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Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1899-1998 - ISSN (Online) 2082-8799
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Modelling Front and Back Squat Record Scores in Long-Term Training of
           Young Weightlifters

    • Abstract: Introduction. Front and back squats are multi-joint exercises used in sports to develop strength, power and muscle mass. Due to their movement structure and involvement of the main muscle groups, they are training measures that are used in strength training in various sports. A long-term training process leading to sports mastery requires the correct selection of loads as well as objective control of the training effects to date, both short-term and long-term. The aim of this study was to create a statistical model and to determine with it the character of the changes in the record scores in the front and back squat of young weight-lifters over a two-year training cycle.Material and Methods. The study included 17 young athletes training in competitive weightlifting. Recorded scores in the front squat and back squat were measured seven times (every three months over a two-year training cycle). The progression method was used to determine the maximum load, and the repetition with the highest load (1RM) was used in the calculations.Results. The subjects performed better in the back squat, but the difference between the results for both squats was approximately constant over the two-year training cycle. The time courses of both squats were similar over the analysed period. Systematic increases in maximum results were observed. The first statistically non-significant differences between the mean record values in successive measurements were found between the sixth and seventh measurements for both squats.Conclusions. Determining the relationship between front and back squat record scores can contribute to the optimisation of training loads in sports using strength training. Obtaining an analytical form of the course of record scores over time for both squats helps to assess the skill level of athletes and predict their performance in the next training macro-cycle.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Crisis-Resistant Tourists – A Study of Hotel Online Reviews in the
           Times of Covid-19

    • Abstract: Introduction. Tourists traveling in the times of crisis have a higher tolerance for risk and can be called ‘crisis-resistant’. The fact that they are ready to travel even if it is burdened with additional stress and obstacles makes them a valuable market segment for hoteliers, which is worth striving for particularly in the current pandemic situation. The research aims at better understanding of contemporary ‘crisis-resistant’ tourists through in-depth analysis of electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM).Material and methods. A web scrapping method was applied to acquire eWOM content posted by tourists traveling in the times of Covid-19. A total of 1239 reviews from 455 hotels were analyzed. Six hypotheses were tested with the use of T Test and Chi Square test.Results. The type of travel and the month of travel did not influence the frequency of coronavirus mentions. Similarly, reviews relating to COVID-19 did not vary in score nor in frequency of managerial replies. However, mention of coronavirus influenced the length of the review and its helpfulness.Conclusions. Crisis-resistant tourists treat issues related to the pandemic (including some in-hotel regulations and restrictions) as any other aspects of the hotel performance and accept them. Interestingly, those aspects do not negatively influence the total evaluation of the hotel, which may suggest that such tourists have already adapted to all the pandemic-induced burdens. At the same time, hotel managers fail to respond timely and adequately to negative comments, which seems to be of the key importance in such a situation.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Principal Component Analysis in the Study of the Structure of Decathlon at
           Different Stages of Sports Career

    • Abstract: Introduction. Due to the complexity of decathlon resulting from the number and diversity of the component events as well as difficult and time-consuming training required of athletes, high sports performance in this combined form of competition may depend on several factors.Material and Methods. The objective of the paper was to subject the careers of the world’s top decathletes competing between 1985 and 2018 to the principal component analysis (PCA) in order to explore and define interdependencies between the component events and the final result in decathlon at four stages of sports career development (from U20 – junior, through U23 and athletic excellence stage to decline in athletic performance).Results. The results made it possible to define the majority of the principal components determining high performance in decathlon.Conclusions. The analysis has shown that each sports ontogenesis stage has shared elements and a specific arrangement of events for every age category.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic Threat on Purchase Decisions of Travel
           Agency Customers in Poland

    • Abstract: Introduction. The dynamic increase in world tourism demand was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The package holidays market is one of the tourism branches affected by the crisis the most. The study aimed at identifying the direction of changes in purchase behaviors regarding package holidays caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.Material and methods. The research on tourists purchasing package holidays during the COVID-19 pandemic was quantitative and covered a nationwide online panel of respondents characterized by a representative distribution for the general population of Poles (n = 1502). At the data analysis stage, logit models of buyers’ behaviors were used. In the estimation process, GLM in R (R Core Team 2022) was applied.Results. The situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected how tourists traveled. The conducted analysis made it possible to distinguish four segments of buyers during the pandemic and to identify factors determining the choice of one of the purchase patterns. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, a significant increase in the number of tourists who needed personal contact with sellers at brick-and-mortar travel offices was observed.Conclusions. The study presented a meaningful contribution to understanding purchase behaviors of tourists who prefer package holidays. It is one of the few studies that compared behavior patterns of holiday package buyers in the period before and during the pandemic. The knowledge of changes in package holiday purchase behaviors is essential for travel agencies to design effective marketing strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Determination of Fall Risk Predictors from Different Groups of Variables

    • Abstract: Introduction. Risk factors associated with falling in the elderly are numerous. Most existing tools use a combination of functional assessment and risk scoring based on known risk factors. The aim of the study was to verify which parameters could be used to predict fall risk (FR) in older women.Material and Methods. The study involved 56 inactive females aged 71.77 ± 7.43(SD). Backward stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine which independent variables predict FR in older women.Results. Significant predictors of FR were: in model 1 – age and body mass (in 32%); in model 2 – knee extensor strength of the right lower limb (KEs R) (in 20%); in model 3 – the Timed up and Go test (TUG) (in 25.5%); and in model 4 – medial-lateral stability index with eyes open (MLSI EO) (in 35%). By means of backward stepwise regression analysis using the above models, the variables that significantly influence FR in seniors were body mass, MLSI EO, KEs, and age. The above analysis shows that these indicators (model 5) may predict FR in older women in 59% of cases.Conclusions. It was determined that variables that significantly influence FR in seniors were body mass, age, KEs, and MLSI EO. Research should be continued to identify more predictors and define norms that indicate FR.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Relationships Between Physical Fitness and Wrestling – Specific
           Fitness in Freestyle Wrestlers

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the parameters of conditioning preparation and specific fitness of freestyle wrestlers.Material and Methods. Seventy-four subjects were selected from freestyle wrestlers. All subjects were assessed for height, weight and body mass index. Agility, dynamic strength and strength endurance were assessed using standing broad jump, push-ups, wall bar hanging leg raises, pull-ups and a zigzag run. Wrestling-specific fitness was assessed using standing gymnastic bridge with return, wrestling carousel, front kip up, while special endurance was assessed with suplex throws of the mannequin.Results. For initial data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used. Further data analysis was performed with multiple regression. Suplex throws of the mannequin had the biggest impact on achieving high sports results. These findings suggest that specific fitness tests which simulate sports effort are the most reliable measures.Conclusions. Owing to special fitness tests, training can be monitored more effectively. The movements made during a sports fight should be taken into account while preparing a given test.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Psychomotor Abilities as Predictors of Actions of Handball Goalkeepers
           During Saves

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of selected psychomotor abilities is a predictor of goalkeepers’ actions performed when saving throws made by the attacker in and without contact with the defender depending on the court area from which the throws are made.Material and Methods. The study included ten leading goalkeepers of the Polish PGNiG Superleague. The research material was a video recording of 1369 goalkeeper saves during throws without contact between the attacking player and the defender and 898 with contact. To assess goalkeepers’ actions, the observation method categorized according to Norkowski’s concept was used. The level of selected psychomotor abilities was assessed using the Vienna Test System. RT (ver.S.1) – simple reaction time, RT (ver.S.3) – reaction time with choice; ZBA (ver.S.3) – time-space anticipation. The statistical test used was the regression analysis.Results. The research results presented indicate that selected psychomotor abilities are the predictors of goalkeepers’ actions in the context of the court area from which a throw is made depending on the contact between the thrower and the defender. Predictors of the effectiveness of interventions during throws from pivot positions (without contact with the defender) are simple reaction time, motor time and time anticipation (y = 0.40326RTSRT - 0.66451MTSRT - 0.62533TA - 0.18835RTCRT + 69.58). The predictor of the effectiveness of interventions during throws from backcourt position from the first line (without contact with the defender) is reaction time with choice (y = -0.15796RTCRT + 70.92).Conclusions. Specific psychomotor abilities should be developed to increase goalkeepers’ effective actions and reduce errors that result in ineffective saves, i.e. the loss of goals.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Effect of Unstable Resistance Training with Blood Flow Restriction on
           Short-Term Memory, Strength and Dynamic Balance in Older Adults

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unstable resistance training with blood flow restriction (URT with BFR) on short-term memory, strength and dynamic balance in older adults.Material and Methods. A total of 27 male older adults (age= 62 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into two experimental groups: URT with BFR, URT without BFR, and a control group. The training program for the experimental groups consisted of bodyweight Scott exercise (three sessions a week for four weeks). The first two weeks included three sets, each set consisted of 15 repetitions at 60-second intervals. The second two weeks included four sets, with each set consisting of 15 repetitions and the use of weight constituting 5% of each person’s body weight (mean = 3.5 ± 1.5kg). To restrict blood flow, an 8-cm wide elastic band was used at 72 ± 9 mm Hg arterial pressure. All subjects performed Wechsler memory, 30-sec chair stand test, and timed up and go test (TUG) before and after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Bonferroni post hoc test.Results. The results showed that URT with BFR was significantly superior to other groups in the variables of strength (p = 0.001), dynamic balance (p = 0.0001) and short-term memory (p = 0.04).Conclusions. These findings suggest that URT with BFR can be a useful training method for older adults.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The Economic Legacy of Mega Sporting Events. The Impact of Hosting
           European Olympic Games on GDP Growth Through Infrastructure Development

    • Abstract: Introduction. The positive legacy of the Olympics is often cited by the International Olympic Committee and national organizers. Some scholars, however, question an uncritical approach to an exclusively positive economic legacy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of hosting the Olympics on infrastructure development, with a potential impact on economic growth in the form of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in three phases of seven Olympic Games organised in Europe in recent years.Material and methods. The effect of a particular Olympic period on the GDP was analysed using a difference-in-difference technique in which the difference between each of the analysed seven host countries’ GDPs and those of a reference set of countries was obtained. Each time, as part of the observation, an event time period was distinguished covering all three phases of the event: the preparatory phase, the event phase and the post-event phase.Results. For the Winter Olympic Games, no statistically significant positive results are observed in the long term, which may indicate a very limited importance of the economic legacy of these events for potential host countries. In the case of Summer Olympic Games, the positive impact of the organization of these events in the post-event phase is noticeableConclusions. The obtained results confirm the ambiguous impact of Olympic Games on the hosts’ economies and are in line with the attitude of many scholars to an uncritical approach to the only positive legacy of these events.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Weight-Bearing and Weight-Supporting Sports on Bone Mass in
           Males

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this work was to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in male athletes performing weight-bearing and weight-supporting sports activities as well as in untrained men.Material and methods. The study included 140 men aged 20-23. The study group consisted of wrestlers, football players, cyclists and untrained men. BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2) in the lumbar spine (L2-L4) were determined with the use of the DEXA method. Biochemical parameters (concentration of osteocalcin, testosterone and 25-OH vitamin D in blood) were measured using the ELISA method. Diet composition was assessed based on three individual questionnaire interviews regarding nutrition in the last 24 hours prior to the study.Results. Statistical analysis revealed that wrestlers demonstrated the highest levels of parameters related to bone mass. In this group, mean values of BMC, BMD as well as BMD compared to peak populational bone mass were significantly higher than in cyclists and the men from the control group. In the case of BMD (g/cm2), the difference was at the level of p < 0.001, whereas in the remaining parameters, i.e. BMC (g) and BMD with reference to age (%), it was at the level of p < 0.01. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the concentration of osteocalcin, testosterone and 25-OH vitamin D in blood and in nutrition.Conclusions. Athletes who perform sports that predispose to the development of bone pathology should also do exercises that would support bone mineralisation and prevent osteoporosis in the future.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Physical Activities at Distance: Feasibility and Acceptability of Online
           Remote Exercise Intervention in Older Adults

    • Abstract: Introduction. During the COVID-19 pandemic, comprehensive social distancing policies, such as prohibiting agglomerations, travel restrictions, and staying-at-home recommendations, were adopted by several countries. Due to these lockdown measures, older adults decreased daily physical activity levels, consequently increasing sedentary behavior. This pilot feasibility study aimed to explore the feasibility of implementation (i.e., adherence, safety) and acceptability (i.e., satisfaction, intent to continue use, perceived appropriateness) of an online face-to-face supervised exercise intervention in a sample of older adults.Material and Methods. Seven older adults (mean age: 68 ± 5 years; 38% females) completed the study. The exercise program was composed of two 45-min sessions per week for five consecutive weeks. Participants followed a remote exercise program in Zoom©. After each training session, both participants and the fitness trainer completed a questionnaire designed to investigate the acceptability and feasibility of the exercise program.Results. Six out of seven participants (i.e., 86%) attended 100% of the workouts. No experience of fall/injury occurred during the training. All the participants agreed or strongly agreed to have the competence to perform the proposed exercise (range 100-42.9%), and this perception increased at the end of the intervention.Conclusions. Our results suggest that an online physical exercise program using web technology seems to be feasible and acceptable to independent older adults. The program does not require specific equipment, shows a high adherence level, and seems safe. Moreover, both the participants and the fitness trainer reported a high level of satisfaction with the activity.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Evaluation of Ski Centers’ Performance Using Multiple-Criteria
           Decision-Making Methods

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study aimed to determine the criteria for the choice of nine different leading ski centers that serve actively in the ski tourism sector of Turkey, to calculate the criteria weights, and to measure the performance of these centers.Material and methods. In this context, the data were defuzzified using the CFCS method, and the fuzzy DEMATEL method was used to determine the criteria affecting the choice of ski centers. Then, the TOPSIS method was applied to measure the performance of ski centers by using the criteria weights obtained with the fuzzy DEMATEL method.Results. As a result of the analysis, the weights of the main criteria were found as follows: facility amenities, price, accessibility, accommodation, alternative tourism, and visitors’ rating scores. Consequently, the top three ski resorts according to their scores are SC4, SC1, and SC9, respectively. The ski center which is coded SC9 is ranked at the bottom.Conclusions. The study examined the ski centers that actively operate in Turkey. This could be considered as a spatial decision-making problem. This study could be a road map for the performance evaluation in ski tourism. Moreover, the results will be beneficial for the ski centers to identify their deficiencies and carry out improvement works in attracting the increasing demand for skiing to their centers.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Does 12-Week Aerobics Training Influence Body Composition in Middle-Aged
           Women'

    • Abstract: Introduction. It is very important to determine body composition, as it plays a significant role in the formation of many vital functions of the human. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of 12-week aerobics training on body composition in middle-aged women.Material and methods. Thirteen women aged 35-50 who did not practice any sport actively took part in 12-week aerobics training. Body weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Body composition parameters: total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW), fat mass (FM), free fat mass (FFM) muscle mass (MM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured using BIA method.Results. The 12-week aerobics training elicited increases in ICW, FFM, MM, and BMR and a decrease in hip circumference. Twelve weeks without exercise (control group, n = 10) caused an increase in body mass, BMI and hip circumference. No statistically significant changes were recorded in body composition parameters in the control group.Conclusions. The lack of any physical activity shows that the maintenance of that status can cause overweight followed by obesity.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Children’s Motor Learning and Working Memory: The Role of Visual and
           Verbal Analogy Learning

    • Abstract: Introduction. Physical education teachers and coaches often face the problem of how to convey information to novice learners, particularly to children. The present study aims to examine how visual and verbal analogy learning affects basketball free-throw learning as well as working memory in 9- to 12-year-old children.Material and Methods. Forty-eight children (24 males, mean age: 10.5 ± 1.8 years) were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to four groups, namely visual analogy, verbal analogy, explicit, and control groups. The task involved throwing a basketball from a distance of 3.05 meters. The participants completed 15 trials in the pretest, posttest, and retention phases and 720 trials in the acquisition phase.Results. The result of the paired sample t-test indicated that the visual analogy, verbal analogy, and explicit learning groups experienced a significant improvement in their performance through the skill acquisition phase as well as an improvement in their working memories (p ≤ 0.05), while the control group did not exhibit such improvements (p = 0.91). In addition, one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the analogy learning group outperformed other groups in both post-test and retention tests as well as in terms of motor learning and working memory (p ≤ 0.05).Conclusions. The verbal analogy and the explicit learning groups were equally better than the control group. The findings of this study suggest that coaches in instructional environments should make further use of the advantages of visual analogy learning for children.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Village-Based Tourism Performance: Tourist Satisfaction and Revisit
           Intention

    • Abstract: Introduction. Tourist satisfaction and revisit intention have been used to measure tourism performance by the government agency. These two variables were investigated by previous studies but failed to focus on village-based tourism destinations, which are popular in Indonesia. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of cognitive destination image on tourist satisfaction and revisit intention.Material and methods. It also determines the role of tourist satisfaction as a mediating variable between cognitive destination image and revisit intention using 124 respondents. Cognitive destination image is divided into attractive condition, essential condition, appealing activity, and natural environment. Furthermore, this study employs the structural equation model (SEM) using smart-pls to analyze data.Results. The result shows that attractive and essential conditions are related to tourist satisfaction, while appealing activity and essential conditions influence the intention to revisit.Conclusions. Tourist satisfaction associates with the intention to revisit and attractive conditions. However, the function of the tourism satisfaction as a mediating variable between destination image and intention to revisit is partially revealed.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effect of Aerobic Dance Vs Static Cycling on Anthropometric Measures,
           Cholesterol, and Blood Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction. Aerobic dance (AD) has grown as a popular aerobic exercise treating metabolic diseases. However, its beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with other types of aerobic exercise have not been known. This study aimed to compare the influence of AD and static cycling (SC) on anthropometric measures, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, and total cholesterol.Material and Methods. The design of this study was a randomized controlled study (RCT). Thirty T2DM subjects were assigned to three groups, i.e. control (C), aerobic dance exercise (AD), and static cycling exercise (SC), ten subjects in each group. AD and SC were performed three times a week for eight weeks. On the follow-up, four subjects were withdrawn. Waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), BMI, and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Blood glucose (fasting (FBG) and 2 hours postprandial (2-h PPBG)) and total cholesterol were checked using a simple, instant blood examination device. A paired t-test, Anova and Tamhane’s T2 post hoc test were applied. Significance was set at p < 0.05.Results. Student’s t-test showed that post-exercise waist circumference was significantly increased in the control group (92.7 ± 13.5 cm, p = 0.04), while post-exercise FBG and 2-h PPBG were significantly reduced in the SC group (112.5 ± 12.0 mg/dL, p = 0.04 and 155.0 ± 45.3 mg/dL, p = 0.02, respectively). Tamhane’s T2 post hoc indicates that 2-h PPBG in SC was lower than in the case of AD (155.0 ± 45.3 vs 171.3 ± 19.7 mg/dL, p = 0.04) and SC vs control (155.0 ± 45.3 vs 183.0 ± 24.1 mg/dL, p = 0.02). Systolic was significantly reduced in SC compared to the control group (126.9 ± 7.5 vs. 143.3 ± 17.5 mmHg, p = 0.04). The magnitude of reduced (Δ) in 2-h PPBG in SC was significantly different from control (Δ-18.75 ± 10.9 vs. Δ2.75 ± 12.4, p = 0.04) and AD (Δ-18.75 ± 10.9 vs. Δ6.37 ± 11.8, p = 0.02).Conclusions. Static cycling exercise improved 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and systolic blood pressure significantly more than aerobic dance in T2DM.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Absolute Reliability, Relative Reliability, and Criterion-Related Validity
           of Two Reactive Agility Tests Using Two Types of Stimuli in Elite Male
           Volleyball Players

    • Abstract: Introduction. Agility is an important physical quality required in team sports including volleyball. The aims of this study were to quantify the reliability of two reactive agility drills: (a) the arrow reactive agility test (ARAT) and (b) the square upper body reactive agility test (SUBRAT). Their relationship was assessed with the T-Test, lower limbs’ power was evaluated using sprint and vertical jump performance, while lower and upper body maximal strength was evaluated with the back squat and bench press, respectively.Material and Methods. A total of 14 elite male volleyball athletes participated in this investigation. All subjects performed three trials for each reactive agility test on two separate days. All assessments were conducted at the same time of the day and in the same order. Data was analysed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEMs, SWCs, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results. The heteroscedasticity coefficient for the ARAT and the SUBRAT was r = −0.103 (95% CI, −0.728-0.523; p = 0.727) and r = 0.08 (95% CI, −0.55-0.70; p = 0.80), respectively. The systematic bias ± the 95% LOAs were of −0.02 ± 0.10 seconds for the ARAT and 0.03 ± 1.15 seconds for the SUBRAT.Conclusions. The main findings of this investigation showed that the ARAT is a reliable and valid test to assess the lower limb reactive agility component of elite male volleyball athletes. The SUBRAT, on the other hand, is not as reliable as the ARAT and, therefore, might not be a recommended test to assess upper body reactive agility.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of Simultaneously Combined Whole-Body Electrostimulation and
           Plyometric Training on Vertical Jump Performance, 20 m Sprint-Time and
           Handgrip Strength

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week low intensity plyometric training (PT) + whole-body electrostimulation (WBES) combined program, compared with traditional PT, on vertical jump performance, 20 m sprint-time and handgrip strength.Material and methods. 10 male and 10 female Physical Education students were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or an experimental (EXP) group. Both groups performed a 6-week low intensity PT 3 days per week, and during the third day, PT was simultaneously combined with WBES in the EXP group. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, CMJ peak power, 20 m sprint-time and handgrip strength were measured before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the training period. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to identify differences after the training program. Effect sizes (ES) were assessed using Hedge’s g.Results. No significant differences between groups were observed at post-test. CMJ height and CMJ peak power significantly increased in both groups, with greater ES in the EXP group (p < 0.001, g = 0.68; p < 0.001, g = 0.70, respectively). 20 m sprint-time significantly improved in both groups, with greater ES in the CON group (p < 0.001, g = −1.68). Handgrip strength also increased in both groups, but ES were minimal.Conclusions. Both training methods demonstrated to be a good strategy to improve CMJ performance and 20 m sprint-time. The most effective training method for improving CMJ performance was PT + WBES combined program, and traditional PT obtained better results in 20 m sprint-time.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Comparison of Leg Muscle Activity During Level and Uphill Walking in
           Individuals with Flat Foot and Normal Foot: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Arches of the foot play a significant role in lower limb function and impairments in the arches are correlated to increased injury risk. The aim of this study was to identify the difference in muscles activity in individuals with a flat foot as compared to those with normal foot arch using surface electromyography (sEMG) while walking on at different speeds and gradients (slope of the treadmill). Material and Methods. Sixty healthy subjects were recruited by convenience sampling method and equally divided into two groups: short arch group (n = 30) and normal arch group (n = 30) by measuring arch height. All the subjects were made to walk on a treadmill at varying speeds (2.7, 4.5, and 6.3 km/h) and gradients (0%, 3%, 6% and 9%). The sEMG activity was recorded for medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle and peroneus longus (PL) muscle while walking on the treadmill. Results. 2 x 3 x 4 split-plot ANOVA revealed a significant group effect for GM activity (p < 0.001), whereas PL activity was not able to show a significant group effect (p = 0.109). Increasing speeds led to a significant difference in the sEMG activity of PL and GM muscles (p < 0.001) in the two groups. Increasing gradient of treadmill also showed a significant difference in the sEMG activity in the two groups for PL and GM muscle (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The findings of this study demonstrated that subjects with flat feet had a lesser activation in PL muscles as compared to subjects with normal foot curvature. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate strategies to improve the strength of these muscles to improve the arches of the foot.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Range of Motion in Selected Joints in Relation to Sports Performance and
           Technique Effectiveness in Weightlifting

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of the study was to verify or falsify the role of flexibility as the ability that distinguishes weightlifting champions from their rivals in lower sports classes. The aim of the study was also to assess the relationship between the results in snatch and clean and jerk, technique effectiveness, mobility in the shoulder joint, dorsal extension of the foot and forward bending of the spine. Material and methods. The study included 24 men training weightlifting – members of the Polish national team (n = 10) and members of one of Warsaw sports clubs (n = 14). Measurements were performed of active ranges of movement of the shoulder, flexion and extension in the shoulder joint, forward bending of the spine and dorsal extension of the foot in the ankle joint. The technique efficiency coefficients were calculated and the sports results were converted into Sincair points. Results. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in dorsiflexion of the foot in the ankle joint and forward bending of the spine in the tested groups. National team members were characterised by higher mobility than sports club members. There were no significant differences in flexion and extension movements at the shoulder joint between the groups. Conclusions. Significant correlations were found between the range of forward bending of the spine (p ≤ 0.001) and the range of dorsiflexion movements of the right (p ≤ 0.001) and left (p ≤ 0.01) foot, and sports performance in the snatch and clean and jerk, as well as in technique effectiveness. Achieving high sports performance in weightlifting may be limited by a low joint range of motion.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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