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Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1899-1998 - ISSN (Online) 2082-8799
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Comparison of Leg Muscle Activity During Level and Uphill Walking in
           Individuals with Flat Foot and Normal Foot: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Arches of the foot play a significant role in lower limb function and impairments in the arches are correlated to increased injury risk. The aim of this study was to identify the difference in muscles activity in individuals with a flat foot as compared to those with normal foot arch using surface electromyography (sEMG) while walking on at different speeds and gradients (slope of the treadmill). Material and Methods. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited by convenience sampling method and equally divided into two groups: short arch group (n = 30) and normal arch group (n = 30) by measuring arch height. All the subjects were made to walk on a treadmill at varying speeds (2.7, 4.5, and 6.3 km/h) and gradients (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%). The sEMG activity was recorded for medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle and peroneus longus (PL) muscle while walking on the treadmill. Results. 2 x 3 x 4 split-plot ANOVA revealed a significant group effect for GM activity (p < 0.001), whereas PL activity was not able to show a significant group effect (p = 0.109). Increasing speeds led to a significant difference in the sEMG activity of PL and GM muscles (p < 0.001) in the two groups. Increasing gradient of treadmill also showed a significant difference in the sEMG activity in the two groups for PL and GM muscle (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrated that subjects with flat feet had a lesser activation in PL muscles as compared to subjects with normal foot curvature. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate strategies to improve the strength of these muscles to improve the arches of the foot.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Range of Motion in Selected Joints in Relation to Sports Performance and
           Technique Effectiveness in Weightlifting

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the study was to verify or falsify the role of flexibility as the ability that distinguishes weightlifting champions from their rivals in lower sports classes. The aim of the study was also to assess the relationship between the results in snatch and clean and jerk, technique effectiveness, mobility in the shoulder joint, dorsal extension of the foot and forward bending of the spine. Material and methods. The study included 24 men training weightlifting – members of the Polish national team (n = 10) and members of one of Warsaw sports clubs (n = 14). Measurements were performed of active ranges of movement of the shoulder, flexion and extension in the shoulder joint, forward bending of the spine and dorsal extension of the foot in the ankle joint. The technique efficiency coefficients were calculated and the sports results were converted into Sincair points. Results. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in dorsiflexion of the foot in the ankle joint and forward bending of the spine in the tested groups. National team members were characterised by higher mobility than sports club members. There were no significant differences in flexion and extension movements at the shoulder joint between the groups. Conclusions. Significant correlations were found between the range of forward bending of the spine (p ≤ 0.001) and the range of dorsiflexion movements of the right (p ≤ 0.001) and left (p ≤ 0.01) foot, and sports performance in the snatch and clean and jerk, as well as in technique effectiveness. Achieving high sports performance in weightlifting may be limited by a low joint range of motion.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sports Consumption Behavior: Discovering Typologies of Amateur Cyclists

    • Abstract: Introduction. Modern football game places a large number of requirements for numerous physiological and motor abilities because athletes must show high aerobic and anaerobic fitness, ability to run, jump, change direction and improve specific sports skills, such as dribbling, feints and goal shots. The speed of change of direction is a physical component of agility, which includes technique, strength and the ability to effectively slow down or speed up your running. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of body composition parameters on agility in professional female football players who compete in the highest rank of competition. We hypothesized that body composition values have an impact on specific motor skills, agility. Material and methods. The sample of respondents consisted of female football players who compete in the highest rank of the competition, the Serbian Super League. The total number of respondents included in the research was 20 football players (age 20.15 ± 4, body height 168.57 ± 8.55 cm, body weight 61.03 ± 6.08 kg). Results. The results of the research showed that body composition of football players can affect the results of the speed of change of direction. Muscle mass, both in absolute and relative values, individually contributes the most and influences the results in agility tests. Conclusions. Coaches and players need to pay attention to the values of their body composition in order to have better results in specific motor abilities.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investigating the Role of Tourism in Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence
           from Pakistan

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study aims to explore the impact of tourism along with some other regressors, namely labor force, official development assistance, local investment, and inflation rate on the economic growth rate of the developing country of Pakistan. Material and Methods. We used annual time series data over the period from 1980 to 2018 for empirical analysis. Based on the order of integration of data, we employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. Results. Empirical results vindicated a positive relationship between tourism and growth. The official development assistance and inflation rate have shown significantly negative impacts on the economic growth of Pakistan, whereas domestic investment has shown an insignificantly positive impact on the economic growth. Conclusions. The empirical findings exhibit that tourism plays a key role in the process of economic growth and development of Pakistan. The study recommends that the management authorities should implement appropriate policies to attract more tourists to improve economic growth of Pakistan. Furthermore, sincere efforts are required to ensure macroeconomic stability through controlling inflation, avoiding reception of foreign aid, and encouraging global investment.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Warm-up on Fitness Performance of Schoolchildren. A Systematic

    • Abstract: Introduction. The impact of different types of warm-up protocol on children’s performance is clearly an unresolved issue that has not yet been satisfactorily investigated. Consequently, the purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature on the subject. Material and Methods. The first step was to perform a search in PROSPERO with the keyword warm up. After that, five electronic bibliographic databases were searched through until April 10th, 2021: Web of Science (all databases), Scopus, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Results. Six studies involving a total of 138 participants were included in the final analyses. Regarding the physical qualities that were assessed, 4 of the studies assessed strength through the vertical jump, 3 assessed running speed, one assessed anaerobic endurance (30 seconds) with a cycle ergometer and another assessed flexibility using the Sit & Reach. Conclusions. The practice of dynamic or specific warm-up before training appears to improve speed and strength performance compared to no warm-up in school-age children. However, the effects of warm-up on endurance and flexibility performance in school-age children need to be further investigated.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Female Artistic Roller
           Skaters Based on Discipline and Level of Expertise

    • Abstract: Introduction. In artistic roller skating, athletes use shoes fitted with small wheels to be used in rinks. The sport consists of seven disciplines characterized by different physical demands. Roller skaters are judged on content and manner of performance, and this includes the skater’s ability to do jumps, spins, and footwork. To date, no study has analyzed the different physical qualities in artistic roller skaters based on their skating discipline and skating level. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the body composition, flexibility, balance, reactive strength, maximal strength and aerobic capacity based on skating discipline and skating level. Material and methods. A total of 108 female athletes from the three individual disciplines (figures, freestyle, and solo dance) and three different levels (elite, sub-elite, and non-elite) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects completed the sit-and-reach, front split, Y-Balance, countermovement jump, squat jump, drop jump, isometric mid-thigh pull and 20-metre multistage shuttle roller skate tests. Six multivariate analyses of variance were performed to identify differences between disciplines and levels. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. The findings showed that freestyle skaters have less body fat, and higher levels of reactive and maximal strength than figure and solo dance skaters. Elite skaters demonstrate greater values of flexibility, balance, strength and aerobic capacity compared to their sub-elite and non-elite counterparts. Conclusions. The results of this study showed that there are differences between elite and non-elite athletes and between skating disciplines. Strength and conditioning professionals should take that into consideration when training these athletes.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Modulation of Bone Metabolism Markers Following Low-Repetition and
           Light-Load Power Training in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled

    • Abstract: Introduction. The study aimed to survey effects of 6 weeks of low-repetition and light-load power training on serum Osteocalcin, Parathormone and Sclerostin in sedentary postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. This randomized controlled trial was carried out in healthy and sedentary postmenopausal women. We recruited 24 volunteers aged 55 to 65 years. Participants were allocated into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group performed 6-week low-repetition and light-load power training at a frequency of three sessions per week. The outcome measures included Osteocalcin, Parathormone, Sclerostin. Blood samples were drawn pre- and post-intervention while fasting. Data were analyzed using SPSS19, and multivariate ANCOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. Results. After 6 weeks of low-repetition and light-load power training, Sclerostin decreased (p = 0.03), while Osteocalcin and Parathormone increased (p = 0.01) in the training group compared to the control group. Conclusions. It seems that low-repetition and light-load power training, by increasing Osteocalcin and Parathormone and reducing Sclerostin, can be effective in bone formation in postmenopausal women.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sports Consumption Behavior: Discovering Typologies of Amateur Cyclists

    • Abstract: Introduction. Cycling is one of the most popular and practiced sports both in Europe and globally. However, management studies aimed at defining cyclists’ consumption behavior are still limited. The most recent contributions describe cycling consumption as an activity heavily influenced by the intensity and sociality of its practice but do not highlight the importance of expenditures related to participation in amateur cycling events and cycle tourism experiences. Starting from these behavioral dimensions, the article proposes an original segmentation of the sport and leisure market, leading to the identification of different profiles of amateur cyclists.Material and methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 182 cyclists located in one single Italian region to ensure a high level of social, economic and cultural uniformity. The data was collected by conducting a questionnaire, and its resulting information relating to sport and consumer behavior was processed through a cluster analysis procedure.Results. The results reveal the existence of five different amateur cyclists’ profiles (the parsimonious, the competitive, the ostentatious, the sociable and the experiential), each distinguished by specific behavior in terms of the intensity and way of conducting the sports activity and the propensity to incur different types of expenditure.Conclusions. From a theoretical point of view, the results confirm the effectiveness of behavioral segmentation in the market of sports consumption. From an operational point of view, they provide useful marketing indications for businesses operating in the sport-system chain and destination management operators.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Time Budget of Inhabitants of Large Cities in Poland During the Covid-19

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the research is to determine the structure of the day – the time devoted to various activities – of the inhabitants of large cities in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic, taking into account the workweek-weekend cycle.Material and methods. Time budget studies – using qualitative research methods (structured interview, including self-reporting) – were conducted in December 2020 among residents of selected 9 large cities in Poland. The research was based on self-reporting by the respondents for one week. The results were analysed using three parameters: the average duration of the activity, the average time of performing the activity, the percentage of people performing the activity.Results. The daytime structure of inhabitants of large cities during the pandemic included 9.19 h (39% day time) for physiological activities, 8.30 h (36%) for duties, 5.49 h (24%) for leisure time and 0.20 h (1%) for commute. Relative to the 2013 GUS survey, there was a decrease in the amount of time spent commuting to work/school (72% decrease), physiological needs (15% decrease) and housework (15% decrease), More time than before the pandemic (51% increase in the amount of time) was devoted to work, and leisure time was spent on sports and recreation (125% increase in the amount of time) and using mass media (16%).Conclusions. COVID-19 pandemic and the associated restrictions have significantly impacted our daily lives and how we use our time.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Effect of Eight Weeks of Combined Training (Endurance-Intermittent
           Resistance and Endurance-Continuous Resistance) on Coagulation,
           Fibrinolytic and Lipid Profiles of Overweight Women

    • Abstract: Introduction. Inflammatory and coagulation factors are among the various factors that are involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of combined training (endurance-intermittent resistance and endurance-continuous resistance) on coagulation, fibrinolytic and lipid profiles of overweight women.Material and Methods. This was a quasi-experimental study of 36 overweight women, who were divided into three groups of endurance-intermittent resistance training (n = 12), endurance-continuous resistance training (n = 12) and control (n = 12). The training was performed during eight weeks, three times a week, and each session lasted for 80 to 90 minutes. Blood samples were analyzed for the concentrations of coagulation, fibrinolytic and lipid profiles before and after the completion of the training program.Results. Fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and platelet count decreased significantly at the end of the training in both intervention groups. However, serum levels of D-dimer increased significantly in both training groups. Also, the levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly, while the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased significantly.Conclusions. Combined exercise improved most coagulation factors and lipid profiles at the end of the training period. Therefore, the results of our research suggest that a combined exercise program can improve the health of overweight women.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Small Sided Game Duration with Floater Player on Internal and
           External Load of Female Handball Players

    • Abstract: Introduction. The present study deals with the effect of the duration of small-sided games (SSGs) with a floater player on the external (covered distance) and internal (heart rate) load of the elite female players.Material and methods. The research group consisted of nine professional elite female team handball field players (age 22.8 ± 4.5 years) playing in the first international league for female players in the Czech Republic. Their height was 170.4 ± 6.4 cm, weight 67.7 ± 9.2 kg, and maximal heart rate 200.2 ± 3.3 beats∙min-1. The duration of the SSGs was 4 (SSG4) minutes, 5 (SSG5) minutes, and 6 (SSG6) minutes.Results. The highest heart rate value of 177.2 ± 9.9 beats / minute resp. 88.5 ± 4.4% HRmax was measured in SSG5. The lowest mean heart rate values were measured at SSG6 of 172.01 ± 15.7 beats / min resp. 85.9 ± 6.8% HRmax. Most time 38 resp. 34% of the drill time, players were in the 85-90% HRmax load intensity zone of SSG4 and SSG5. There was a statistically significant difference in load intensity zones of 80-85% HRmax and ≥ 95% HRmax between SSG5 and SSG6 and p = .008 (η2p = 0.22) and .013 (η2p = 0.26), respectively. In the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference in SSG6 and SSG4 p = .003 (η2p = 0.27) and between SSG6 and SSG5 p = .004 (η2p = 0.25). The total longest distance in SSG6 was 786.8 ± 41.9 m, but in the one-minute drill the longest average distance in SSG4 was 136.2 ± 21.1 metres per minute.Conclusions. SSGs with a floater are a suitable means for training technical and tactical activities in handball with an overlap into fitness training in women’s handball. According to our results, the intensity of the load will not decrease if we increase the game time to six minutes and also the covered distance will not decrease during the game.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Relationship Between Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 and Match
           Running Performance in Soccer: Still on the Right Path'

    • Abstract: Introduction. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) is considered a valuable measurement tool in assessing specific soccer endurance. However, there is a lack of recent research validating this test with regard to match running performance (MRP) in elite-level soccer.Material and Methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of Yo-Yo IR1 in predicting MRP during elite-level soccer matches. The participants were soccer players who competed in the highest-level Croatian soccer league (23.57 ± 2.84 years, 181.9 ± 5.17 cm, 78.36 ± 4.18 kg), and they were all tested using Yo-Yo IR1 in the middle of the season 2019/2020. The players’ MRP (n = 71) was measured using the Global Positioning System over one-half season, and included the total distance covered, the distance covered in different speed zones, accelerations and decelerations. The association between MRP and Yo-Yo IR1 was identified with Pearson’s correlation.Results. The results indicated that central midfielders and fullbacks achieved significantly higher results in Yo-Yo IR1 than forwards and central defenders (F-test: 29.80; p < 0.01; large effect size). Higher results in Yo-Yo IR1 were correlated with the match amount of (i) the total distance covered (r = 0.65); (ii) high-speed running (r = 0.42); (iii) high-intensity distance covered (r = 0.36); (iv) total accelerations (r = 0.37); and total decelerations (r = 0.42).Conclusions. The established associations between Yo-Yo IR1 and MRP in this study confirmed the validity of Yo-Yo IR1 in predicting MRP in professional soccer today.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Relative Age Effect and Talent Identification in Youth Volleyball Players
           from the Polish Volleyball Federation Sports School

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study sought to determine differences in the quarterly age distribution of young Polish volleyball players from the Sports School of the Polish Volleyball Federation (SS PVF), to investigate quarterly differences in anthropometric characteristics and jump test results.Material and Methods. RAE of young players from SS PVF (n = 232) born between 1989 and 2002 was identified in the course of the research. Furthermore, the study included anthropometric characteristics and jump test results (attack jump – AJ).Results. The chi-square test (χ2) revealed the overrepresentation of volleyball players born in quarters 1 and 2, both in the case of graduates (χ2 = 27.32, p < 0.0001) and students who did not finish school (χ2 = 17.95, p < 0.0005). Two-way ANOVA for unbalanced data for the Group factor showed significant differences in the value of estimated marginal means in the case of AJ (F(1,214) = 5.907, p < 0.016) and body mass (BM) (F(1,214) = 5.348, p < 0.022).Conclusions. These results point to the need for better understanding of RAE in order to avoid dropping out or the loss of potential talent, which will contribute to even greater development of volleyball in Poland.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Neurodynamic Mobilisation Plus Core Stability on Pain and Motor
           Nerve Conduction Velocity in Athletes with Lumbar Radiculopathy

    • Abstract: Introduction. Lumbar radiculopathy (LR) is a common debilitating disorder of neuromuscular origin that affects athletes.Material and Methods. This study was a parallel group design and a total of 24 clinically diagnosed athletes with LR were recruited for the study and randomly assigned to one of the two groups, i.e. neurodynamic mobilisation plus core stability group (NDS plus CS) and core stability group only (CS). NDS plus CS underwent neural mobilisation of the tibial nerve and core stability exercises, while CS group performed core stability for a total of 14 sessions on alternate days. The outcome measures of motor nerve conduction velocity (m NCV) of the tibial nerve and pain intensity were recorded before the start of the intervention, at midpoint (7th session) and at the end of the intervention (14th session).Results. Baseline scores of pain and m NCV (NDS plus CS: 6.75 ± 0.62, 38.10 ± 7.21 and CS: 6.58 ± 0.79, 38.92 ± 6.37) were non-significant. The outcome measures improved significantly during treatment in NDS plus CS group (baseline to 7th session, 7th to 14th session and overall mean change for pain and m NCV was found to be 4.74 ± 0.37 and -6.43 ± 3.08, respectively. Non-significant improvement was reported for CS group. Two-way repeated measures (2 x 3) ANOVA was used to analyse the change in the outcome measures and revealed that NDS plus CS group showed statistically significant main effects for group on pain level (F (2, 5.34) = 0.89, p < 0.001 and m NCV (F (2, 5.21) = 0.40, p < 0.03. Significant time and group x time interaction effects were also found.Conclusions. The findings of the study revealed that neurodynamic mobilisation plus core stability were found effective in improving pain level and motor nerve conduction velocity of the tibial nerve in athletes with lumbar radiculopathy.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bioelectrical Phase Angle, Muscle Damage Markers and Inflammatory Response
           After a Competitive Match in Professional Soccer Players

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purposes of this study were 1) to evaluate changes from baseline levels in bioelectrical phase angle (PhA) and markers of muscle damage and inflammation in professional players 36 h after a soccer match, and 2) to analyze the relationships between PhA and markers of muscle damage and inflammation in order to investigate if PhA might be a useful parameter to monitor recovery.Material and methods. Eighteen male professional soccer players participated in this study. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations, and PhA were measured before and 36 h after a competitive match.Results. Changes in LDH and CK 36 h after the match were greater than their reference change values (RCV). Changes in CRP and IL-6 were, however, lower than their corresponding RCV. 36 h after the match, significant correlations were observed between PhA and LDH (r = 0.714, p = 0.001), PhA and CK (r = 0.787, p = 0.000), and PhA and CRP (r = 0.554, p = 0.017).Conclusions. Although IL-6 and CRP have been traditionally analyzed together to monitor inflammation after intense exercise, since 36 h after the match they have already returned or started to return to baseline levels, the use of them alone is not a good option to monitor inflammation throughout recovery. PhA might be used as a predictor of muscle damage and inflammation, but further studies covering the whole recovery period are warranted.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investigation of Lactate, Heart Rate and Handgrip Force Responses of

    • Abstract: Introduction. Sport climbing, which is included in 2020 Olympic Games, is a new sport that is both recreational and performance-focused while being the subject of scientific research all around the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in lactate concentration, heart rate and handgrip forces all at once in the actual sport climbing competition.Material and Methods. Thirteen male climbers volunteered for this study. The climbers climbed three different routes prepared according to the International Federation of Sport Climbing standards that are classified as easy, medium and difficult. Lactate, heart rate, dominant and non-dominant handgrip forces were measured for each route before climbing, immediately after, and during the third and fifth minutes after climbing. Climbing performance was determined using the number of holds that the competitor reached.Results. We observed significantly higher post-lactate concentration in comparison to the pre-climbing values for all climbing routes (p < 0.05). Statistical observation shows that post-climbing heart rate values were considerably higher than the pre-climbing values for all three climbing trials (p < 0.05). There were also statistically significant differences in climbing performance and handgrip force between the three routes (p < 0.05).Conclusions. According to the results of this study, significant increases were noted in all three climbing routes relative to the pre-climb in lactate, heart rate and climbing performance data between the routes.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sustainable Urban Tourism Development and Quality of Life: A Case of
           Kampung Bharu, Kuala Lumpur

    • Abstract: Introduction. With the transformation of Kuala Lumpur as a mega city and the boom of Malaysian urban tourism, understanding the interaction between tourism and local community livability is important for sustainable urban tourism development.Material and methods. Founded in 1899, Kampung Bharu is a famous traditional Malay village facing conflicting urban development and local community livability issues. Thus, to understand the local community perception of urban tourism development and its effect on their quality of life, this study investigates the effect of sustainable tourism development on the local Kampung Bharu community’s quality of life. This study collected 364 valid responses from the local community through a self-administered survey.Results. The study confirms that economic and environmental impacts of urban tourism development deteriorate the local community’s quality of life. However, the socio-cultural impacts of urban tourism development positively and significantly enhance the quality of life of the local community in Kampung Bharu.Conclusions. The study highlighted the importance of the local community’s perceptions, community attachment, and perceived quality of life to destination managers responsible for planning and developing future tourism projects. Several limitations and recommendations for future research are presented.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Predicting Sports Facility Revisit Intentions Based on Experience and
           Mediating Effects of Perceived Value

    • Abstract: Introduction. Several factors, such as program offerings, atmosphere and provided amenities, motivate repeat visits to sports destinations, with continued patronage most often associated with perceived value.Material and Methods. This study sought to determine the extent to which perceived value in sports facilities influenced revisit intentions, for which a path analysis model was used and a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was completed by 384 recreational sports facility visitors.Results. Visit experience and perceived value were found to influence revisit intentions, with nearly 50% of the direct effect being because of perceived value.Conclusions. The results of this study inform both academic practice and managerial decisions.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Corporate Security in Tourism: The Example of Slovenia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Tourism is part of the global security space and is the largest global industry with the highest levels of annual growth. In recent years, the issue of security has begun to significantly impact the development of tourism. This requires answers regarding the satisfaction of tourists from security, cultural, economic and sociological perspectives.Material and Methods. Our research problem is aimed at corporate security in health resorts (one of the conditions for establishing a health resort is e.g. the surrounding environment, natural mineral water), which differs from the security present in hotels or other tourist facilities. In order to achieve the purpose of this study, we developed a new theoretical model of corporate security in health resort tourism where we applied both a qualitative and quantitative paradigm in this research. In the qualitative part of this study, we collected data using the methods of document analysis and interviews and processed it in the software Atlas.ti. In the quantitative part, we collected data using a survey questionnaire and analysed the results using the SPSS softwareResults. The study will contribute an original theoretical model of corporate security in Slovenian health resort tourism to the treasure trove of knowledge and it will be possible to theoretically verify it and apply it in health resorts.Conclusions. In this way, we opened up the theoretical and practical dimensions of poorly researched field of security in Slovenian health resorts and, in doing so, contribute to the better understanding and improving of models of corporate security in health resort tourism.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Oct 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • EMG Activity of Transversus Abdominis, Multifidus and Co-Contraction Index

    • Abstract: Introduction. Core muscle activity is a necessary requirement in most sports. However, its role in archers has not been studied. Therefore, this study sought to determine muscle activity of Transversus abdominis (TA) and Multifidus (MF) and co-contraction index (CCI) using surface electromyography (s EMG) during different phases of shots in archers with different levels of training.Material and Methods. It was an observational study with a cross-sectional design. Twenty-eight healthy male archers were recruited and grouped according to their level of training: Group A (Beginners (n = 9)), Group B (Trained (n = 10)), Group C (Elite (n = 9)). The muscle activation (%MVIC) for MF and TA for 10 successive archery shots (distance: 10 meters in 200 seconds) was recorded using s EMG for all the phases of the shots along with CCI.Results. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference for TA activity within groups (p ≤ 0.001) and phases (p = 0.002), A significant difference for MF activity was found within groups (p ≤ 0.001). A significant difference for CCI was found between groups (p ≤ 0.001) and in the interaction between phase × shot (p = 0.001).Conclusions. The findings of the study showed that elite archers had more activity of the core muscles (TA and MF) and their CCI was found to be much higher with respect to the trained and beginner archers. Therefore, it is essential to incorporate dynamic stabilization exercises into archery training.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 May 2021 00:00:00 GMT
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