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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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International Journal of Sports Science
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2169-8759 - ISSN (Online) 2169-8791
Published by SAP Homepage  [105 journals]
  • The Combination of Relaxation Imagery with Instrumental Music, and
           Aromatherapy on Muscle Tone and Heart Rate in Student Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 4Kasinee Ratanapesala, Chatkamon Singnoy, Kasem Chaiklongkit, Sakesan TongkhambanchongThe aim of this study was to explore the combined effect of imagery with instrumental music, and aromatherapy on the muscle tone and heart rate in university student athletes. The participants were 20 student athletes at Burapha University (10 males and 10 females). The participants were randomized into two groups (10 in each group): 1) the seated rest group, and 2) the imagery with instrumental music and aromatherapy group. The instruments included a biofeedback measurement (microvolts: µV), a program comprising imagery with instrumental music, an ergometer bicycle, a lavender oil sprayer, and an heart-rate monitor. The experimental design included moderate exercise on an ergometer bicycle at 75% of maximum heart rate and a 1-minute rest before starting the experiment. The data were collected using pre/post tests and recorded in 4 states (recorded every 4 minutes). The statistics used to analyze the data were mean, standard deviation, and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks (WSR) test. The following results were found: 1. The EMG data means of quadriceps muscle decrease in the control group were 13.49, 9.26, 7.09, 4.30, and 2.41 µV. The means of the experimental group were 12.13, 6.02, 3.26, 1.99, and 0.96 µV. Moreover, The EMG analysis found a significant difference at .05 between the control and the experimental group in state 3. 2. The means of the measured heart rates decreased in the control group and were 151.40, 136.40, 122.20, 113.10, and 101.00 bmp. In addition, the means of the measured heart rates decreased in the experimental group and were 151.20, 112.20, 98.50, 87.70, and 82.40 bmp. The results of the HR analysis showed a significant difference at .05 in state 1 and state 4.
  • The Effects of Cocoa Flavanols on Endothelial Function and Exercise

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 4James M. Heilman, Yunsuk KohCocoa flavanols are a commercially available nutritional supplement and may positively affect endothelial function through multiple physiological mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current status of cocoa flavanols in the literature, specifically in regard to their effects on endothelial function and exercise performance. A total of 27 qualifying studies were extensively examined for the use of cocoa flavanol supplementation and its effects on endothelial function. In addition, the role of cocoa flavanols in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance was evaluated. Although a positive effect of cocoa flavanols including the improvement in flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure has been well-documented, there is some variability in terms of the effects of certain doses on different populations. The existing literature offers both direct and theoretical evidence for positive effects on un-trained and moderately trained populations. However, more research is needed in order to better understand the effects of cocoa flavanols on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Cocoa flavanols have the potential to be effective in a number of ways in both healthy and clinical populations. However, upper and lower limits for proper doses should be established for different populations.
  • Acute Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Vertical Jump

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 4Yusuf Kaire, Andrew Harveson, Levi Garrett, Dominick SturzUnderstanding the acute effects neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) applied to the quadriceps group can have on vertical jump was the primary objective of this study. Multiple studies have indicated improvements in muscular strength, power, and performance can be made over time through NMES. This study is unique because no previous studies have conducted research into the effects of NMES on vertical jump immediately after isometric stimulation to the quadriceps group. A group of 24 subjects were randomly divided into equal 12-member experimental and control groups. All subjects were pretested in the countermovement jump (CMJ) to determine maximum jumping height. Treatment consisted of placing electrodes on the quadriceps of members of the experimental group and turning the Marc Pro Device on 1.7 Hz for 15-minutes. Sham treatment consisted of placing electrodes on the quadriceps of members of the control group and turning the Marc Pro Device on 0.0 Hz for 15-minutes. All subjects then engaged in a post treatment CMJ test. The difference between pretest and posttest jump scores was computed to determine the effects of treatment. A statistically significant increase in experimental group CMJ scores occurred from pre-test to posttest (p < .05). It was hypothesized that an increase in blood flow and activation of the fast-twitch muscle fiber to the applied muscle group facilitated increased muscular power. NMES is an easily applied performance enhancement strategy that could be an important addition to athletes and active individuals.
  • A Study on the Flow State of a Cricketer

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 4J. NarayananPerformance of a cricketer is crucial to his own career and also for his team’s success. Preparation is crucial in both physical and mental arena. Trying to break out of comfort zone decides professional success. The more a cricketer is able to maintain himself in the flow state the more successful he will be. The most important factor of this flow state is that it refers directly to the cricketers understanding / subjective perception of his own ability to perform or execute a skill / to do the task at hand and his perception of the challenge, instead of the actual challenge or ability itself. He should be able to maintain a balance between his perception about the challenge and the actual challenge. If the two of these are not balanced, it will most likely hinder or completely stop the onset of flow. If the perception of the cricketer about the challenge is greater than the perceived skill, it makes him feel anxious or worried that he not be able to complete the task without pain or embarrassment, or possibly not complete the task at all. This paper attempts to discuss the flow state and its relationship with the Performance and also some of the methods that can be used to get into the Flow state.
  • Comparison of Treadmill and Simultaneous Arm and Leg Ergometry in VO2MAX

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 3Jacob A. Kostuck, Corey A. Selland, Jeremy M. FrostMaximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) testing can be performed on a variety of modalities ranging from treadmills to rowing ergometers. The purpose of VO2MAX testing is to determine a person's aerobic capacity and has been shown to elicit the highest response in treadmill (TM) testing. Very few studies have examined the idea of incorporating arm cycling combined with leg cycling in VO2MAX testing. The purpose of this study was to compare a simultaneous arm and leg ergometry (SALE) testing protocol to a TM VO2MAX test. Forty-seven college-aged individuals (female: n=27) volunteered for this study, completing both TM and SALE VO2MAX tests. VO2MAX was higher for TM than SALE (45.6 ± 8.7 vs. 41.0 ± 8.0 ml/kg/min, respectively; p < 0.05), and total length of VO2MAX test was longer for TM than SALE (11.1 ± 2.1 vs 7.9 ± 3.2 min, respectively; p < 0.05); however, the tests were highly correlated (r = 0.92). Heart rate at VO2MAX (p = 0.31), was not different between tests. The ratio of SALE/TM results ranged from 68.9-104.6%. VO2MAX values were more similar for females than males (F(1, 45) = 5.08, p = 0.03). The main finding is the addition of arm-ergometry to leg-ergometry produced lower VO2MAX and test length compared to a treadmill test. Future research should look into modifying the resistances of the SALE protocol to be adapted to the subject's body weight and fitness level to determine if this elicits a higher VO2MAX.
  • Motor Abilities of Children with Intellectual Disability Participating in
           Organized Physical Activity Programme in Nairobi County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 3Jane W. Mwangi, Andanje Mwisukha, Peter W. BukhalaMotor skills development and learning in children increase rapidly between two to six years of age, and parents play a critical role in identifying deficits caused by delayed motor development in these early years especially those with intellectual disability. Therefore, parents constitute an important link in the process of identifying and implementing suitable physical activities to address salient and intractable aspects in the development of their children. This study therefore, aimed at comparing parents’ ratings of the motor abilities of their children with ID of age 4-6 years before and after participating in eight weeks organized physical activity (PA) programme. Quasi-experimental non–equivalent control group research design was adopted for the study. The study targeted parents and their children with ID learning in the four inclusive Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres in Nairobi City County. However, only two ECD centres in Nairobi County that had the highest number of leaners with ID were purposively selected and then randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The children’s parents/guardians were recruited in the study. In experimental group, 20 children and 20 parents met the inclusion and exclusion criteria while in the control group 17 children and 17 parents were included in the study, making a sample size of 74(80.4 %) out of the 92 total targeted population. A total of 62(83.8%) participants successfully completed the three-months PA programme. The test-retest was conducted to determine reliability of the research instrument. Parents’ ratings of their children’s motor abilities were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was coded and organized for analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Results on demographic characteristics of subjects showed that most of the parents involved were female 71.1% in control group and 100% female in the experimental group while most children participants were male 85.7%. Independent t-tests showed significant difference after intervention in terms of parents’ ratings of their children’s motor performance in control group t(13)= -3.37, p
  • The Effect of Grip Chalk on the Clean Grip Midthigh Pull

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 2Jace McArthur, Paul Maggio, Mark DeBelisoMagnesium Carbonate (MC) is often used by individuals to aid in the execution of the clean grip midthigh pulls (CG-MTP) as it aids in the hand coupling with the lifting bar. PURPOSE: This study analyzed the number of CG-MTPs performed at 70% of the subjects’ DL one repetition maximum (1-RM) both with MC and no magnesium carbon (NMC). METHODS: Male high school athletes participated in the study during three sessions separated by at least 48 hours (n=12, age=16.2±0.8 yrs, height=181.8±8.6 cms, mass=69.6±11.7 kgs). During the first session the participants recorded their age, height, weight, executed a dynamic warm-up (DW) and assessed their 1-RM DL. The second and third sessions employed a repeated measures cross over design. During the second session half of the participants performed a maximal repetition CG-MTP @ 70% 1-RM with NMC while the other half of the participants performed a maximal repetition CG-MTP @ 70% 1-RM with MC. During the third session the participants crossed over with regards to MC use. The CG-MTP maximal repetitions sets were executed with a closed overhand clean grip and a DW proceeded the CG-MTPs during both sessions 2 and 3. RESULTS: The number of repetitions performed with the use of MC (11.1±5.1) was significantly greater than the number of repetitions performed with the NMC (9.1±3.1) (p
  • COVID-19: Sedentary Isolation – A Bad Combination

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 3Trish Sevene, Kent J. Adams, Mike Climstein, Joseph M. Berning, Carole Carson, Chad Harris, Joe Walsh, Mark DeBelisoThe COVID-19 virus outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as of March 2020. Hand washing and a 2-meter social distancing became the norm worldwide as front-line mitigation interventions. Subsequently many States in the U.S. and countries worldwide adopted a more aggressive mitigation strategy known as “shelter-in-place”. The “shelter-in-place” intervention also known as “stay at home” requires individuals to stay at home except trips for essential needs and to work remotely for businesses considered as non-essential. However, there are concerns regarding the “stay at home” isolation effects on an already sedentary (inactive) world population. The authors provide a pointed summary of scientific literature identifying the potential ramifications of large sectors of the population becoming both isolated and sedentary. Likewise, the authors suggest straightforward strategies for physical activity that could help mitigate the negative ramifications of isolation and sedentary behavior. The authors consider their remarks as promoting the value of physical activity and not as professional medical advice. If you are feeling isolated or alone, seek the council of your health care provider.
  • Attitude of a Group of Nigerian Athletes towards Bystander Cardiopulmonary

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 2Adedamola Olutoyin Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi OnyeasoBackground/Aim of study: Despite the increasing global concern for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and the impact of sudden cardiac arrest among athletes, there is paucity of data on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among athletes in Nigeria. This study aimed at assessing the attitude of a group of Nigerian athletes towards bystander CPR. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out at the Bayelsa Sports Council, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The participants (athletes) were asked to respond to the questions that addressed their attitudes towards bystander CPR without undue influence from anyone. One hundred and thirty-three copies of the questionnaire were distributed and 128 were completed and returned, giving 96.2% response rate. Attitudes were interpreted using 4-1-pointLikert scales.Using SPSS, the data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance level set at P< .05. Generally, the athletes showed statistically significant positive attitude towards bystander CPR (P
  • The Relationship Between Back Squat Strength and Sprint Times Among Male
           NCAA Track Athletes

    • Abstract: Publication year: 2020Source: International Journal of Sports Science, Volume 10, Number 2Ryan Conan, Mark DeBelisoPrior research indicates that lower body strength and body mass are associated with athletic performance including sprint speed [1,2]. The direct association between lower body strength and track competition sprint performance has not been well documented. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a meaningful relationship between relative strength in the back squat (BSQ) and 60-100m competition sprint times among male college sprinters. The participants were male NCAA Division 1 track sprinters 18-21 years of age (n = 16). Data collected from each athlete included 1-RM BSQ (kg), Body mass (kg), 60m, and 100m sprint times. BSQ, BSQ/Body Mass, and allometrically scaled BSQ/(Body Mass**0.67) scores were then compared to the 60m and 100m sprint times using the Pearson correlation coefficients (r). Results demonstrated moderate to high negative relationships between 60m sprint times and BSQ metrics ranging from r= -0.55 to -0.62 (p0.05) to moderate negative r=-0.57 (significant p
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