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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Sports Science
Number of Followers: 26  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2169-8759 - ISSN (Online) 2169-8791
Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • The Relationship between Soldier Height, Weight and Army Combat Fitness

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2023Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 13, Number 2Ryan Palmer, Mark DeBelisoThe United States Army recently implemented the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) which was designed to more accurately measure functional-combat fitness constructs. The ACFT replaced the former Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The three advent APFT consisted of: two-minute push-ups (PU), two-minute sit-ups (SU), and a timed two-mile run (RUN). The ACFT consists of six events; 3 Rep Max Deadlift (MDL), Standing Power Throw (SPT), Hand Release Push-up (HRP), Sprint-Drag-Carry (SDC), Hanging Leg Tuck (LTK), and a timed two-mile run (2MR). Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between Soldier height (1.79±0.07 m) and weight (body mass 86.8±14.2 kg, BMI 27.1±3.9) on ACFT scores (442.3±54.4) of 655 male U.S. Army National Guard Soldiers in a Field Artillery Brigade. Methods: For the purpose of the investigation body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the metric representing the Soldier’s height and weight. The mean and standard deviation (sd) were calculated for the ACFT event and total scores. Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs or r) were calculated between BMI and ACFT event and total scores. Likewise, PCCs were calculated between the ACFT event and total scores. Results: The ACFT mean±sd scores were as follows: MDL=92.2±31.8 (3 maximum repetitions), SPT=9.5±2.2 (meters), HRP=24.6±13.1 (repetitions), SDC=119.8±21.7 (seconds), LTK=6.2±5.4 (repetitions), 2MR=1095.0±233.7 (seconds), ACFT total score=442.3±54.4 (points). Significant positive correlations were found between the ACFT total score: MDL (r=0.70), SPT (r=0.50), HRP (r=0.74), and LTK (r=0.76) events. Conversely, significant negative correlations were identified between ACFT total score: SDC (r=-0.68) and 2MR (r=-0.53) events. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this study, Soldier BMI demonstrated “no to weak” association with individual ACFT event or ACFT total scores. Military leaders may consider the results provided as combat and fitness tests continue to evolve.
  • Evaluation of Tactile Array Grip Force Data

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2023Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 13, Number 1Dallas D. Fichtner, John W. McChesney, Mark DeBelisoData from a grip force measurement system, as previously described, consisting of a tactile array transducer for assessing the grip capability/capacity of the human hand was analyzed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to 1) establish normative grip and individual finger strength values for the ForceMapTM and 2) compare the total force measurements collected using the ForceMapTM with those collected using the JamarTM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of data collected using the ForceMapTM and JamarTM dynamometers. T-tests were used to compare the ForceMapTM and the JamarTM dynamometers’ force measurements, dominant and non-dominant hands, and intergender differences. Correlation testing was also done between the ForceMapTM data and JamarTM data. Correlation testing was done between the subjects’ maximum grip strength forces using both types of machine and their height, weight, and hand size. Results: It was found that the measurements from the ForceMapTM were significantly higher than those from the JamarTM. There was a strong correlation between these two methods except for the with the women’s dominant hand. Normative total force and individual finger pressure measurements were found for men and women. There was no correlation between the body size and hand grip strength. A strong correlation existed between grip contact area and total grip strength measured with the ForceMapTM. Conclusion: This study has shed light on a new tool and method for hand function evaluation that may provide more detailed information and eventually enhance clinical assessment and the rehabilitation process.
  • Energy Expenditure and Relative Intensity of a High-Intensity Functional
           Training Regimen in Postmenopausal Females with Obesity

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2023Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 13, Number 1Trent Yamamoto, Phillip Goldman, Bilal Pandit, Mitchell S. Mologne, Corinne McCabe, David Gomez, Brett A. DolezalThe potential of high-intensity functional training (HIFT) has yet to be realized in the treatment of obesity and weight-loss exercise programs, specifically within postmenopausal females with obesity. Twelve postmenopausal obese females (BMI 33.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2, 63.3 ± 4.8 years) participated in a 35-minute group-based HIFT session while donning a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer and heart rate monitor to measure energy expenditure and exercise intensity, respectfully. The HIFT session elicited the following measurement results: Mean ± SD caloric expenditure of 509 ± 79 kcal, maximum heart rate of 173 ± 5 bpm and %HRmax of 93%, and metabolic equivalents (METS) of 12.1 ± 1.4 kcal/kg/hr. All participants reported that the HIFT session was “enjoyable” yet “challenging”. Implementing this high exercise intensity and energy expenditure session twice weekly would comport with Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans weekly vigorous-intensity physical activity recommendations.
  • Motivation for Exercise Among Active Seniors

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2023Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 13, Number 1Joshua Astle, Mark DeBelisoIt is well established that physical activity is necessary for long term health and well-being. Despite this fact, many seniors (age 65+) remain inactive. Self Determination theory, a psychological model of human motivation and behaviour, has been utilized by health professionals to understand reasons for exercise engagement and adherence. However, minimal evidence exists on the motives for exercise participation of active seniors. Purpose: Therefore, the study herein assesses personal incentives for exercise habits among active seniors using the Motives for Physical Activities Measure- Revised (MPAM-R) scale. Methods: The MPAM-R scale consists of 30 questions that measure the interest/enjoyment, competence, appearance, fitness, and social constructs for engaging in physical activity. A convenience sample of forty-seven seniors (age 65+), who met the criteria of 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous weekly activity, completed the survey online by way of surveymonkey.com and social media platforms. Results: The construct scores were as follows: Fitness (5.9±1.1), followed by Appearance (4.9±1.3), Competence (3.9±1.5) Interest/Enjoyment (3.5±1.5), and Social constructs (2.7±1.5). Fitness was significantly higher than all other constructs (p
  • Bottom-up Perspective of Leadership in Sports: Examining the Requirements
           of Athletes on Their Trainers' Competences

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 4Ramesberger ReinholdThe purpose of this study is to examine the bottom-up perspective of athletes in competitive sports concerning their competence requirements on their trainers. Competitive athletes (N = 138) from the regional team level up to the national team level (in individual and team sports) rated within a questionnaire their own requirements, wishes and perceptions on their trainers behaviours and competences. The gathered data is analysed using SPSS 28 and AMOS 28. The results revealed that there are moderate correlations between certain leadership competences and the followers’ engagement. They indicated that the “Knowing-Being-Doing” of trainers is relevant for their acceptance by the athletes. „Being“ revealed to be the most decisive factor. Furthermore, the trainers’ visions revealed to be a perceived lack by the followers. As a conclusion the leader-centred top-down approaches are not that suitable and, furthermore, the holistic personality of the trainer is decisive for his acceptance. The findings highlight practical implications for competence development of sports trainers.
  • The Effect of Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI) on Athletes' Gait and Muscle
           Activity (EMG): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 3Christina Martzivanou, Dimitrios Varvarousis, Dimitrios Dimopoulos, Georgios Ntritsos, Nikolaos Giannakeas, Georgios I. Vasileiadis, Athanasios Kyritsis, Avraam PloumisBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic ankle instability (CAI) on gait and muscle activity (EMG) of athletes. This review focused on the chronic ankle instability (CAI) caused by ankle sprains during athletics. Methods: This review and meta-analysis included 10 studies level I-III: randomized controlled trials (RCT), observational or descriptive laboratory studies and case-control studies. All injured-athletes were compared to healthy controls. Differences in muscle activation between the two groups have been retrieved and documented. Results: Each study demonstrated significant reduction of activation of the affected muscles near the ankle sprain. Overall, the EMG amplitude of peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA) and in some cases that of gastrocnemius medius (MG) were decreased after the initial injury, causing the instability of the ankle joint. Conclusion: Despite the differences in how many ankles sprains each athlete has had, all participants revealed significant reduction in muscle activation, specifically that of peroneus longus, thus altering their gait pattern. Significance: The importance of understanding which muscles are activated after an injury is vital not only for post-injured rehabilitation, but furthermore for preventing such injuries and helping young athletes to get back on truck on pursuing their athletic careers.
  • Organizational Dialogic Communication and Engagement: Examining the
           Relationship Between Dialogic Strategies and Facets of User Engagement in
           Nonprofit Sport Organizations

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 3Mehdi Rezzag-Hebla, Farah RahalPrevious studies of organizational online communication through the dialogic communication framework suggest that adhering to the dialogic communication principles could result in greater public engagement in virtual spaces. By way of content analysis, this study examined the contribution of dialogic strategies to foster various aspects of user engagement, i.e., user-generated content, user response, follower network extensiveness, and network growth. This study offers the first attempt to examine nonprofit sports organizations in the light of the dialogic communication literature as applied to both the website and social media, i.e., Facebook. Theoretical and practical implications were also discussed.
  • Suspension Training Improves Dynamic Balance and Core Endurance in Young
           Healthy Adult Females

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 3Emily Cavallaro, Kate R. Pfile, J. Megan Irwin, Wesley D. DudgeonMany exercise modalities have been developed and marketed to improve core muscle function; likewise, there are multiple training programs that aim to improve balance. These variables are of interest given they are inherent to performing activities of daily living (ADLs), preventing injury, and maintaining physical activity levels. Our previous work shows suspension training (SuT) is effective at improving body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in college aged females; however, it is unknown whether core muscle function and balance also improve. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of six weeks of SuT on balance and core muscle function. Methods: Eighteen SuT naïve females (19.8 ± 0.3 yrs; 166.7 ± 1.1 cm; 61.3 ± 1.7 kg), randomly assigned to a suspension training group (TRX), progressed through a six-week supervised training program consisting of 18, 50 to 60-minute interval style workouts. Six control participants (CON) (20.8 ± 0.7 yrs; 165.4 ± 1.3 cm; 63.5 ± 2.7 kg) maintained their normal activity levels. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Static balance was assessed using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) Test. Core endurance was assessed using the Sport-Specific Endurance Plank Test. The same test protocols were applied for pre- and post-testing. Results: Dependent measures t-test analysis showed significant improvements (p
  • The Role of Sports in the Development of Leadership Skills in South Korea

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 2Kim Dong HakUnderstanding of leadership within sports context has significantly developed for a long time and has moved from the application of global leadership models to the development and implementation specific models and approaches. Both sports and team activities provide opportunities to the sports men and women to come up with strategies of winning. Leaders always have specific goal in mind. They come up with policies that will ensure that the work being done is effective and efficient. This research looks at the role of sports as far as the development of leadership skill in South Korea is concerned. There is a detailed introduction of the concept of sports and how it significantly plays a role in developing leadership skills. Research objectives have been used to help the researcher to focus on the key variables. Literature review has also been used to gain a better understanding of the topic based on previous researches carried out by other individuals and institutions. The study employed a positivist research philosophy and uses non-experimental research design to statistically describe the role played by sports in the development of leadership skills. Data is analyzed using SPSS and a detailed discussion is provided before giving a well-summarized conclusion about the topic of study.
  • The Efficacy of Partial Range of Motion Deadlift Training: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2022Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 12, Number 1Brad Gillingham, Mark DeBelisoThe deadlift (DL) is a fundamental exercise that has a positive training effect on sprint speed, vertical jump performance and rate of force development. The DL is included in resistance training (RT) programs designed for sports that require enhancement of these performance measures. Additionally, maximum effort during full range of motion (FROM) or partial range of motion (PROM) DL are performed by strength athletes in competitions of maximum strength. Purpose: The study examined the effects of free weight DL PROM RT on maximum FROM and PROM DL strength. Methods: NCAA Division 2 male wrestlers were separated into two groups (F and FP) via a randomized matched pair design based on 1-RM FROM DL pre-intervention assessments. Pre-intervention testing also included the collection of a 1-RM PROM DL performed off the safety arms in a power rack with the bar height set at ≈ 2.54 cm above the patella. Both experimental groups employed a 6-week periodized RT intervention that included DL 1 day/week. The F group (n=9, age: 21.0±1.2 yr, height: 175.0±4.5 cm, mass: 75.2±10.6 kg) RT included 2 FROM DL sets. The FP group (n=9, age: 20.0±1.1 yr, height: 177.0±5.9 cms, mass: 82.6±9.9 kg) RT included 1 FROM DL set at the same prescribed intensity as the F group followed by 3 PROM DL sets, using supramaximal intensity ranging from 105-120% of 1-RM FROM DL depending on the week of the RT intervention period. Following the RT intervention, 1-RM PROM and FROM DL were re-assessed. Dependent t-tests were used to compare the 1-RM FROM and 1-RM PROM DL scores from pre to post RT intervention within experimental groups. Likewise, independent t-tests were used to compare dependent variable gain scores between groups (α
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