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MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1659-097X
Published by Universidad Nacional Costa Rica Homepage  [25 journals]
  • Circus at School: Sharing Pedagogical Practices

    • Authors: Leonora Tanasovici Cardani; Master, Gilson Santos Rodrigues, Teresa Ontañón Barragán, Marco A C Bortoleto
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Introduction: The circus attracts the attention of professionals from different areas; among them are Physical Education teachers working in Elementary Education. In fact, several studies reveal that teachers can be the "key" to opening the door to circus activities in school. Therefore, we believe that analyzing their experience is an interesting way to understand this approach. This study aimed to investigate the introduction of the teaching of circus activities in two Brazilian schools in Elementary Education. Methodological procedures: This article presents a field study conducted in two Brazilian schools, one in the city of Itatiba-SP and another in Belo Horizonte-MG. Through observations and interviews, we tried to understand the context and characteristics of each proposal. Results and discussion: We found that, in both cases, the figure of the teacher is mainly responsible for the inclusion of the circus in school and that the activities developed are justified by contributing to a more expressive and artistic education. Considerations: The cases studied show us two interesting proposals to organize classes that can inspire other teachers, managers, or researchers.

      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Six-Minute Walk Test: Oxygen Uptake and Distance Predicted

    • Authors: Jaime Vásquez-Gómez, Cesar Faundez-Casanova, Ricardo Souza de Carvalho, Diego Chaverri, Marcelo Castillo-Retamal
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Background: Maximum oxygen consumption is an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness. Aim: The purpose was, first, to relate and compare the V̇O2max as the dependent variable with the estimated distance in the six-minute walk test (SMWT) as the independent variable in university students and, secondly, to relate the distance (dependent) with demographic and anthropometric variables (independents). Methodology: A correlational, descriptive, and quantitative study with a non-experimental design was conducted on 110 university students. In the study, basic anthropometry and vital signs were measured. A direct method of V̇O2max (Bruce test) on a treadmill was applied. Then, the distance covered in the SMWT was evaluated with two equations available in the scientific literature. Differences between men and women were measured in the tests, the correlation between the distances estimated with V̇O2max and anthropometric variables, and repeated ANOVA measurement tests between V̇O2max and estimated distance were analyzed with the SPSS v.22 program (p<0.05). Results: Significant correlations were found between V̇O2max and estimated distances (p<0.05) in the total sample, men and women, and in some cases, the distance correlated with gender, age, weight, height, and BMI (p<0.05). However, there were differences between V̇O2max and distances estimated in the SMWT (p<0.001). Conclusions: The V̇O2max measurement method is different from the distance prediction equations, although they have a significant relationship.

      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.11
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Comparison of the Methods of Anthropometry and Electrical Bioimpedance
           Through the Determination of Body Composition in University Students

    • Authors: Ricardo Alomia León, Sebastian Enrique Peña, Claudio Hernandez Mosqueira, Jose Espinoza Cortez
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Objective: The aim was to compare the body composition using classical anthropometry and bioelectric impedance in university students of a Peruvian university. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study with a research sample of 152 students (77 men and 75 women) enrolled in the 2018-II period with an average age of 20.45 ± 3.63 years. The body mass index and anthropometric measurements were calculated for the anthropometric method. The Yuhasz (1974) equation was used to determine the body fat percentage. The electrical bioimpedance method implemented the tetrapolar multi-frequency direct segmental measurement analyzer Inbody 120. Pearson coefficient was used to establish the correlation, and the Bland Altman graphical method and stability index were used for concordance. The data were analyzed using the statistical software application IBM SPSS Statistics, version 27.0. A level of significance (p <0.05) was used for all analyzes. Results: there is a strong statistically significant correlation (p<0.01 and r = 0.95) between the anthropometric and electrical bioimpedance methods to determine body fat percentage. In addition, there is a good agreement according to the Bland Altman graphical method, reinforced by the stability index to complement the interpretation (IE = 95%). Conclusions: Both methods are interchangeable with each other, so they can be used indistinctly in this type of population to determine body fat percentage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.13
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Preventive Program for Soccer Female
           Players During Confinement Periods

    • Authors: Yonathan Calvo-Fernández, Ángel Lago-Rodríguez
      Pages: 1 - 21
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a worldwide sports shutdown, leading to a reduced athletes’ workload, which is likely to increase the risk of injury after return to play when coupled with the expected increase in competitive density after the confinement period. In this regard, the knee is one of the joints with the highest injury prevalence among female soccer players, being the injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) one of the most frequent and severe. Thus, the present study aimed to develop an ACL injury prevention program that female soccer players could carry out during confinement periods. After reviewing the scientific literature, it was observed that strength training (with a main focus on the posterior chain), improved landing technique, lumbopelvic stability, and flexibility are associated with a lower risk of ACL injury in women. The program focuses on modifiable risk factors, so it should serve as a guide that can be adapted according to each context: individual characteristics, initial conditions, and evolution of the subject during development. Therefore, this study presents an intervention aiming at reducing the probability of ACL injury in female soccer players, after confinement periods, by directly influencing mechanisms of ACL injury previously reported for female soccer players.
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.10
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Effect of the “Active Mobile Schools” Intervention in Times of
           Pandemic on the Perception of Self-Efficacy, Enjoyment, and the Level of
           Physical Activity in Costa Rican and Panamanian Children

    • Authors: Grettel Villalobos Víquez, Carlos Álvarez Bogantes, Gerardo A. Araya Vargas, Graciela Ambulo Arosemena
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Objective: This research aimed to examine the effect of the Active Mobile Schools intervention on self-efficacy, enjoyment, and the perception of the level of physical activity in Costa Rican and Panamanian children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology: The research sample comprised 55 girls and boys, aged between 7 and 9 years, from two public schools in Panama and Costa Rica. Results: The study mainly found that the intervention positively affected (pre-post improvements) the three dependent variables, but only in self-efficacy was the effect statistically significant (with moderate magnitude). In enjoyment and level of physical activity, the effect was small. There were no differences between countries, but a trend of deterioration was found in the participants of the control groups, in the three variables, especially in the Panamanian participants. Conclusions: The study leads to the conclusion that this intervention showed that using a multilevel model in times of pandemic, it was possible to improve the perception of self-efficacy and maintain levels of enjoyment and physical activity in the participating population, unlike the control group that showed a deterioration of the three variables in the infants.
      PubDate: 2022-06-26
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.12
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity Associated With Stress, Anxiety,
           and Depression During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Authors: Leonardo Flavio Medina-Guillen, Cristhel Rachell Cáceres Enamorado, Mónica Fernanda Medina Guillen
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Introduction. Confinement was implemented as a preventive measure to limit contagion in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. This measure limited food availability and favored the consumption of less healthy processed and non-perishable foods. These behaviors can be seen as related to mental health disorders, such as stress, anxiety, and depression. Methods. It is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with non-probabilistic convenience sampling carried out between August-October 2020, with the participation of 1657 Latin American people from the general population. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 questionnaire and the eating behaviors questionnaire associated with stress, anxiety, and depression-17 were applied. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the association between variables. Results. The 62% of participants presented some degree of depression; 55.9%, anxiety; and 55.2%, stress. An association was found between stress with physical activity (p 0.048) and consumption of fish (p 0.041), water (p 0.003), breads / desserts (p 0.005), fast foods (p <0.001), sugary drinks (p 0.035), tea and infusions (p 0.023), and cocoa and its derivatives (p 0.018). Another association was also found between anxiety with physical activity (p 0.006) and intake of vegetables (p 0.022), fish (p 0.031), oils (p 0.008), breads / desserts (p 0.026), fast foods (p <0.001), tea and infusions (p 0.018), cocoa and derivatives (p 0.038), and vitamin supplements (p 0.016). Depression was also found as associated with physical activity (p 0.037) and consumption of fruits (p 0.012), water (p 0.012), coffee (p 0.045), breads / desserts (p 0.003), and fast foods (p <0.001). Conclusions. An association was found between consuming certain foods and high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Knowledge, Experts, and Institutions. The Case of the XIV Pan American
           Congress of Physical Education, Costa Rica 1993

    • Authors: Pablo Ariel Scharagrodsky
      Pages: 1 - 19
      Abstract: Objective: From a socio-historical approach with emphasis on the social history of knowledge and experts, the following scientific work analyzes the XIV Pan American Congress of Physical Education held in Costa Rica in 1993. The paper analyzes the event as a space for sociability, knowledge circulation, legitimation of certain experts, influence, and power of some international organizations. Based on this analysis, the article aims to examine the knowledge, experts, and organizations that validated certain true meanings on how to conceptualize the vast universe of physical culture, physical education, and sports. Material and methods: To conduct the hermeneutical analysis within the framework of a qualitative methodology. Interpretive attention has been focused on various documentary sources, such as memoirs and reports of the congress, the written press, the central exhibitions, the general lectures, and the memories related to other Pan American congresses. Likewise, a set of semi-structured interviews have been carried out. The analysis has articulated the “text” with the historical conditions of production and interaction of the investigated universe. Results and conclusion: Among the conclusions, the congress is identified as a space in which the educational discipline was questioned through various types of knowledge, highlighting the biomedical, pedagogical, didactic, and sociological ones. In addition, the congress made visible certain international experts and important transnational institutions linked to the heterogeneous field of physical culture.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Influence of COVID-19 on Social Networks of Non-competitive Events in
           School and Adult Ages' A Case Study

    • Authors: José M. Gamonales, Kiko León, Jesús Muñoz-Jiménez
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Social networks are useful and effective as a tool for improving sporting events. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the statistical data of participation and impact of social media (Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram) of the Gymnastics of Extremadura, and to know the influence of Covid-19 pandemic on them. For this, the participation and interaction data on social networks were analyzed, between the periods 2016-2017, 2017-2018, 2018-2019, and 2019-2020. The same marketing strategy was always used in all online media. A descriptive and exploratory analysis of the data was performed. The results showed that the number of participants in the event has increased significantly since the use of social networks, with women being the main followers. Facebook is the social medium mainly used by users to get to know the Gymnastics of Extremadura. Therefore, the results demonstrate the importance of knowing the interactions of followers on social media to plan new online marketing strategies. Also, despite the event being suspended, as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the statistical data of the event's social networks are increasing every year. Being, the moment of publication of the poster or suspension of the event, the instants that receive the greatest number of actions in social networks such as Like or Share / Retweet the news.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Reliability and Stability of The Gesture of Different Variants of
           Throw-ing of Handball

    • Authors: Oscar Andrés Andrades Ramírez, Bryan Sebastián Alfaro Castillo, Darío Martínez García, Jesualdo Cuevas Aburto, David Leonardo Ulloa Díaz, Luis Javier Chirosa Ríos
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze the reliability of the test of 8 throws of 3 different variants of handball throws in university students. The participants were 33 males, 20 ± 1.9 years; weight 72.39 ± 8.9 kg; height 176.75 ± 6.07 cm; BMI 23.14 ± 2.3. They were evaluated in 2 sessions separated from each other by a period of one week. The participants executed throws until 8 measurements were recorded in each of the tests, unspecific throws, in support and in the race with 3 steps; the launch speed was recorded with a radar behind the goal. The reliability of the average of the test scores of 8 measurements between the first session and the second was measured with a test-retest test. The following results were obtained: in the nonspecific launch, an ICC= (0.86) was obtained between 95% of confidence, one of CV= (7.43%) and one ES = (0.08). For the toss with support, an ICC = (0.94) was obtained at 95% confidence, one of CV = (4.71%) and an ES = (-0.09). For the running throw, an ICC = (0.96) was obtained at 95% confidence, one of CV = (4.00%) and one ES = (0.05). This study has shown that the test of 8 throws and the 3 variants is a reliable and stable performance measure for university-level students without experience in handball; in relation to the throw variables, all 3 were reliable. Only the nonspecific variable was lower compared to the supported and running pitch.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Perceptions of Slackline Athletes in Relation to Effects on Training and
           Quality of Life in a COVID-19 Situation

    • Authors: Roberto Lagos Hernández, Karla Macarena Paredes Nilo
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: The COVID-19 disease is an emerging pandemic challenge, which has physical and psychological repercussions, deteriorating the quality of life in those who have been infected and, in turn, in those who have had to live in confinement. The objective of this study is to know the perceptions of Slackline athletes regarding the effects on training and quality of life derived from the COVID-19 situation. The research is based on a cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive quantitative method. The instrument used was a self-applied survey with three dimensions; 229 people from 28 countries correctly answered it, 176 men (15 - 57 years) and 51 women (20 - 43 years), belonging to Europe, America, Asia, and Oceania. The results show that 97.8% say they have lost motivation, 60.2% declare they have poor infrastructure conditions and / or little access to their training places, 65.5% have financial problems, and 88.2 % have presented health problems, highlighting that 10% of those surveyed have been diagnosed with positive COVID-19. It is concluded that the confinement and pandemic situation has created an unfavorable environment for Slackline athletes due to the complications to carry out their training sessions, lack of access to public spaces, demotivation, loss of physical capacity, and increase in injuries.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • Offensive Difference Styles and Technical Situational Variables Between
           European and South American Elite Football Leagues

    • Authors: José María Izquierdo, Juan Carlos Redondo
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: We aimed to compare teams’ attack styles in Europe and South America elite football in the two most valued domestic leagues in both continents (Spanish La Liga & English Premier League in Europe, and Argentinian Superliga & Brazilian Série A in South America). For this purpose, we used a sample of 84 teams and 3,780 cases in 1,214 games. Using an observational tool, we analyzed performance indicators (goals, shots, dribbles, and passes) and attack situations. Effect size (ES) and non-clinical magnitude-based inference (MBI) were used to evaluate uncertainty. Results revealed that European teams scored more goals per game related to fast (ES = 0.35; likely MBI) and positional attack (ES = 0.36; likely MBI). In addition, teams from the European leagues spent more time playing in the opposition third zone of the pitch, performed a higher number of assists (ES = 0.38; likely MBI) and through-ball assists (ES = 0.46; likely MBI) than South American ones. Finally, South American teams made higher numbers of shots out of the box (ES = 1.52, almost certain MBI) and off-target shots (ES = 1.08; almost certain MBI), and they also spent more time playing in the middle third zone (ES = 1.65; almost certain MBI). No differences were identified in set-pieces goals, length passing, and aerial duels. These findings may provide information regarding attack style profiles from each continent league. Also, it could be highly beneficial for coaches to be able to continuously design the specific training situations of the offensive process.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Comparison of Anthropometric Parameters and the Body Composition of
           Professional Soccer Players

    • Authors: Jorge Mendez-Cornejo, Rossana Gomez-Campos, Miguel Salas-Avila, Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria, Patricio Gatica-Mandiola, Fernando Alvear-Vasquez, Jose Sulla-Torres, Marco Cossio-Bolaños
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The present cross-sectional (comparative) study aimed to compare the anthropometric and body composition parameters in professional soccer players over five seasons. It was conducted on 120 soccer players grouped in a cohort of 24 subjects per year. The age range was 18 to 37 years. The footballers were evaluated at the beginning of each season from 2012 to 2016; weight, height, six skin folds (triceps, subscapularis, supra-iliac, abdominal, thigh, and calf) were evaluated from 2012 to 2015. The Body Mass Index (BMI), fat percentage, fat mass, and FFM were calculated. The adipose tissue was grouped into three groups: arm (triceps + subscapular), trunk (supra iliac + abdominal), and legs (thigh + calf). Body weight, height, the sum of the 6 folds, and the MLG varied during the 5 years. For 2012 the results were the following: Weight, 76.6 ± 7.8kg; Height, 177.6 ± 5.7cm; Folds, 58.7 ± 12.8mm; MLG, 64.5 ± 6.3mm). In 2013, these were the results: Weight, 77.8 ± 6.4kg; Height, 178, 4 ± 4.4; Folds, 60.1 ± 15.9mm; MLG, 66.3 ± 3.5mm). These were the measures obtained in 2014: Weight, 74.9 ± 5.7kg; Height, 177.0 ± 5.8cm; Folds, 54.4 ± 14.7mm; MLG, 64.5 ± 4.5kg ). And these were of the year 2015: Weight, 74.1 ± 6.8kg; Height, 176.1 ± 5.5cm; Folds, 54.9 ± 15.6mm; MLG, 63.8 ± 4.6kg). Finally, in 2016 these were the measures collected: Weight, 72.7 ± kg; Height, 175.3 ± 6.9 kg; Folds, 50.8 ± 12.mm; MLG, 62.8 ± 5.9kg. This study verified that the soccer players' anthropometric profile and adipose tissue decreased each season, while the MLG reflected similar values in each of the evaluated cohorts.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
  • A Proposal of Speed Zone Classification in Basketball: A New-Criteria
           Based on Maximum Registered Values

    • Authors: Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Carlos Gómez-Carmona, Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The quantification of training load has become mandatory for coaches and team staff. Within the analyzed variables, distance covered at different speed zones is one of the most studied. However, there is no consensus in the definition of speed zones in the published articles about each team sport, so it makes difficult a comparison between them. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to establish a criteria standard in the classification of speed zones in team sports and to analyze its practical application in basketball. Five speed categories were established for basketball following the methodology described above: 0-10km/h, >10-13.8 km/h, >13.8-17.6 km/h, >17.6-21.5 km/h, and >21.5 km/h. The results showed differences between periods in high-speed displacements and sprints, maximum speed, total decelerations, and accelerations. In conclusion, the categorization of workload based on standard deviation according to maximum speed could be a viable option to individualize the analysis of distance covered per speeds in team sports such as basketball. Its use may lead to a better understanding and contextualization of the locomotion data in specific sports and teams.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.15359/mhs.19-2.2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2022)
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