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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal
Number of Followers: 8  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 2042-678X - ISSN (Online) 2042-6798
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • “It's not just a job, it's a passion”: passions and
           motivations of sport entrepreneurs

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      Authors: Mathieu Winand , Euan Bell , Géraldine Zeimers
      Abstract: The present study aims to analyse sport entrepreneurs' passions and motivations to start a sport business. It answers calls from the literature to investigate sector-specific entrepreneurship ventures and expand the scope of sport entrepreneurship to innovative sport business owners. Twenty-six entrepreneurs based in Scotland who started a sport business have been surveyed and 8 entrepreneurs were interviewed. Participants demonstrated a high inclination for self-employment mainly following pull factor reasons such as career change. Their passion for sport, inventing and work played an influential role in their decision to start and grow their business. Some sport entrepreneurs also aimed to pursue higher goals through their innovative sport product or service by contributing to a social cause, which closely aligns with social entrepreneurship. This study theoretically contributes to the literature by illuminating the specificities of sport entrepreneurship and how passion – as both an antecedent and an outcome – affects the motivational state of sport entrepreneurs.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-09-29
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-08-2021-0096
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Attrition in entry-level ticket sales positions: a survival analysis

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      Authors: David Allen Pierce , Elizabeth Wanless , Nels Popp , Liz Sattler , Megan Shreffler
      Abstract: Sport ticket sales is often positioned as a “foot in the door” to the sport industry due to ample job opportunities, but anecdotal reports of high turnover raise questions of the efficacy of recruitment, training and retention efforts in sport sales. The purpose of this study was to determine attrition levels among entry-level ticket sales personnel, observe whether entry-level sales positions lead to other non-selling positions within sport organizations and determine if education and market related variables are related to job tenure. LinkedIn profiles were analyzed for 1,122 entry-level ticket salespeople listed in media guides between 2015 and 2019 in the “Big Four” North American professional sports leagues. Names were obtained from 26 NBA, 21 MLB, 20 NHL and 12 NFL teams. Survival analysis provided defection rates and demonstrated the relationship between those rates and key variables. One in every four entry-level ticket salespeople defected within the first year and one in every two defected within 26 months. Only 8% moved on from ticket sales to a non-sales role within the sport industry. Increases in cost of living, working for an NFL team and having sport industry experience prior to taking a sales position decreased the likelihood of defecting, while increased distance between the salesperson's university and the team's location increased the likelihood of defecting. This study applies survival analysis to a sport human relations context to understand turnover in a specific occupational discipline and establishes the turnover rate for sport sales positions.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-01-2022-0001
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Unlocking the black box of sponsorship in participant-based sport

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      Authors: Konstantinos Koronios , Lazaros Ntasis , Panagiotis Dimitropoulos , Anna Gerke
      Abstract: The purpose of this research is to develop a more precise evaluation of sport sponsorship efficiency in participant-based sport, by investigating the specific aspects of participants' attitude and behavior toward sponsors. In more detail, this research develops a comprehensive sponsorship model in the participant sport context, integrating the following constructs: sport involvement, sincerity, social media use, beliefs about sponsorship, satisfaction with event, sponsor's image, awareness of sponsors, attitude toward sponsors, purchase and word of mouth intentions. A quantitative method was utilized and 1,056 questionnaires were effectively collected and analyzed via SPSS and AMOS. Using structural equation modeling, this research tested a conceptual framework analyzing the role of different factors for sponsorship efficiency in a participant sport context. The present research proposes a model of 10 variables which altogether permits a complete comprehension of how to expand the linkages among antecedents and outcomes of sport sponsorship in participant-based sports. The proposed factors assume a critical role in upgrading sponsorship effectiveness, which is reflected through a continuum of responses that regularly begins with sponsorship awareness and, at last, leads to increments in participants' purchase and word of mouth intentions regarding sponsors' products. Various implications for future studies as well as strategies to boost the advantages for sponsoring firms in participant-based sports, can be drawn from the suggested model. Up to the present, there is a scarcity of research exploring the effectiveness of sponsorship in participant-based sports. The majority of sponsorship studies measure the impact of sponsorship on spectators, neglecting the role of participants as potential vehicles in the sport sponsorship setting. This study is the first to exploring the role of sport participants in sport sponsorship literature, provides a comprehensive framework, which can guide future studies and enhance sponsorship efficiency in a participant sport context.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-12-2021-0148
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Examining racial discrimination in fantasy team selection: the case of
           Czech soccer fans

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      Authors: Vojtech Kotrba , Brendan Dwyer
      Abstract: Recently, efforts to fight discriminatory behaviour in many sports and to eliminate racial preferences among fans have intensified. However, uncovering discriminatory preferences may not be easy as they may be deeply rooted and even unconscious. This paper aims to discuss the aforementioned issues. Unfortunately, professional soccer and fantasy sports participation serves as a vehicle for explicit racial discrimination at a micro-level, but does it translate to the macro-level through fantasy team selection' The current study explored the potential of implicit racial discrimination in Czech participants in the English Premier League. Discriminatory behaviour in this context is defined by a consumer demonstrating preference for a white player over a non-white player in the fantasy soccer labour market when both players are performing at equal levels. Controlling for additional factors such as nationality and historically dominant team biases and accessing a more homogenous sample, the results confirmed previous research that racial discrimination cannot be found in team selection decisions among fantasy soccer participants in the Czech Republic. The manifestations of racism are still present at Czech stadiums and among Czech athletes. This contradiction is the major finding of this paper. Previous research found no evidence of racial discrimination among participants controlling for some game factors. However, the study had many limitations including a heterogeneous sample and not controlling for additional factors of participant bias. Given those concerns, the current study analysed line-up decisions of English Premier League participants, but did so with participants solely within the Czech Republic, a more homogenous sample, controlling for additional important factors that could impact racial discrimination among fantasy participants.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-02-2022-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A qualitative exploration of the franchise establishment process: a case
           study analysis of “Moana Pasifika” and “Fijian Drua”

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      Authors: Joseph Davies , Daniel Read
      Abstract: League expansion involves a significant investment of time, money and resources. Therefore, ensuring the success of new franchises is imperative to the commercial health of a competition; however, there is an absence of studies examining the establishment process of franchises. In 2020, Super Rugby announced that it would expand in 2022 with the inclusion of two new franchises, Fijian Drua and Moana Pasifika. The article explores what implementation challenges Drua and Pasifika faced during franchise establishment. Following a qualitative case study methodology, data were collected via newspaper, website and document repository ‘Nexis’, and triangulated against interviews with five expert individuals involved in franchise establishment. Applying mixed-coding, thematic analysis using Redmond's franchise expansion factors framework, six deductive and two inductive themes were generated. In accordance with Redmond's franchise expansion factors framework, financial sustainability, competitive balance and labour market challenges were identified as internal challenges, whilst media relationships, market competition and community engagement were highlighted as external challenges. Additionally, two new factors, infrastructure and business operations and youth development, were inductively identified as issues during franchise establishment extending Redmond's model. The study offers strategic guidance to practitioners on franchise establishment and provides insight into cross-border expansion processes. Theoretically, the research supports and extends the applicability of Redmond's expansion factors framework for future research.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-01-2022-0003
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Monetizing social value in sports clubs

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      Authors: Xabier Mendizabal Leiñena , Leire San-Jose , Jose-Domingo García-Merino
      Abstract: European elite professional basketball clubs do not pursue economic profit maximization per se, but they also seek to create social value for stakeholders due to the community outreach and the emotional bonding that such organizations create. Here the purpose of this paper is to use an accounting system called social accounting to measure the social effects of an organization's activity in an effort to monetize and describe the holistic value created by these sports organizations for their stakeholders. This study applies an adapted, redesigned social accounting using SPOLY methodology to two elite basketball clubs in the ACB League (Spanish First Division), in order to monetize their social value. This methodology integrates non-market social value (value created for stakeholders without a financial transaction) with market social value (value created for stakeholders through market transactions), by monetizing validated dimensions for non-market and market social value obtained via information provided by clubs and their financial statements. Clubs create a quantifiable social value for stakeholders through non-market and market dimensions. Value creation is not merely restricted to securing financial profit for shareholders but rather takes on another dimension in which the various stakeholders receive a holistic value from clubs. This study provides evidence that clubs generate a quantifiable social value for their stakeholders that complements their economic value. This can help clubs to set up their own narrative concerning value creation for stakeholders and enable them to convey and manage the overall distributed value for stakeholders.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0107
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Implications for tourism management of including uncertainty in the
           estimation of the economic impact of sports events

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      Authors: Jesyca Salgado Barandela , Angel Barajas , Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez
      Abstract: Studies that measure the economic impact of events usually disclose deterministic results. This situation implies a methodological problem that compromises the veracity of the estimates. This aspect is particularly relevant in the field of sports tourism. For these reasons, this study aims to empirically analyse the estimate of the initial injection of money from sporting events considering uncertainty, and show its variability. Using surveys from five sporting events, a database with a total of 2,902 responses is analysed. With these cases as illustration to show the problem, the initial injection of money from the events is estimated. To include the uncertainty derived from the use of data gathered in the surveys, the confidence intervals are obtained using bootstrap. The authors find remarkable differences between the current study’s results and deterministic results. In general, except for one of the events studied, the adverse possible scenario of being in the lower limit is higher than the more positive possible scenario. Moreover, in some cases, the lower limit is around one-third of the average or higher. It can imply an important cut in the expected impact. The results obtained allow us to show the differences between deterministic studies and those which include uncertainty. The work presents prominent implications. Empirically, the inclusion of uncertainty in economic impact studies provides greater reliability to the results, defeating the idea of deterministic estimates. Managerially, working only with deterministic results limits the decision-making capacity of managers, and speculation increases in impact studies.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-11
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2021-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Performance prediction of basketball players using automated personality
           mining with twitter data

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      Authors: Dominik Siemon , Jörn Wessels
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to use Twitter data to mine personality traits of basketball players to predict their performance in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Automated personality mining and robotic process automation were used to gather data (player statistics and big five personality traits) of n = 185 professional basketball players. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions were computed to predict the performance of their NBA careers based on previous college performance and personality traits. Automated personality mining of Tweets can be used to gather additional information about basketball players. Extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness correlate with basketball performance and can be used, in combination with previous game statistics, to predict future performance. The study presents a novel approach to use automated personality mining of Twitter data as a predictor for future basketball performance. The contribution advances the understanding of the importance of personality for sports performance and the use of cognitive systems (automated personality mining) and the social media data for predictions. Scouts can use our findings to enhance their recruiting criteria in a multi-million dollar business, such as the NBA.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-10-2021-0119
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Impacts of game attractiveness and color of message on sport viewers'
           attention to prosocial message: an eye-tracking study

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      Authors: Behnam (Abdolreza) Oboudi , Alireza Elahi , Hossein Akbari Yazdi , Do Young Pyun
      Abstract: In recent years, neurophysiological tools have been vastly applied in sport marketing research. Eye tracking, a pervasive sensor technology, has received a growing interest to examine the effects of advertising through sport on viewer attention. While there is a plethora of evidence in advertising that supports the positive effects of various advertising types and locations on viewer attention in various sport contexts, little is known about the role of a prosocial overlay ad on viewer attention when watching televised football matches. Therefore, this research aims to examine the differences in viewers' attention (i.e. fixation and duration) with regard to game attractiveness and colors of the prosocial message during televised football matches. To identify the research gap, the authors first reviewed the relevant sport marketing and neuroscience research on advertising effectiveness. The authors selected a prosocial message displayed. Adopting an experimental research design and using eye tracking, this study examined the impacts of game attractiveness and colors of message on viewer attention to the prosocial message displayed on an overlay advertisement during a football match. The authors found that the colors of prosocial messages and game attractiveness had significant effects on viewer attention to the prosocial message. In this study, the authors sought to add advertisement color, as well as game attractiveness, to the extant knowledge in marketing literature as effective advertising factors in capturing viewers' attention. These variables can offer marketers new insights in designing effective advertisements for the context of televised sports events in a specialized field.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2021-0143
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Federated networks in England and Australia cricket: a model of economic
           dependency and financial insecurity

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      Authors: Robbie Millar , Daniel Plumley , Rob Wilson , Geoff Dickson
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to critically examine the financial health and performance of the English and Australian cricket networks. This includes the county cricket clubs (CCC) and state and territory cricket associations (STCA) affiliated to the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) and Cricket Australia (CA) respectively, as well as the ECB and CA themselves. The authors apply resource dependency theory to understand if there are any financial dependencies within the networks of cricket in England and Australia. The data for this research was obtained from the financial statements of the ECB, the 18 affiliated CCCs, CA and the six affiliated STCAs. This sample covers the last 5 years of financial information (2014–2019) for all the organisations at the time of writing. Ratio analysis was conducted on all organisations within the sample to assess financial health and performance. Both CCCs and STCAs show signs of poor financial health. There is a clear dependence on the financial support they receive from the ECB and CA respectively and this dependence appears more prominent in Australia. The ECB and CA have better financial health which ultimately allows them to financially support the CCCs and STCAs. The ECB and CA are facing difficult financial decisions to remain financially secure themselves due to the impact of COVID-19 but also to support their affiliated clubs. The affiliated clubs do not generate sufficient revenues and must diversity their revenue streams if they are to become financially self-sustaining. This financial structure and distribution mechanism will be vital in safeguarding the future of some of England’s and Australia’s most important cricket organisations.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0100
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The impact of special events and fan–player bonding on identified fan
           consumption – a study of professional soccer in the USA

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      Authors: Diego Gutierrez , James J. Zboja , Kristie Briggs , Kathleen M. Sheehan
      Abstract: The primary purpose of this study is to examine how fan attendance at team special events and player appearances impact fan consumption (as measured by merchandise sales). Insights obtained could shed light on opportunities for professional soccer teams to expand revenues through enhanced fan consumption of goods and services. A sample of 499 season ticket holders were used to assess fan consumption by measuring merchandise sales. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were run for merchandise sales as the dependent variable of fan consumption. The control variables were age, gender (male = 1, 0 otherwise), and whether an individual has children. The key independent variables of attending special events and fan–player bonding were both found to have a statistically significant impact on merchandise sales. Results show that each additional special event attended generates up to $33.71 in merchandise sales for the club. Similarly, each fan–player bonding experience attended also has a direct impact, increasing merchandise consumption by $23.00. The results of this study provide insights that can help fan consumption grow within the professional United States soccer industry and better allow team managers to make decisions about the possible benefits of holding more special events and fan–player bonding experiences. The findings also confirm the impact personal relationships with fans can have on the bottom line of sport franchises. Though this study adds to the body of literature by expanding previous work on fan consumption, there are limited studies on the social aspects of consumption which are examined and analyzed within this study, particularly of note is the study of merchandise sales as proxy for fan consumption.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2021-0140
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • How are fans affected by the commercialization of elite sports' A
           review of the literature and a research agenda

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Erik Winell , John Armbrecht , Erik Lundberg , Jonas Nilsson
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of extant studies addressing the impact of commercialization on fans of elite sports. In doing this, the authors performed a structured review of 42 academic articles published between 1992 and 2020 that all focus on how fans respond and are affected by the commercialization of elite sports. The structured review shows that the impacts of commercialization on fans relate to four different themes. These are (1) fan identity, (2) fan attitudes, (3) fan emotions and (4) fan behaviours. However, the analysis also shows that research within each category is largely scattered, and more research within each category is needed. The paper highlights the complex and dynamic nature of commercialization. It presents a research agenda for future research and emphasizes a need to integrate the interests of several stakeholders when managing the impacts of elite sport commercialization.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2021-0135
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • COVID-19, sustainability and Olympic Games: which lessons can we learn
           from Tokyo 2020'

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      Authors: Eduardo Russo , Ariane Roder Figueira , Leonardo José Mataruna-dos-Santos
      Abstract: This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020), which was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. For this, field research using the case study method was carried out that involved 21 in-depth interviews with experts from different entities affected by the event. As a result, it was possible to identify that some characteristics already presented in the Tokyo project came to break away from the gigantism observed in the past Olympic editions in an attempt to demonstrate alignment with the new principles brought by the IOC (2020) and 2020 + 5 Agenda that had as one of its main objectives to simplify the Olympics, making the event more sustainable and accessible for future host societies. At the end, some trends for the future of the Olympic Games are also presented in order to guide future studies in the area, as well as help the future host cities and their companies in planning their investments.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Financial fair play and competitive balance in European football: a long
           term perspective

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      Authors: Raúl Serrano , Isabel Acero , Stuart Farquhar , Manuel Antonio Espitia Escuer
      Abstract: The paper analyzes the effects of financial fair play (FFP) in the competitive balance of European football industry throughout a long-term perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the competitive balance in the European football industry through a time-series analysis from season 1992/93 to 2018/19. Results indicate an industry by nature dominated by a few clubs showing a general stationary behavior. FFP has had very little impact in local competitions. Just in some leagues, such as the Spanish, German, and French leagues, we can observe an increase in the imbalance in some indicators, but these results are not very robust. The improvement on the financial situation happens especially in a small group of firms that coincide with the big leagues with a strong European market orientation and strict local financial control standards. Although the study covered 17 European Leagues, there are several leagues not accounted for and thus results should be generalized with caution. The authors observe heterogeneity of the results of FFP in the competitive balance, associated to how the standard has been implemented in each market. This opens opportunities to study and deepen the local codes and their influence, especially in the recommendations of future financial control standards. The authors’ main contribution to the literature is to examine the impact of the FFP rules in the competitive balance utilizing a very broad study of 17 European markets with a rich and unusual overview and long-term perspective.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Rugby's Celtic fringe goes global – an economic analysis of the
           Pro14

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      Authors: Patrick Massey , Vincent Hogan
      Abstract: The introduction of professionalism in 1995 posed serious challenges for Rugby Union in Ireland, Scotland and Wales given their limited fan bases and broadcast markets. It led to the creation of a new league, the Pro14, with teams from all three countries. The paper asks whether the Pro14 has been a success and whether it might offer lessons for other sports. It thus seeks to extend the knowledge base on professional team sports and derive lessons for management of professional sports leagues in small countries. The authors analyse Pro14 performance using a range of metrics, including attendances, competitive balance and team performances, in European competitions. The authors also analyse the limited financial data available for Pro14 teams. Pro14 teams have competed successfully in European competition, offering support for claims that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European soccer. The Pro14 has increased attendances through specific measures and increased broadcast income through geographic expansion. Many Pro14 teams have struggled financially. Several English and French rugby clubs have also experienced financial problems, suggesting that European rugby may need to introduce financial fair play rules (FFPs) similar to soccer. The paper has implications for the Pro14 and its member clubs, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European football where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European competitions. The paper contributes to the academic discussion on professional team sports, particularly Rugby Union. The paper has implications for Pro14 clubs and league organisers, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European soccer where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could reduce the dominance of larger country leagues.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-04-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • National Olympic Committee sponsorship in small states: a case study with
           a focus on the Caribbean region

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      Authors: Jeeyoon Kim , Elizabeth Delia , Patrick Walsh
      Abstract: National Olympic Committees (NOCs) in small states operate in a unique market (e.g. small population, confined market and limited private sector) that brings challenges in securing sponsors and funding athletes. Whereas more than a quarter of International Olympic Committee (IOC)-recognized NOCs represent small states, not much is known about the sponsorship landscape in the market. This study explores the importance and challenges of NOC sponsorship in small states, with a focus on the Caribbean region. Interviews were conducted with representatives from NOCs in Caribbean small states. Textual analyses were conducted with Leximancer to identify key themes on the importance and challenges of NOC sponsorship. Athletes, funding and community were identified as key themes for the importance of NOC sponsorship. Olympic Movement, time, priority, resources and overcome were themes for sponsorship challenges. Compared to existing sponsorship knowledge driven from developed economies, known determinants for the sponsor's decision-making (e.g. interest in sport, competitor) were found to affect NOC sponsorship in Caribbean small states, but in distinctive ways. Particularly, the lacking appreciation of Olympic values and sport within society, resource constraints (e.g. volunteer-based and operating “within reality”) and competition against member federations and government were highlighted as unique situations/challenges faced in the market. This study is one of the first to explore NOC sponsorship in the important, yet overlooked, market of Caribbean small states. Theoretical insights on how existing sponsorship knowledge applies to and practical implications for securing NOC sponsorship in the marginalized market are provided.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0097
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Leveraging strategies of recurring non-mega sporting events for host
           community development: a multiple-case study approach

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      Authors: Daichi Oshimi , Shiro Yamaguchi
      Abstract: This study extends the event leverage model and applies the community development theory to explore how event managers can leverage recurring, non-mega sporting events for sustainable socio-economic development. The authors conduct a survey comprising 6 semi-structured interviews by targeting recurring participatory events in Japan with an average 37.7 years of history. The model highlights the strategic objectives (community needs) for socio-economic community development by attracting tourists during both event and event-free periods. Social development comprises three factors: social capital, sport participation and health promotion. Economic development comprises two factors: event revenue and tourism revenue. To achieve strategic objectives, the uniqueness of the event, good relationships with the media and locals, a platform to enjoy the local culture and sport event infrastructure are identified as means (community assets). Furthermore, locals and media are added to the model as key stakeholders, an additional category of the event leverage model. Event managers need to make efforts to identify local resources and should optimize the event to attract participants and tourists for socio-economic development. In particular, local experience, local products, local culture and good relationship with locals could be key resources to produce sustainable benefits for the local city. The proposed model adding locals and media as key stakeholders could be useful for other similar contexts/future events aimed at socio-economic benefits for community development. The proposed model extends the theoretical explanations in the literature on leveraging strategies through events to the perspective of the community development theory. Specifically, this study sheds light on community needs and assets for community development in the context of recurring non-mega sporting events.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Non-profit sport collaboration effectiveness: how do the partner selection
           factors and the collaboration process matter'

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      Authors: Arthur Lefebvre , Géraldine Zeimers , Thierry Zintz
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between partner selection factors and effectiveness of collaboration between sport clubs, as well as the mediating role of collaboration process dimensions on this relationship. Data were collected via an online survey targeting representatives of sport clubs in Belgium (n = 631). Hierarchical multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted using SPSS macro PROCESS. The results indicate that two partner selection factors – shared vision and pre-existing relationships – are related to collaboration effectiveness. Moreover, this association is mediated by the collaboration process and, more particularly, by two informal (social) dimensions of this process: mutuality and trust. Practically, this study suggests sport clubs representatives to chiefly pay attention to partner selection characteristics when deciding to collaborate with other sport clubs. They should assess their potential partners and eventually choose sport clubs that share a similar vision and/or with whom they already have pre-existing relationships. This paper extends knowledge on non-profit sport collaboration effectiveness by empirically examining its relationship to the partner selection factors and collaboration process. It helps establish the distinctiveness of this collaboration form. The paper also brings new knowledge on the interconnections between antecedents, process and effectiveness of sport collaboration.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Investigating the intention to use fitness app: the role of the perceived
           attractiveness of fitness center customers

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      Authors: Antonio Andrés Gómez-Ruiz , Pablo Gálvez-Ruiz , Moisés Grimaldi-Puyana , Alejandro Lara-Bocanegra , Jerónimo García-Fernández
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the variables that could influence the intentions to use fitness apps based on the attractiveness of the fitness apps. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used in this study. For this purpose, an online questionnaire was sent to 200 sports consumers of a fitness center (117 women and 83 males) to find out their perceptions regarding attractiveness, usefulness, ease of use, enjoyment, trust and intention to use of the fitness app of the fitness center. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted. The results showed that the variables analyzed have a positive influence on the intention to use fitness apps, with the attractiveness and usefulness and the ease to use and intention to use having the strongest relationship. These findings show the importance of these variables for the use of fitness apps in fitness centers. Furthermore, the findings represent advancement and help in the design and development of apps in fitness centers, as well as in the field of sports management.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-12-2021-0145
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • An institutional analysis of gender (in)equalities, COVID-19 and
           governance of elite women's football in Australia, England and the USA

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      Authors: Beth G. Clarkson , Keith D. Parry , Alex Culvin , Stacey Pope
      Abstract: Women's football faces an existential threat from COVID-19. Using case studies, the authors explore the COVID-19 responses of three highly ranked national football associations (Australia, England and the USA) and their professional women's football leagues to (a) compare and shed new insights into the wide range of phased responses and (b) establish recommendations for other nations to navigate major crises with their social and ethical responsibilities to women's football. Drawing on institutional theory, a framework analysis was undertaken examining 71 articles to analyse the gendered global impacts of COVID-19 on women's football. Results highlight several important recommendations for nations to consider during the pandemic: (1) maintain active communication with the community to allay worries about the future of women's football, (2) gather support from health and government officials, (3) seek out commercial and broadcasting partnerships to drive revenue, and (4) the interests of women's football are best served when responsibility for the elite women's league does not rest (solely) with national football associations. The authors argue that sport is an interwoven part of society and cannot be separated from gender equality issues irrespective of the pandemic. The study is first to explore institutional pressures and football governing bodies during COVID-19 and provides a framework for nations to manage major crises.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-01-2021-0004
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Agency problems concerning the handling of fan misbehaviour and its
           punishment in football

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      Authors: Philipp Winskowski , Susanne Homölle
      Abstract: On the example of professional football in Germany, this paper analyses the conflict about the punishment of fan misbehaviour within an agency-theoretical framework to cast light on the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the sentences and to show possible solutions. In a pre-study, more than 1,300 hand-collected past sentences against clubs by the German and European sports courts were analysed to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of the penalties so far. Additionally, in the main study, 26 expert interviews with German representatives of the football association, courts, clubs, sponsors, police and active fan scenes allow a deep insight into the relationships of the involved parties. The paper suggests that the sentences do not sufficiently consider several agency problems. Due to moral hazard, they exert hardly any influence on fan behaviour and only a small one on the clubs. While the lighting of pyrotechnics is by far the most punished type of misbehaviour, most of the interviewees cite the impossibility of preventing it. Despite the sentences, some clubs make non-public agreements with their fans about still tolerable misconduct or do not pass the penalties on to the polluters as intended by the association. The findings highlight the importance of communication for less misbehaviour. For the first time, the agency theory and the economic theory of optimal punishment are brought together with insights from interviews with the involved parties. The authors discover a two-stage principal-agent problem and get new insights into stakeholders' hidden motivations and attitudes. The results should encourage a debate on the current penalties and possible solutions to the recurring problem of pyrotechnics.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0069
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The impact of environmental barriers on attendance of outdoor and indoor
           professional sports: the case of the South Korean soccer, baseball and
           basketball leagues

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      Authors: Seomgyun Lee , Taeyeon Oh , Choong Hoon Lim
      Abstract: This study sought to determine if environmental barriers (i.e. air pollution, temperature and precipitation) affect outdoor (i.e. soccer and baseball) and indoor (i.e. basketball) professional sport attendance in South Korea. By including actual air quality, temperature and precipitation data collected from each place where the sporting events take place, this study conducted a regression analysis to examine factors that influenced outdoor and indoor sport attendance. In outdoor sports, the estimated results suggested that soccer and baseball attendance were not affected by air pollution. Indoor sport consumers did not change their consumption behaviors in attending sports despite the presence of air pollution. In addition, there was mixed evidence on the effect of weather-related variables on attendance. Average temperature had a positive effect on baseball (outdoor) and basketball (indoor) sport attendance, indicating that the warmer the temperature, the more likely those fans were to attend the games. Average precipitation was negatively associated with outdoor (soccer) sport spectators. The present study contributes to the sport environment literature by examining the impact of environmental barriers on spectators' behaviors in the context of outdoor and indoor professional sports.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0067
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Sport, Business and Management

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