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Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1899-1998 - ISSN (Online) 2082-8799
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Intensity of Physical Activity and Quality of Life Among Older Adults

    • Abstract: Introduction. Low physical activity, transition to retirement and unfavorable socio-economic changes may significantly reduce the quality of life of older people. The increasing average life expectancy of the population requires measures intended to promote physical activity among the elderly in order to improve their quality of life. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between exercise intensity and the quality of life in U3A students over 60 years of age.Material and methods. A diagnostic survey was applied in the research. The following research tools were used: WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire to assess the quality of life, Minnesota Questionnaire (MLTPAQ) to test the intensity level of physical activity, and the authors’ own questionnaire. The study involved 673 individuals over 60 years of age from the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Region in Poland.Results. People who took low-intensity exercise more often were more satisfied with life and health. Likewise, they had higher quality of life assessments in the physical, psychological and environmental context in comparison with those who were not sporty. Individuals who went in for moderate physical effort more often assessed their quality of life better in the social area. Respondents who engaged in intense physical activities valued the quality of life in physical, psychological and environmental domains higher.Conclusions. The positive influence of regular exercise on the quality of life requires further promotion of this activity, health education, and extension, diversification and adjustment of the offer of sports activities to the needs and capabilities of the elderly.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Impact of Active Break with Guided Dance in University Classes

    • Abstract: Introduction. In general, during the theoretical content taught in different educational stages, students are seated for several hours and expository methods are used by the teacher. Under these conditions, emotions such as anxiety, boredom and loss of attention may appear. To improve this situation, several studies have shown that active breaks (AB) in class are a good option. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate the effect of AB with dance in the classroom on the emotional state and attention level of university students.Material and methods. A crossover design was employed where the type of rest (active vs. passive) was compared in two class groups for a total of 68 students (age 20.7 ± 1.7 years, 50% female). The variables studied were the level of attention and emotional state, assessed using the d2 test and the mood rating scale (EVEA). A multilevel linear model was applied and Cohen’s d was calculated for the statistical analysis.Results. Although there was an improvement in the level of attention with the implementation of AB with dance (p > 0.05, d = 0.15-0.28), this was not significant. In the emotional state, a decrease in the level of sadness was found (p > 0.05; d = - 0.16) without statistical significance.Conclusions. The application of AB with dance in the classroom provides a way to increase students’ physical activity levels without negatively affecting the level of attention. Further studies with theoretical classes of longer duration and in a longer intervention period could provide new data on the benefits of AB with dance.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Wavelet Analysis of Rearfoot Loading of Patients After Medial
           Patellofemoral Ligament (MPFL) Reconstruction

    • Abstract: Introduction. Patellar instability in younger patients is a common injury (3.3% of all knee injury episodes) and the most frequent dislocation of the knee observed. The sensitivity and reliability of clinical diagnostic tests after medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction remain unclear and biased. The primary aim of the present study was thus to detect, using wavelet analysis, differences in the rearfoot loading of the operated limb of patients after MPFL reconstruction. The authors hypothesised that applying this specific examination technique would allow for more accurate and less biased clinical results evaluation.Material and Methods. The study involved a group of 15 female subjects (age: 22.8 ± 6.3 years; weight: 58.5 ± 5.1 kg) after MPFL reconstruction and a control group of 29 healthy females (23.2 ± 2.8 years; 61.1 ± 7.7 kg). The subjects performed a 30-second classic Romberg test on a treadmill (Noraxon FDN-T) equipped with a matrix of baroresistive sensors to measure ground reaction forces. Time-frequency analysis of the signal originating from the treadmill was done using an analytic Morse wavelet.Results. The results indicate differences in visual control and vestibular stability in patients before and 3 months after a surgery. They are characterised by a deficit of energy attributed to visual control in favour of an excess of energy associated with vestibular control. Patellar instability patients show greater energy expenditure to maintain body balance for at least 6 months after MPFL reconstruction.Conclusions. Patellar instability patients have increased vestibular control while maintaining balance. Our results suggest an extended rehabilitation period for patients after MPFL reconstruction beyond 6 months.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of Balance and Muscle Strength of Upper and Lower Limbs in Rock
           Climbers

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bouldering on upper and lower limb muscle strength and body balance.Material and Methods. The study group consisted of 22 climbers (aged 27.23 ± 4.81) with at least 2 years of bouldering experience, while the control group consisted of 20 men (aged 23.10 ± 5.28) not practicing rock climbing. The study received approval from the local bioethical commission in Poland. Static and dynamic stabilographic parameters were measured with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) on the Biodex Balance System SD USA (BBS) platform. Subsequently, the maximum muscle torques of the elbow, hip, knee and ankle joints were measured in isometric conditions. Hand-grip strength (HGS) with and without the thumb was assessed using a handheld dynamometer.Results. Climbers achieved significantly higher values of HGS with the thumb of both hands (p < 0.005), foot extensors strength (FES) in both limbs (p < 0.05) and left hip extensors (HES L) (p < 0.05). They also achieved significantly lower values of all stabilographic parameters, indicating better balance compared to the control group (p < 0.05). An interaction of HES x SIDE across the groups was observed (F(1,40) = 13.588, p < 0.001 η2 = 0.254). Moreover, there was a statistically significant negative correlation of ankle extensors strength with medial-lateral stability index (MLSI EC) (right: r = -0.418; left: r = -0.331) and fall risk index (FRI6-2) (right: r = -0.520; left: r = -0.435).Conclusions. Regular climbing training develops muscle strength, especially FES, HES, HGS, and improves balance. Climbing can be used for prevention of muscle weakness and equilibrium disorders.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) Supplementation on Body
           Composition and Blood Health Indices in Professional Wrestlers

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the effect of ashwagandha supplementation on the body composition, blood health and recovery indices, as well as the safety of ashwagandha supplementation in wrestling.Material and Methods. To investigate this, body composition (using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DEXA) and blood parameters as indicators of athletes’ health status (i.e., hematology, liver, kidney and muscle tissue function, lipid profile) were measured before and after 8-week supplementation with ashwagandha extract (600 mg/day) in professional national team wrestlers following an intensive training plan (as part of an annual training cycle).Results. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in fat-free mass and muscle mass, with a significant decrease in fat mass (both in absolute and relative terms) in both ashwagandha and placebo groups (main effect of time, p < 0.05). However, ashwagandha supplementation did not affect any of the body composition parameters (main effect of group or interaction of time and group, p > 0.05). Moreover, intense wrestling training induced an increase in blood creatine kinase activity as an indicator of muscle tissue damage (main effect of time, p < 0.05). Ashwagandha supplementation did not significantly affect any hematological or biochemical blood parameters (p > 0.05 for main effect of group and interaction of time and group). However, the increase in creatine kinase activity during the study seemed to be more pronounced in the placebo group (post-hoc; p < 0.05) than in the ashwagandha group (post-hoc; p > 0.05).Conclusions. In conclusion, ashwagandha supplementation at 600 mg daily for 8 weeks is well tolerated and safe for professional wrestlers. This strategy does not appear to offer additional body composition benefits beyond the effect of intense wrestling training. On the other hand, our results indicate some potential for ashwagandha in improving muscle tissue recovery, which needs to be confirmed on a larger population of athletes.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Mountaineering in the Himalayas: A Comprehensive Analysis Through a
           Literature Review and Research Profiling

    • Abstract: Introduction. The article aims to analyse the current state of knowledge about mountaineering in the Himalayas through a systematic literature review.Material and Methods. For this purpose, the following research questions were formulated: Which journals publish the most studies concerning the Himalayas and which authors make significant contributors to this area of research' What are the dominant research themes, and how have they changed over the years' What factors contribute to success and deaths in Himalayan mountaineering' The study is based on a mapping review of publications from the Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO and Google Scholar databases with research profiling and co-word analysis using VOSviewer. In total, 189 articles selected for review were subjected to automatic content analysis (text mining, clustering) in the VOSviewer program to produce a self-organising map of keywords, grouped into four thematic areas: (1) tourism management, geo-ecology and local community; (2) psychology, anthropology and risk of high altitude physical activity; (3) acclimatisation, hypoxia pathophysiology; and (4) altitude and acute disease, brain and pulmonary oedema.Results. In the qualitative phase of the analysis, success and failure factors in Himalayan mountaineering were identified. It can be concluded that it is becoming safer and more common for climbers to reach the summit and such achievements are more accessible to women and older people.Conclusions. Safety increases can be attributed to the obligatory use of oxygen by mountain guides, better infrastructure on the trail (two-way system of lifelines), more reliable weather forecasts, and the assistance of experienced leaders.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Lipid Profile of Youth Sport Climbers: A Preliminary Investigation

    • Abstract: Introduction. Lipid profile is one of the main determinants of cardiovascular health status. Moderate and vigorous physical activity can positively influence lipid profile, and one such activity is sport climbing. The main aim of this study was to determine the lipid profile and to investigate the influence of training experience on the lipid profile of youth climbers.Material and Methods. This research included 12 youth climbers aged 15.33 ± 1.30 years (6 males, 6 females), who were tested on anthropo-metric indices and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides) using the point-of-care testing. Variables of lipid profile were correlated with years of climbing experience by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, while the differences between females and males were checked by the Mann-Whitney U test.Results. Youth climbers had acceptable levels of all measured lipid parameters. Training experience was significantly positively correlated with body mass index (R = 0.76, p < 0.01) and significantly negatively correlated with cholesterol (R = -0.80, p < 0.01).Conclusions. Results support that climbing as a vigorous and enjoyable physical activity might be advertised as a proxy for reaching recommended amounts of physical activity among adolescents, which is associated with improved lipid profile. However, this is only a preliminary investigation advocating that determinants of health status related to climbing practice should be further investigated.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Six-Week Pre-Season Complex Contrast Training Intervention on
           Male Soccer Players’ Athletic Performance

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week complex contrast training (CCT) intervention on the athletic performance of highly-trained amateur male soccer players during the pre-season period.Material and Methods. Participants aged 21.3 were randomized to CCT (n = 7) or active (i.e. standard soccer training) control (CG; n = 9) groups. Athletic performance was assessed using the 30 m linear sprint test time, standing long jump distance (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and unilateral right-left knee flexion and extension isokinetic maximal strength tests. The experimental group replaced part of the standard soccer training schedule with three CCT sessions per week for six weeks. A two (pre-post intervention) by two (CCT, CG) mixed ANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-specific effects. In addition, between-group comparisons at post-test were conducted with baseline scores as covariate. Within group changes were analyzed using paired t-test.Results. Significant group-by-time interaction effects were found for all dependent variables (p < 0.001 – 0.004). Post-hoc tests using paired t-test revealed significant improvements in all dependent variables in CCT (all p ≤ 0.001; effect size (g) = 0.29 – 0.96; %Δ = 4.5 – 14.7), but not in CG (p = 0.174 – 0.633; g = 0.03 – 0.20; %Δ = 0.4 – 2.6). Further, Bonferroni adjusted post-hoc analysis using baseline scores as a covariate showed post-test differences in favor of CCT compared to CG for all variables.Conclusions. CCT is recommended as an effective training strategy during the pre-season to improve athletic performance among highly-trained amateur male soccer players.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluating Hockey Players Using Andersen and Petersen's Super-Efficiency
           Model: Who is the Best Czech Hockey Player in the NHL'

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this article is to measure and assess the efficiency of Czech hockey players in the NHL, to create a ranking, and to reveal the best Czech hockey players in the NHL.Material and methods. The methodology is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), namely a basic input-oriented model with constant returns to scale and an advanced Andersen and Petersen's model. Using the Andersen and Petersen's model, a ranking of the best Czech forwards, defenders, and goalkeepers was created based on the super-efficiency scores. DEA models worked with several variables and allowed for greater objectivity to be incorporated into the rankings. The input variable chosen was the number of seasons played. The output variables included the number of games played, the number of minutes played, the number of goals, the number of assists, save percentage, and the number of Stanley Cups won.Results. The research named Jaromír Jágr, Jan Rutta, and Pavel Francouz as the best Czech forward, defender and goalkeeper in the NHL in terms of technical efficiency.Conclusions. The ranking of hockey players based on super-efficiency scores revealed, among other things, that hockey players with a high number of seasons, games played or goals scored are not necessarily technically efficient.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • European Union Funds as Stimulators of Sustainable Tourism Development in
           Municipalities of the Lower Silesian Region in Poland in 2014-2019

    • Abstract: Introduction. The study assessed the impact of EU funds on sustainable tourism in the Lower Silesian region of Poland in the years 2014-2019.Material and methods. A literature review and the following research methods were used in the study: logical analysis and construction, as well as documentary and statistical analyses. A database was compiled containing statistical data on implemented tourism projects subsidized with EU funds in municipalities of Lower Silesia. Each project was then assigned to one of sustainable tourism sections in accordance with the Global Sustainable Tourism Council Destination Criteria. Statistical analysis included structure analysis, basic statistics, and the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test and post-hoc test.Results. The Kruskal-Wallis test results (H = 20.01 for project values, and H = 23.34 for the amount of EU funding) and the probability level (p = 0.001) demonstrated that project expenditures on tourism in each sustainable tourism section differed significantly. The multiple comparisons test (post-hoc test) revealed statistically significant differences between the values of projects implemented in the sections of cultural sustainability and sustainable management (p = 0.009), cultural sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.009), socio-economic sustainability and sustainable management (p = 0.009), and socio-economic sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.008). In terms of the amount of EU funding, statistically significant differences were found between cultural sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.001), and socio-economic sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.001).Conclusions. The allocation of EU funds for tourism projects did not contribute to the implementation of sustainable tourism. In the next EU programming period, i.e. 2021-2027, a more sustainable allocation of funds for tourism projects should be pursued. There is a clear need to increase the number and value of tourism projects implemented in the area of environmental sustainability.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Editorial Gatekeeping in Sports News During Prime Time Television in a
           Public Broadcaster

    • Abstract: Introduction. Based on Shoemaker's model of gatekeeping, this study addresses two questions: What social representations of sports are promoted by the prime time news program of the public television broadcaster Radio Televisão Portuguesa (RTP)' How do editors assess sports news stories during the editorial decision-making process'Material and Methods. For this, we quantitatively examined all the sports content in the prime time ‘Telejornal’ daily news program of RTP during a trimester. Moreover, we studied the factors that influenced editorial decisions, by conducting naturalistic participant observation and semi-structured interviews.Results. Results indicate that facts of greater public protagonism, which cause a significant emotional reaction and are relatable to the public, are more newsworthy. The main constraints influencing the editorial decisions were organized in three co-dependent areas: Social System (macro level), RTP Organization (meso level) and Telejornal Newsroom (micro level).Conclusions. Findings contribute to a reduction in social stereotypes created by television broadcasters, and to sports actors optimizing their communication strategy.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences in Fundamental Motor Skills
           Proficiency Between Polish and Latvian Children

    • Abstract: Introduction. Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are a critical component of success in various sports and lifelong physical activity (PA). This study aimed to evaluate and compare the FMS proficiency levels of 7-9-year-old children from Poland and Latvia, providing insights into the current state of motor competence in these populations.Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study design was utilized, incorporating a sample of 163 boys and girls. The FUS test (Fundamental Motor Skills in Sport), a comprehensive, qualitative, and process-oriented assessment tool was used to assess FMS. The FUS test encompassed a range of movement tasks, including hurdles, jumping rope, forward roll, ball bouncing, ball throwing and catching, and kicking and stopping a ball that allows for a thorough evaluation of FMS proficiency.Results. The study revealed alarmingly low FMS proficiency levels in both countries, with 93.3% of students displaying ‘insufficient FMS proficiency’. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that Latvian boys outperformed their Polish peers in jumping rope and forward roll (p < 0.05), while Polish boys exhibited superior results in kicking and stopping a ball (p < 0.05). In contrast, Polish girls achieved significantly higher scores in hurdles and kicking and stopping a ball (p < 0.05) compared to Latvian girls, who scored higher in jumping rope (p < 0.05).Conclusions. These findings highlight the urgent need for effective, evidence-based interventions to improve motor competence in both countries, emphasizing the importance of incorporating FMS development into physical education curricula and promoting regular PA for children.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effect of COVID-19 on Maintaining Balance in Highly Skilled Handball
           Players

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on maintaining balance in highly skilled handball players during the performance of the modified Romberg test.Material and Methods. As part of a larger investigation that was initiated in 2019, twelve professional handball players were recruited to participate in a study that was designed to measure static balance performance. Following the initial pre-test, six participants (body height 184.8 ± 4.7 cm; body weight 85.5 ± 3.3 kg; age 21.3 ± 1.2 years) contracted COVID-19. The remaining six participants (body height 188.7 ± 2.6 cm; body weight 92.3 ± 3.7 kg; age 26.3 ± 3.3 years) never tested positive for COVID-19 and pre-sumably were not infected with the virus. The experimental design required all participants to complete an initial balance assessment (pre-test) and a later balance assessment (post-test). To fully analyze our data, we conducted a 2 (condition: COVID, no-COVID) X 2 (test: pre-test, post-test) ANOVA with repeated measures on the second factor.Results. Our research results showed that the skilled handball players who contracted COVID-19 mani-fested a significant decrease in balance performance from the pre-test which occurred prior to being infected with COVID-19 relative to the post-test which occurred following the COVID-19 infection.Conclusions. In conclusion, the results we have reported here are the first to show an objectively measured association between COVID-19 and the ability to maintain balance. Further intensive multifaceted research on this issue is needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Peripheral Vision in Basketball Players at Different Level of Experience

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study focuses on the sensory information delivered by the visual system, particularly in the peripheral visual field (PVF). Visual abilities, especially the ability to detect peripheral information, have been identified as important factors for successful performance in team sports. Athletes often need to divide their visual focus between central and peripheral fields to achieve optimal performance. However, research on visual perception in athletes with varying levels of experience is still limited. The aim of the study was to compare peripheral perception of basketball players at different level of experience.Material and Methods. In study 165 basketball players took part at different level of experience. An analysis compare abilities general visual functions (i.e. field of vision) and reaction time to visual stimuli. Peripheral perception was examined using the peripheral test included in Vienna Test System (VTS, Schuhfried, Austria). During the test variables were recorded: total field of vision, viewing angle of the left and right eye., tracking deviation, number of correct reactions, the number of omitted responses and median reaction time – left and right stimuli.Results. The results indicate that the E and U19 groups had significantly shorter response time to stimuli appearing in the peripheral field of vision compared to U15 group. Two more experienced groups had bigger field of vision than U15. No statistically significant differences were observed between E and U19 group.Conclusions. The study highlights the importance of perceptual skills, particularly in anticipation and decision-making processes, for basketball players due to the high number of stimuli involved in the sport. Understanding these differences can inform training strategies and help identify areas that may require additional attention for optimal performance. The accumulation of high volume of sport specific exercises may facilitate the development of perceptual expertise in basketball players.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Developing Sports Tourism Destinations in Emerging Countries: The Case of
           Zrebar Lake in Iran

    • Abstract: Introduction. Sports tourism is considered an effective strategy for developing local economies, creating jobs, and developing local infrastructure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify key factors contributing to the development of sports tourism in emerging countries. To accomplish this goal, we studied Zrebar Lake in western Iran.Material and Methods. Administrative documents were reviewed and experts were interviewed to identify the critical factors affecting the development of sports tourism. Afterwards, interpretive structural modeling was used to determine the relationships between these factors.Results. TThe findings of our study indicate six factors, i.e. infrastructure, management, economic factors, competitive advantage, environmental and cultural factors. Using MICMAC analysis, we determined their role in developing sports tourism.Conclusions. The current efforts of tourism authorities to develop sports tourism in emerging destinations should be directed at the effective management of the factors identified by our study. This article is the first attempt to shed light on important factors that need to be considered when developing sports tourism in emerging countries.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Research Issues and Methodological Profiles of Academic Works Pertaining
           to Physical Activity and Tourism Management in Mountain Areas (An Analysis
           of Research Papers Published in the Journal “Folia Turistica” in the
           Years 1990-2020)

    • Abstract: Introduction. The paper aims to analyse publications on physical activity and tourism management in mountain areas which appeared in the over 30-year period of publishing the journal “Folia Turistica” (FT).Material and methods. The research consisted of four stages: preliminary analysis of titles and abstracts of research papers published in FT in the years 1990-2020, a detailed analysis of the content of research papers pertaining to mountain issues, collecting and processing the data necessary to prepare methodological profiles of research papers using the OMPN©, analysis and discussion of the results obtained.Results. Among the 75 scientific articles qualified for the study, works in the field of social sciences, as well as in the field of natural sciences and humanities prevailed. Four leading thematic areas can be distinguished: physical or tourist activity, resource management and governance, nature and protected areas, tourist and recreational infrastructure. The share of papers on historical issues, law and security issues, and education and leadership was clearly smaller. Research and the resulting scientific articles were more often interdisciplinary (rather than monodisciplinary), the positivist approach prevailed (rather than interpretative), empirical research was undertaken more often (rather than theoretical studies), while scientific reasoning and inferences were much more often based on induction (not deduction).Conclusions. The research shows that articles on physical/tourism activity in mountain regions published in FT were highly diverse in their methodological approaches, and in many works there is a scholarly approach known as triangulation, which involves joining various approaches and research methods and drawing conclusions based on various kinds of data. This situation, together with the relatively low-level development of tourism research compared to other more advanced fields and disciplines, does not facilitate our task of evaluating the various articles and their significance in attaining valuable knowledge.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sport, Physical Activity and (Harmful) Alcohol Drinking in University
           Students During the First Year After COVID-19 Pandemic: Gender-Stratified
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. COVID-19 pandemic increased consumption of alcohol (including harmful drinking – HD), and decreased physical activity levels (PAL) globally, but there is an evident lack of studies examining the problem in the post-pandemic period. This study aimed to evaluate gender-specific associations between sport participation and PAL (independent variables), and HD (dependent variable) among college/university students during the first post-pandemic year of the COVID-19 pandemic.Material and Methods. The participants were college/university students, aged 18 to 21 years (n = 788; 409 females) from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They were tested on socio-demographic factors, HD (using the AUDIT scale), sport participation and PAL (using the IPAQ questionnaire). Analysis of variance, Chi square test, and t-test for independent samples were used to evaluate differences, while logistic regression with dichotomized criterion (HD vs. non-harmful drinking – NHD) was calculated to establish associations between independent and dependent variables.Results. T-test indicated significant differences between HD and NHD in PAL (t-test = 2.16, p = 0.02), but only in males. Also, logistic regression indicated a significant correlation between PAL and HD in males (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.11-1.76), while no association was evidenced: (i) between sport participation and HD (in both males and females), and (ii) between PAL and HD (in females).Conclusions. Results indicated that an overall increase in PAL could be helpful in decreasing HD among college/university students; however, to evaluate it more specifically, prospective analyses are needed.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Tourist Activity of Poles in the Era of the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Light
           of Survey Results

    • Abstract: Introduction. The phenomenon of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic poses a new challenge for the entire tourism sector in the local, regional, national and international dimension. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourist activity of Poles. The article will fill the research gap on this topic.Material and methods. The study was conducted in the period from February till July 2022. 350 randomly selected respondents presenting different age and economic situation took part in it. The study was carried out using a questionnaire containing 27 open and closed questions.Results. The survey shows that in 2021 most of the respondents traveled for tourism reasons. In 2021, the largest number of people traveled for tourism in July, and slightly less in August, in September and October, respectively. Undoubtedly, these restrictions caused difficulties in traveling for tourism purposes. It was the time of uncertainty and many people decided not to travel for tourism in the first months of the year as they were afraid of more confining restrictions being imposed.Conclusions. The 2021 tourist season had two different faces. Poles spent the first half of 2021 in re-closure along with the accompanying restrictions. May and June brought about a significant revival in the tourism industry and the so-called revenge travel. Poles set off on a holiday getaway, although in many cases the directions, ways of traveling, expectations and requirements have changed.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Differences in Peripheral Vision Between Contemporary Dancers, Folk
           Dancers and Non-Dancers

    • Abstract: Introduction. In stage performances, dancing requires synchronous connections, choosing paths in space, forming, balancing shapes, adjusting tempo and energy, as well as partnering. Therefore, in addition to proprioceptive abilities and central vision, peripheral vision is used to a large extent. Will the role of peripheral vision be relevant in selected dance styles and techniques' The aim of this study was to compare peripheral perception between contemporary dancers, folk dancers and non-dancers.Material and Methods. The study included 126 individuals. This group consisted of 48 contemporary dancers, 19 folk dancers and 58 non-dancers (the control group – students who did sports other than dance). The Vienna Test System was used to assess peripheral perception. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results. Interpretation and analysis of the test results indicate that the dancers’ visual range is relatively large, averaging 175.3° for contemporary dancers and 175.58° for folk dancers. As for the control group, the visual range was 172.64°. In the case of peripheral vision, statistically significant differences were noted between the control group and the contemporary dance group (p < 0.01) as well as between the control group and the folk dance group (p < 0.05).Conclusions. Contemporary and folk dancers did not show variation in peripheral vision. However, differences occurred between dancers and non-dancers. It was noted that the studied groups of contemporary and folk dancers had a better range of visual functions related to the peripheral visual field than the control group.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Led Lighting Training on Response Time in Greco-Roman Wrestlers

    • Abstract: Introduction Response time is one of the determinants of performance effectiveness in wrestling competitions. Its high levels help wrestlers fight more effectively when performing appropriate technical and tactical actions. Different factors such as a proper warm-up, unexpected situations, muscle fatigue, asthenic reactions, competition prestige and previous injuries may exert an influence on perceptual abilities (including RT and MT) and affect fighting effectiveness. Getting to know determinants of response time may provide a lot of valuable practical information that can be used in wrestling-related training. The study sought to determine changes in response time in Greco-Roman wrestlers produced by LLT.Material and Methods Twenty-four Greco-Roman wrestlers (age = 18.6 1.8, years of experience = 6.0 1.6) took part in the study. The wrestlers were divided according to two weight classes (lightweight and heavyweight). Within LLT programme, they performed special motor tasks using Batak Pro (15 minutes in total). Between the tasks, response time (reaction time and movement time) was measured. Reaction time test (RT, version S1) of the Vienna Test System was used in the study.Results Response time changed in a variety of ways (different directions and intensity of changes). The changes were noted both in RT and MT. Contrary to LLT, a standard warm-up did not contribute to an improvement in RT. The greatest changes were observed after ten minutes of exercising. Intragroup differences in response time grew smaller in the course of the task performance. No differences in response time were noted between wrestlers representing different weight classes.Conclusions Physical exertion within LLT affects response time in Greco-Roman wrestlers regardless of their weight classes. The most favourable changes occur after 10 minutes of exercising that requires high attentional focus (exercises performed after a standard warm-up). The type of warm-up and the exercises used may constitute a factor improving performance effectiveness. It is recommended that in a pre-competition warm-up, more time should be devoted to exercises requiring high attentional focus.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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