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Biomedical Human Kinetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.123
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2080-2234
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Relationships of attention and arousal are responsible for action in

    • Abstract: Study aim: The most important psychological mechanisms that are responsible for sports activity are arousal and attention. Study aim the relationships between the level of arousal and the level of attention, an attempt has been made to explain the mechanisms responsible for sportsman activity.Material and method: The study was conducted in a group of sportsman-students (68 individuals) using the Vienna Test System: FLIM, a test of flicker/fusion frequency, which is a measurement procedure allowing to determine the functional readiness of the central nervous system in terms of arousal and COG (Cognitron), which is a test measuring the level of attention.Results: The following in statistical analysis of the data were observed: inversely proportional relationships of image fusion frequency (FLIM1) during the recording of the level of arousal with: the correct acceptance of stimuli (COG1, r = –0.287), the correct rejection of stimuli (COG2, r = –0.320), the time of correctly accepted stimuli (COG3, r = –0.299), and with the time of correctly rejected stimuli (COG4, r = –0.317) in the attentional activity.Conclusion: Fusion frequency indicates the level of fatigue and is inversely proportional to the correctly accepted stimuli in attentional activity, the correctly rejected stimuli in attentional activities, and the duration of the attentional actions.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on swimmers in Poland

    • Abstract: Study aim: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health, lifestyle, training loads and competition starts of swimmers in Poland in 2020.Material and methods: The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire on group of 123 Polish swimmers in 2020. The survey asked about differences in training, lifestyle and well-being following the introduction of pandemic restrictions. The mean age of the athletes was 23 years ± 7.6 and training experience 10 years ± 5.3.Results: The majority of swimmers (81%) were satisfied with their health status. Respondents did not experience changes in sleep quality and length during the COVID-19 pandemic. A large proportion of respondents (83%) did not follow a special diet, while they were willing to use supplementation (58.5%). Respondents stated that the pandemic did not affect their physical activity outside of training. The athletes evaluated negatively the changes in training and competition conditions caused by the pandemic (p < 0.0001).Conclusions: The study showed that the COVID-19 pandemic did not have a major impact on the health, sleep and physical activity of swimmers in Poland in 2020, while it had a negative impact in terms of training conditions and sport competition.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Acute caffeine mouth rinse does not affect attention and hand-eye
           coordination in recreationally active adults

    • Abstract: Study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of different four caffeine mouth rinse intervention (caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, placebo, control) on attention and hand-eye coordination.Material and methods: Sixty-five healthy, recreationally active female (n = 41) (age 22.89 ± 3.94 years; body mass index 20.87 ± 2.63 kg/m2) and male (n = 24) (age 29.91 ± 12.06 years; body mass index 22.56 ± 2.21 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in this randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT) and Mirror-Tracing Test (MTT) was used. Participants first completed a SCWT or MTT, then rinsed and expectorated 25 ml of caffeinated coffee (containing 0.13% caffeine) or decaffeinated coffee or placebo (water) or control that did not rinse for 10 s, followed by SCWT or MTT again. Data were analyzed using a 4 (mouth rinse interventions) × 2 (pre-test and post-test) repeated measures ANOVA.Results: SCWT time, MTT draw time and MTT number of error measures were not significantly different between four mouth rinse interventions (p > 0.05).Conclusions: Caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee mouth rinse for 10 s provided immediately prior to SCWT or MTT did not affect attention and hand-eye coordination.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Aug 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Championship interseason period did not reduce knee peak moment: A
           10-years retrospective study of 467 elite soccer players

    • Abstract: Study aim: To compare knee moment profiles of professional soccer players from different playing positions before and after an interseason period.Material and methods: Retrospective study of 467 healthy, professional elite Brazilian soccer players before and after an official championship interseason period during 10-years. Main outcome measures were isokinetic peak moment from knee extensors and flexors from concentric and eccentric contractions. A Two-way ANOVA analysis was used to compare each playing position before and after interseason period.Results: It was found no statistical difference in Ext.CPT (from p = 0.11 to p = 0.97), Ext.EPT (from p = 0.07 to p = 0.85), Flx. CPT (from p = 0.14 to p = 0.90) or Flx.EPT (from p = 0.10 to p = 0.91) between End-Season and Pre-Season evaluations for all playing positions (from Goalkeepers, Defenders, Backsiders, Midfielders and Forwards).Conclusions: Isokinetic peak moment did not have significant differences after an interseason period of 4 to 6 weeks, allowing trainers and coaches to focus their pre-season period on other performance concerns than strengthening.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Objective assessment of the functional status of stroke patients: Can
           comprehensive rehabilitation treatment improve their functional

    • Abstract: Study aim: To check if the short rehabilitation treatment (3 weeks) complemented by complex rehabilitation on advanced equipment improves the functional status of chronic stroke patients; and which clinical and objective parameters can be used to assess the efficacy of such treatment.Material and methods: 28 patients 3 to 6 months after the stroke. They participated in 3 weeks rehabilitation program in Rehabilitation Hospital. This program was supplemented by rehabilitation on: Zebris treadmill, ALFA and GAMMA platform, Biodex Balance System SD, the Balance Tutor treadmill. Their functional status was assessed by: Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS), Timed-Up-And-Go test (TUG), balance tests on Zebris, instrumented gait analysis on BTS system.Results: The positive changes of the patients’ functional status were found in time of TUG test, in case of balance test for 95% of the ellipsoid area, lengths of major and minor axes of the ellipsoid, average sway speed, sway path length, total ground reaction force for left and right leg, and Gillette Gait Index in case of the gait analysis.Conclusions: The improvement of the functional status of chronic stroke patients after relatively short rehabilitation treatment was achieved, due to the addition to the standard rehabilitation treatment the program on the advanced technologically equipment.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cultural capital competencies of teachers in sports education: A
           mixed-method study

    • Abstract: Study aim: In this study, the cultural capital competencies of physical education and sports teachers were investigated using the mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) research design.Material and methods: The participants of the quantitative method were 248 physical education and sports teachers working in educational institutions in Turkey, and 24 volunteers from this group were randomly selected for the qualitative phase. The analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 22.0 and QSR NVIVO-10 software. The Cultural Capital Scale was utilized to collect the quantitative data, while the qualitative data was obtained through two semi-structured open-ended questions.Results: The findings of the study revealed no significant differences in the variables of gender, education level and the type of location where the teacher grew up. A positive and high level of correlation was found between the Cultural Capital Scale and the subscale Intellectual Accumulation. The Intellectual Accumulation subscale was found to explain 87% of the variance of the Cultural Capital Scale (R2 = 0.872).Conclusions: Creating educational environments where intellectual accumulation, participation, cultural awareness, and cultural potential dimensions are considered at every stage of education is suggested to enrich the cultural capital accumulations of physical education and sports teachers.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The 10-week of aerobic-functional training improves fasting blood sugar,
           insulin resistance, and lipid profile in patients with diabetic peripheral
           neuropathy: A randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 10-week of combined training course on concentrations of blood sugar, Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.Materials and methods: This clinical trial was performed in diabetic neuropathy women and men (30–60 years old). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: exercise (EG; n = 10) and control (CG; n = 10). The EG performed 10-week programme with one session of aerobic exercises (40% to 70% of HRReserve) and one session of functional exercises (60–90 min/ day) at the same day for four days/week and the CG performed their daily activities. The Blood glucose, IR, and lipid profile were measured initially and after the intervention.Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (p < 0.01) and HOMA-IR (p < 0.01), and greater improvements in TG (p < 0.05) and LDL (p < 0.05) in EG than CG, but. HDL concentration did not show significant changes.Conclusion: The 10-week of aerobic-functional training improves fasting blood sugar, IR, and lipid profile in patients with diabetic neuropathy.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sex-related differences in the sagittal plane spinal angles in preschool
           and school-age children

    • Abstract: Study aim: The study aimed to assess the differences in the magnitude of the anterior-posterior spinal curvatures depending on sex in children aged 5 and 9 years.Material and methods: This prospective longitudinal observational study included 67 children (29 girls and 38 boys) in pre-school-age and school-age phases (the first examination at 5 years old and the second examination at 9 years old). Measurements of body weight and height were recorded. The computerized assessment of body posture was performed with the photo-grammetric method (MORA 4 Generation). The normality of the distribution of variables was assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences between the sexes in terms of body posture parameters and somatic parameters.Results: There were no statistically significant sex-related differences in the values of parameters of the anterior-posterior spinal curvatures in 5-year-old children. In the group of 9-year-old children in the angle of lumbar lordosis, a significant difference between the sexes was found (U = 387.00, p < 0.05). Girls aged 9 had a significantly higher mean value of the angle of lumbar lordosis than boys at the same age (p < 0.05).Conclusions: A sex-related difference was found in the magnitude of lumbar lordosis in school-age children. Understanding the gender differentiation of lumbar lordosis is the first step towards explaining the wide variability of normal lumbar lordosis in adults and the developmental and biomechanical differences between male and female lumbar spines.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Analysis of Olympic and World boxing medalists from 1904 to 2019: The role
           of age, height, weight categories and nationality

    • Abstract: Study aim: To investigate the role of age, height, and weight categories on the performance of top nations and boxing medalists in Olympic Games (OG) (1904–2018) and World Championships (WG) (1974–2019).Material and methods: Data were collected from 1,806 athletes using the website of International Boxing Association (AIBA), International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Wikipedia.Results: The average age of medalists was ~24yrs with an increase of age (medium effect) across this 115 years period. Height was 1.76m and the super heavy category had significantly higher values by age and height compared to the other weight categories. The top medalists were three men with triple gold medals on OG and 13 over three on WC. Performance was associated with nationality (p < 0.01, medium effect), where a dominance of Cubans (211 medals) was observed.Conclusion: These findings highlighted the importance of the long-term development and specialization of talent athletes for peak performance in elite competitions.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Non randomised trial of GRAVITY system therapy effectiveness in chronic,
           low intensity low back disc disease

    • Abstract: Study aim: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a therapeutically challenging pain syndrome. Physical exercises are the most common therapy used in CLBP treatment. The aim of the study was to verify if GRAVITY system exercise can be effective in the therapy of chronic discogenic low back pain. The GRAVITY system exercise aims at strengthening full body muscles using the trainee’s own body weight only.Material and methods: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04765293. We used TREND statement. The study populations were 50 patients with CLBP. The study population (group I) consisted of 25 patients who had GRAVITY system exercise. The clinical control group were 25 patients who received standard treatment in an outpatient clinic of National Health Fund. Before the start of the training, the patients’ had their muscle strength responsible for stabilizing the lumbar segment measured. We also measured patients’ Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) prior to and after the therapy cycle. The therapy was conducted twice a week for 40 minutes over the period of 4 weeks. The clinical control group were 25 patients who received treatment from the National Health Fund and had only standardised physical therapy (laser, ultrasound, cryotherapy and magnetic therapy) sessions for two weeks.Results. We found statistically significant reduction in pain and disability in the study population after the treatment, but muscle strength did not increase significantly.Conclusions: 1. GRAVITY system exercise might efficient in pain and disability reduction. Muscle strength did not increase after therapy. 2. Pain and disability had positive correlation with female sex, decreased physical activity and sedentary work.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Does L. affect hormonal responses following high-intensity resistance

    • Abstract: Study aim: To investigate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on the responses of testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones including triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) following an intensive session of resistance exercise (RE).Materials and methods: Twenty-two healthy non-athlete men (23.8 ± 3.1 years) participated in this study were divided into two groups and were randomly assigned to receive either TT supplementation (n = 11) or a placebo (n = 11). They consumed two 250-mg capsules with TT or placebo (maltodextrin) per day and performed six REs with the intensity 80-90% of 1RM on the fifteen day of the experiment. Venous blood samples were drawn before supplementation, and before and after the RE session.Results: The mean values of post-exercise testosterone and cortisol in both groups were significantly higher than pre-exercise and baseline (p < 0.01); however, there were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). Likewise, despite a trend toward different levels of the responses of thyroid hormones with TT supplementation, there were no significant differences either in different time points or the groups (p > 0.05).Conclusions: Short-term supplementation with TT appears to be ineffective in changing the hormonal responses measured in this study following a session of high-intensity RE.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The impact of Mindfulness and Mental Skills Protocols on Athletes’
           Competitive Anxiety

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aims at examining the impact of Mindfulness and mental skills on competitive anxiety in athletes.Material and methods: The present study is quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design. Participants were 45 19–30 years old male shooters randomly assigned to three groups with 15 people. The test consisted of six 60-minute mindfulness training/Mental skills/control that lasted six weeks. Measurements included competitive state anxiety based on the competitive state anxiety inventory in two pretest and post-test stages. Data were analyzed using statistical software at a confidence level of 0.05 using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: The results showed that cognitive interventions of Mindfulness and mental skills reduced competitive state anxiety (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the effectiveness of these methods. (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Six weeks of mindfulness and mental skills training can help improve athletic performance by reducing anxiety levels.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Apr 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Influence of obesity on spatiotemporal gait parameters among female
           students from Jouf University, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aim of the current study is to explore the effect of obesity on spatiotemporal parameters of gait in obese young female students.Material and methods: A cross-sectional study with fifteen obese female university students (mean age = 20.3 ± 1.6, mean BMI = 36.2 ± 4.6) and fifteen normal weight female university students (mean age = 20.9 ± 2, mean BMI = 22.6 ± 2.4) was conducted. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated using GAITRite® walkway (Frankline, USA, Model No. TR30RAM090 with software version 4.89C2).Results: Independent sample t-test showed statistical significant differences in some spatiotemporal gait parameters between normal and obese subjects with statistically significant reductions of single-limb support time, step length, stride length, and velocity in the obese subjects rather than normal subjects (p = 0.031, 0.015, 0.039, and 0.002, respectively). Moreover, there were statistically significant increases of step time, stride time in the obese subjects rather than the normal subjects (p = 0.038, 0.017, respectively).Conclusion: These results suggested that obesity is a factor that adversely affects the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the obese young female. This may be contributed to decrease the joints’ mobility and increase the incidence of joint osteoarthritis. So, it is recommended to encourage the sufficient physical activity and weight reduction among obese female students.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effects of exercise training on depression and anxiety with changing
           neurotransmitters in methamphetamine long term abusers: A narrative review

    • Abstract: Study aim: It is generally accepted that methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive psychostimulant which copies functions of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, and emits dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Frequent abuse of methamphetamine damages dopaminergic and serotonergic nerve endings at different sites of brain and also increases the anxiety and depression. Exercise seems to reverse physiological and neurological damages due to previous MA dependents and help to reduce anxiety and depression in this population. The aim is to determine the effect of exercise training on neurotransmitters and rate of depression and anxiety in chronic methamphetamine abusers based on a literature review.Materials and methods: The present study investigated published articles in five computerized databases including Magiran, Google scholars, SID, PubMed and Scopus from 2011 until 2020. The searched keywords included sports, neurotransmitter, methamphetamine, depression, anxiety and treatment. The obtained results were described using texts, table and figure.Results: According to the results, physical activity and exercise significantly increased blood serotonin and dopamine levels and significantly decreased the depression and anxiety.Conclusion: Different evidences suggested that physical activity and exercise as positive responses and adaptations might influence on circulatory levels of two neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) in methamphetamine addicts, decrease anxiety and depression, and improve preparation in previous MA dependents. In the rehabilitation period, the overall improvement in previous MA dependents might significantly increase. Exercise training can improve the physical and mental state of people addicted to methamphetamine as a non-drug therapy to promote health. However, more research is necessary to support this conclusion.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy for frozen shoulder in
           perimenopausal diabetic women

    • Abstract: Study aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for frozen shoulder in perimenopausal diabetic women.Materials and methods: A single blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on sixty-two perimenopausal women diagnosed with diabetic frozen shoulder. They were divided randomly into two groups. Group (A) received physiotherapy program in the form of maitland joint mobilization for shoulder joint, self-stretching exercises, range of motion exercises (ROM) and strengthening exercises. Sessions were held 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. Group (B) study group: received the same physiotherapy program in addition to ESWT, once per week, for 4 weeks. Visual analogue scale was used to measure pain intensity, shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) was used to evaluate disability level, while an electrogoniometer was used to measure shoulder flexion, abduction and external rotation range of motion. All measurements were recorded pretreatment and posttreatment program.Results: For intragroup comparison, significant improvement in all treatment outcomes was noted in both groups (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found between both groups regarding all outcome measures in case of intergroup comparison in the study (P > 0.05).Conclusion: The use of ESWT have a positive effect in reducing pain and improving shoulder range of motion in perimenopausal women suffering from frozen.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of soft tissue manipulation of popliteus muscle on quadriceps

    • Abstract: Study aim: Popliteus is majorly associated with posterior knee pain; however, this muscle can also have an impact on anterior knee pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soft tissue manipulation of popliteus muscle on non-traumatic anterior knee pain in athletes; as the relationship between popliteus and Quadriceps muscle has not been studied/explored much.Materials and methods: In this experimental study, 15 subjects presenting with non-traumatic anterior knee pain were selected. Quadriceps muscle activity, torque production and knee pain were assessed. Followed by a single session of popliteus manipulation all the above parameters were re-assessed immediately and at 24 hours after intervention.Results: Significant reduction in pain (P < 0.005) at 24 hours was observed. There was a significant increase in muscle activity of Vastus Medialis (P < 0.05) and Vastus Lateralis (P < 0.005) immediately after the intervention but not after 24 hours. No significant change was found in the activity of Rectus femoris and Peak torque of Quadriceps immediately after the intervention and at 24 hours.Conclusion: Soft tissue manipulation decreased knee pain and improved muscle activity. Therefore, incorporating popliteus manipulation can be effective in treatment of anterior knee pain.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of types of stimuli, handedness and gender differences on reaction
           time among adults students during the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Study aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has unhinged the lives of people across the globe, in particular, university students who are home-schooling. No study has investigated the influence of specific parameters on reaction time (RT) among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study aims to describe the relationship between RT and parameters (types of stimuli, handedness, and gender differences) that may affect its values during the COVID-19 pandemic.Material and methods: RT of 60 volunteers to visual and auditory stimuli were recorded using the drop ruler method. RT was compared within-subject with respect to handedness and type of stimulus, and between subjects with regards to gender.Results: Although a small difference between RT reported as a function of hands and gender was observed, these results were statistically insignificant. However, females had a significant shorter RT to visual than the auditory stimulus.Conclusions: Findings showed that no significant differences were obtained between all comparisons made, except between females RT to visual stimulus and auditory stimulus. This can be attributed to the high level of stress and anxiety that may occur among students due to the COVID-19, which is the most prevalent and dangerous topic for university students, especially female students.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Motor memory consolidation in children: The role of awareness and sleep on
           offline general and sequence-specific learning

    • Abstract: Study aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of sleep and awareness on consolidation of general and Sequence-Specific learning in children.Material and methods: Male participants (n = 48, 10 to 12 years old) were assigned to one of four groups based on awareness and sleep. Acquisition phase took place in the morning (wake groups, 8 ± am) or in the evening (sleep groups, 8 ± pm) followed by a 12 hours retention interval and a subsequent delayed retention test (1 week). Children in the explicit groups were informed about the presence of the sequence, while in the implicit groups were not informed about it. For data analysis in consolidation of general sequence learning and Sequence-Specific Consolidation phases, 2 × 2 × 2 and 2 × 2 × 3 ANOVA with repeated measures on block tests were used respectively.Results: The data provides evidence of offline enhancement of general motor learning after 12 hours which was dependent on sleep and awareness. Moreover, the information persistence after 1-week was significant only in sleep groups. The results also indicated that consolidation of sequence-specific learning was only observed after 12 hours in element duration and it was related to sleep and awareness.Conclusions: The results revealed that sleep wasn’t only an essential factor in enhancement of off-line sequence learning task after 12 hours in children, but performance of the children was dependent on awareness and sleep.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Comparison of ground reaction forces and joint kinematics between three
           different tempos during push-up exercise

    • Abstract: Study aimThis study was aimed to analysis in detail how different tempos [2:0:2 (30 bpm), 1:0:1 (60 bpm), Explosive (EXP)] effect to ground reaction forces (vGRF) and joint kinematics of push-up exercise (PUP).Material and methodsTwenty-four recreationally male athletes (age: 24.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained by load-cells and a motion analysis software. Data was analysed from a single repetition which is showed peak vGRF of dominant side during PUP. Joint velocities were calculated by taking the difference between the descent and ascent phases.ResultsThere was significant difference between 2:0:2 (30 bpm) – EXP in terms of dominant side of shoulder (p ≤ 0.02) and between 1:0:1 (60 bpm) – EXP in the dominant elbow joint displacements (p ≤ 0.05). The velocity differences between the descent and ascent phases of shoulder and elbow joints were found statistically significant between tempos (p ≤ 0.05). In terms of range of motion (ROM) of right and left side, there was significant differences between tempos (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences were found between all tempos in the ascent phase of right-left and left descent phase in terms of average vGRF (p > 0.05) except right descent average vGRF (p ≤ 0.02).ConclusionsIn conclusion, right-left sides of ROM was used most effectively in 2:0:2 (30 bpm) and 1:0:1 (60 bpm) tempos. Less displacement was also observed in EXP and when tempo increased percentage of peak vGRF (at elbow flexion phase for right-left sides) to total repetition decreased. Highest ascent and descent phase velocity differences (for right-left sides) and highest peak vGRF (elbow flexion phase) observed in EXP. This study shows that increasing tempo will result in more unsteady joint kinematics and more vGRF, so if the goal is controlled and safe PUP, tempo should be slow.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Associations between differing magnitudes of inter-limb asymmetry and
           linear and change of direction speed performance in male youth soccer

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study examines the relationship between different magnitudes of asymmetry and their effects on speed performance.Material and methods: Forty-two sub-elite male youth soccer players performed a 30-m sprint, change of direction, single leg countermovement jump and single leg hop. Subjects were divided into groups with vertical and horizontal asymmetry, and both groups were then divided into three groups according to magnitudes of inter-limb asymmetry (<5%, 5–10%, and >10%).Results: The results showed no significant correlation between different jump asymmetry magnitudes and the mentioned outcomes of speed performance (p > 0.05). In addition, larger asymmetries resulted in faster linear speed, even if small differences (g range = 0.00 to 0.57; p > 0.05). But this was not similar for change of direction speed (g range = –0.42 to 0.34; p > 0.05).Conclusions: There are inconsistent findings for the effects of inter-limb asymmetries on speed performance. The results of the present study indicate that the magnitude of asymmetry had no meaningful association with independent measures of performance in soccer players. Therefore, it seems more likely to explain the effects of individual asymmetries on performance rather than the idea that asymmetry negatively affects performance.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jan 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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