizing framing and schema theories as a guide for understanding the media’s role in developing stereotypes, the present study conducted a content analysis of player data present in EA SPORTS’ FIFA 22 to investigate whether racial stereotypes were being embedded in the most popular sports video game (SVG) title through its player attributes. Each athlete represented in the game is given a 0–99 rating across a total of 35 attributes with the intention of reflecting the player’s real-life ability in these areas. Through an analysis of the avatar’s skin tones alongside their respective values for each of the attributes selected for analysis, the study found significant differences between athletes of different skin tones across nearly all of the attributes present that reinforce the Brain vs Brawn narratives scholars have located in many sporting contexts. Conclusions and suggestions of next steps are discussed.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-07-18T07:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231190398
       
  • Exposing a Motherhood Penalty in Sport: A Feminist Narrative Inquiry of
           Media Stories of Canadian Athlete Mothers’ Journeys to the 2020 Tokyo
           Games

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      Authors: Kerry R. McGannon, Shaantanu Kulkarni, Willa Hladun, Andrea Bundon, Ann Pegoraro
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Coinciding with athlete mothers’ stories gaining media visibility, sport media researchers are studying media discourses to learn more about socially constructed motherhood and sport. The present study extends media research on elite athlete mothers, by using feminist narrative inquiry to interrogate discrimination meanings in sport. North American sport media stories were collected on Canadian athletes’ (i.e., boxer Mandy Bujold, basketball player Kim Gaucher) journeys to the 2020 Tokyo Games after being discriminated against due to their motherhood status. Thematic narrative analysis of 103 stories identified three narrative motifs (i.e., recurring concepts) in stories linked to discrimination meanings: last shots, forced to choose, and more than us. The first two motifs are discussed in relation to a motherhood penalty narrative linked to sexism and discrimination. The more than us motif is discussed in relation to the resolution to compete for both athletes, linked to maternal activism and social change. All three motifs exposed and challenged maternal discrimination in sport, using ‘feminist consciousness’ linked to a neoliberal feminist status quo. These findings show the pedagogical potential of media stories for athlete maternity rights awareness and structural change, while highlighting a need for intersectional feminist reform regarding athlete parents and post-pandemic recovery.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-07-11T07:31:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231187916
       
  • Media Framing of Student-Athlete Suicide: An Examination of Problems,
           Causes, Moral Evaluations and Treatment Recommendations

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      Authors: Scott Parrott
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      At least five NCAA student athletes died by suicide in spring 2022. The deaths generated national news media attention while underscoring the stressors student-athletes face in relation to mental health. Journalists play an important role in shaping public understanding of issues, including mental health and suicide. By framing issues, journalists can shape the way audiences interpret (a) problems, (b) their causes, (c) their moral implications, and (d) potential treatments. The present study used thematic analysis to understand how four types of news organizations framed the student-athletes' deaths by suicide in 2022. The study examined 75 stories from national news outlets (e.g., Washington Post), sports publications (e.g., ESPN), student publications (e.g., The Badger Herald at the University of Wisconsin-Madison), and community publications (e.g., The Capital Times in Madison, WI). News stories identified environmental factors (e.g., poor mental health resources, stress) as a problem for student-athletes, while describing misplaced university priorities as a cause. Journalists described a need for universities and the NCAA to improve the depth and breadth of mental health resources for student-athletes, describing the action as a moral imperative. Implications are discussed in relation to sports communication and health communication.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-07-07T05:08:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231187155
       
  • Breaking the Silence: Examining the Role of Parent Involvement and
           Concussion Knowledge on Sports-Related Concussion Conversations

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      Authors: Daniel E. Hartman, Brian L. Quick
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The current study investigates the role of parents’ concussion knowledge, value-relevant involvement (VRI), outcome-relevant involvement (ORI), and impression-relevant involvement (IRI) on their intentions to communicate with their children about recognizing and reporting sports-related concussions (SRC) symptoms. Among 249 parents of youth athletes between the ages of 9 and 15, SRC knowledge, VRI, and ORI were positively associated with parents' SRC communication intentions, while IRI was a negative predictor. Contrary to our hypotheses, parents with higher IRI were less likely to report SRC communication intentions as knowledge increased. Similarly, as knowledge increased, parents with higher ORI were also less likely to report intentions to communicate with their child about the importance of reporting a SRC. Additionally, parents with lower SRC knowledge were more likely to seek information about communicating with their child about SRCs. The study highlights the importance of considering the interplay between parental involvement and SRC knowledge, as well as underlying factors of SRC parent-child communication. Future research should identify specific goals for SRC communication to optimize educational intervention efforts and maximize the potential impact of communication on SRC reporting rates in youth sports.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-07-04T04:55:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231181114
       
  • “Crypt Keeper That She Is”: Mariah Bell and the Media Framing of Age
           in the 2022 U.S. National Figure Skating Championships

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      Authors: Heather J. Carmack, Braidyn S. Lazenby
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In 2022, Mariah Bell won the U.S. National Figure Skating Championship in women’s singles. Media coverage of her win and subsequent appointment to the U.S. Olympic figure skating team did not center on her performance; rather journalists primarily focused on the fact that Bell was the oldest woman to win a U.S. national title since 1927 and the oldest woman to compete in figure skating for the U.S. since 1928. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the media framing of Bell’s win connected to her age as well as Bell’s attempts to de-emphasize her age and reposition her win as evidence of her determination and experience. These competing frames serve as a backdrop to larger discussions about age and participation in sport.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-06-24T03:36:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231185500
       
  • “Why Can’t We Play on Grass'” An Investigation of Discourse on
           Sterling Shepard’s ACL Tear

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      Authors: Emma G. Cox, Gregory A. Cranmer, Brandon Boatwright
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This manuscript considers public discourse surrounding the link between playing surface and lower-extremity injuries within the context of a case study on New York Giants’ wide-receiver Sterling Shepard’s anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, with an aim to identify and explain the use of narratives as a function of commenters’ stakeholder groups and expressions of fandom. Such an effort extends scholarship on issues of athlete health policy to non-cognitive and depersonalized injuries and offers insight into which publics are adopting specific cultural frameworks. Bottom-up framing and social identity theory (SIT) were used as frameworks for interpreting the variance in responses. The consideration of 2,633 public tweets revealed six categories, including thematic framing, episodic framing, health-first narratives, performance narratives, sharing the news, and ambiguous negative commentary. Additionally, patterns associated with stakeholder groups and public expressions of fandom offered both support and challenges to heuristic and theoretical bases of knowledge. This manuscript suggests public sporting audiences are embracing more health-conscious frameworks in social media discourse but that the scope of their focus is directed subsequently by their expression and fandom and concern for their teams.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-06-10T01:36:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231182903
       
  • Fanatic or Ultras: Tribune Culture in Turkey

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      Authors: Salih Tiryaki, Bünyamin Uzun
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The fandom and the tribune both generate their own cultures. Fandom can be positioned in a variety of contexts while establishing this culture. In this sense, hooliganism, ultra-groups, and fandom all gain popularity. This study assessed tribune culture in Turkey. The study further performed ethnographic and netnographic observations in addition to the tribune culture and its facets. During the ethnographic observance phase September-December 2019 period, eight and two home and away matches were watched, respectively, with Bursaspor spectator groups, including Texas, Marathon, and Uni-crocodile (Ünitimsah). The notes conveyed here served as the basis for the first stage of the study. The second stage comprised the netnographic method to review the official Twitter accounts of the fan groups between September and December 2019. During this period, @teksasorg, @maratonplatform, and @unitimsah accounts shared 146, 30, and 230 tweets, respectively. These profiles appeared to create a fan culture that was similar both in real life and the digital environment. As a result, the study concluded that the structure of the sports fan organizations in Turkey is ultra-featured.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-30T01:51:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231172657
       
  • The Alphafly Outcry: Distance Running, Technological Doping, and the
           Rhetoric of Stigma

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      Authors: Mike Milford
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Eliud Kipchoge’s sub-two-hour marathon in 2019 generated both wide-ranging celebration and stern denigration from members of the running community. The latter, motivated by an unexpectedly superior result, turned to stigma rhetoric to protect what they saw as a danger to their sport: the Nike Alphafly. Stigma is an othering strategy that brands its objects as undesirable and threatening to the ideological center of a community. In Kipchoge’s case, his shoe was characterized as technological doping, and rhetors used the framework provided by stigma to imbue the shoe with a moral dimension to warn others away from the threat to the running community’s egalitarianism. This case demonstrates how sport communities perceive and respond to threats to their essential natures through common rhetorical frameworks.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-15T02:47:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231174833
       
  • The Beginning of a Reckoning: An Application of Situational Crisis
           Communication Theory and Image Repair to the National Women’s Soccer
           League

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      Authors: Evan Frederick, Samuel Schmidt, Ann Pegoraro
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the crisis of systemic sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and misconduct in the NWSL within the frameworks of situational crisis communication theory (SCCT) and image-repair theory (IRT). Specifically, this research engaged with three data sources (1) the Yates Report which details team by team allegations, (2) team statements in response to the allegations being made public, and (3) social media interactions in response to all statements. Based on the Yates Report, the Portland Thorns, Chicago Red Stars, and Racing Louisville (as well as the NWSL and USSF) were placed firmly within the preventable crisis cluster, which is marked by organization misconduct and management misdeeds. In terms of SCCT strategies, commonly used approaches were ingratiation and apology. In terms of image repair, commonly used approaches were corrective action, bolstering, and mortification, with corrective action being the most frequently utilized strategy across all statements. Within the preventable cluster, the two statements that received the highest interaction rates and like ratios were those that employed scapegoating, shifting blame, and corrective action. The implications of these findings as well as the utility of SCCT and IRT within the crisis communication landscape are discussed.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-11T11:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231174871
       
  • Disturbing the Balance' How Team Media Position Themselves in the Digital
           Communication Ecology of Sports

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      Authors: Daniel Nölleke, Gregory Perreault
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      As journalism has suffered financial and institutional setbacks globally, this has given rise to so-called peripheral actors in numerous subfields of journalism. In sports journalism, this is reflected by team media. Professionals in this arena would seem to be doing very similar work to that of journalists, thereby shifting long-established power structures in the sports/media complex. However, while team media may pose an existential threat to traditional sports reporting there is also reason to believe that they still depend on healthy sports journalism. Through the lens of communication ecology and based on interviews with team media reporters (n = 28) in Austria and the United States, this study explores how team media actually view their relation to traditional sports journalism. We found that team media reporters rejected the implication that they were somehow to blame for sports journalism’s weakened state in the sports media ecosystem. Instead, they perceived their roles as complementary and were deeply troubled by sports journalism’s weakened standing within the ecology.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T07:07:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231174564
       
  • Fear of Missing Out: An Antecedent of Online Fan Engagement of Sport
           Teams’ Social Media

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      Authors: Younghan Lee, Sangwon Na
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) is the apprehension stemming from missing out on social interactions, and it is a salient motive for sport consumption. Sport fans are active and engaged on social media, and they give Continuous Partial Attention (CPA) to other screens, displaying online behaviors such as accessing team social media channels while watching live sports on screens. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to examine the role of FoMO, with mediations of social media involvement and CPA, on fans' online engagement with sports teams' social media. Participants (N = 328) demonstrated that fans with FoMO have a desire to continuously connect with other fans while watching live sports on screens, which leads to engaging in social media activities related to the sport team. This study provides theoretical and practical implications related to sport fans' social media information-seeking behaviors and for social media managers of sports teams, including the operations of live broadcasts during sports games.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-05-10T06:40:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231174565
       
  • A Sense of Belonging: A Qualitative Investigation Into the Origination of
           Collegiate Sport Fanship and Fandom

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      Authors: Nathan A. Towery
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      A qualitative study utilizing interviews was used to identify the core motivations for the origination of collegiate sport fanship and fandom in the American Southeast. The sample included 20 individual adults that reside in the southeastern United States, either Alabama (n = 2), Arkansas (n = 3), Kentucky (n = 3), Mississippi (n = 5), or South Carolina (n = 7). The sample only included participants from these particular states due to the unique context they provide, as well as exploring how identity as a Southerner may influence collegiate fanship and fandom. Each of these states house at least two major Division 1 NCAA collegiate athletics department, while also not housing any major-league-level professional sports. Thus, participants were more likely to identify with collegiate sports than those living in a region with a professional franchise. Results informed Social Identity theory, and indicated that there are a number of different factors that lead to the origination of collegiate fanship and fandom. Many of the factors deal with family ties, geography, and feeling a sense of belonging.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-04-27T01:15:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231171604
       
  • Inspirational and Worthy of Charity: (Mis)Representations of Disability in
           Sport Media

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      Authors: Katherine Holland, Steven K. Holland, Justin A. Haegele
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored how one United States-based sports media company (SMC) represents disability through their Twitter account. A directed content analysis approach was utilized to analyze the tweets of the SMC for calendar year 2019. Of 6080 tweets reviewed, 126 (2.1%) were determined to represent disabled athletes or individuals. 43 (34.1%) tweets represented disabled athletes or individuals in participant roles while 83 (65.9%) represented disabled individuals in spectator or nonathlete roles. The tweets were coded into one of four categories of disability portrayal (Garland-Thomson, 2002): wonderous (n = 73), sentimental (n = 43), realistic (n = 7), and exotic (n = 3). They were then open coded into relevant subcategories to provide more context. Findings demonstrate that despite the flexibility and opportunity to feature more diverse sports and athletes through one of their social media platforms (Twitter), the SMC chooses to continue the hegemonic practices deployed in their traditional outlets that focus on nondisabled athletes, popular sports, and representing disabled athletes and individuals through ableist and charity-focused narratives. By drawing attention to these inequities, we may be able to promote change and more equitable opportunities for disabled athletes as sports journalism is cemented in digital platforms.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-04-19T04:21:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231170542
       
  • “Putting His Off-Field Issues Aside…”: Exploring Online Sport Fan
           Community Response to Allegations Against Deshaun Watson

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      Authors: Jacob Nason
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In March 2022, a Texas grand jury chose not to indict NFL quarterback Deshaun Watson with sexual misconduct, facilitating his trade from the Houston Texans to the Cleveland Browns. This study used publicly accessible Reddit posts (n = 273) to explore sport fan conversations about Watson from the day a grand jury announced it would not indict him to the day the Cleveland Browns issued an official statement about the trade. I analyzed post text, top-level comments, and replies to the top-level comment on each post using reflexive thematic analysis. Results suggest that while most conversations about Watson avoided discussion of sexual violence, fans also supported or resisted rape culture. Few fans shared an intention to no longer support a team that traded for Watson, highlighting the cognitive dissonance fans may face when navigating opinions about sexual violence and the importance of fandom to their identity. The presence of conversations supporting rape culture and limited space for civil discussions of athlete-perpetrated violence may impact some fans’ attitudes toward sexual violence while making online fan communities an unsafe space for others. These findings have implications for understanding sport fan cultures vis-à-vis sexual violence and situational prevention targeting sport fans.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-04-06T10:33:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231169041
       
  • “She’s Twice Their Age”: Representations of Aging and the Creation
           of an Age Order in Women’s Gymnastics

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      Authors: Kristi A. Allain, Stephanie Dotto
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Elite-level women’s artistic gymnastics is (in)famous for the youth of its competitors. Yet if age representation constructs the limits and possibilities of sport, it is important to explore the effects of these representations. Here we examine media coverage of gymnast Oksana Chusovitina, who has competed internationally up to the age of 46. We conduct content analysis of 17 international competitions in which Chusovitina competed, from 2001 to 2018, exploring coverage of her and the younger gymnasts with whom she competed. As hegemonic masculinity structures a gender order in sport and beyond, we argue that gymnastics coverage constructs an age order in the sport by (1) emphasizing the exceptionality of older competitors; (2) focusing on athletes’ private lives; and (3) constructing the athlete-coach relationship as familial, where coaches are represented as surrogate parents. These techniques diminish the agency of young gymnasts and produce their youthfulness as hegemonic, treating athletes competing beyond their twenties as unworthy of serious attention. When older athletes like Chusovitina are categorized as outliers, the sports media is free to infantilize younger gymnasts, naturalizing their ostensible lack of agency, as well as the sport’s high burn-out and injury rate.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-03-30T09:03:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231167768
       
  • “Save Our Spikes”: Social Media Advocacy and Fan Reaction to the End
           of Minor League Baseball

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      Authors: Virginia S. Harrison, Joseph Bober, Christen Buckley, Victoria Vallos
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      On October 18, 2019, The New York Times reported that Major League Baseball was eliminating more than 40 teams from its minor league system. Fourteen months later, some teams permanently ceased operations when contraction became official. During those 14 months, fans and community members joined advocacy campaigns to save their teams. Given how minor league fans have unique, community-based identities, social media may help them communicate support for their teams during a threat. Using a framework of social media advocacy, the study sought to (1) understand the advocacy efforts present on social media and (2) the tone and emotions manifest in tweets related to contraction. Using quantitative methods, the study found that most discussions of contraction were negative in tone and contained emotions like anger. The most often used advocacy strategy was information, which may have been a lost opportunity for fans to rally support. As time moved on, tweets contained less negativity, more sadness than anger, and more use of the community advocacy strategy, providing evidence that fans found contraction inevitable. The study makes a contribution by bringing advocacy communication into the discussion of sport fandom and uses social media data to extract fan emotions during identity threats.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T06:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231151916
       
  • Exploring the Dark Side of Esports Online Spectatorship: Passion as a
           Mediator and Collective Narcissism as a Moderator

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      Authors: Tyreal Yizhou Qian, Katja Sonkeng, Lei Luo
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      The rise of esports as an emerging spectator phenomenon has led to a growing number of esports fans who participate in online discussions and communities. With a larger and more diverse fan base, the increased engagement has also caused a surge in online toxicity. In this study, we seek to understand how online toxicity is stimulated through team identification, passion, and collective narcissism in esports online spectatorship. Survey data (n = 467) was collected from fans of professional esports teams competing in Riot Games’ League of Legends Pro League in China and analyzed using Partial least squares structural equation modelling. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted to verify the proposed hypotheses. We provided an improved understanding of the enactment of online toxicity and showed how team identification would manifest in both obsessive passion and harmonious passion. The identified bifurcated mediation effects of obsessive passion and harmonious passion as well as the moderating role of collective narcissism in the team identification-obsessive passion relationship extended the literature on team identification and dysfunctional fandom in esports. Our study offered new insights into the negativities associated with esports online spectatorship and proposed a passion-oriented strategy to mitigate online toxicity among esports fans.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-03-17T09:54:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231164305
       
  • “They Don’t Really Care about my Results, they Prefer Selling my Life
           Story.” Inspirational Paralympians and Sponsorship

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      Authors: Yann Beldame, Helene Joncheray, Valentine Duquesne, Rémi Richard
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      This article intends to analyze the links that Paralympic athletes and their staff members establish between the Paralympic athletes’ self-presentation as cyborgs or supercrips and their access to sponsors. Based on an interview survey of 15 Paralympic athletes and 42 members of their staffs, we will show that not all Paralympic athletes can be associated with inspirational cyborg or supercrip figures. Indeed, according to the Paralympic athletes and staff members interviewed, some discriminating criteria prevail for sponsors in their attribution of sponsorship contracts. Some Paralympic athletes report numerous situations in which they are perceived and presented in a miserabilist perspective of pity remote from any sponsorship perspective. We will then analyze the ableist dimension of the intelligibility frameworks through which Paralympic athletes claim to be recognized by sponsors. Finally, we will show how this type of recognizability continues to exclude and invisibilize Paralympic athletes who are the least inspiring for non-disabled people. Therefore, it appears that there are inequalities between Paralympic athletes in their access to sponsors according to the inspiration they arouse in non-disabled people.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-02-24T08:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231158542
       
  • Task and Social Determinants of Coaches’ Reports of Leader-Member
           Exchange

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      Authors: Gregory A. Cranmer, Rikishi T. Rey, Johnny Capra, Blair Browning, Michael Sollitto
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Leader-member exchange theory (LMX) has proliferated as a framework for understanding coach-athlete interactions, as the exchanges of communicative resources greatly influence athletes’ sporting experiences. The current study uses coaches’ perceptions of task and social determinants of LMX to reveal comparative insights about forming low- and high-quality exchanges. Data collected from 380 coaches, spanning 14 different sports, at 160 high schools indicated that high-quality exchanges are solely determined by athletes’ abilities. In contrast, low-quality exchanges are determined by coaches’ negative affect towards athletes, and to a lesser extent, athletes’ poor performances and lack of competitiveness. Findings contribute to sports communication literature by examining LMX from coaches’ perspectives and identifying the unique determinants of various groupings within LMX. Both coaches and athletes may find utility in the current findings as they look to create meaningful relationships and positive sporting experiences.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-02-08T09:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231155592
       
  • Trolligans: Conceptual Links Between Trolling and Hooliganism in Sports
           and Esports

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      Authors: Christine L. Cook, Vei-Matti Karhulahti, Guy Harrison, Nicholas D. Bowman
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Both game-based trolling and hooliganism have existed in some form since the inception of online gaming and professional sports respectively. The two share many characteristics: provocation of an opposing entity, the tendency to taunt or trash-talk others based on their social or individual identity, and disruptive and/or destructive behaviour. However, despite this and the increasing similarity between the worlds of traditional sports and esports, research on the two negatively perceived phenomena has remained largely separate. The present article aims to both link and distinguish the two types of behaviour in terms of what motivates them, the agents involved, and the spaces in which they take place. By drawing from communication theories and cases described as both hooliganism and trolling in professional sports and esports settings, we (a) refine the definition of trolling in light of hooliganism, (b) discuss practical implications for the future health of esports communities, and (c) explore deviance as inherent entertainment in mediatised sporting events. Suggestions for future collaborative research between trolling and hooliganism specialists are also included.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T07:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231153005
       
  • A Space of One’s Own' The Tensions of Being Visible on Instagram for
           Turkish Female Athletes

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      Authors: İrem Kavasoğlu, Yeliz Eratlı Şirin, Aylin Uğurlu
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we seek to understand how Turkish female athletes who are active on Instagram experience cyber violence, the cultural context of that violence, and the ways in which athletes negotiate and struggle with violence via a critical feminist approach. We analyze data obtained via individual, in-depth interviews with 15 athletes using the thematic analysis method. The findings show that active use of Instagram brings with it experiences of cyber sexual harassment and online and offline stalking. Turkey’s neo-conservative, religious, and patriarchal gender regime does not allow the interviewees to post freely on Instagram. Findings also reveal the presence of digital emotional labor, which is an important part of the athletic labor of femininity, in the struggle of participants to use Instagram as their own safe and free space. Consequently, although the participants have a fear of being exposed to violence in the real world due to their cyber violence experiences, or even fear death from time to time due to their Instagram posts, they nevertheless strive to use this space freely and break the control over their bodies.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-01-31T09:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231154913
       
  • Collegiate Student-Athletes as Health Advocates: The Role of Issue and
           Source Involvement in Students’ Information Processing about Binge
           Drinking

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      Authors: Sai Datta Mikkilineni, Gregory A. Cranmer, Erin Ash, Bryan E. Denham
      Abstract: Communication & Sport, Ahead of Print.
      Binge drinking is a major public health concern on college campuses and shares a deep connection to sporting culture. As such, student-athletes are potential referent points for addressing this destructive behavior among the student body. This study utilizes the theoretical frameworks of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and parasocial relationships (PSRs) to investigate the effects that student-athletes’ health advocacy has on college students’ attitudinal and behavioral intentions to binge drink. Analysis of data collected from 161 college students, who met the clinical definition of binge drinkers, indicated that issue involvement was associated with more favorable attitudes and the intention to continue drinking, and a disregard for student-athlete health advocacy. Greater degrees of source involvement (i.e., PSR), with depicted student-athletes, however, was found to positively affect elaboration and indirectly foster behavioral intentions to cease binge drinking. Results enhance our understanding of the ELM by suggesting source involvement – as opposed to issue involvement – can be an effective means of encouraging elaboration and decreasing college students’ behavioral intentions to binge drink.
      Citation: Communication & Sport
      PubDate: 2023-01-19T02:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/21674795231153013
       
 
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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