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Journal of Science and Cycling
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2254-7053 - ISSN (Online) 2254-7053
Published by Cycling Research Center Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Angular Kinematics and Critical Power of Younger and Older Cyclists during
           the 3-Min All-Out Test

    • Authors: Michele LeBlanc, Travis Peterson, Scott McClave, Steven Hawkins
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine differences in angular kinematics and critical power between younger and older cyclists during the 3-min all-out test. Younger (n = 15, 21.8 ± 2.4y) and older (n = 15, 53.3 ± 6.6 y) Category 1 or 2 riders completed maximal aerobic testing and a 3-min all-out test on separate days using their own bicycle on a cycle ergometer. Eight retroreflective markers determined right side sagittal plane angular kinematics during the 3-min all-out test. Younger cyclists displayed higher VO2max, VO2 @ VEbp, HRmax, Power @ VO2max and Critical Power (p < 0.05) than older cyclists. Cadence decreased over time for the combined group (time 1 (T1) = 87.3 ± 4.5 rpm, time 2 (T2) = 83.7 ± 4.6 rpm, and time 3 (T3) = 83.6 ± 5.0 rpm) where T1 was significantly higher than T2 and T3 (p < 0.001), but there were no differences between age groups. Ankle (T1 > T2 > T3, p < 0.026) and foot ranges of motion (T1, T2 > T3, p < 0.01) decreased over time for both age groups. Additionally, younger cyclists had larger ankle and foot ranges of motion (ROM) compared to older cyclists (p = 0.036 and p = 0.032, respectively). Age related differences in physiological measures occurred as expected, although the skill level of the cyclists may explain their similar cadence. Smaller ankle and foot ROM may be strategies to assist force and power generation, particularly in older cyclists as they attempt to overcome aging related physiological declines. With smaller ROM, older cyclists may aim to strengthen ankle musculature and deemphasize high cadence to maintain force generation and critical power.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Utility of INSCYD athletic performance software to determine Maximal
           Lactate Steady State and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in cyclists

    • Authors: Tim Podlogar, Simon Cirnski, Špela Bokal, Tina Kogoj
      Abstract: Serious amateur and elite athletes regularly take part in structured physiological testing sessions so that their progress gets tracked and training loads in the training plan correctly prescribed. Commonly, athletes are tested for the maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and maximal lactate steady state intensity (MLSS). While for the former expensive laboratory equipment is required, the latter requires multiple exercise trials for accurate determination. INSCYD athletic performance software is designed to enable continuous monitoring of these two parameters throughout the season after undertaking a single visit exercise testing session involving blood lactate sampling and power output measurement. The purpose of the present study was to assess validity of the software by its estimates of V̇O2max and MLSS and compare them to gold standard laboratory measures. 11 trained participants (V̇O2max 61.0 ± 7.9 mL ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1) took part in this study consisting of formal graded V̇O2max test, multiple MLSS trials and a recommended test to obtain the data later fed the INSCYD athletic performance software. Both V̇O2max relative (∆=0.13 ml.kg-1.min-1, p=0.885) and MLSS calculated values (∆=2 W, p=0.655) were within expected daily variation and thus the estimations considered valid. It can be concluded that INSCYD athletic performance software offers its users utility to accurately predict V̇O2max and MLSS provided that the practitioner has a good idea of where the MLSS lies. However, caution is required when interpreting other parameter estimates provided by the software due their questionable scientific validity.
      PubDate: 2022-05-09
       
  • Systematic Review of Bike Simulator Studies

    • Authors: Alireza Ansariyar, Eazaz Sadeghvaziri, Mansoureh Jeihani
      Abstract: The bicycle is a promising, human-powered and emission-free transportation mode that is being increasingly advocated for due to its significant positive impact on congestion and the environment. Despite the growing popularity of bicycles as a sustainable transport mode in the past two decades, compared to the vehicular mode, bicycle facilities have relatively less development, research, and understanding. In recent years, the bike simulator (BS) provides a fairly realistic environment for conducting research in the area of cycling, and it is capable of simulating real-world environments. It has the potential to contribute to the understanding of bicycle facility design and cyclist’s behavior. This study is designed to identify and review BS studies, evaluate the study approaches used in the literature, and uncover their gaps and challenges. After reviewing the literature, four approaches were identified: “application of BS to suggest a mathematical dynamic model/equation for bicycle/bicyclist stability,” “incorporation of BS with virtual reality (VR) technology,” “application of a BS in safety promotion studies,” and “application of BS in medical, psychology, sports management, and other branches of science.” This review is expected to assist researchers and decision makers with selecting the most appropriate quantification method based on their goals and study limitations. Compared to the car simulator, fewer studies have been conducted on BSs. Therefore, future research is needed to address the identified challenges in the BS evaluation process.
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
       
  • Infographic Best practice guideline for treatment of Upper Respiratory
           Tract Infections (URTIs) in Elite Road Cyclists

    • Authors: Neil Heron, Javier Gonzalez
      Abstract: See attached introduction for infographic. 
      PubDate: 2022-04-17
       
  • Systematic Review of Bike Simulator Studies

    • Authors: Alireza Ansariyar, Eazaz Sadeghvaziri, Mansoureh Jeihani
      Abstract: The bicycle is a promising, human-powered and emission-free transportation mode that is being increasingly advocated for due to its significant positive impact on congestion and the environment. Despite the growing popularity of bicycles as a sustainable transport mode in the past two decades, compared to the vehicular mode, bicycle facilities have relatively less development, research, and understanding. In recent years, the bike simulator (BS) provides a fairly realistic environment for conducting research in the area of cycling, and it is capable of simulating real-world environments. It has the potential to contribute to the understanding of bicycle facility design and cyclist’s behavior. This study is designed to identify and review BS studies, evaluate the study approaches used in the literature, and uncover their gaps and challenges. After reviewing the literature, 83 studies were selected to review as the final database of this study. Furthermore, four approaches were identified in the literature: “application of BS to suggest a mathematical dynamic model/equation for bicycle/bicyclist stability,” “incorporation of BS with virtual reality (VR) technology,” “application of a BS in safety promotion studies,” and “application of BS in medical, psychology, sports management, and other branches of science.” This review is expected to assist researchers and decision makers with selecting the most appropriate quantification method based on their goals and study limitations. Compared to the car simulator, fewer studies have been conducted on BSs. Therefore, future research is needed to address the identified challenges in the BS evaluation process.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Hand nerve function after mountain bike cycling

    • Authors: Niklas Ricklund, Gustav Fardelin , Ing-Liss Bryngelsson
      Abstract: Hand-arm vibrations can cause permanent injuries and temporary changes affecting the sensory and circulatory systems in the hands. Vibrational effects have been thoroughly studied within the occupational context concerning work with handheld vibrating tools. Less is known about vibrational exposure and risk of effects during cycling. In the present study, 10 cyclists were recruited for exposure measurements of hand-arm vibrations during mountain bike cycling on the trail, and the effects on the nerve function were examined with quantitative sensory testing (QST) before and after the ride. The intervention group was compared to a control group that consisted of men exposed to hand-arm vibrations from a polishing machine. The results of the QST did not statistically significantly differ between the intervention and study groups. The intervention group showed a lesser decrease in vibration perception in digitorum II, digitorum V, and hand grip strength than the control group. It was concluded that no acute effects on nerve function in the dominant hand were measured after mountain bike cycling on the trail, despite high vibration doses through the handlebars.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Environmental Factors Influencing the Performance Outcome During Grand
           Tours for Elite Cyclists: A Scoping Review

    • Authors: Eline de Jager, Matthias Kempe
      Abstract: Besides their opponents, professional cyclists also battle environmental factors during a race. Therefore, riders need to adapt to factors like temperature, air resistance and aerodynamics, and the road gradient.  Within this scoping review an overview of if and how these factors affect race performance, as well as strategies to manage them, will be provided.   A systematic search strategy utilizing the PRISMA-ScR guidelines was employed to identify eligible articles through PubMed, Web of Science databases, and the Journal of Science and Cycling. In total, 33 articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated and qualitatively synthesized. In total, nine studies investigated the influence of temperature on race performance, 11 articles on the effect of road gradient, nine studied the effect of air resistance on performance, and five articles on the effect of aerodynamics. All of the four environmental factors influence performance, but for all four an appropriate (training)method can mitigate the impact on performance. Temperature can be managed by using different pre-cooling methods and cold beverage drinking during the race. Air resistance can be minimized by using pacing strategies, while aerodynamics can be optimized by employing intelligent team tactics to reduce the aerodynamic force on the best riders. Furthermore, uphill cycling can be optimized by using a good pacing strategy and cycling in a standing position. To minimize the influence of the road gradient a bicycle change towards a lighter bike is beneficial. In conclusion, existing literature offers various options to battle the different environmental factors so that riders can perform optimally in a race.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Effects of Cycling Posture on the Subacromial Space: A Pilot Sonographic
           Analysis

    • Authors: Katheryn Steiner, Emily Huebener, Debra Kusnierek, Dr. Nathan Short, Dr. Joel Vilensky
      Abstract: Cycling is a common leisure, exercise, or sporting activity (Chiu et al., 2013). Despite the popularity of cycling, this activity can have detrimental impacts on the body, such as bicycle contact, trauma, and overuse injuries (Silberman, 2013). The purpose of the research study was to examine if there is a decrease in width of the subacromial space (SAS) when in cycling, trekking posture in comparison to neutral, sitting posture. A sample of young adults underwent sonographic imaging of the SAS bilaterally in a seated posture and trekking posture. After being measured in the seated posture, participants cycled for five minutes and then were measured for trekking posture. Digital calipers were used by a researcher to determine the width of the SAS by taking the average of three measurements followed by data analysis. The sample (n=29) demonstrated a statistically significant (p< 0.001) reduction in the SAS while in trekking posture compared to neutral posture for both the right and left shoulders. The right shoulder demonstrated a mean 2.5 mm reduction (24%), while the left shoulder demonstrated a 2 mm (18%) reduction. The results suggest a reduction in the SAS among a healthy sample of young adults when in a trekking, posture in comparison to a neutral, sitting posture. The decrease of the SAS between postures is important to consider due to the increase in the popularity of cycling, as a reduction in SAS has been linked to several shoulder disorders that may limit functional use of the upper extremity. Further research can be done to examine a more diverse population, focusing on competitive cyclists, the inclusion of different bicycles, postures, and terrain, along with related disorders to reduce SAS, injury management, and injury prevention to improve sports performance.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • How low can you go – exploring the balance between aerodynamic
           advantages and restrictions related to reducing the torso-hip angle

    • Authors: Claes Hoegh Cubel
      Abstract: Introduction: Lowering of the upper body position to optimize cycling time trial (TT) performance is a balance between aerodynamic benefits from reducing the rider’s frontal area and the reported detrimental effects of decreasing the hip-torso angle on exercise economy and power output. Methods: To explore this issue in trained athletes and across positions relevant for elite TT, racing positions for international (top-10 world championships [WC] TT finishers), and national elite (10 male) cyclists were analyzed and lab studies on the national group were completed to evaluate effects on exercise economy, muscle oxygenation and perceived exertion for their habitual position, respectively, the range of racing positions observed for both groups of elite TT riders. Results: Torso-horizontal angel for top-10 WC finishers ranged from 4-12˚, while the national elite TT racing position were in the range from 8 to 18˚. For the lowest observed and lab-investigated position (4˚ torso-angle), perceived exertion was aggravated compared to the more upright 12˚ and 20˚ positions and higher than scores for rider’s habitual position. However, there was no difference in overall energy expenditure, delta exercise efficiency or measures of muscle oxygenation across the investigated range of positions. Conclusion: These observations indicate that elite time trial cyclists may adopt a very low (and aerodynamic attractive) position without compromising exercise economy or muscle oxygen delivery. However, the elevated exertion expressed for the lowest position indicate that other (individual/not accounted for) factors may affect and potentially compromise the ability to adapt to very low racing positions.     
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Does the Retül System provide reliable kinematics information for
           cycling analysis'

    • Authors: Guilherme Ribeiro Branco, Luciana De Michelis Mendonça, Renan Alves Resende, Felipe Pivetta Carpes
      Abstract: The Retül Vantage system is a popular tool to assess dynamic positioning of cyclists. Despite of using a low sampling rate (18 Hz) to record position data, Retül measures shows a moderate to very high correlation with data from gold-standard tridimensional camera systems reaching higher sampling rates, but its reliability has not been tested. Here we assess the reliability of the Retül Vantage system for kinematic assessment of cyclists. This cross-sectional study had two phases. Phase 1 included a survey with certified Retül bike fitters to select the most common variables used in cycling kinematics assessment. Phase 2 involved assessment of the selected cycling kinematics variables to check for intra-examiner reliability. Ten bike fitters answered the online survey (response rate of 47.6%) and 7 variables were identified as the most common to conduct during bike fitting analysis. Then, ten cyclists were submitted to kinematic assessments and Vantage system variables were checked for inter-examiner reliability and standard error of the variables. Good to excellent inter-tester reliability levels were found for all the 7 kinematics variables tested. Standard error of angular variables was lower than 3º for all as well as lower than 5 mm for the linear variable tested. The minimal detectable difference values ranged from 2.15 to 6.55º for angular variables and of 15.51 mm for linear variables. A high and very high degree of intra-rater reliability can be achieved using Retül Vantage system for kinematics assessment of the most common variables included in bike fitting.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Perceptions of cycling helmet safety in relation to sports-related
           concussion mitigation amongst competitive cyclists

    • Authors: Howard Thomas Hurst, Brett Anthony Baxter, Tim Gamble, Jack Hardwicke
      Abstract: . Introduction Whilst research into competitive cycling and sports-related concussion (SRC) has developed over the past few years, understanding of competitive cyclists’ perceptions of helmet safety in relation to mitigating SRC is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore these perceptions along with cyclists’ attitudes towards seeking medical attention in the event of sustaining helmet damage.  
      2. Materials and Methods Four hundred and five participants of mixed sex, age, abilities and cycling disciplines, completed an anonymous self-reported online survey, made up of ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, Likert scale and open-ended questions, to assess perception of bicycle helmets in relation to sports-related concussion. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. Chi-square tests of independence were conducted to assess the influence of sex, age, discipline, and ability level on frequency of survey response rates. Mann–Whitney U tests were conducted to assess between-sex differences for individual Likert scale responses, and Kruskal–Wallis tests were conducted to assess between-ability level differences for individual Likert scale responses. Post-hoc analyses were conducted using Tukey’s to examine where differences between groups occurred. Open-field data were analyzed using conventional content analysis (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005).  
      3. Results Understanding of helmet safety Whilst most respondents correctly reported a helmet can reduced the risk of skull fractures, 79.5% incorrectly reported that helmets do offer protection against concussion. There were no significant differences in knowledge of helmet safety between age, sex or ability levels (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences between disciplines for knowledge of protection against concussion (χ2 = 30.681; P = 0.013), with BMX and Audax/Long Distance cyclists more likely to correctly report helmets do not prevent SRC.   Attitudes towards helmet damage Table 3 shows the responses to three scenarios relating to helmet damage. If the helmet was cracked, most respondents stated they would replace it with a new one (Agree = 15.3%, Strongly Agree = 80.7%). However, significant differences were revealed between disciplines with respect to a potential head injury following a crash resulting in a scuffed helmet (P = 0.001) and after a crash resulting in a cracked helmet (P = 0.013), with post-hoc pairwise comparisons (P < 0.05) finding Mountain Bike and BMX athletes were less likely to seek medical attention than in these scenarios than Cyclo-cross and triathlon/duathlon athletes. Table 1. Attitudes towards helmet damage and seeking medical attention.   Frequency of Likert survey responses   Statement Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree   “I would seek medical care for potential head injuries if I had been involved in a high impact crash, but my head (and helmet) did not contact the floor.”         49 (12.1%)         132 (32.6%)         128 (31.6%)         65 (16.0%)         31 (7.7%)     “I would seek medical care for potential head injuries if I had been involved in a crash where my helmet had been scuffed but not cracked.”       43 (10.6%)       149 (36.8%)       126 (31.1%)       59 (14.6%)       28 (6.9%)     “I would seek medical care for potential head injuries if I had been involved in a crash where my helmet had been cracked.”       9 (2.2%)       47 (11.6%)       87 (21.5%)       140 (34.6%)     122 (30.1%)                  
      Discussion While previous research has reported concussion knowledge amongst cyclists is generally comparable to that of other athletes (Hurst et al., 2019; Hardwicke and Hurst, 2020), our findings suggest there remains confusion around the effectiveness of cycling helmets to mitigate from SRC. Additionally, Mountain Bike and BMX riders reported to have a more cavalier attitude to seeking medical attention in the event of sustaining helmet damage. This may be linked to risk taking behaviours and the extreme nature of these events which has been previously reported (Clarke et al., 2019...
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Effect of vertical load, inflation pressure and camber angle on the
           lateral characteristics of bicycle tires

    • Authors: Gabriele Dell'Orto
      Abstract: See the document
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • "Power road-derived physical performance parameters in junior, under 23
           and professional road cycling climbers"

    • Authors: Gabriele Gallo, Manuel Mateo March, Emanuela Faelli, Piero Ruggeri, Roberto Codella, Peter Leo, Andrea Giorgi, Luca Filipas
      Abstract: Abstract  Purpose: To investigate the relationship between field-derived power and physical performance parameters and competition success in road cycling climbing specialists of age-related categories, and to explore cross-sectional differences between high-ranked (HIGHR) climbing specialists of each category. Methods: Fifty-three male climbers participated in this study (JUN, n = 15; U23, n = 21; PRO, n = 17). Training and racing data collected during the 2016-2019 competitive seasons were retrospectively analyzed for record power outputs (RPOs) and RPOs after prior accumulated work. Results: In JUN, body mass, absolute RPOs and relative RPOs were higher in HIGHR compared to LOWR (d = 0.97-2.20, large; P = 0.097-0.001); in U23 and PRO, the percentage decrease in RPOs after 20, 30, 40 and 50 kJ⋅kg-1 was less in HIGHR compared to LOWR (d = 0.77-1.74, moderate-large; P = 0.096-0.004). JUN HIGHR presented lower absolute and relative RPO-20min (η2p = 0.34-0.38, large; P = 0.099-0.001);  and higher percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work compared to U23 and PRO HIGHR (η2p = 0.28-0.68, large; P = 0.060-0.001); percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work was the only parameter differentiating U23 and PRO HIGHR, with PRO declining less in relative RPO-1min, RPO-5min and RPO-20min after 20-50 kJ⋅kg-1 (η2p = 0.28-0.68, large; P = 0.090-0.001). Conclusions: Superior absolute and relative RPOs characterize HIGHR JUN climbing specialists. Superior fatigue resistance differentiates HIGHR U23, and PRO climbers compared to LOWR, as well as PRO vs U23 climbers.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Age-related decline in aerobic potential in trained to well-trained
           cyclists

    • Authors: Magnus Hyttel, Mathias Kristiansen, Ernst Hansen
      Abstract: It is generally considered that an age-related decline in aerobic capacity occurs as we get older. The decline has been described to be approximately 1% per year in adult men and women, starting from the age of about 25 years. It may, however, be influenced by the activity level of the individual [1]. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effect of aging on aerobic potential in trained to well-trained cyclists, in a cross-sectional study.  Sixteen cyclists, classified as either trained or well-trained [2], were recruited and divided into two groups depending on their age. Group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2) were characterized by a mean age of 27.9±5.9 and 53.8±5.2 years, respectively (p<0.001). Body mass was 75.7±10.7 and 78.9±9.6 kg in G1 and G2, respectively (NS). G1 trained 4.5±1.4 times and 10.3±4.9 h per week while G2 trained 4.6±2.5 times and 8.6±5.4 h per week at the time just before the start of the study (NS). Anaerobic threshold (AT) was measured using a continuous incremental test starting at 140 W and increasing by 40 W every 5th min, until a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol per L was reached. Later, maximal watt (Wmax) was measured in a continuous incremental test starting at 200 W and increasing by 25 W every min, until exhaustion. The primary result of the present study was that G2 showed a significantly lower Wmax of 333±40 W as compared to 380±32 W for G1 (p=0.019) as well as lower AT of 259±34 W as compared to 300±21 W for G1 (p=0.013). These differences correspond to on average 12% and 14% lower values for G2, respectively. Taking the average difference of 26 years between the two groups into account, the average differences in Wmax and AT between the groups correspond to declines of 0.5% per year. An age-dependent decline in aerobic capacity should be expected, regardless of activity level. However, the present results indicate that the older participants in the study managed to limit the textbook-based expected age-related decline of 1% per year quite a bit when considering the aerobic potential measurements of Wmax and AT. In conclusion, differences in Wmax and AT were observed between younger and older trained to well-trained cyclists, in favour of the younger. The result occurred regardless that the two groups of cyclists were matched for performed training at the time just before the start of the study as well as body mass. The age-related difference in aerobic potential measurements was on average about 13%, which corresponds to a decline of 0.5% per year lived.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Developing a Community Platform for Women Cyclists towards a Sustainable
           Cycling Lifestyle: A Futures Thinking Approach

    • Authors: Naimi Ismadi
      Abstract: While the concept of sustainable development is regarded as cliché, the impacts of global warming continue to shape and impact our daily lives. To address this issue, designing policies and solutions that align with the SDGs with involvement by stakeholders from both local and regional levels are crucial. Platforms may be a medium for stakeholders to facilitate joint action and mutual interdependence.. Pursuant to SDG 3, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages” and SDG 12, “Ensure sustainable consumption, and production patterns”, an effort towards sustainable development can be achieved through a collaborative platform designed to empower women cyclists to gather, build a network and empower one another through knowledge dissemination and become an influence for existing women cyclists and non-cyclists alike to take adopt cycling, leading a sustainable lifestyle through maintenance of cycling behaviour. Cycling is a low-carbon mode of transportation that is a goal set by some cities who want to obtain a sustainable city status. Research shows that women cyclists are an underrepresented group, and suggests that gender and cycling behaviour should be investigated. A participatory approach through the lens of Futures Thinking would empower the users of the platform through integrating viewpoints of users during the design process. As a research method, women cyclists would be interviewed with questions integrating the Futures Triangle, to achieve a desired future, one in which there is an equal representation of the women gender in cycling. It is hoped that a community platform aimed at women cyclists towards a sustainable cycling lifestyle would be developed based on the feedback from users, while considering the contextual forces, trends and emerging challenges faced by women cyclists today.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Bypass of Respiratory Complex I and its relation to different lactate
           landmarks – a pilot study

    • Authors: Christoph Triska
      Abstract: n/a
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • "Power road-derived physical performance parameters in junior, under 23
           and professional road cycling climbers"

    • Authors: Gabriele Gallo, Manuel Mateo March, Peter Leo, Andrea Giorgi, Emanuela Faelli, Piero Ruggeri, Roberto Codella, Luca Filipas
      Abstract: Purpose:To investigate the relationship between field-derived power and physical performance parameters and competition success in road cycling climbing specialists of age-related categories, and to explore cross-sectional differences between high-ranked (HIGHR) climbing specialists of each category. Methods: Fifty-three male climbers participated in this study (JUN, n = 15; U23, n = 21; PRO, n = 17). Training and racing data collected during the 2016-2019 competitive seasons were retrospectively analyzed for critical power (CP), the work capacity above critical power (W’), maximal aerobic power (MAP), record power outputs (RPOs) and RPOs after prior accumulated work. Within category comparison between HIGHR and low-ranked (LOWR) cyclists, and between category comparison among HIGHR cyclists were conducted. Results: In JUN, absolute and relative MAP and RPOs were higher in HIGHR compared to LOWR; in U23 and PRO, the percentage decrease in RPOs after 30, 40 and 50 kJ⋅kg-1 was less in HIGHR compared to LOWR (all P < 0.05). JUN HIGHR presented lower relative CP, MAP, RPO-20min and higher percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work compared to U23 and PRO HIGHR; percentage decrease in RPOs after prior accumulated work was the only parameter differentiating U23 and PRO HIGHR, with PRO declining less in relative RPO-1min, RPO-5min and RPO-20min after 20-50 kJ⋅kg-1 (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Superior absolute and relative MAP and RPO characterize HIGHR JUN climbing specialists. Superior fatigue resistance differentiates HIGHR U23, and PRO climbers compared to LOWR, as well as PRO vs U23 climbers.  
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • High-performance cycling coaches’ perspectives of athlete monitoring

    • Authors: Wouter Piet Timmerman, Mandy Stanley, Chris Abbiss, Nathan Lawler, Annette Raynor
      Abstract: The sport science literature tends to focus on monitoring techniques that are available for use to improve the performance of elite athletes, however there is a lack of understanding as to why coaches use these tools in their coaching. Therefore, the purpose of this research project was to elicit insights into why high-performance cycling coaches conduct athlete monitoring. A qualitative descriptive research design, using semi-structured in-depth interviews was used. Four high-performance cycling coaches (experience: 10.5 ± 2.6 years) who had coached at least one athlete to a top-3 performance in a major championship or general classification of a cycling Grand Tour were recruited and provided informed consent. These high-performance cycling coaches are a subsample from high-performance coaches across various endurance sports. The interview transcripts were analysed inductively using the iterative process of reflexive thematic analysis. Athlete monitoring provides coaches with the capability to make more informed and contextualised decisions which is expected to improve coach decision-making leading to the ultimate goal of enhancing the athlete’s performance. Initial coding indicates two themes, “monitoring to know” which was typified by knowing the athlete status, progress, and capability and “monitoring to learn and understand” which included learning and gaining understanding about the athlete’s training response, the athlete as an individual, and actively learning from experience. The findings from this study indicate that athlete monitoring has an important role to inform and increase confidence in coach decision-making. The two themes “monitoring to know” and “monitoring to learn and understand” provide an insight into the high-performance coach's utilisation and integration of various monitoring tools. As a sport scientist, understanding the nuances of the decision-making process and thus providing the coach with the right information at the right time could be a significant factor in the decisions made to enhance the athlete’s performance.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Torque behaviour during cycling sprints from different pedalling
           frequencies

    • Authors: Felix Imbery
      Abstract: Professional road cycling events often result in a bunch sprint at the end of a race, where power outputs of >1.200 W have been recorded. To hit those power outputs high torque and cadence is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate torque and cadence relationship in cycling sprints in field condition. Five athletes (mean±SD; female: N=3, 23±2 years, 172±cm, 59±3 kg, male: N=2, 27±3.5 years, 179±9 cm, 79±6 kg) executed five maximum sprints over 6-10 s starting from different cadences. Using the latest generation of crank based cycling power meters (SRM Powermeter 9, Jülich, Germany) and data of torque, power, angular velocity, and angle were recorded every 5 ms. Maximum Torque demonstrated a large effect (d=1.4 to 4.0) across all cadence ranges (∆: 25 to 72 Nm). However, maximum on power demonstrated a small to large effect (d=.3 to 1.1). Sex differences demonstrated a large effect for peak Torque, maximum on power, and maximum one second power, (d=2.3 to 3.2) and small effects for Angleft and Angright (d=.2 to .3). The findings suggest a deeper analysis and understanding of cycling sprints in field. Furthermore, cycling sprints are very different comparing sexes.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • The effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on
           substrate utilisation and fatigue resistance in female cyclists

    • Authors: Jer Ling Serene Lee
      Abstract: Introduction Fatigue resistance, particularly maintaining high power outputs at the end of a race, is important for cycling success (Leo et al., 2021). An essential component for resisting fatigue is carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism (Moore et al., 2021). In female cyclists, hormonal changes accompanying the menstrual cycle (MC) can influence in-exercise CHO oxidation (Impey et al., 2020). Oral contraceptive (OC) use, which is prevalent in female cyclists, may further amplify challenges associated with energy availability due to steroidal hormones in OC exerting additional metabolic effects on CHO metabolism (Sims & Heather, 2018). Importantly, no studies have examined the impact of MC phase or OC use in female cyclists under race specific conditions. This study examined the influence of both endogenous ovarian hormones and exogenous synthetic hormone analogues on the regulation of substrate utilisation and fatigue resistance during a race-specific cycling protocol.     Methods Nineteen female cyclists completed one graded exercise test and then two experimental trials in a randomised crossover design. Eleven of the cyclists were regularly menstruating and completed trials in their low-hormone follicular phase (Estrogen: 214.0±67.7 pmol.L-1; Progesterone: 1.7±0.7 nmol.L-1) and high-hormone luteal phase (E: 481.3±159.3 pmol.L-1; P: 25.2±15.7 nmol.L-1). The remaining eight cyclists were monophasic OC users and completed trials in the active (high-hormone) and sugar (low-hormone) pill phases. 24 hours prior to each trial, participants were provided with standardised meals (CHO: 8g per kg of lean body mass, assessed via DEXA) and asked to avoid caffeine. During each trial, zero sugar electrolytes were provided ad libitum. Trial procedures are outlined in Figure 1.   During the experimental trials, ventilatory data were measured for three minutes at 20 and 40-min of the sub-maximal cycling and during the HIT bout, with mean values reported. These data were used to describe ventilation (VE; L.min-1) and respiratory rate (RR), and to report substrate utilisation from respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and CHO /fat oxidation (ox) rates. Average power (AvP) across six efforts and best 1-min power (MaxP) during FRT were used to assess fatigue resistance. Reported variables were analysed using linear mixed models. Statistical significance level was set to p≤0.05. All data are reported as mean±SD.   Results During the sub-maximal cycling, greater RER (0.93±0.03IU; p<0.001) and CHOox (1.88±0.42g.min-1; p=0.004), and lower fatox (0.29±0.25g.min-1, p=0.045) were observed at 20-min compared with 40-min (RER: 0.91±0.03IU; CHOox: 1.70±0.46g.min-1, fatox: 0.36±0.30g.min-1). An interaction was observed for fatox (p=0.029) and CHOox (p=0.006) between hormone and OC status. Specifically, in OC users, fatox was higher (p=0.012) and CHOox lower (p=0.03) on the active pill (fatox: 0.49±0.54 g.min-1; CHOox: 1.72±0.54g.min-1) compared with sugar pill (fatox: 0.32±0.13g.min-1; CHOox: 1.88±0.27g.min-1). Both VE (64.2±12.2L.min-1 vs. 59.8±7.2L.min-1, p=0.001) and RR (64.2±12.2L.min-1 vs. 59.8±7.2L.min-1, p=0.002) were greater during the sub-maximal cycling in the high- compared with low-hormone trials. An interaction between OC status and time (p=0.008) was observed for RR.   During the HIT bout, a main effect of hormone status was observed for VE (high: 82.1±8.5 L.min-1; low: 79.3±8.8 L.min-1; p=0.023) with no differences observed for RR, RER, fatox and CHOox.   The AvP was not different between MC (high: 278.1±15.8 W vs. low: 285.1±16.8 W) and OC phases (high: 292.5±14.8W vs. low: 296.5±11.3W); nor was MaxP different in MC (high: 309.6±38.4W vs. low: 319.5±28.1W) and OC phases (high: 323.1±36.6W vs. low: 326.5±41.6W).   Discussion A universal shift in substrate utilisation, CHO to fat, was observed during the sub-maximal cycling. Importantly, in OC users, irrespective of time, greater reliance on fat oxidation was observed during the active pill phase. This finding is likely a consequence of the synthetic hormones within OC as ethinyl estradiol down-regulates blood glucose flux (Casazza et al., 2002) and progestin is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and reduced muscle glycogen utilisation (Campbell & Febbraio, 2002). These findings, however, were no longer apparent during the HIT phase of the trials, indicating that exercise intensity has a greater impact on substrate utilisation than hormonal concentrations or OC use.   The greater VE within the high-hormone compared to low-hormone phases during sub-maximal cycling and HIT could be due to endogenous progesterone (Schoene et al., 1981) and synthetic progestin (Rechichi et al., 2007) in the MC and OC conditions, respectively. Indeed, both progesterone and progestin have been shown to increase the ventilatory cost of breathing. RR, as per VE, was higher in the high hormone phases during sub-maximal cycling but was not different during HIT. During the HIT phase, participants were close to their maximum RR (96.7±10.4%) and therefore it is likely that a ceiling effect was observed negating any differences between conditions.   Despite some changes in substrate utilisation and ventilation during sub...
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Inter- and intra-individual reliability of a 30-minute RPE clamp cycling
           exercise

    • Authors: Callum O'Malley, Chris Fullerton, Lex Mauger
      Abstract: Purpose: Using exercise protocols at a fixed rating of perceived effort (RPE) is a useful method for exploring the psychophysical influences on exercise performance. However, studies that have employed this protocol have arbitrarily selected RPE values without consideration for physiological state and exercise domains. Therefore, incorporating a more validated and justified approach which aligns RPE intensities with established physiological boundaries seems beneficial but has yet to be assessed as a reliable measure at both the inter- and intra-individual level. Methods: Eight recreationally active cyclists completed two identical ramped incremental trials on a cycle ergometer to identify gas exchange threshold (GET). A linear regression model plotted RPE responses during this test alongside gas parameters to establish an RPE corresponding to GET (RPEGET) and 15% above GET (RPE+15%GET). Participants then completed three trials at each intensity, in which performance, physiological, and psychological measures were taken obtained at five-minute intervals. Data were assessed for reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variations (CoV) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: All performance and gas parameters showed excellent levels of test-retest reliability (ICCs = >.900) across both intensities. Performance, gas-related measures, and heart rate averaged over the entire 30-minute exercise demonstrated good intra-individual reliability (CoV = <5%). Conclusion: Recreationally trained cyclists can reliably replicate RPE-clamped efforts across multiple visits when RPE is aligned to physiological thresholds. Some evidence suggests that exercise within the RPE+15%GET is more reliable than the RPEGET condition.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • W’ recovery during intermittent exercise: current limitations and future
           challenges of predictive models

    • Authors: Kevin Caen, Jan Boone, Maarten Lievens
      Abstract: The application of the traditional critical power (CP) model to intermittent exercise has generated a lot of interest from both academia and cycling practice. One of the main reasons for its popularity lays in the fact that intermittent exercise strongly relates to many real-life sports situations in which high-intensity efforts (i.e., above CP) are alternated with low-intensity recovery intervals (i.e., below CP). Applying the CP model to this type of exercise offers a mathematical and physiological framework to estimate the depletion and the recovery of the so-called W’: a fixed amount of energy that can be spent during exercise above CP and can be recovered during exercise below CP. In 2012, Skiba et al. developed an equation to predict the balance in W’ (W’BAL) at any time during intermittent exercise. In this model, W’ recovery is assumed to occur in an exponential fashion with the speed of the recovery being dependent on the recovery power output. Although the introduction of the W’BAL model was a big step forward towards the individual modelling of W’ recovery kinetics, the results from several studies we have conducted in our own laboratory have shown the need to further improve these mathematical models and to gain a better understanding of their physiological underpinnings. First, we have demonstrated that the recovery of W’ following exhaustive cycling exercise exhibits a two-phase exponential time course that is dependent on the exercise modalities of both the fatigue-inducing work bout and the subsequent recovery interval. Second, we have shown that the quantification of the recovery time constant, as it is incorporated in the current W’BAL model, does not sufficiently account for changes in recovery power output in relation to the intensity domains. At last, we have demonstrated that individual differences in aerobic fitness have a significant impact on the W’ recovery. To some degree, this influence may explain the large variability in W’ recovery between individuals. Based on the above results, and based on the fact that we observed low predictive capabilities of the W’BAL model, we recommend that future predictive models for W’ recovery carefully account for these influencing factors.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Effect of pedaling cadence on physiological responses and neuromuscular
           fatigue during a single interval-training session

    • Authors: Sebastien Duc, Jeremie Allinger, Stéphane Verrier
      Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of pedaling cadence on neuromuscular fatigue of the knee extensor muscles following an interval training (IT) session. Nine trained male cyclists performed three 45-min IT session (6 x 5 min work intervals at 80% of peak power output separated by 2.5 min active recovery period) with 3 different pedaling cadence (60, 90 and 110 rpm), in a random order. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and immediately after the three trials. Heart rate (HR) and electromyography (EMG) activity of thigh muscles were measured throughout IT sessions and RPE at the end of each work interval. Although reduction in maximal voluntary contraction torque was similar after the 3 IT sessions, decreases in peak doublet and peak twitch were significantly greater after IT110. Compared to IT60 and IT90, HR and EMG activity of vastus medialis were significantly higher during IT110. Performing IT session with high pedaling cadence resulted in additional peripheral muscular fatigue and cardiovascular demand that may be explained in part by a greater fast fiber recruitment in quadriceps.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Maximal aerobic power-cadence relationship estimation in national level
           under nineteen cyclists from in-situ data

    • Authors: Yann BERTRON
      Abstract: For any given duration, the cyclist performance capacities can be determined with based on a power profile i.e. mean maximal power (MMP). Power is a product of torque and cadence, and maximal efforts in cycling can be modeled by a polynomial relationship between maximal power and the optimal cadence. The objective of this research is to explore the torque- and power – cadence relationship for MMP 5-min (as a surrogate of maximal aerobic power (MAP MMP 5-min data for al cadences between 60 and 120rpm were analyzed accordingly. The goodness of fit was excellent (r² = .90 [.82-.94]). The even-odd days intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were very high for Topt and Pmax (.90 and .94, respectively) and high for Copt (.76). Standard Error Measurement (SEM) was 2.2 N·m-1 for Topt, 4.3 rpm for Copt. and 10.8 W for Pmax. Mean optimal torque values was 42.6 ± 7.0 N·m-1 and the mean optimal cadence – rate was 91rpm ± 8 rpm. The estimated 5-min MMP was 402 ± 40 watts. Thus, the MMP 5-min – cadence modeling is feasible, reliable and produce coherent indicators of cycling performance. This modelling gives important information, such as optimal torque and cadence. Numerous applications for testing, training and racing could be extracted from this innovative approach.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Real World Cycling Aerodynamics

    • Authors: Christoph Feichtinger
      Abstract: Every athlete in the world, competing in outdoor sports events must deal with permanently changing environmental conditions. These are conditions of the ground and the air environmental conditions like wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, air humidity, ambient pressure and so on. The present work deals with an assessment of real upstream flow conditions of road bikes which occur during professional road cycling events. The upstream flow conditions are influenced by environmental wind, surrounding obstacles or competitors. To a human observer, these things may have nothing to do with each other, but from an aerodynamic point of view, these things simply represent different upstream flow conditions. It is assumed that all these influences can be modelled in the easiest way by a resulting upstream flow vector, with the corresponding speed and direction. This paper examines the upstream flow conditions with the two variables of upstream flow velocity and upstream flow angle.  Furthermore, the influence of the upstream flow conditions on the aerodynamic characteristics, especially the drag resistance, is evaluated. Finally, the upstream flow conditions and the different effects on the aerodynamics are analyzed for specific riding situations regarding time and speed. Available measurements of aerodynamic characteristics against the upstream flow angle range are mainly limited to an angle range of +- 20°. The present paper shows, that the real upstream flow angles are in a far bigger range. Special emphasis is placed on the recording of the real upstream flow conditions. Corresponding measures and reactions, for athletes, coaches, and developers, to the different situations are also presented.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Real-time energy monitoring of track cyclists

    • Authors: Jelle De Bock, Lore Simons, Maarten Slembrouck, Jan Vancompernolle, Koen Beeckman, Steven Verstockt
      Abstract: In order to support track cyclist coaches in the monitoring of their riders and the analysis of their data, the Wireless Cycling Network project of Ghent University and Cycling Vlaanderen focuses on developing a central sensor dashboard on which the sensor data (such as power and heart rate) of all riders will be visualized in real-time and events/outliers can be thrown. Changes in energy level is one of the events the demonstrator currently supports and this paper mainly explains how this is done. Other events follow a similar workflow.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Differences in physiological variables of U23 cyclists between normoxia
           and hypoxia

    • Authors: Gerrit Glomser, Peter Leo
      Abstract: Differences in physiological variables of U23 cyclists between normoxia and hypoxia
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • A SCOPING REVIEW OF RELATIVE ENERGY DEFICIENCY IN SPORT (RED-S) MONITORING
           IN ELITE ATHLETES: APPLYING THE RESULTS TO DEVELOP A PROTOCOL TO MONITOR
           ELITE MALE and FEMALE ENDURANCE ROAD CYCLISTS IN THE BUILD UP TO THE TOUR
           de FRANCE

    • Authors: Neil Heron, Niamh McIntosh
      Abstract: Introduction: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) is a syndrome caused by low energy availability, involving impairment of various aspects of health and performance in male and female athletes. Central to avoiding negative effects of RED-S and ensuring maximal performance is monitoring and early detection, although the best monitoring approach has not yet been identified. Road cycling is a ‘leanness’ sport, putting cyclists at an increased risk for RED-S, especially pre-Grand Tour when they ‘make-weight’ for optimal performance. Objective: Summarise the evidence relating to RED-S monitoring methods in athletes, using these findings to develop a protocol to identify and monitor RED-S in elite road cyclists pre-Tour de France(TdF). Methods: A scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. Searches were conducted across four databases and screened using a priori eligibility criteria. Data was extracted to form a numerical analysis and narrative synthesis. Results and discussion: 76 potential records were identified, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Included studies covered three main areas: biochemical markers, physical markers, and questionnaires. Testosterone, and T3 were the most sensitive markers for RED-S and responded to management of the energy imbalance within one-week. Combining quantitative and qualitative screening tools, with a multi-disciplinary(MDT) approach, provides a sensitive assessment of RED-S risk. Conclusions: A MDT approach is recommended for RED-S monitoring, including a regular medical evaluation, physical examination, and blood monitoring at six-, three-, and one-week pre-TdF. Further research is needed to understand marker’s response to treatment, and markers across diverse sporting cohorts.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Predicting power outputs in a fatigued state: A pilot study

    • Authors: James Spragg, Peter Leo, Jeroen Swart
      Abstract: Power output predictions from a novel test were compared to those achieved in hill and mountain top finishes in professional cyclists. Power output was overestimated by 2W ±5W from the novel test across durations from 491-1860s. This is in comparison to power output estimates from a traditional power profile test which overestimated power outputs by 23W ± 18.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • The Compound Score in elite road cycling

    • Authors: Peter Leo, James Spragg, John Wakefield, Jeroen Swart
      Abstract: Elite road cycling is characterized by racing over varied terrain, ranging from flat races to extremely mountainous terrain. Researchers have frequently attempted to quantify the performance characteristics of cyclists to predict race success based on external and internal load metrics including power output, heart rate and speed. Recent research reported a strong relationship between the power profile and race performance. However, to date, there is still an ongoing debate whether absolute power output; a mass exponent, or relative power; power output normalized to body mass, is more advantageous. For this reason, the current study used both absolute and relative power output to calculate a compound score to investigate its predictive ability for race performance.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Road cycling and bone health: a scoping review

    • Authors: Mairead Short, Neil Heron, Mark Matthews
      Abstract: Introduction In competitive road cycling, low body mass is a common focus for many athletes. Due to the high energy expenditure and non-weight bearing nature of competitive road cycling, there are associated health risks including relative energy deficiency and low bone mineral density. Untreated, this can lead to an increased susceptibility to fracture.  This can be a particular problem in competitive road cycling where the prevalence of falls is high. Methods A scientific literature search on studies investigating relative energy deficiency and bone mineral density in the sport of road cycling was performed.  Results Twenty-four studies investigated the relationship between road cycling and relative energy deficiency, bone mineral density, bone structure, calcium and vitamin D, markers for bone metabolism and strength training.  Road cyclists were generally found to be at risk of relative energy deficiency and reduced bone mineral density. However, bone strength indices on peripheral quantitative computed tomography were not reduced.  There was also conflicting evidence on the effect of consuming calcium and vitamin D on markers for bone metabolism and bone mineral density.  Studies supported evidence that the inclusion of strength training can have a positive effect on bone mineral density in road cyclists. Discussion Relative energy deficiency in road cyclists is particularly concerning due to its detrimental impact on bone health and general increased risk of injury.  Similarly, low bone mineral density is worrying due to high prevalence of falls and subsequent fracture risk.  While it remains to be seen whether calcium and vitamin D supplementation provide adequate bone protection, increased education among competitive road cyclists on the benefits of energy balance and strength training in terms of bone health could be useful and should be advocated by their support team. Conclusion There was evidence of increased risk of relative energy deficiency, low bone mineral density and increased bone resorption in road cyclists.  However, there was also evidence that strength and impact training could improve bone health in competitive road cyclists
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Position for the Sprint: A performance analysis of intermediate sprints in
           the Men’s Elite Omnium Points Race

    • Authors: Robert Stanley, Barney Wainwright, Oliver Wilson
      Abstract: Introduction: In the Omnium Points Race, points are awarded to the first 4 participants (sprint ranks) to cross the finish line at the end of every tenth lap (intermediate sprint), with 5 points given to first place, 3 to second, 2 to third, and 1 awarded to fourth with the winner being the participant with the most points at the end. Therefore, there is an advantage to maximising points scored however, there is no research exploring how this is achieved. This study aimed to identify determinants of performance in intermediate sprints during the Men’s Elite Omnium Points Race. Method: Seven UCI competitions in the 2019/2020 season were video recorded. After the competition, the videos were analysed to assess peak speeds, pacing and positioning of the 4 sprint ranks in each intermediate sprint. Time stamps recorded each time a points scoring sprint rank completed a half lap by crossing the Pursuit Line. The time stamped data was used to calculate average speed for each half lap, the time taken to complete each half lap and the position of sprint ranks within the bunch at the end of each half lap during the 10 laps in the lead up to each sprint (subsectiontenlap). Results: A one-way ANOVA demonstrated no significant differences (P>.05) in the peak half lap, 1 lap, 2 lap or 5 lap average speeds between 1st to 4th place sprint ranks. The Smallest Worthwhile Change (SWC) in difference of time taken to complete each half lap between points scoring sprint ranks was calculated as -0.15s. The median difference between 1st sprint rank and the other points scoring sprint ranks was greater (faster) than the SWC for half laps: 4 and 6 from 2nd sprint rank, 2, 5.5 and 6 from 3rd sprint rank and 4, 4.5, 5.5, 6 and 6.5 from 4th sprint rank. Conversely, there were only 3 differences greater than SWC for the other sprint ranks: half laps 1.5 and 2 for 2nd sprint rank from 3rd and half lap 6 for 4th place from 3rd. Kruskal Wallis Tests with Dunn’s Multiple Comparisons of rank order at the end of each half lap show 1st place sprint rank is more likely to be in a more advanced position than the 3rd place sprint rank at: lap 6 (P=.048) lap 7 (P=.016) and laps 8, to 10 (P≤.01), than the 4th place sprint rank from laps 8 to 10 (P≤.01) and from 2nd place sprint ranks at laps 9.5 and 10 (P=.03, <.01). 2nd place sprint rank was likely to be in a more advanced position from 4th place sprint rank for laps 9, 9.5 and 10 (P=.04, <.01, <.01) and from 3rd place sprint rank for laps 9.5 and 10 (P=<.01, <.01). 3rd place sprint rank was only likely to be in a more advanced position from 4th place sprint rank at the last half lap (P=<.01). Conclusion: All sprint ranks achieve similar peak speeds over half lap to 5 lap durations. Therefore the difference between earning maximal points is due to the distribution of speed throughout the subsectiontenlap and the relationship between pacing and the positioning relative to opponents.  Participants finishing in 1st place sprint rank were more likely to travel faster throughout the middle section of the subsectiontenlap which concurs with the observation of the 1st place sprint rank being more likely to move to a more advanced position at the midway point in the subsectiontenlap. This research has shown, there is a minimum peak speed demand that athletes must achieve to be competitive within the elite men’s omnium points race – the ticket to race – but, to win an Intermediate sprint, athletes must gain an advantage on their opponents by pacing themselves to position further forwards in the bunch and subsequently in distance during the middle section of each subsectiontenalp.  
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Is it necessary to reconsider bike fitting practice' On the influence
           of different intensity levels and treatment-introduced fatigue on the
           biomechanics of elite cyclists

    • Authors: Eva Bartaguiz, Carlo Dindorf, Jonas Dully, Stephan Becker , Michael Fröhlich
      Abstract: Proper bike fitting is a major concern in the performance of cyclists (Bateman, 2014) and can reduce the risk of non-traumatic injuries (Bini, Hume & Croft, 2011). However, there are no consistent standards on how bike fitting should be performed. In this study, we propose to expand the research on the biomechanics of cycling under more realistic conditions to include the aspects of changes caused by riding at different intensity levels and fatigue, as occurs, for example, throughout training or competition. Six well-trained, experienced, male road cyclists (27,17 ± 3,89 years; 180,41 ± 5,31 cm; 75,23 ± 4,91 kg) with 8,3 ± 4,85 years of (professional) experience in road cycling underwent a lactate test, starting with 100 W and an increment of 20 W every 3 minutes until total exhaustion. Afterwards, subjects drove an increment of 50 W every 3 minutes, starting again with 100 W and ending with 250 W (post-test). Changes in position were recorded via 2D video analysis. We found that with higher power output relative to the IAT, the joint angles changed significantly (p ≤ 0.04). For the pre–post comparisons of the examined angles, which should map the influence of fatigue, no significant differences were present (p > 0.05). The lack of significant changes in the pre–post comparison may be explained by the high tolerance to fatigue and/or fast regeneration of the athletes. Future research and bike fitting practice should try to observe cycling movement in more realistic settings, such as cycling-specific fatigue or during an outdoor ride, as the biomechanics under these conditions are of particularly high relevance for the athletes. Overall, the results highlight that bike fitting must be done much more individually and in more realistic situations so that the bike can be fit according to individual needs and individual characteristics.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3
       
  • Evaluation of a Methodology to Quantify Cycling Movement Instability

    • Authors: Nicholas Fiolo, Ssu-Min Chang, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Han Chen, Philip Fuchs, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang
      Abstract: Non-ergometer cycling is characterized by a degree of instability as the bicycle-rider system sways and swerves to maintain balance.  Cycling technique as it relates to how well the rider can maintain balance and stability is often overlooked in cycling performance research.  The purpose of this research is to evaluate the association between an IMU-based and tire pressure sensor (TPS)-based instability index (II) between riders of various skill level (trained cyclist vs. non-trained) and between skill-demanding conditions (indoor rollers vs. outdoor riding).  A two-way mixed measures ANOVA was conducted for y-axis (horizontal) accelerometer and x-axis (sagittal) gyroscope IMU-based II data to evaluate bicycle swerving and sway.  Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests were conducted to evaluate TPS data for differences between groups and location, respectively.  Statistical main effects were found between indoor and outdoor conditions across all II variables.  Statistical main effects were found between groups for y-axis acceleration, x-axis rotation, and TPS, with non-trained riders displaying greater II.  The TPS showed statistically significant correlations with all four IMU-based II metrics.  These results indicate that the II may be a valid metric to evaluate cycling technique during indoor cycling and the TPS may be an acceptable tool to measure movement instability during cycling.
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1
       
  • The influence of compression garments on recovery during a triathlon
           training camp: a pilot study

    • Authors: Alana Leabeater, Lachlan James, Matthew Driller
      Abstract: Triathletes often schedule intense training camps into their program to promote functional overreaching, although these periods pose a greater risk of illness or injury due to heightened training load. To mitigate this risk, triathletes may implement recovery strategies such as the use of compression garments. However, little is known about the influence of such garments during multi-day exercise periods. Ten highly-trained triathletes (6 male, 4 female, mean ± SD age; 32 ± 8 y) completed a six-day intensive training block and were randomly assigned to one of two recovery groups; donning lower body compression tights (COMP, n = 5) for at least 6 hours following the last training session each day, or no compression (CON, n = 5). Physical performance data (6s sprint, 30s sprint, 4-minute mean power cycling tests) was collected on Day 1 and Day 6 of the training camp and subjective wellbeing monitoring was completed daily. There were no significant group x time interactions for any of the performance or perceptual measures (p > 0.05). However, a large (d = -1.35) reduction in perceived stress was observed from Day 1 to Day 5 in COMP compared to CON; and perceived muscle soreness was associated with significant main effects for group (p = 0.047) and time (p = 0.02), with COMP lower than CON on Day 4 and Day 6. Lower-body compression garments may reduce perceived stress and muscle soreness during an intense six-day triathlon training camp, with minimal influence on physical performance.
       
  • Aerobic Performance Does Not Differ Between Freely Chosen and
           Energetically Optimal Cadence Among Adult Cyclists

    • Authors: Stacey Brickson, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Drew Richards, Isak Bowron, Andrew Watson
      Abstract: Aerobic capacity and efficiency are benchmarks of cycling performance. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of pedaling at the energetically optimal cadence (EOC) on exercise capacity and performance in experienced adult cyclists. 24 experienced cyclists underwent a progressive, maximal metabolic exercise test on a cycling ergometer pedaling at their freely chosen cadence (FCC).  EOC was determined by maintaining an output of 65% of peak power during seven consecutive 3-minute stages of cadences between 50 rpm to 110 rpm in 10 rpm increments in a randomized order.  Cyclists were then randomized to either an FCC or EOC group and performed a second maximal exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (Tmax), ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) and time to ventilatory threshold (TVT) were compared between the FCC and EOC groups. Submaximal average oxygen consumption was significantly higher during FCC  (85±11 rpm) than EOC (60±8 rpm; 38.2±6.64 ml/kg/min v.  35±7.7 ml/kg/min, p<0.001).  There were no significant interactions between group and order of maximal exercise tests with respect to VO2max (b=1.59, p=0.38), Tmax (b=0.31, p=0.55), VO2VT (b=0.05, p=0.98) or TVT (b=0.18, p=0.82). At submaximal workloads, cycling at EOC demands less oxygen consumption than FCC, but does not significantly improve VO2max.
       
  • Sports & Health applications of a versatile electronic architecture for
           e-bikes: Preliminary study

    • Authors: Georges SOTO-ROMERO
      Abstract: In recent years, e-bikes have proven themselves to be a good way to do a physical activity (Berntsen et al., 2017; Louis et al., 2012; Stenner et al., 2020) while performing an active mobility (Fishman, 2016; Heinen et al., 2010). Several studies have compared the e-bike physiological impact with regular cycling, running and walking (Bourne et al., 2018; Castro et al., 2019), concluding that this impact is lesser than regular cycling and running but superior to walking, thus helping the users to achieve their weekly activity goals. Performing a physical activity by themselves helps improve the overall health state, preventing the appearance of diseases and reducing the symptoms of some diseases (Barbosa et al., 2015; Das & Horton, 2012; Lee et al., 2012; Livingston et al., 2017; Mctiernan et al., 2019; Schuch et al., 2016; World Health Organization, 2020).
      Those elements led to the creation of our electronic architecture, which recovers user’s physiological data and uses it to adjust the electric assistance available on the bike.
      During validation tests, three strategies of electric assistance were defined, resulting in different outcomes for the same test protocol.
      The overall algorithm consists in separating the user’s heart rate in different zones according to ESIE scale (Grappe 2009), being the highest, a zone where the user is at his maximum heart rate and producing the most muscular power (simulating a sprint), and the lowest zone being at rest with none or little rise in the heart rate. Five more zones were included in the middle of those two.
      With the zones established, the system proceeds to analyze the measured heart rate and is classified into one zone, depending on the result and the strategy used, the electrical assistance is modified from no assistance at all (lowest zone) and all the assistance available (highest zone).
      What the strategies do is they change how the assistance is given on the remaining five zones. The first strategy linearizes the electrical assistance available, meaning that at the third zone the assistance will be 33% and 83% for the sixth.
      Second one mimics a logarithm curve, which means that the electrical assistance is high from the first zones, i.e. at the third zone there is 76% and 96% for the sixth.
      Third one does the same as the second but with an exponential curve, resulting in having a significant electrical assistance on the last zones, i.e at the third zone there is 3% and 42% for the sixth.
      Preliminary tests for all strategies were performed on outdoor and indoor conditions. From the tests’ results, conclusions were made about the use case of the second and third strategy. Since the second is more reactive to the heart rate fluctuation, its usage is preferable for users that do not exercise regularly or are recovering from an injury or surgery. The third one forces the user to really be on a physiological strain before having a big help, athletes or users with good physical condition can use this for training purposes.
      Further works will concern the inclusion of healthy volunteers in a validation study prior to patients in a clinical study, in order to improve strategies with an individualization layer based on embedded artificial intelligence. Our electronic architecture would be able to recover medical data from patient, adjust training (rehabilitation) load and send messages to medical staff if session was normally completed.
       
  • Aerodynamic Drag Between Two Cyclists: Effect of Wheel Rotation

    • Authors: Georges SOTO-ROMERO
      Abstract: The aerodynamic drag force acting on a cyclist is dependent on several factors such as speed, wind magnitude, wind
      angle and/or drafting a second cyclist or group of cyclists. To increase knowledge in drag reduction mechanisms
      associated with drafting conditions, the aerodynamic drag of two female track cyclists was simulated in static and with
      simulated wheel rotations by means of validated numerical approaches (computation fluid dynamics, CFD). In total
      two sets of 11 simulations with wheel-to-wheel distance ranging from 5 centimeters to 5 meters were carried out using
      the RANS method associated with the k-omega SST turbulence model performed on the OpenFOAM CFD software.
      Results show that wheel rotation had a significant influence on both the leading and trailing cyclist aerodynamic drags
      compared with static simulations. These results suggest the implementation of wheel rotation and accurate body shape
      reconstruction by means of 3D scanning in future CFD models of cycling to make them more realistic with low
      additional computational cost.
       
  • Effect of Varying Recovery Intensities on Power Outputs During Severe
           Intensity Intervals in Trained Cyclists

    • Authors: Alan Chorley, Kevin Lamb
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effects of different recovery intensities on the power outputs of repeated severe intensity intervals and the implications for W′ reconstitution in trained cyclists. 18 trained cyclists (FTP 258.0 ± 42.7 W; weekly training 8.6 ± 1.7 h∙week-1) familiar with interval training and using the Zwift platform, performed 5 x 3-min severe intensity efforts interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Recovery intensities were: 50 W (LOW), 50% of functional threshold power (MOD), and self-selected power output (SELF). Whilst power outputs declined as the session progressed, mean power outputs during the severe intervals across the conditions were not different to each other (LOW 300.1 ± 48.1 W; MOD: 296.9 ± 50.4 W; SELF: 298.8 ± 53.3) despite the different recovery conditions. Mean power outputs varied during the self-selected recovery periods, with values in the last 15-s being greater than the first 15-s (p <0.001) and decreasing throughout the session (128.7 ± 25.4 W to 113.9 ± 29.3 W). Reducing recovery intensities below 50% of FTP failed to enhance subsequent severe intensity intervals, suggesting a lower limit for optimal W′ reconstitution had been reached. As self-selected recoveries were seen to adapt in order to maintain the severe intensity power output as the session progressed, adopting such a strategy might be preferential for interval training sessions.
       
  • How low can you go - exploring the balance be-tween aerodynamic advantages
           and derived dis-advantages from lowering of the upper-body

    • Authors: Claes Hoegh Cubel, Lars Nybo
      Abstract: Lowering of the upper body to optimize cycling time trial (TT) performance is a balance between aerodynamic benefits from reducing the rider’s frontal area and the reported detrimental physiological effects of decreasing the hip-torso angle. To explore this issue in trained athletes and across positions relevant for elite TT, racing positions for international (top-10 world championships [WC] TT finishers), and national elite (10 male) cyclists were analyzed. Lab studies on the national group were completed to evaluate effects on exercise economy, muscle oxygenation and perceived exertion for their habitual position, respectively, the range of racing positions observed for both groups of elite TT riders. Torso-horizontal angel for top-10 WC finishers ranged from 4-12˚ and in the national elite ranged from 8-18˚. For the lowest observed and lab-investigated position (4˚ torso-angle), perceived exertion was aggravated compared to the more upright 12˚ and 20˚ positions and higher than scores for rider’s habitual position. However, there was no difference in overall energy expenditure, gross- and delta efficiency or measures of muscle oxygenation across the investigated range of positions. Observations from this study indicate that elite time trial cyclists may adopt a very low position without compromising exercise economy or muscle oxygen delivery. However, the elevated exertion expressed for the lowest position indicate that other (individual/not accounted for) factors may affect and compromise the ability to adapt to very low racing positions.    
       
  • Adolescence to Adulthood, Managing The Key Transitions in Developing
           Cyclist’s Sporting Careers: The Athlete’s Perspective

    • Authors: Jamie Blanchfield, Sean Yelverton , Jean McArdle , Tandy Haughey
      Abstract:  
      Introduction The move from youth to senior competition has been shown to be one of the most difficult transitions in an athlete’s sporting career. It has been highlighted that during this transition athletes face two typical outcomes; (i) stagnation in performance, and therefore a move back to participation or dropout, or (ii) which occurs less-frequently, a continuation in their sport to senior level (Stambulova, 2009).   Transitions in sport can be sub-divided by the element of predictability surrounding them. Normative transitions are predictable and anticipated (Schlosberg & Goodman, 2005) whereas non-normative transitions do not conform to a set schedule or predictable pattern (Wylleman & Lavelle, 2004). The majority of current and past transition research has been conducted on normative and non-normative end-of-career transitions (see examples: Grove, Lavallee & Gordon, 1997; Cavallerio, Wadey & Wagstaff, 2017; Guerrero & Martin, 2018), with less attention focusing on the normative within career transitions athletes face.   Recent research within cycling has highlighted that managing the transition between junior (U-19) and under-23 (U-23) categories is extremely important when future performance is considered (Cesanelli et al. 2021; Gallo et al. 2022) and those future non-performers experience decreased success when transitioning to a higher age-category (Mostaert et al. 2021). To support this transition period, it is vital to understand these periods and what developmental structures are in place. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the retrospective experiences (via qualitative means) of U-23 cyclists who competed internationally to support them in their future developments during their transition points.  
      Material and Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess the views of current and former international cyclists on transition periods and their experiences of developmental structures. Interview questions used were based on collective knowledge of the sport of cycling and theoretical frameworks from existing research that explored career transitions (Wylleman & Lavelle, 2004; Wylleman, Reints & De Knop, 2013). Commonalities and differences within the qualitative data were assessed and relationships between different aspects of the information were aligned. From the data collected, descriptive and/or explanatory conclusions were drawn and clustered around themes.  
      Results Via convenience sampling, a total of 10 (n=10) current and former male international cyclists were interviewed (mean age=23.1, SD=0.94, mean training age=7.9, SD=2.12). Three participants were still competing at a domestic level while two were competing at a continental level. The results indicated that the transition into third level education came at a self-proclaimed pivotal point in the athletes sporting career (Age Range 17-19). In this instance the athletes perceived performance as crucial to have a further opportunity in the sport. Combined, these two transitions became a dominant hurdle that was often not adequately handled by the athlete or their support network. A mismanagement of training volume, governance, the talent development structures and selection processes along with missed social opportunities led many to develop an antipathy towards the sport. Other areas highlighted included; lack of clear and transparent selection criteria, lack of life skills support, and an overall lack of communication namely for the periods before and after competition, communication during competition was seen as adequate.  An absence of cohesion between club, regional and national level development was apparent across the data set also. Coaching support was a common theme highlighted by the athletes with an evident need for developmental days, educational workshops and more of a focus on interpersonal skill development to enhance the coaching provided.  
      Conclusion Cohesion between club, province and national level is needed to support the holistic development of athletes within and outside of the competitive arena. With more support provided to athletes from a governance and organisational level, along with improved and transparent selection criteria and athlete development, cycling organisations should be able to enhance their effectiveness in facilitating the within career normative transition period.
      In conclusion, support the development of the sport future research should include; an examination of structures within governing bodies, investigation of the female specific developmental experiences, coaching and the development of coach education structures with a focus on how best to develop the coach athlete relationship. Keywords: Transitions, Cycling, Dropout, Youth Sport Funding: This research received no funding Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank the participants for taking the time to complete the interview process. Contributors: SY conducted the interviews and completed preliminary data analysis. JB, JMcA, & TH completed a re-analysis to cross-reference SY and compiled the abstract presented here. JMcA & TH provided feedback on the introduction, methods, and results of this study. Conflict of Interest: The authors report no conflict of interest References Cavallerio, F., Wadey, R., & Wagstaff, C. R. (2017). Adjusting to retirement from sport: Narratives of former competitive rhythmic gymnasts. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9(5), 533-545. Cesanelli, L., Ylaitė, B., Calleja-González, J., Leite, N....
       
  • Utility of INSCYD athletic performance software to determine Maximal
           Lactate Steady State and Maximal Oxygen Uptake in cyclists

    • Authors: Tim Podlogar, Simon Cirnski, Špela Bokal, Tina Kogoj
      Abstract: Serious amateur and elite athletes regularly take part in structured physiological testing sessions so that their progress gets tracked and training loads in the training plan correctly prescribed. Commonly, athletes are tested for the maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and maximal lactate steady state intensity (MLSS). While for the former expensive laboratory equipment is required, the latter requires multiple exercise trials for accurate determination. INSCYD athletic performance software is designed to enable continuous monitoring of these two parameters throughout the season after undertaking a single visit exercise testing session involving blood lactate sampling and power output measurement. The purpose of the present study was to assess validity of the software by its estimates of V̇O2max and MLSS and compare them to gold standard laboratory measures. 11 trained participants (V̇O2max 61.0 ± 7.9 mL ∙ kg-1 ∙ min-1) took part in this study consisting of formal graded V̇O2max test, multiple MLSS trials and a recommended test to obtain the data later fed the INSCYD athletic performance software. Both V̇O2max relative (∆=0.13 ml.kg-1.min-1, p=0.885) and MLSS calculated values (∆=2 W, p=0.655) were within expected daily variation and thus the estimations considered valid. It can be concluded that INSCYD athletic performance software offers its users utility to accurately predict V̇O2max and MLSS provided that the practitioner has a good idea of where the MLSS lies. However, caution is required when interpreting other parameter estimates provided by the software due their questionable scientific validity.
       
  • The Knowledge and Attitudes of UCI Competitive Cyclists towards Sports
           Related Concussion.

    • Authors: Thomas Fallon Fallon
      Abstract: Find Attached file. 
       
  • THE SHORT-TERM RECOVERY OF SPRINT CYCLING PERFORMANCE

    • Authors: Julian Dale, Daniel Muniz, Giuseppe Cimadoro, Mark Glaister
      Abstract: Short-term sprint cycling performance recovery was investigated, with consideration to the Match Sprint. Fifteen strength-trained men (age: 24 ± 6 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 83.4 ± 8.4 kg) were first familiarised with an 18 s sprint. During the baseline trial, blood lactate concentration, tissue saturation index, and oxygen uptake were monitored following a single sprint. In the remaining trials, the recovery duration (45, 90, 135, 180, 360, and 720 s) between two sprints was varied. Peak (PPO) and mean (MPO) power output were computed for each sprint. The recovery percentage of MPO and the recovery time-course of the physiological variables were modelled using one- and two-phase exponential functions. Statistical significance was set a priori at p < 0.05. Effects of sprint number, recovery time, and a sprint number × recovery time interaction were found for both PPO and MPO. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between sprints at all time-points for both variables. The time constant (τ), 130.6 ± 95.6 s, of the one-phase exponential function (asymptotic amplitude [A0] = 97.4 ± 2.5%), suggested that performance recovery had stabilised within 12 minutes. However, the parameters of the two-phase function indicated that recovery was incomplete (A0 = 87.7 ± 6.4%, A1 = 11.9 ± 5.2%, τ0 = 56.3 ± 33.3 s, τ1 = 458.2 ± 283.3 s). The τ for MPO recovery was not significantly correlated with any of the physiological variables. The reduction in sprint cycling performance throughout the tested time-period could be meaningful for athletes competing in the Match Sprint.
       
  • Freely chosen cadence is increased across repeated bouts of submaximal
           ergometer cycling

    • Authors: Ernst Hansen, Andreas Schmidt, Jonas Madsen
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement occurs during submaximal ergometer cycling. In the present context, repeated bout rate enhancement is defined as an increase of the freely, or spontaneously, chosen cadence during repeated bouts of pedalling. This is for example relevant to study since cadence, and thereby the described phenomenon, can affect physiological and biomechanical responses. Recreationally active individuals (n=27) performed five consecutive 5-min bouts of ergometer cycling at 100 W. Cadence was freely chosen during all cycling. The bouts were separated by 10-min rest periods. Cadence, heart rate, tympanic temperature, rate of perceived exertion, and pedal force profile characteristics were determined. The primary result was that cadence at the end of 5. bout (78±23 rpm) was statistically significantly higher than at the end of all other bouts. Overall, the cadence at the end of 5. bout was 15.6%±20.4% higher than at the end of 1. bout. The altered rhythmic motor behaviour was accompanied by a statistically significant effect of bout on heart rate, which amounted to 125±17 and 131±26 beats per min at the end of 1. and 5. bout, respectively. In addition, there was a statistically significant effect of bout on pedal force. It is possible that the observed alteration of cadence occurred as a nonconscious rhythmogenesis process. A neuromodulation in form of a net excitation of relevant parts of the nervous system might explain the altered cadence. The results might have implications for testing and research. In conclusion, the phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement during submaximal ergometer cycling was observed in the present study. Thus, the freely chosen cadence showed an increase of on average about 15%, or 10 rpm, as accumulated values across the five consecutive bouts of ergometer cycling
       
  • Chronic carbohydrate restriction improves endurance capacity and body
           composition in men and women

    • Authors: William O'Connor
      Abstract: This study was designed to test whether adaptation to a CHO-restricted diet affects physical capacity during prolonged exercise. It is hypothesised that chronically reducing an individual’s dietary carbohydrate intake during training will increase their maximal rate of fatty acid oxidation during subsequent exercise compared to a chronic high carbohydrate diet. Thirteen highly trained endurance athletes (eight males, VO2max 66.0 ± 9.5 ml/kg/min, five females VO2max 50.6 ± 8.4 ml/kg/min) consumed a high (>5 g CHO/kg/day) or low (<2 g CHO/kg/day) carbohydrate training diet for four weeks in a randomized cross-over design. Performance was measured after a 24 h high carbohydrate “loading” regime, through a self-paced time trial to complete a fixed workload equivalent to five hours at a workload calculated to elicit 55% VO2max. Although time to completion was not significantly different between diets, the average absolute (watts) and relative (W/kg) power outputs were significantly better on the carbohydrate restricted diet (p = 0.03 and 0.02 respectively). Both sexes responded similarly in terms of performance whilst only women significantly improved body composition when carbohydrate was restricted (p = 0.02). Results from this study highlight that when carbohydrate is restricted during training, trained endurance athletes show improved ultra-endurance performance relative to their body mass.
       
 
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