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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
Showing 1 - 3 of 3 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACTIVE : Journal of Physical Education, Sport, Health and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Physical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Al-Rafidain Journal For Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Al.Qadisiya journal for the Sciences of Physical Education     Open Access  
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Annals of Applied Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arena-Journal of Physical Activities     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquivos em Movimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arrancada     Open Access  
Asia Pacific Journal of Sport and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Cerdas Sifa Pendidikan : Sport Education     Open Access  
Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Citius, Altius, Fortius     Open Access  
Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Coaching Psykologi : The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communication & Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Exercise Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Conexões     Open Access  
Corpoconsciência     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Educación Física y Ciencia     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
eJRIEPS : Ejournal de la recherche sur l'intervention en éducation physique et sport     Open Access  
European Journal for Sport and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Sport Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Physical Education and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
FairPlay, Revista de Filosofia, Ética y Derecho del Deporte     Open Access  
Footwear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Forum for Idræt, Historie og Samfund     Open Access  
Forum Kinder- und Jugendsport : Zeitschrift für Forschung, Transfer und Praxisdialog     Hybrid Journal  
Frontiers in Sports and Active Living     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Gelanggang Pendidikan Jasmani Indonesia     Open Access  
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
International Journal of Computer Science in Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Exercise Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Golf Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science Culture and Sport     Open Access  
International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Sport Communication     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sport, Exercise & Training Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
International Journal of the History of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Review for the Sociology of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
International Sport Coaching Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Sports Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Turfgrass Society Research Journal     Free   (Followers: 1)
Isokinetics and Exercise Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jendela Olahraga     Open Access  
Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Amateur Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sport Management: Research that Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Athlete Development and Experience     Open Access  
Journal of Athletic Enhancement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Global Sport Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Human Kinetics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Intercollegiate Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Motor Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Journal of Physical Activity Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access  
Journal of Physical Education Health and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Science and Cycling     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport and Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Sport History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Sport Psychology in Action     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sport Sciences and Fitness     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Sports Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences : Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Sports Medicine and Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of the Philosophy of Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Abdimas     Open Access  
Jurnal Keolahragaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Sport Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kinesiology : International Journal of Fundamental and Applied Kinesiology     Open Access  
Kinesiology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Laisvalaikio Tyrimai     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Managing Sport and Leisure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Marquette Sports Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Martial Arts Studies     Open Access  
Materiales para la historia del deporte     Open Access  
mensch & pferd international     Full-text available via subscription  
MHSalud : Movimiento Humano y Salud     Open Access  
Movement & Sport Sciences : Science & Motricité     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
NINE : A Journal of Baseball History and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Open Sports Sciences Journal     Open Access  
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
PALAESTRA : Adapted Sport, Physical Education, and Recreational Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Perceptual and Motor Skills     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Physical Education of Students     Open Access  
Physician and Sportsmedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Quality in Sport     Open Access  
Quest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
RBFF - Revista Brasileira de Futsal e Futebol     Open Access  
RBNE - Revista Brasileira de Nutrição Esportiva     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Reabilitacijos Mokslai : Slauga, Kineziterapija, Ergoterapija     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research on ٍEducational Sport     Open Access  
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Retos : Nuevas Tendencias en Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación     Open Access  
Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Brasileira do Esporte Coletivo     Open Access  
Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas     Open Access  
Revista de Psicología del Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Intercontinental de Gestão Desportiva     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte : International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science and Medicine in Football     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
SIPATAHOENAN : South-East Asian Journal for Youth, Sports & Health Education     Open Access  
Soccer & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sociology of Sport Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Spor Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Spor Eğitim Dergisi     Open Access  
Spor ve Performans Araştırmaları Dergisi / Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of Sports and Performance Researches     Open Access  
Sport and Art     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport and Fitness Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sport History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Sport in History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Sport Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sport Management Education Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport Science and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sport Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
SPORT TK-Revista EuroAmericana de Ciencias del Deporte     Open Access  
Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Sporting Traditions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sportis. Scientific Journal of School Sport, Physical Education and Psychomotricity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SPORTIVE : Journal Of Physical Education, Sport and Recreation     Open Access  
Sportphysio     Hybrid Journal  
Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sports Coaching Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sports Law and Governance Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sports Medicine International Open     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sports Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sportverletzung · Sportschaden     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sri Lankan Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine     Open Access  
Strategies : A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Sport Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Therapeutic Recreation Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Timisoara Physical Education and Rehabilitation Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise     Open Access  
Türkiye Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Turkish Journal of Sports Science     Open Access  
Ulusal Spor Bilimleri Dergisi / Journal of National Sport Sciences     Open Access  
UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Video Journal of Sports Medicine     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie     Hybrid Journal  
Слобожанський науково-спортивний вісник     Open Access  

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Sport, Business and Management : An International Journal
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2042-678X - ISSN (Online) 2042-6798
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • COVID-19, sustainability and Olympic Games: which lessons can we learn
           from Tokyo 2020'

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      Authors: Eduardo Russo , Ariane Roder Figueira , Leonardo José Mataruna-dos-Santos
      Abstract: This paper aims to understand how the sustainability theme has been incorporated into the new Olympic planning guidelines based on analysing the case of Tokyo (2020), which was severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. For this, field research using the case study method was carried out that involved 21 in-depth interviews with experts from different entities affected by the event. As a result, it was possible to identify that some characteristics already presented in the Tokyo project came to break away from the gigantism observed in the past Olympic editions in an attempt to demonstrate alignment with the new principles brought by the IOC (2020) and 2020 + 5 Agenda that had as one of its main objectives to simplify the Olympics, making the event more sustainable and accessible for future host societies. At the end, some trends for the future of the Olympic Games are also presented in order to guide future studies in the area, as well as help the future host cities and their companies in planning their investments.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0109
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Financial fair play and competitive balance in European football: a long
           term perspective

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      Authors: Raúl Serrano , Isabel Acero , Stuart Farquhar , Manuel Antonio Espitia Escuer
      Abstract: The paper analyzes the effects of financial fair play (FFP) in the competitive balance of European football industry throughout a long-term perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the competitive balance in the European football industry through a time-series analysis from season 1992/93 to 2018/19. Results indicate an industry by nature dominated by a few clubs showing a general stationary behavior. FFP has had very little impact in local competitions. Just in some leagues, such as the Spanish, German, and French leagues, we can observe an increase in the imbalance in some indicators, but these results are not very robust. The improvement on the financial situation happens especially in a small group of firms that coincide with the big leagues with a strong European market orientation and strict local financial control standards. Although the study covered 17 European Leagues, there are several leagues not accounted for and thus results should be generalized with caution. The authors observe heterogeneity of the results of FFP in the competitive balance, associated to how the standard has been implemented in each market. This opens opportunities to study and deepen the local codes and their influence, especially in the recommendations of future financial control standards. The authors’ main contribution to the literature is to examine the impact of the FFP rules in the competitive balance utilizing a very broad study of 17 European markets with a rich and unusual overview and long-term perspective.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0060
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Rugby's Celtic fringe goes global – an economic analysis of the
           Pro14

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      Authors: Patrick Massey , Vincent Hogan
      Abstract: The introduction of professionalism in 1995 posed serious challenges for Rugby Union in Ireland, Scotland and Wales given their limited fan bases and broadcast markets. It led to the creation of a new league, the Pro14, with teams from all three countries. The paper asks whether the Pro14 has been a success and whether it might offer lessons for other sports. It thus seeks to extend the knowledge base on professional team sports and derive lessons for management of professional sports leagues in small countries. The authors analyse Pro14 performance using a range of metrics, including attendances, competitive balance and team performances, in European competitions. The authors also analyse the limited financial data available for Pro14 teams. Pro14 teams have competed successfully in European competition, offering support for claims that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European soccer. The Pro14 has increased attendances through specific measures and increased broadcast income through geographic expansion. Many Pro14 teams have struggled financially. Several English and French rugby clubs have also experienced financial problems, suggesting that European rugby may need to introduce financial fair play rules (FFPs) similar to soccer. The paper has implications for the Pro14 and its member clubs, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European football where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could improve competitive balance in European competitions. The paper contributes to the academic discussion on professional team sports, particularly Rugby Union. The paper has implications for Pro14 clubs and league organisers, particularly with reference to competition design. It may also have lessons for European soccer where some have suggested that mergers of smaller country leagues could reduce the dominance of larger country leagues.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-04-2021-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • National Olympic Committee sponsorship in small states: a case study with
           a focus on the Caribbean region

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      Authors: Jeeyoon Kim , Elizabeth Delia , Patrick Walsh
      Abstract: National Olympic Committees (NOCs) in small states operate in a unique market (e.g. small population, confined market and limited private sector) that brings challenges in securing sponsors and funding athletes. Whereas more than a quarter of International Olympic Committee (IOC)-recognized NOCs represent small states, not much is known about the sponsorship landscape in the market. This study explores the importance and challenges of NOC sponsorship in small states, with a focus on the Caribbean region. Interviews were conducted with representatives from NOCs in Caribbean small states. Textual analyses were conducted with Leximancer to identify key themes on the importance and challenges of NOC sponsorship. Athletes, funding and community were identified as key themes for the importance of NOC sponsorship. Olympic Movement, time, priority, resources and overcome were themes for sponsorship challenges. Compared to existing sponsorship knowledge driven from developed economies, known determinants for the sponsor's decision-making (e.g. interest in sport, competitor) were found to affect NOC sponsorship in Caribbean small states, but in distinctive ways. Particularly, the lacking appreciation of Olympic values and sport within society, resource constraints (e.g. volunteer-based and operating “within reality”) and competition against member federations and government were highlighted as unique situations/challenges faced in the market. This study is one of the first to explore NOC sponsorship in the important, yet overlooked, market of Caribbean small states. Theoretical insights on how existing sponsorship knowledge applies to and practical implications for securing NOC sponsorship in the marginalized market are provided.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0097
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Leveraging strategies of recurring non-mega sporting events for host
           community development: a multiple-case study approach

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      Authors: Daichi Oshimi , Shiro Yamaguchi
      Abstract: This study extends the event leverage model and applies the community development theory to explore how event managers can leverage recurring, non-mega sporting events for sustainable socio-economic development. The authors conduct a survey comprising 6 semi-structured interviews by targeting recurring participatory events in Japan with an average 37.7 years of history. The model highlights the strategic objectives (community needs) for socio-economic community development by attracting tourists during both event and event-free periods. Social development comprises three factors: social capital, sport participation and health promotion. Economic development comprises two factors: event revenue and tourism revenue. To achieve strategic objectives, the uniqueness of the event, good relationships with the media and locals, a platform to enjoy the local culture and sport event infrastructure are identified as means (community assets). Furthermore, locals and media are added to the model as key stakeholders, an additional category of the event leverage model. Event managers need to make efforts to identify local resources and should optimize the event to attract participants and tourists for socio-economic development. In particular, local experience, local products, local culture and good relationship with locals could be key resources to produce sustainable benefits for the local city. The proposed model adding locals and media as key stakeholders could be useful for other similar contexts/future events aimed at socio-economic benefits for community development. The proposed model extends the theoretical explanations in the literature on leveraging strategies through events to the perspective of the community development theory. Specifically, this study sheds light on community needs and assets for community development in the context of recurring non-mega sporting events.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0071
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Non-profit sport collaboration effectiveness: how do the partner selection
           factors and the collaboration process matter'

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      Authors: Arthur Lefebvre , Géraldine Zeimers , Thierry Zintz
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between partner selection factors and effectiveness of collaboration between sport clubs, as well as the mediating role of collaboration process dimensions on this relationship. Data were collected via an online survey targeting representatives of sport clubs in Belgium (n = 631). Hierarchical multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted using SPSS macro PROCESS. The results indicate that two partner selection factors – shared vision and pre-existing relationships – are related to collaboration effectiveness. Moreover, this association is mediated by the collaboration process and, more particularly, by two informal (social) dimensions of this process: mutuality and trust. Practically, this study suggests sport clubs representatives to chiefly pay attention to partner selection characteristics when deciding to collaborate with other sport clubs. They should assess their potential partners and eventually choose sport clubs that share a similar vision and/or with whom they already have pre-existing relationships. This paper extends knowledge on non-profit sport collaboration effectiveness by empirically examining its relationship to the partner selection factors and collaboration process. It helps establish the distinctiveness of this collaboration form. The paper also brings new knowledge on the interconnections between antecedents, process and effectiveness of sport collaboration.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-24
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-09-2021-0108
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Investigating the intention to use fitness app: the role of the perceived
           attractiveness of fitness center customers

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      Authors: Antonio Andrés Gómez-Ruiz , Pablo Gálvez-Ruiz , Moisés Grimaldi-Puyana , Alejandro Lara-Bocanegra , Jerónimo García-Fernández
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the variables that could influence the intentions to use fitness apps based on the attractiveness of the fitness apps. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used in this study. For this purpose, an online questionnaire was sent to 200 sports consumers of a fitness center (117 women and 83 males) to find out their perceptions regarding attractiveness, usefulness, ease of use, enjoyment, trust and intention to use of the fitness app of the fitness center. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted. The results showed that the variables analyzed have a positive influence on the intention to use fitness apps, with the attractiveness and usefulness and the ease to use and intention to use having the strongest relationship. These findings show the importance of these variables for the use of fitness apps in fitness centers. Furthermore, the findings represent advancement and help in the design and development of apps in fitness centers, as well as in the field of sports management.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-21
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-12-2021-0145
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • An institutional analysis of gender (in)equalities, COVID-19 and
           governance of elite women's football in Australia, England and the USA

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      Authors: Beth G. Clarkson , Keith D. Parry , Alex Culvin , Stacey Pope
      Abstract: Women's football faces an existential threat from COVID-19. Using case studies, the authors explore the COVID-19 responses of three highly ranked national football associations (Australia, England and the USA) and their professional women's football leagues to (a) compare and shed new insights into the wide range of phased responses and (b) establish recommendations for other nations to navigate major crises with their social and ethical responsibilities to women's football. Drawing on institutional theory, a framework analysis was undertaken examining 71 articles to analyse the gendered global impacts of COVID-19 on women's football. Results highlight several important recommendations for nations to consider during the pandemic: (1) maintain active communication with the community to allay worries about the future of women's football, (2) gather support from health and government officials, (3) seek out commercial and broadcasting partnerships to drive revenue, and (4) the interests of women's football are best served when responsibility for the elite women's league does not rest (solely) with national football associations. The authors argue that sport is an interwoven part of society and cannot be separated from gender equality issues irrespective of the pandemic. The study is first to explore institutional pressures and football governing bodies during COVID-19 and provides a framework for nations to manage major crises.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-01-2021-0004
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Agency problems concerning the handling of fan misbehaviour and its
           punishment in football

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      Authors: Philipp Winskowski , Susanne Homölle
      Abstract: On the example of professional football in Germany, this paper analyses the conflict about the punishment of fan misbehaviour within an agency-theoretical framework to cast light on the reasons for the ineffectiveness of the sentences and to show possible solutions. In a pre-study, more than 1,300 hand-collected past sentences against clubs by the German and European sports courts were analysed to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of the penalties so far. Additionally, in the main study, 26 expert interviews with German representatives of the football association, courts, clubs, sponsors, police and active fan scenes allow a deep insight into the relationships of the involved parties. The paper suggests that the sentences do not sufficiently consider several agency problems. Due to moral hazard, they exert hardly any influence on fan behaviour and only a small one on the clubs. While the lighting of pyrotechnics is by far the most punished type of misbehaviour, most of the interviewees cite the impossibility of preventing it. Despite the sentences, some clubs make non-public agreements with their fans about still tolerable misconduct or do not pass the penalties on to the polluters as intended by the association. The findings highlight the importance of communication for less misbehaviour. For the first time, the agency theory and the economic theory of optimal punishment are brought together with insights from interviews with the involved parties. The authors discover a two-stage principal-agent problem and get new insights into stakeholders' hidden motivations and attitudes. The results should encourage a debate on the current penalties and possible solutions to the recurring problem of pyrotechnics.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0069
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The impact of environmental barriers on attendance of outdoor and indoor
           professional sports: the case of the South Korean soccer, baseball and
           basketball leagues

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      Authors: Seomgyun Lee , Taeyeon Oh , Choong Hoon Lim
      Abstract: This study sought to determine if environmental barriers (i.e. air pollution, temperature and precipitation) affect outdoor (i.e. soccer and baseball) and indoor (i.e. basketball) professional sport attendance in South Korea. By including actual air quality, temperature and precipitation data collected from each place where the sporting events take place, this study conducted a regression analysis to examine factors that influenced outdoor and indoor sport attendance. In outdoor sports, the estimated results suggested that soccer and baseball attendance were not affected by air pollution. Indoor sport consumers did not change their consumption behaviors in attending sports despite the presence of air pollution. In addition, there was mixed evidence on the effect of weather-related variables on attendance. Average temperature had a positive effect on baseball (outdoor) and basketball (indoor) sport attendance, indicating that the warmer the temperature, the more likely those fans were to attend the games. Average precipitation was negatively associated with outdoor (soccer) sport spectators. The present study contributes to the sport environment literature by examining the impact of environmental barriers on spectators' behaviors in the context of outdoor and indoor professional sports.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2021-0067
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • French men's professional basketball under the economic shock of the
           Covid-19

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      Authors: Yann Carin , Cyprien Desquennes , Lukas Jaworski , Wladimir Andreff
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the economic effects of Covid-19 on French men's professional basketball club championships. Three research questions are raised: What are the characteristics of the economic model of French men's professional basketball' Has this economic model changed over the 2008/2009 to 2018/2019 period' What are the economic effects of the Covid-19 crisis on the finance of French men's professional basketball clubs' Relying on a privileged access to the financial data of professional clubs in the two top-tier divisions (456 observations: 222 in Pro A/Jeep Elite and 234 in Pro B), this research focuses on economic models of French men's professional basketball clubs. The breakdown of revenues, expenses and financial performance is examined over the 2008/2009 to 2018/2019 period. The short-term economic effects of Covid-19 are measured over the 2019/2020 and 2020/2021 seasons. The Covid-19 crisis, at least in the short term (2019/2020 season), has affected revenues and expenses. With the closedown of the championship, two out of three main revenue sources have significantly decreased, while two main expense sources have decreased as well. The net incomes of Jeep Elite and Pro B clubs are in the black contrasting with the 2018/2019 season (pre-Covid) owing to clubs having benefited from governmental and federal measures and a stronger support from local authorities and their shareholders. Given the financial difficulties that clubs would have faced without governmental support, the federation and leagues would be well advised to develop a real crisis management competence within professional clubs. Owners of French professional men’s basketball clubs must increasingly adopt product diversification strategies to be better prepared for future crises. Recent research on the economic effects of Covid-19 has focused on professional and amateur football. To the best of our knowledge, one does not avail detailed research on the potential effects of a health crisis fought with containment measures on professional basketball clubs. French professional basketball deserves to be studied because it has the third largest professional league revenue (behind football and rugby) and it is the second most practiced sport in France. Its sources of finance, which are different from those witnessed in football and rugby, also make it an appropriate subject for study.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0057
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Risks of expressing your authentic self in sport: the influence of stigma
           covering on perceived job fit and hiring recommendations

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      Authors: Jeffrey D. MacCharles , E. Nicole Melton
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine how identity covering techniques can influence raters' perceptions of job candidates who have a socially stigmatized identity. Specifically, the authors explore how raters respond to two types of candidates: one who does not mention his gay identity during the interview process, and one who openly discusses their gay identity during the interview process. The authors also investigate whether job type (sport operations vs business operations) and the rater's views toward social equality influence perceptions of job fit and subsequent hiring recommendations. The authors conducted an experiment to examine whether an applicant's level of stigma covering, type of job posting and rater's views toward social equality influenced perceptions of job fit. The authors then tested whether perceptions of job fit mediated hiring recommendations. Adults in the USA (n = 237) who were employed and had served on a hiring committees participated in the survey. When applying for sport operations jobs, as opposed to business operations jobs, gay male applicants are viewed more favorably if they engage in high levels of identity covering. Further, the applicant's level of stigma covering influenced raters who reported high or moderate social dominance orientation but did not impact raters with low social dominance orientation. Overall, the findings reveal that identity covering techniques do have relevance for studying the dynamics of hiring gay men who apply for jobs in the sport industry. The study advances the understanding of identity management techniques by examining the nuances of how applicants can choose to disclose their stigmatized identity, and how those decision influence the hiring process.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0059
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Added value for sponsors: a study of network in football 2011–2018

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      Authors: Morten Erichsen , Trond Stiklestad , Marthe Holum , Tor Georg Jakobsen
      Abstract: This study identifies the outcomes prioritised by the sponsors of a sport, specifically football. The authors’ novel thesis is that the network collaboration between sponsors as well as with the sponsorship object (i.e. the football club) is a significant determinant of sponsor satisfaction and the likelihood of renewing the sponsorship deal. This perspective has not been adequately addressed in existing sponsorship research. The authors use an original dataset to empirically analyse networks and their business value for football sponsors. Our data covers sponsors of the Norwegian football club Rosenborg Ballklub (RBK) from 2011 to 2018, which we analyse using regression models. The results indicate that network effects are extremely important for sponsors in the RBK network. The authors’ analyses also indicate that network effects are more important than exposure. When planning, sponsors must analyse their motives for being a sponsor and assess how well their network functions by exploring its cohesiveness and scope. It is also very important that the sponsorship object be aware of the value of the network and enable interaction between the sponsors. This study confirms that functioning networks contribute to the satisfaction and renewal of sponsorships and can attract a growing number of sponsors for sports clubs, thus serving as an important source of income.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2020-0119
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The influence of multiple combinations of celebrity endorsers on
           consumers' intentions to purchase a sports-related product

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      Authors: Aaron von Felbert , Christoph Breuer
      Abstract: Endorsement research has focused primarily on determining the effectiveness of single endorsers, whereas marketing practice shows that companies usually engage multiple endorsers to promote their brands and products. As academic evidence for multiple endorsers is limited and extant findings are ambiguous, the purpose of this study is to determine the influence of different multiple endorser combinations on consumers' purchase intentions for a sports-related product endorsement and to identify whether endorser-product congruence and consumers' involvement with the endorsed product moderate endorsers' influences. Two-hundred thirty-three useful responses were collected to an online experiment, and endorsers' direct and indirect influences on consumers' purchase intentions were analyzed in serial mediation analyses. Potential moderating effects of endorser-product congruence and consumers' involvement with the endorsed product were tested in moderated regression analyses. The study's findings show that using multiple endorsers has an overall positive influence on consumers' purchase intentions, which is mediated by their attitudes toward the advertisements and the endorsed brand. Endorser-product congruence moderates an endorsement's effectiveness, whereas a moderating effect of consumers' product involvement was not supported. This study adds to the extant body of endorsement research by confirming the overall effectiveness of using multiple endorsers to influence consumers' intentions to purchase the endorsed product. In addition, by showing that endorser-product congruence determines endorsers' effectiveness in a multiple endorser context, the study extends the current research perspective and provides practical implications for marketing professionals on how to combine multiple endorsers.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-03-2021-0030
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Why are major sports events trapped in the winner's curse' A case
           study of the 2017 World Road Cycling Championship

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      Authors: Harry Arne Solberg , Denis Mike Becker , Jon Martin Denstadli , Frode Heldal , Per Ståle Knardal , Thor Atle Thøring
      Abstract: This paper sought to determine how a major sport event can become trapped in a winner's curse, in which the fierce competition to host the event forces organisers to spend more on acquiring and hosting it than what it is worth in economic terms. This study used a combination of document analysis and 47 in-depth interviews with 51 individuals representing various private and public organisations involved in the implementation of the UCI 2017 Road Cycling World Championship. Snowball sampling and a semi-structured interview guide were used to ensure coverage of all relevant information. The organiser and the host municipal lacked the necessary experience with events of this size and character. Information from previous championships events was not transferred, and the municipality administration did not utilise experiences from hosting previous events. Limited financial resources prevented the organiser from hiring enough employees with the necessary competence. Lack of communication between the stakeholders who contributed in hosting the event reduced the quality of planning and preparations. A dubious culture and lack of seriousness within the Norwegian Cycling Federation, which was the owner of organising company, seemed to have been transferred to organiser. The research identifies some of the reasons why major sports events so often turns out to be more problematic than expected in economic terms, not only for the organiser but also for actors in the public sector in the host city. The novelty is that it goes into depth on the underlying reasons and the dynamic forces behind these problems.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-12-2020-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The multi-dimensionality of competitive balance: evidence from European
           football

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      Authors: Bill Gerrard , Morten Kringstad
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of designing league regulatory mechanisms given the multi-dimensionality of competitive balance and the proliferation of empirical measures. A three-stage approach is adopted. Firstly, a taxonomy of empirical measures of competitive balance is proposed, identifying two fundamental dimensions – win dispersion and performance persistence. Secondly, a simple two-team model of league competitive balance is used to explore the dispersion–persistence relationship. Third, correlation and regression analysis of seven empirical measures of competitive balance for the 18 best-attended top-tier domestic football leagues in Europe over the 10 seasons, 2008–2017, are used to (1) validate the proposed categorisation of empirical measures into two dimensions; and (2) investigate the nature of the dispersion–persistence relationship across leagues. The simple model of league competitive balance implies a strong positive dispersion–persistence relationship when persistence effects increase for big-market teams relative to those for the small-market teams. However, the empirical evidence indicates that while leagues such as the Spanish La Liga exhibit a strong positive dispersion–persistence relationship, other leagues show little or no relationship, and some leagues, particularly, the English Premier League and top-tier divisions in Belgium and Netherlands, have a strong negative dispersion–persistence relationship. The key policy implication for leagues is the importance of understanding the direction and impact of dispersion and persistence effects on the demand for league products. The variability in the strength and direction of the dispersion–persistence relationship across leagues is an important result that undermines the “one-size-fits-all” approach to designing league regulatory mechanisms.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-12-03
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-04-2021-0054
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The effectiveness of UEFA Financial Fair Play: evidence from England and
           France, 2008–2018

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      Authors: Aurélien Francois , Nadine Dermit-Richard , Daniel Plumley , Rob Wilson , Natacha Heutte
      Abstract: This paper analyses the effectiveness of UEFA's Financial Fair Play (FFP) under the break-even requirement. Data was collected from English and French football clubs competing in the English Premier League (EPL) and in Ligue 1 (L1) for the financial years 2008–2018. Our sample includes 395 club-year observations. Relevant statistical tests have been conducted with the aim of analysing the effects of pre (2008–2012) and post (2012–2018) FFP enforcement under both profitability and cost-efficiency assumptions. In the EPL, an increase is observed in clubs' profitability through both operating and break-even results. In L1, this improvement is only significant for break-even results of clubs not participating regularly in European competitions (non Euro-oriented clubs). Player expenditures, measured through two wage-to-revenue ratios excluding trading activity for one and including it for the other, have significantly decreased in the EPL except for the Euro-oriented clubs for this latter. Conversely, in L1, this decrease is only significant in both wage-to-revenue ratios for non Euro-oriented clubs and for the whole sample when trading is included. In addition to evidencing contrasting results in FFP effectiveness across countries, our results suggest it is not the sole cause of such an improvement in clubs' finances. We suggest that UEFA should pursue its efforts to scrutinise the level of clubs' player expenditures and that there is a need for a wider look at the FFP regulations. This article provides further contribution to empirical studies on FFP effectiveness that have often been focused on a single country.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-03-2021-0024
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Measuring robustness: sustainable success factors affecting professional
           football clubs

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      Authors: Jacqueline Marie Cruz , Johannes Philipp Schregel , Henning Zülch
      Abstract: Many factors influence success at a professional football club, as each club has an exclusive definition and interpretation of success. Using the Football Management Q-Score as a foundation, the authors set out to prove the framework's robustness in the industry's current environment. To determine the purpose, the authors conducted interviews with Bundesliga experts. Using the Gioia Method, the authors could condense interview feedback into aggregate themes reflecting the main findings of the analysis process. From 1,025 codes, three main contributions resulted – the concept of intercorrelation, a more balanced and dynamic framework, and four new key drivers. Expert feedback validated the framework as robust, and the further main contributions gave the framework a wider application to a larger range of clubs, allowing the users of the framework to infer a greater context. Interview results proved the inclusion of Kaplan and Norton's original framework with vision and strategy.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-03-2021-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Does sport media raise her name' Examining intersectional
           representation in media narratives

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      Authors: Risa F. Isard , E. Nicole Melton
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the role of intersectionality (multiple marginalized identities) in narratives used within online media coverage of women's sports. The authors adopted an intersectionality lens and drew from sports media literature to explore the representation of Black athletes in women's sport. The authors conducted a quantitative content analysis of online articles from ESPN, CBS Sports and Sports Illustrated from the 2020 WNBA Season. The authors coded the number of times an athlete was mentioned in an article, the athlete's race, publicly disclosed sexual orientation and gender expression. The authors used hierarchical regression to examine the relationship between an athlete's social identities and frequency of media mentions. Within mainstream online sport media, Black WNBA athletes receive less media attention than white WNBA athletes. Black athletes who do not present in traditionally feminine ways receive the least amount of media attention, while white athletes have the freedom to express their gender in a variety of ways and still capture media interest. Within league press releases, however, there is no difference in media mentions based on race, sexual orientation or gender expression. The findings in this research are important for sport media professionals who write stories and player-activists who are pursuing racial justice. Outlets should commit to antiracist storytelling practices. Players, player agents and players' associations—all of whom have shown their power to create change for a more equitable industry and society—should also advocate for and organize around practices that create more equitable media coverage. This study is one of the few empirical investigations of women's professional sport that examines the influence of intersecting social identities.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-09-28
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-02-2021-0015
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Does the quality of a youth academy impact a football player's market
           value'

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      Authors: Matteo Balliauw , Jasper Bosmans , David Pauwels
      Abstract: Football clubs invest in the implementation of scientific insights that improve the quality of youth academies. In the long run, clubs expect their youth academy investments to result in better trained players. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the impact of the attended youth academies' quality on the future market value of a player. A dataset containing 94 players trained in 13 different academies has been constructed. The dataset contains characteristics of the players and information on the quality of their attended academies. The impact of the quality of the attended academies on players' future market values was estimated empirically through multiple regression analysis. The quality of a youth academy has a significant positive impact on a player's market value, which in turn is correlated with higher future wages for players and transfer fees for clubs. Clubs are advised to pay sufficient attention to investments in their youth academy. This will eventually lead to better trained players and higher revenues. Players in turn should strive to be part of the best academies that provide good training and the opportunity to become a top-earning player. For policymakers, such as football federations, the results imply that stimulating club investments in academies can lead to better national team performances. The impact of the quality of a youth academy on an individual professional football player's career has never been quantified in the literature before. To this end, a new variable has been constructed using scientific assessments of youth academies.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-02-2021-0011
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • An introduction to the challenges of distributive equity in the English
           Premier League

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      Authors: Rory Bishop , Aaron C.T. Smith , Daniel Read
      Abstract: This article provides a plain language commentary on the distributive equity structure of the English Premier League (EPL) with the aim of introducing sport business practitioners to a foundational challenge facing professional leagues as they grow financially with market opportunities, namely financial inequality between clubs. Introducing and discussing data from seasons 2009/10–2018/19, the article reveals that despite maintaining a consistent distribution of the EPL prize fund over time, the financial imbalance within the league has grown throughout the period. The EPL's financial distributive equity is exacerbated by growing imparity in the acquisition of sponsorship revenues, the distribution of broadcasting revenues and the implications of policies concerning financial fair play and parachute payments, leading to a problematic differential in the talent distribution and win–wage relationship experienced by the top six teams and the remainder. The EPL's market-driven continuation of its revenue allocation policies has led to a broadening financial imbalance, in favour of the top clubs, which could paradoxically undermine the financial security of the teams and league. Sport business practitioners should be familiar with this fundamental challenge for sport leagues that accompanies financial growth. Whilst the percentage difference in prize fund allocation between top and bottom clubs appears minor, there is a significant financial variation across the league, primarily due to the large increase in broadcasting income. This is compounded by positive feedback via the relative dominance of the top six clubs receiving the larger share allocated to higher finishing teams.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-09-20
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-04-2021-0053
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Disaster relief efforts of Houston sport organizations

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      Authors: Bryan Finch
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the community recovery efforts undertaken by Houston, Texas, sport organizations following Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Forty-eight media articles, 138 social media posts from Houston athletes and five semi-structured interviews with Houston sport organization executives underwent a content analysis to categorize responses of disaster relief activities. All eleven categories were identified. Three themes emerged from additional analysis: organizations serving as communication hubs, earned trust and internal organizational support. Benchmark examples in key categories are also discussed. This paper provided focused analysis of the reactions of several Houston area sport organizations during the immediate disaster recovery period. Organizations participated in both tangible and emotional recovery efforts. The long-term impacts of these efforts will require additional investigation. The findings of this case study are specific to the relief efforts in Houston, Texas, following Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and may not be generalizable beyond this scope. Sport organizations and community leaders can better prepare for future disaster responses by gaining insight into the roles and procedures enacted by the Houston teams following the Hurricane in 2017. This study provides a detailed examination of the responses of several Houston sport organizations following Hurricane Harvey, including perspectives from executives inside of the organizations. Utilizing social anchor theory, this paper expands our understanding of the impacts sport organizations may produce in their roles as social anchors during disaster relief and recovery.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-09-07
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2020-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Environmental management of sport events: a focus on European professional
           football

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      Authors: Tiberio Daddi , Francesco Rizzi , Gaia Pretner , Niccolò Todaro , Eleonora Annunziata , Marco Frey , Fabio Iraldo
      Abstract: The relation between sport and sustainability is a topic that has recently raised a lot of interest among both academics and practitioners. However, in the academic literature, very few studies have investigated which solutions are implemented in football, despite its popularity, to reduce the environmental impact of its events. This study contributes to filling this gap by exploring how stadium managers tackle environmental issues for football events. The authors have analyzed 94 sustainability reports of major sports events and conducted 6 case studies in 6 different major league stadiums around Europe in the framework of research supported by UEFA and three EU National Football Associations. The heterogeneity of practices and goals at both the governance and operational level denote that stadium managers pursue environmental objectives mainly voluntarily and under local pressures. Efforts toward environmental improvement appear to depend on an economic and efficiency rationale, which translates into the adoption of technologies and operational practices characterized by short-term economic returns (i.e. energy and resources savings). As a result, operational practices outnumber governance-level practices. The analysis clearly highlights that the fragmentation of operational practices derives from a lack of maturity of governance structures, especially when multiple actors have different – yet mutually influencing – responsibilities on the infrastructures or the planning and staging of football events. Building on the notion of the holistic approach to environmental sustainability in sport management the research differentiated environmental practices according to the operational and governance dimensions. While operational practices tackle environmental aspects directly associated with football events (e.g. waste, energy consumption, water usage, etc.), governance-level practices relate to the systemic allocation of environmental roles and responsibilities within the management structure underlying football events.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-09-30
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2020-0046
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The interaction between servant leadership and organizational culture: an
           NCAA Division III case study

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      Authors: Sean Dahlin , Pete Schroeder
      Abstract: Servant leadership is primarily focused on the empowerment and moral development of followers (Burton et al., 2017). Within sports research, little is known about how servant leadership interacts with organizational culture in teams. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the servant leadership of one head baseball coach and examine the degree to which servant leadership affects the program's culture. Data were collected for this case study of an NCAA Division III head baseball coach throughout one academic year. Sources included 12 interviews (ranging from four minutes to 92 min), observation of practices and games, textual analysis of documents and websites, as well as the coach's reflection journal. Data were analyzed using a six-phase process of thematic analysis (Braun and Clarke, 2006). The participant exhibited the following servant leadership behaviors: empowering, helping subordinates grow and succeed, behaving ethically, and conceptual skills (Liden et al., 2015, 2008). In addition, the program maintained a culture featuring a few distinct artifacts, very clear espoused values, and three deeply held basic assumptions. The findings suggest that the head coach used servant leadership not to create or change culture but instead to amplify the existing culture of the baseball program. There is strong evidence of a link between servant leadership and team culture, which is context-bound. At the Division III level, servant leadership behaviors can be used to embody a program's culture. Furthermore, through this embodiment, servant leaders can perpetuate an effective, functioning team culture, particularly within intercollegiate athletics.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-04-2021-0051
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • So you want to work in sports' An exploratory study of sport business
           employability

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      Authors: David J. Finch , Norm O'Reilly , David Legg , Nadège Levallet , Emma Fody
      Abstract: As an industry, sport business (SB) has seen significant growth since the early 2000s. Concurrently, the number of postsecondary sport management programs has also expanded dramatically. However, there remain concerns about whether these programs are meeting the demands of both employers and graduates. To address these concerns, this study examines the credential and competency demands of the SB labor market in the United States. Researchers conducted an analysis using a broad sample of employment postings (N = 613) for SB positions from two different years, 2008 and 2018. Results support that a complex set of SB qualifications exist, and the credentials and competencies included in SB employment postings have evolved over the past decade. A noteworthy finding is that meta-skills are found to be particularly important for employability, including items such as communication, emotional intelligence and analytical thinking and adaptability.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-24
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-02-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Testing the relationships among event personality, event image and
           runners’ loyalty: a study of an international running event

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      Authors: Yannis Lianopoulos , Nicholas D. Theodorakis , Kostas Alexandris , Magda Papanikolaou
      Abstract: Given the increased competition among running events, it is important for event organizers to comprehend how they can retain a base of loyal customers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between sport event personality and loyalty intentions of runners participating in a running event. More specifically, it examined the relationship of sport event personality dimensions with the overall image of a sporting event as well as the association of event image with runners’ loyalty intentions. Data were collected from 247 participants of an international running event. A structural equation model analysis was followed. The results showed that three dimensions of event personality (namely, excitement, sophistication and sincerity) predicted event image, which in turn positively associated with loyalty intentions. The study discusses how event managers can improve the image of their events in order to increase their customers’ loyalty levels. This is one of the first endeavors that examined the role of event image, a construct that has not received much attention in the context of road races, in a model concerning event participation.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-23
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-12-2020-0135
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The future of women's football in Asia: a look at competitive balance in
           top 5 domestic football leagues from 2010 to 2019

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      Authors: Ayushi Dutta , Sarthak Mondal , Shiny Raizada
      Abstract: This paper analyses competitive balance in the “big five” women's football leagues in Asia longitudinally between 2010 and 2019. Competitive balance has been measured using recognised measures of concentration, HICB and NHICB, alongside recognised measures of dominance, i.e., identification of top teams. A time-trend analysis has been employed to identify trends of CB in the respective leagues followed by ANOVA and relevant post-hoc tests to identify difference in concentration measures. A multiple linear regression analysis has been conducted to identify the impact of external economic factors on CB. Some significant differences were detected in the levels of concentration between leagues. There was also some variation in terms of some leagues being dominated by a fewer number of teams. However, these two measures of competitive balance (concentration and dominance) were not necessarily correlated with each other. The paper also tries to find the optimum number of teams to maintain CB in the women's football leagues in Asia, but an exact figure could not be found. Some significant differences were detected in the levels of concentration between leagues. There was also some variation in terms of some leagues being dominated by a fewer number of teams. However, these two measures of competitive balance (concentration and dominance) were not necessarily correlated with each other. External economic factors were found to have negative impact on CB. The paper is an original research and aims to add to the growing body of CB research in world through analysis of competitive balance (ACB).
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-17
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-06-2020-0052
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The influence of brand experience on satisfaction, uncertainty and brand
           loyalty: a focus on the golf club industry

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      Authors: Mi Ryoung Chung , Jon Welty Peachey
      Abstract: Understanding the advantages of brand experience is important for brand managers to more effectively grow satisfied and loyal customers. To date, little research has examined the relationship between brand experience and customer satisfaction, uncertainty, and brand loyalty with sport products. Therefore, this study examined these relationships with golf club products in the golf industry. Data were collected from golf players in South Korea (n = 386) through online surveys. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to examine the relationship between the variables. The results revealed that brand experience influences golfers' uncertainty toward other brands. In other words, doubts about the brand will decrease when consumers experience sensory, affective, behavioral, and intellectual interactions with a brand. Interestingly, brand experience does not influence golfers' satisfaction as indicated by previous studies. Also, findings showed that just having experience with a brand does not lead to golfers' loyalty. This study helps to understand how consumers' direct experiences influence brand beliefs and attitudes. Moreover, this study is significant for sport marketing practitioners since it explores an alternative marketing approach to brand differentiation, which has the potential to attract and retain more customers.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-11-2020-0115
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The financial impact of the financial fair play policy on Spanish football

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      Authors: Roberto Fernández-Villarino , J. Andrés Domínguez-Gómez
      Abstract: This study aims to explore how responsible corporate behaviour, specifically self-imposed financial regulatory control, might subsequently be reflected in the financial performance of companies subject to such regulation. In this study, the authors aim to explore how financial compliance in the form of the Economic Control Regulation (ECR) has impacted on the financial performance of professional football clubs in Spain. To this purpose, the authors adopted a quasi-experimental before and after study design. This type of design assesses the object of study before and after a specific event in order to determine whether this event has had any effects on the object. In this case, the event was the coming into effect of the ECR in the fiscal year of 2012, and the object hypothetically affected was the clubs’ economic performance. The authors can confirm that in general terms and for the whole set of clubs analysed, the ECR has had a strong and positive effect on financial performance. In this study, the authors wish to establish a link between the idea of “compliance” and that of “responsible corporate management practice”. It is not just a matter of compliance with the law. The fact of complying with certain laws could, in general terms, or from the point of view of common sense, be qualified as “responsible behaviour”. However, under the contemporary concept of corporate responsibility, compliance with the law is a behaviour that must be taken for granted. Responsibility, therefore, would entail going beyond such expected behaviour to one that exceeds the environment's expectation of the corporate actor. What extent improvements in financial performance have also boosted social performance. Confirming such a positive effect endorses the argument that ethical improvements in corporate culture have a general effect on business sustainability in its different aspects: economic, social, environmental and in governance. The authors may foresee that the culture of compliance will spread from the finance departments to other management areas. Its connection with ethical business practice is directly linked to the more complex concept of the “citizen company”. There are suggest interesting bases on which professional football clubs might move from a traditional profit-oriented company model towards a more contemporary one oriented towards relationships of integrity with the sport's environment. This study shows that the ECR has been a starting point for the development of Spanish professional football clubs towards this type of “citizen company”. It was a single-sector study whose principal value lies in the verification of whether responsible economic management (the main consequence of applying the ECR) had any effects on company profits, financial results and other important indicators. In addition to fostering responsibility, this new management model involves a special innovation, as it is based on self-regulation (i.e. on regulations not imposed by national or supranational states), designed and implemented to ensure the sector's viability.
      Citation: Sport, Business and Management
      PubDate: 2021-08-16
      DOI: 10.1108/SBM-05-2021-0061
      Issue No: Vol. 12 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Sport, Business and Management

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