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Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.163
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1988-5202
Published by Universidad de Alicante Homepage  [9 journals]
  • Ventilatory threshold concordance between ergoespirometry and heart rate
           variability in female professional cyclists

    • Authors: Yecid Mina-Paz, Luis Javier Tafur-Tascon, Moises Arturo Cabrera-Hernandez, Camilo Povea-Combariza, Ximena Tejada, Hugo Hurtado-Gutierrez, Sergio Andres Garcia-Corzo, Felipe Garcia-Vallejo
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The ventilatory threshold (VT) is the point at which ventilation intensifies disproportionately concerning to the oxygen uptake, this parameter is essential within the training methodology to optimize performance; the purpose of this work is to measure the degree of agreement between the determination of the ventilatory threshold determined by for oxygen uptake and four methods by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Methodology: Twelve professional female cyclists between 18 and 28 years of age were evaluated through a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer; gas exchange was measure with a portable telemetric device (Cosmed K4b2®) and simultaneously the HRV was registered by R-R recording trough a Polar RS800CX® (Polar, Finland) heart rate monitor. Statistics: The degree of precision and accuracy established between the variables mentioned and normality test Shapiro-Wilk. Results: rho = 1.00 with p-value < .05, and Lin correlation and concordance coefficients of .99 with r = 0.98 for ventilatory threshold 2 (VT2), constituting a level of precision and accuracy almost perfect; by contrast, ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1) did not show significant precision and accuracy. This study suggests that VT2 can be identified from The time series. RR using the analysis of frequency and temporal domains likewise allows. Us to have a reference measure for future research in other sports.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.01
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Scoring first relevance in knockout promotion to Spanish LaLiga Smartbank

    • Authors: Marcos Olvera-Rojas, Pedro Femia-Marzo, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect´s relevance of scoring first in knockout promotion to the Spanish Liga Smartbank and succeeding´s probability in the knockout round according to contextual parameters. The sample consisted in all knockout rounds not ending scoreless (n = 199) played in the knockout promotion to Spanish Liga Smartbank between 2004/2005 to 2018/2019 season. Data were examined by descriptive analysis, chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions. Results shown statistically significant values when scoring first and moving through to the next qualifying round (χ² [1 df] = 32.37; p < .001). Teams opening knockout round as a home team and scoring first, move through to the next round 61.7% of times while teams opening knockout round as an away team and scoring first, move through to the next round 79.4% of the times (Total OR = 6.19). Moreover, significant results were found relative to the importance of gaining advantage in first-leg match and scoring first in the second-leg match. This information could be useful for coaches and performance analysts, being applicable to competition in order to prevent the opposite team from scoring a goal and to find tactical options that allow your team getting ahead on the scoreboard.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.02
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Quantification of high speed actions across a competitive microcycle in
           professional soccer

    • Authors: Miguel Angel Campos-Vazquez, Asier Zubillaga, Francisco Javier Toscano-Bendala, Adam Lee Owen, Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez
      Pages: 21 - 33
      Abstract: The main aim of this study was to compare the high-speed training session (TRs) and competitive match (OMs) demands induced on professional soccer players across an in-season microcycle. Maximum velocity (MV) and the number of actions and distance performed at high (N-HV > 14.4 km·h-1), very high velocity (N-VHV > 19.8 km·h-1) and sprint (N-SP > 25.2 km·h-1), in different distance zones (0–5, 5–15, 15–30, >30 m) were evaluated. Twelve professional soccer players competing within the Spanish 1st Division were the participants of the study. TRs were categorised according to days leading to the match day (MD-5, MD-4, MD-3, MD-1). The results showed significant differences between OMs and TRs across all analysed variables, except for N-HV, N-VHV, and N-SP 15–30m in the comparisons between OMs and MD-4. In addition, N-SP 15–30 m in MD-4 and MD-3 were significantly higher than in MD-1 (ES = 0.87 and 0.80, respectively) without differences in MV highlighting a tapering strategy. To conclude, the current investigation revealed a potential tapering strategy in professional soccer in conjunction to highlighting a way of maintaining MV and high speed actions across low-distance ranges (<15 m). Therefore, it would be necessary to further induce task with high-velocity actions in high-distance ranges (>30 m) across the TRs in order to replicate the velocity peaks occurred in OMs.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.03
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • CONMEBOL Libertadores Cup: Altitude impact on goals and results in 16
           years of soccer matches

    • Authors: Moisés Arturo Cabrera-Hernández, Sergio Andrés García-Corzo, Camilo Ernesto Povea-Combariza, Luis Javier Tafur-Tascón, Hugo Hurtado, José Rafael Tovar-Cuevas, Carlos Andrés Mosquera-Miranda, Daniel Felipe Grijalba-González
      Pages: 34 - 45
      Abstract: Background: The CONMEBOL Libertadores Cup, is the continent’s most important international club tournament. Teams are exposed to different altitudes with short acclimatization periods. The present study describe the effect of altitude on the results and goals of soccer club teams matches between 2000 and 2015 in the CONMEBOL Libertadores Cup. Materials & Methods: All home and away matches from the group phase onwards and which have been played at the traditional team venue were taken into account, thus, 2039 games were analysed. The teams were classified into altitude categories according to the physiological impact and registered hometown altitude. A Poisson´s generalized linear model was used to study the relationship between the altitude of both home and away teams and the number of goals scored for each team according to the altitude category. The probabilities that the home team winning, drawing, or losing the match were estimated using a regression model for ordinal variables and assuming a multinomial probability distribution with the logistic linkage. Factors as heat, temperature and general performance of the teams were not considered. Results: Home team scores more (2.62 goals) when the away team descends three altitude categories, followed by a descent of two altitude categories (2.01 goals) and an ascent of three altitude categories (1.89 goals). This is associated with an increase probability of winning for the home team, being 5.5 times more likely when the away team descends three altitude categories, 2.3 times more when it descends two categories, and 2.5 times more when it ascends three altitude categories. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the away team is more likely to lose a match when it has to descend two or three altitude categories and when it ascends three altitude categories.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.04
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Sport practice with friends and perceived physical competence as
           predictors of physical activity in adolescents

    • Authors: Myriam Alvariñas-Villaverde, Elena Giménez-de Ory, Belén Toja-Reboredo, Miguel González-Valeiro
      Pages: 46 - 58
      Abstract: Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is essential for the development and improvement of public health intervention. The aim of this study was to provide an explanatory prediction model for physical activity level in adolescents, involving a number of influencing variables. 576 participants took part in the study: 275 boys and 301 girls aged between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.80; SD = 1.180). They attended one of the 11 selected schools from Galicia (Spain), chosen by sampling in the seven main urban areas in that region. The International Questionnaire on Physical Education, Health and Lifestyle was administered. The findings revealed that age, sex, physical perceived competence and sport practice with friends had statistically significant influence on physical activity index. By contrast, the influence of perception of physical attractiveness could not be confirmed. Sport practice with friends and physical perceived competence were the main predicting variables for physical activity level. All this knowledge must be taken into account by physical activity and sport professionals, such as teachers or trainers. Likewise, to improve physical perceived competence, it is essential to offer a wide variety of activities, to propose different levels of problem resolution, to help students make adaptive causal attributions based on effort, and to break gender stereotypes. Strategies involving school mates or friends in different PA and sport projects are needed.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.05
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Efficacy of European Sport Tutorship model (ESTPORT) in the dual career of
           athletes in Spain

    • Authors: Elena Conde, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, Alejandro Leiva-Arcas, Juan Alfonso García-Roca, Antonio Sánchez-Pato
      Pages: 59 - 70
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to know the influence of Estport model in the dual career of student-athletes, from San Antonio Catholic University (Spain), as part of the Erasmus + project: Development an innovative European Sport Tutorship model for the dual career of athletes- ESTPORT, through of the evaluation of their perceptions, regarding their sports and academic career within the sports tutor service. The sample consisted of 109 student-athletes, of which 59 were men and 50 were women with ages between 19 and 40 years (M = 26.10; SD = 4.62) belonging to the Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM) and of different sports level: amateur (2.8%), semi-professional (40.4%) and professional (56.9%). Results showed that the pace at which the athletes carried out their studies was 1.8 ± 0.8 years per academic year. Regarding the difficulties of athletes to reconcile sports and studies, men lost more rhythm than women in studies (z = 3.2; p = .001). The role of the sports tutor was valued to a greater extent by the athletes who competed at the national level (z = 3.2; p = .001) since they consider it important to have someone who listens to them and were at their disposal (z = 3.4; p = .001), provide guidance with the necessary academic procedures within the university (z = 2.9; p = .003), be also a personal help (z = 2.8; p = .004) that assists and support them when managing the time in their academic career (z = 2.8; p = .005).
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.06
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Perception of the Olympic values in the Portuguese coaches of individual
           and team sports

    • Authors: Teresa Cristina Rocha, Covadonga Mateos-Padorno, Juan Pedro Fuentes-García, Jara González-Silva, María José Martínez-Patiño
      Pages: 71 - 82
      Abstract: The aim of this study has been to analyse the perception of the Olympic values shown by coaches of different levels and categories in Portugal related to the type of sport they train (individual or collective). The study sample consisted of 1473 Portuguese coaches (214 female and 1259 male) from 34 different sports modalities (individual and collective). The data collection instrument was a three-dimensional questionnaire (perception of the Olympic Symbols, opinion about participation in the Olympic Games and values related to the Olympic Games). Descriptive analysis showed differences between the opinions of individual and team sports coaches in the three dimensions. The inferential analysis only showed significant differences in the dimension of opinion about participation in the Olympic games. These results reveal the difference in the perception of the Olympic values between coaches of individual sports and those of team sports.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.07
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effect of exercise in the recovery process after the inflammation process
           caused by coronavirus

    • Authors: Alfredo Córdova-Martínez, Daniel Pérez-Valdecantos, Alberto Caballero-García, José M. Sarabia, Enrique Roche
      Pages: 83 - 96
      Abstract: Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 - COVID-19) disease causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. During infection, activation of macrophages and pro-inflammatory granulocytes produces cell damage, inducing lung inflammation that leads to the characteristic symptoms of fever, cough, fibrosis, and high increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. In general, during the inflammatory process and infection by coronavirus, cytokines are elevated, particularly IL-1, 6 and 12, TNF-α, and TGF-β. In addition, patients with complications and lethal prognosis present increased serum levels of IF-I and γ compared to healthy individuals or patients with moderate symptoms. On the other hand, it is known that physical activity favours an adaptation of the immune system function. In this context, we suggest that appropriate exercise programs could improve recovery of people who have suffered from COVID-19 disease, improving the quality of life and reinforcing the protection against future infections. The immunomodulatory properties of exercise and physical activity could act as prevention tools for different chronic diseases in healthy individuals and complement therapeutic tools in sick patients. Nevertheless, exercise must be adequate both in time and intensity, taking into account the patient's clinical situation as well as their previous physical activity.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.08
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of age vestibular and visual systems on the soleus H-reflex

    • Authors: Aksel Celik, Francisco Javier Rojas-Ruiz, Mar Cepero-Gonzalez, David M. Koceja, Kohichi Kitano
      Pages: 97 - 106
      Abstract: The vestibular system, visual and proprioceptive pathways provide information about control of posture, movement and balance. Loss of postural control directly leads to a greater incidence of falling in the elderly population causing serious health problems. One important neuromuscular mechanism instrumental in the control of posture and balance is the reflex system. However, the age-related changes of vestibular and visual systems and their relationship with the reflex system are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, the vestibular and the visual systems on the modulation pattern of the soleus H reflex. Seventeen neurologically healthy volunteers were categorized by age in two groups: young (n = 8, mean age = 22.1 ± 5.0 yr.) and elderly (n = 9, mean age = 59.3 ± 12.8 yr.). Maximal soleus H-reflex (H-max) and motor response (M-max) amplitudes were determined prior to testing at each condition while subjects were lying supine on a tilt table for standardization. Stimulation intensity was set to evoke a 5-10% M-wave on each trial. Participants received 5 test H-reflex stimuli in two conditions, static 60º and dynamic 60º on a tilt table. Both tilt conditions were performed with vision and no vision. A 3-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) 2 (groups: young/old) x 2 (condition: static/dynamic) x 2(vision: vision/no vision) was used to assess changes in H-reflexes. All data were expressed relative to the H-reflex amplitude at 0º static on the tilt table. The results showed a significant 3-way interaction (p = .038). The old group showed greater H-reflex amplitude in the no vision condition at static 60º (vision:0.97; no vision:1.23) whereas in the young group less modulation was demonstrated in the same condition (vision:1.15; no vision:1.12). These results suggest in young subjects the vestibular system produced a suppression of the H-reflex with or without visual input; however, in the old group vision was necessary for this suppression. The interaction between the visual and vestibular systems as we age needs to be further explored.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.09
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • The effect of the United Nations resolution for Olympic Truce on peace
           based on functionalism

    • Authors: Kwangho Park, Gi Yong Koo, Minkil Kim
      Pages: 107 - 125
      Abstract: The purpose of the current study is to identify if the UN resolution for Olympic Truce affects peace around the period of the Olympic Games based on functionalism. Methodologically, this study uses a diverse case technique and compares the two following cases: the first case is the Olympic Games, which did not have the UN resolution for Olympic Truce (The 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics), while the other is the Olympic Games which had the UN resolution for Olympic Truce (The 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics). This study determines, firstly, that functional international organizations can actualize their common values (i.e., peace and human rights) and establish world order by cooperating with multiple international organizations, which is more effective than one organization behaving independently. Secondly, through the results, we have confirmed that sports can be an effective mediator in making the world peaceful with unanimous support from the international society.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.10
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Is positive self-perception a determinant of cardiovascular
           performance' A didactic and sustainable view in female university

    • Authors: Salvador Baena-Morales, Honorato Morente-Oria, Olalla García-Taibo, Francisco Tomás González-Fernández
      Pages: 126 - 138
      Abstract: Traditionally women have been less active and physically active than men. Although the recent literature indicates this gender gap, the sexes' difference when practicing sport seems to be decreasing. This study framework's importance could be reflected in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by UNESCO, which highlight the need to generate strategies to improve health (SDG 3) and equalize opportunities between men and women (SDG 4). The reasons for these differences are multifactorial, with intrinsic and extrinsic motivations indicated as requiring further research. Self-perception in physical performance has been documented to influence women to perform the exercise and physical activity. Therefore, this research aimed to identify and healthy women's self-perception and motivations to perform in a VO2max test. A total of 31 women (21.12 ± 2.01) completed the research. The study was divided into two principal tests. On the one hand, the measurement of a sub-maximal incremental stress test following established ASCM indications. Heart rate and ventilatory parameters were measured during the stress test using a metabolic measurement system and a gas analyser. After the test, the study sample completed the self-completed Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire and the International Short Form Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF), and the Self Report of Reasons for Physical Activity (AMPEF). Correlation between VO2Max and average weight and body image (r = .001) was detected, showing the positive relationship between both values. The results obtained help confirm the importance of a positive self-perception in women regarding their weight and body image for better physical performance. Although these findings cannot be generalized, they establish a potential relationship between better physical performance and self-perception in most adults.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.11
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • The influence of analogies on the development of selective attention in
           novices in normal or stressful conditions

    • Authors: Afroditi C. Lola, George Giatsis, Jose Antonio Pérez-Turpin, George C. Tzetzis
      Pages: 139 - 152
      Abstract: The effect of explicit, implicit, and analogy learning methods on developing selective attention skills in young novice participants was examined under normal and stressful conditions. The 60 novice participants, aged 11-12 years old, followed a video simulation intervention program of 12 sessions (3 times * 4 weeks). They were tested four times (pre-test, post-test, retention, and stress test) to evaluate their reaction time and accuracy in selective attention skills. The differences among the groups and the measurements were analysed using a two-way mixed factorial ANOVA (4 groups * 4 measurements), and post-hoc Bonferroni evaluated significant differences among the groups. The results showed that all three experimental groups improved their performance in response reaction time and accuracy from the pre-test to the post-test and maintained their scores on the retention test. However, the analogy group had the best scores, followed by the implicit group, and they were both better than the explicit group. According to the stress test, the analogy and the implicit group remained unaffected while the explicit group showed a decrease in both reaction time and accuracy. Training by analogy was more effective in improving selective attention in novices in both normal and stressful conditions. Analogy learners probably developed an advanced mechanism that allowed them to quickly and accurately select the most useful information from the sport setting even in stressful conditions. This research highlights the advantages of simulation techniques; future research may assess selective attention in real conditions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.12
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Motivation and satisfaction in university sports volunteering

    • Authors: Salvador Angosto, Arturo Díaz-Suárez, José María López-Gullón
      Pages: 153 - 165
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the motivation of the university sports volunteer by comparing the results according to gender and previous experience, as well as to observe which motivation factor has the greatest influence on satisfaction with the specific motivations of the volunteer. The study was cross-sectional by questionnaire, with 128 university volunteers interviewed who participated in a sports volunteering programme. The instruments used were a sample of 128 university volunteers who were given the VFI and another to assess satisfaction. The questionnaire was conducted online. The results show that both men and women feel motivated in the dimensions of Understanding, Values and Enhancement, obtaining above-average results in these motivational profiles. According to experience, volunteers with more experience had higher scores. Satisfaction with motivation can be predicted by enhancement, understanding and protective. The results of this study will help to deepen the motivational profile of volunteering in the sports and university context. It will also allow organizations to better manage volunteering - and to improve the quality of life of their employees. Universities are an important volunteer base, not only social but also more and more in sports, making it necessary to evaluate the motivational profile and satisfaction of this potential group to be a volunteer once their academic stage is over.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.13
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Reliability and feasibility of an evaluation tool of teacher effectiveness
           and the quality of physical education sessions

    • Authors: Aina Maria Galmes-Panades, Pere Palou-Sampol, Pere Antoni Borras, Adria Muntaner-Mas
      Pages: 166 - 179
      Abstract: The need to ensure quality physical education has motivated the development of a reliable method to evaluate physical education sessions, capable of detecting areas of improvement, thus facilitating the continuous growth of the teaching process. The main aim of the present study is to design a feasible and reliable evaluation instrument for physical education sessions, and to determine its reliability and feasibility with a group of practicing physical education teachers. Two evaluations of the same session (videotaped) were conducted to determine whether the instrument was reliable and feasible (n = 20), 9 women and 11 men, leaving 2 weeks between the first and the second evaluation. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed. The total score of the evaluation instrument shows an ICC of 0.953, (95%CI 0.881; 0.982), with a p-value ≤ .001. When comparing the responses of teachers from different educational levels (primary, secondary, and university), no significant differences were found between responses to any of the items or in the total score on either occasion. Total score in the test was (69.3 mean, [14.0 SD]), p-value = .881; and (66.2, [13.9]) p-value = .943 in the retest. In conclusion, the present evaluation instrument is feasible and reliable for the evaluation of physical education sessions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.14
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • A review of the level of good governance in international sport

    • Authors: David Cabello-Manrique, Esther Puga-González
      Pages: 180 - 193
      Abstract: The importance of increasing regulation in this field in all socio-economic areas, including the sport sector, and major pressure on the traditional autonomous hierarchical networks of the sport world done by governments, mainly due to the commercialisation of sport, have forced all major sports bodies and associations representing the sports industry to join this initiative of improving their good governance. A qualitative and quantitative study of the 35 Olympic ISFs has been carried out following the OGD - SGO index tool in 4 areas of improvement. The results allow to conclude that there is still a weakness in the control structures with a need to focus on the dimensions of democracy and checks and balances which are the weakest. There is also a lack of agreement on a standardised way to assess the good governance of sport entities that must be addressed and improved urgently.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.15
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Neuromotricity as a new paradigm

    • Authors: Francisco Javier Romero-Naranjo, Eliseo Andreu-Cabrera
      Pages: 194 - 208
      Abstract: The review of the existing narrative shows the theoretical evolution of the concepts of motricity and psychomotricity, which have led to a new paradigm of movement called neuromotricity. In this new approach to motor action, cognitive functions, and especially executive functions, form part of its essence. This is why neuromotricity, as a discipline independent of psychomotricity, proposes a completely different set of activities in which the dual task is always present. The methodology of applied neuromotricity could promote the generation of neural networks through stimulation protocols of increasing complexity, which in turn improve brain functions.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.16
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • The effects of a moderate-to-high intensity interval exercise training
           programme on selective and sustained attention in schoolchildren aged 11
           and 12

    • Authors: Jaume Gelabert, Ricardo de la Vega, Pere Palou-Sampol, Adrià Muntaner-Mas
      Pages: 209 - 223
      Abstract: Physical activity has been shown to have positive benefits on many brain function indices. Nonetheless, evidence is scant regarding attention. This study therefore aimed to analyse the chronic effects of an interval physical exercise programme at moderate-to-high intensity on selective and sustained attention indicators amongst schoolchildren aged 11 and 12 years old. They were part of a total sample of 56 schoolchildren split evenly between the experimental and control groups. The programme ran for seven weeks with 30-minute sessions three times per week. Interval games were performed with motor, cognitive and coordination challenges at 70-80% of maximum heart rate. Selective attention was recorded via a cancellation task (d2-Test) and sustained attention via a computer vigilance task (CSAT-II). The results showed no significant changes in any selective or sustained attention indicator. In short, the implemented programme did not show it generated chronic effects on selective or sustained attention. Future research is required to provide more evidence on physical activity programmes in schools that explore changes in selective and sustained attention.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.17
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Changes in vertical jump performance and body composition before and after
           COVID-19 lockdown

    • Authors: Erik Tan, Samuel Montalvo, Matthew P. Gonzalez, Martin Dietze-Hermosa, See Min, Sandor Dorgo
      Pages: 224 - 241
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effects of a 16-week COVID-19 lockdown on body composition and vertical jump performance. Thirteen martial artists participated in this study. Participants were tested at: 1) pre-lockdown (pre), 2) post-lockdown (post), 3) two-weeks-post-lockdown (post+2), and 4) four-weeks-post-lockdown (post+4). Repeated-measures-ANOVAs were conducted with post-hoc analyses. Differences were observed in vertical jump height (VJH) (10.33%), peak velocity (PV) (3.10%), reactive-strength-index-modified (RSImod) (13.8%), and peak-propulsive-power (PPP) (6.00%) from pre-to-post. There as an increase from post-to-post+2 in VJ (13.06%), PV (4.12%), RSImod (14.0%), and PPP (4.66%). There was an increase from post to post+2 in VJH (10.8%), PV (3.1%), RSImod (14.0%), and PPP (3.0%). Fat mass (FM) and BF% increased from pre to post (13% and 11%, respectively) and decreased from post to post+4 (8% and 11%, respectively); fat-free mass (FFM) decreased from pre-to-post (11%) and decreased from post-to-post+4 (8%). There were moderate associations (rmc = 0.42-0.47) between FFM and VJH, FMM and PPP, FFM and PV, BF% and PV, and FM and PV. While the lockdown resulted in a significant decrease in vertical jump performance and increases in BF and FM, participant’s performance returned to pre-lockdown levels after only 2-4 weeks of post-lockdown training by decreasing BF, FM, and increasing FFM.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.18
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Improving footballers agility performances outcomes with the smart ladder
           drill prototype inventory for exercising efficiency

    • Authors: Natchanon Sungpook, Juthamas Singchainara, Achara Soachalem, Kanlapruk Polsorn, Toansakul Tony Santiboon
      Pages: 242 - 258
      Abstract: The first started to investigate the agility characteristics of athletes to improve the agility and speed of football training development into football agility performances using the Illinois Agility Run Test (IART) and the Smart Ladder Test (SLT) were monitored and evaluated three times: previous training, after the fourth week, and after the eighth weekly training with the means of collecting data were measured. The 40 footballer volunteers from Kasetsart University divided into 20 experimental and 20 control footballer groups. The analysis was compared with the means of their agility and speed with the independent and dependent variables of their previous training three times. The agility and speed tests of footballers with IART Testing in two groups are not significantly different at .05 in the previous and after the fourth week of training; but after the eighth week, the two groups are significantly different at .05. However, for SLT testing showed a significant difference at the .01level after the fourth and eighth weekly training sessions. Footballers’ sports that demand agility, the ability to change direction at speed from an athlete under control when moving at speed, will have an advantage are applied to Basketball, Rugby, Tennis, etc. The IART and SLT measure the development of these key skills. This study can be useful, giving name of areas, disciplines, etc. Commonly used test of agility in sports, and there are many norms available, the test is an electronically timed test and requires maximum speed and effort from applicants to negotiate several traffic cones.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.19
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
  • Effects of the hydrolyzed collagen supplement Colnatur SportĀ® on
           endurance training and performance of runners

    • Authors: Carlos Elvira-Aranda, Roser De Castellar-Sansó, María José Gomis-Gomis, Jaime Enrique Gómez-Paternina, José Antonio Pérez-Turpin
      Pages: 259 - 269
      Abstract: The main purpose of this observational prospective pilot study was to evaluate the effects of hydrolysed collagen supplementation, in endurance training, in the performance of runners. A cohort of sixty-one subjects (women with an age = 44 ± 5 years; height = 1.65 ± 0.4 m; weight = 58.4 ± 5.2 kg; men with an age = 51 ± 3 years; height = 1.82 ± 0.2 m; weight = 74.4 ± 3.1 kg) received a collagen supplement (11 g / day) during 16 weeks. They performed a 21 kilometre endurance test (21KmET) at baseline and after 16 weeks of follow up. Squat Jump (SJ) and Counter Movement Jump (CMJ) tests were measured before and after each 21KmET and biochemical analyses and a bioimpedance were performed after each 21KmET. Subjects underwent three sport training sessions a week and a supplement intake during the follow up. Regarding the 21KmET time, there were significant differences between before and after supplementation intake (p < .05) and a higher pain perception was assessed with a visual analogue scale at the second 21KmET (p < .05). Significant improvements were observed in handgrip strength, SJ and CMJ after 16 week of supplement intake. Conclusions: A programmed endurance training improves the functionality of the runner in long-distance events and a periodic intake of hydrolysed collagen could help a better performance because it improves the conditions of muscles and joints.
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.14198/jhse.2023.181.20
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 1 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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