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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Biomedical Human Kinetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.123
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2080-2234
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Immediate effects of lavender soy wax candle on autonomic nervous system,
           stress, and reaction time in adolescents

    • Abstract: Study aim: The study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of a lavender soy wax candle on the autonomic nervous system, stress, and reaction time in adolescents with moderate stress levels.Material and methods: Fifty-two males and females (mean age: 19.85 ± 0.78 years) with a moderate stress level determined by Suanprung Stress Test-20 (SPST-20) were enrolled. All participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 26) or experimental (n = 26) groups. The control group inhaled the lavender scent through a bowl filled with warm water, while the experimental group inhaled the scent from the lavender soy wax candle. In a peaceful environment, each participant was suggested to sit on a comfortable recliner chair in a private room while inhaling the scent for 20 minutes. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, reaction time, and emotional states were assessed before and after the scent inhalation. The emotion states were based on the conceptual model proposed by the Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale (GEOS), consisting of 12 items.Results: The results indicated no significant differences between the two groups in all the parameters, except for the three items of emotion states (relax: p = 0.03, stress: p = 0.04, and calm: p = 0.04).Conclusions: This study suggested that the inhalation of lavender soy wax candles for 20 minutes can be used as adjuvant therapy for improving emotional states and enhancing cognitive function among adolescents with moderate stress levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Quality of life and adherence to physical activity in leisure time of
           people with physical disability

    • Abstract: Study aim: People with disability are characterized by mental disorders, lower physical function, and poor social functioning. Dramatically, they are at particular risk of loss of their psychosocial functions. Here, we tested the relationship between quality of life and adherence to physical activity in leisure time of people with physical disability.Material and methods: A cross-sectional design based on the descriptive correlational method was applied. The statistical population of the study included 555 people with different types of physical disability. A quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) was used to assess the quality of life, and adherence to physical activity was measured with the Adherence to Physical Activity Questionnaire. Preliminary calculations involved a series of Pearson correlations. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Finally, structural equation modeling was used to assess the research model.Results: The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship (P < 0.05) of the quality of life and its components with adherence to physical activity. Based on statistical analysis, 73% of adherence to physical activity changes was related to the quality of life components.Conclusion: According to the results, special attention to the social functioning of physically disabled people and efforts and planning in order to improve it can help to improve the quality of life of these people. Also, by designing diverse sports programs for their leisure time we can help improve the adherence of physically disabled people to physical activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The effect of a 12-week functional training program on functional movement
           patterns and dynamic balance in young elite ice hockey players

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study examined the effects of a 12-week functional training (FT) program on basic movement patterns and dynamic balance in hockey players.Material and methods: Forty-three male ice hockey players aged 16.2 ± 0.76 years, were allocated into the experimental (EG) or control (CG) groups. The EG underwent additional 60-minute supervised FT sessions twice weekly, while the CG had an additional 60-minute team game class and swimming class. Fundamental movement patterns were assessed using the functional movement screening (FMSTM), whereas dynamic balance was assessed by the Y-balance test (YBT).Results: After completion of the FT program, the hockey players assigned to the EG achieved higher results in the deep squat (p = 0.0143), hurdle step (p = 0.0002), in-line lunge (p = 0.0082), shoulder mobility (p = 0.0455), and rotatory stability tests (p = 0.0253), had higher total FMSTM scores (p = 0.0003), and less asymmetry (p = 0.0032) than at baseline. They improved all of the normalized scores in YBT. The hockey players assigned to the CG did not improve their results, but their performance decreased in the hurdle step test (p = 0.0082), and they showed more asymmetry (p = 0.0124) than at baseline.Conclusions: The implementation of FT can lead to significant improvements in fundamental movement patterns and dynamic balance among ice hockey players. This suggests that implementing FT can enhance fundamental movement patterns in athletes and should be considered an integral part of sports training. By integrating FT into regular training routines, athletes across different sports may potentially improve their movement patterns, thereby enhancing their overall performance and reducing the risk of injury.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Home advantage in matches of the top Polish men’s handball league in the
           seasons before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether there are differences in performance analysis in high-sport handball matches between Pre-COVID-19, during COVID-19, and Post-COVID-19 seasons in the home and away matches.Material and methods: The study material was obtained from the official match statistics of male PGNiG Superleague Ltd. (493 matches). The study included the 2019/2020 (before), 2020/2021 (during), and the 2021/2022 (after) season. Statistical tests were used: the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: The COVID-19 pandemic period affected the reduction of home advantage during handball matches. The venue was a differentiating factor in selected handball team activities in the Pre-COVID-19 season, while there were no differences between home and away matches in the COVID-19 and Post-COVID-19 seasons. The away matches in the Pre-COVID-19 season were characterized by more throws from 9m and lower goals and throws from 6m than in the Post-COVID-19 season, indicating recent trends in handball play.Conclusion: The home advantage associated with playing home matches in terms of the Pre-COVID-19 season and between seasons occurs mainly in the first round of play. Further studies focusing on performance analysis in handball depending on the outcome of the match (win, lose) and the venue (home, away) should be conducted.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jan 2024 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Bone mineral density in the various regions of the skeleton in women with
           subclinical hypothyroidism: the effect of biological factors, bone
           turnover markers and physical activity

    • Abstract: Study aim: This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between biological factors, physical activity (PA), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and bone mineral density (BMD) in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and healthy.Material and methods: The study included 135 women. Bone parameters were measured by the densitometry. Calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin (OC), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), vitamin D and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured in blood serum. PA were evaluated by metabolic equivalent of task (MET).Results: Women with SCH had lower BMD in hip and lumbar spine, calcium, vitamin D and higher values of ICTP than the healthy group. In women with SCH, the affecting BMD in the femoral neck were ICTP (µg/l), (η² = 0.083), and also 25(OH)D (ng/ml), (η² = 0.080) and PA level (I/S), (η² = 0.115). BMD in the spine was affected by PA level (I/S), (η² = 0.173). The parameters affecting BMC in the femoral neck were 25(OH)D (ng/ml), (η² = 0.073). In all women sufficient levels of PA determined higher BMD.Conclusions: PA and BTMs significantly determine BMD levels. PA can be an important area of rehabilitation and physical therapy as an available measure to counteract BMD loss in postmenopausal healthy women and those with SCH.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Metabolic disturbances in sedentary and active Polish male students with
           normal body mass index and waist circumference

    • Abstract: Study aim: To evaluate circulating lipoproteins, glucose, insulin and the index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in male Polish students with normal BMI and waist circumference (WC) in the context of their physical activity.Material and methods: A total 170 male students with normal BMI and WC less than 102 cm were accepted for the study (56 sedentary and 114 physically active). Body weight and height were determined using standard medical equipment. Waist circumference was measured using non-stretchable tape. The percentage of body fat was determined from the sum of the thickness of four skinfolds. Circulating lipoproteins, glucose and insulin level was determined.Results: Active participants had significantly lower plasma TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL ratio, LDL/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR compared to sedentary subjects (P < 0.001). However, even among active participants, as many as 58% were characterized by high TG, 17% high TC, 12% high LDL-C and 20% high TG/HDL ratio.Conclusion: In male students with normal body composition according to BMI and WC distorted metabolic variables were observed. Additionally, physical activity markedly decreased but not eliminated these disturbances. Thus, using BMI and WC for body composition classification as healthy possibly provide a false results concerning metabolic status.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effect of 8 days of water-only fasting and vigorous exercise on
           anthropometric parameters, lipid profile and HOMA-IR in middle-aged men

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 8 days of water-only fasting and physical exercise on somatic variables, lipid profile, insulin resistance and cardiovascular function in middle-aged men.Material and methods: Body weight, body composition, lipid profile, serum concentrations of insulin, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined in 16 apparently healthy men at rest and after aerobic exercise. This test procedure was also repeated after 8 days of water-only fasting.Results: Fasting intervention resulted in a reduction in body weight and fat mass (p < 0.001). The simultaneous effect of fasting and exercise resulted in significant changes in lipid profile, carbohydrate metabolism and cardiovascular function. Post hoc analyses showed that the reductions in insulin and glucose concentrations as well as the HOMA-IR index were caused by the fasting, and changes in the lipid profile and cardiovascular function were caused by the exercise test.Conclusion: The combined use of fasting and physical effort resulted in an optimal effect on health indicators of the surveyed men.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Dec 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of lower limb muscle fatigue on countermovement jump, dynamic
           balance performance and perceived stability among elite youth netball
           players with chronic ankle instability

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of lower limb muscle fatigue on jumping performance, balance, and perceived stability in elite youth netball players with chronic ankle instability (CAI).Material and methods: A total of 36 elite youth netball players were recruited from National Sports Schools using purposive sampling. The severity of functional ankle instability was assessed using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Jumping performance and dynamic balance were measured using a force plate and the Y Balance Test, respectively. The experimental protocol involved a submaximal countermovement jump (CMJ) attempt followed by a fatigue protocol consisting of consecutive maximal bilateral CMJs. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS statistical software.Results: The study found no significant effect on peak velocity but a significant reduction in peak force, peak power, flight time, and jump height after completing the fatigue protocol. Post-hoc comparisons showed significant reductions in peak force, power, flight time, and jump height before the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) protocol compared to values after 5 and 10 minutes of the SSC protocol (post-5 and post-10 SSC).Conclusion: The study results suggest that fatigue is a risk factor for sports injuries, particularly in the ankle during jumping performance, and that fatigue does not contribute to dynamic stability.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Support Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) – a systemic approach to improve
           sport performance

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aim of this study was to present the Support Your Recovery Needs (SYRN) recovery system based on scientifically confirmed methods, addressing the needs of athletes based on their subjective feelings of fatigue after training or competition.Material and methods: The literature on supporting post-exercise recovery was reviewed. This was followed by an analysis of the effectiveness of selected methods. A time factor was imposed on the selected methods for which efficacy was confirmed. Depending on the type of stimulus and the time of its application, regenerative effects were assigned point values.Results: Within the SYRN approach over a dozen treatments and actions promoting post-exercise recovery have been identified.Conclusions: A methodical and organized approach should allow for the selection of recovery support methods based on their effectiveness, appropriate timing, and the combination of various methods to enhance post-exercise recovery and performance.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Gait biomechanical analysis of unaffected knee before and 6 months after
           total knee arthroplasty

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aimed to compare gait biomechanical data on the unaffected side before and six months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and determine the postoperative changes in medial knee loading on the unaffected side.Material and methods: Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 19 female patients who had underwent TKA.Gait parameters were extracted at each time point using the maximum value of the backward (braking phase) and forward components (propulsion phase) of the ground reaction force on the unaffected side, while the knee adduction moment impulse (KAM impulse) was used as an index of medial knee loading. The pre – and post-TKA values of these parameters were compared. The relationship between KAM impulse and gait biomechanical factors on the unaffected side was examined using partial correlation analysis with gait speed as a control factor.Results: KAM impulse was not significantly different on the unaffected side compared to preoperatively. In the braking phase, there were significant differences in hip adduction moment (p = 0.033) and ankle dorsiflexion moment (p = 0.013), and hip flexion angle (p=0.011) in the propulsive phase. The relationship between KAM impulse and gait biomechanical factors on the unaffected side showed a positive correlation between KAM impulse and knee adduction angle (braking phase, propulsion phase; r = 0.671, 0.689) and KAM (braking phase, propulsion phase; r = 0.715, 0.745).Conclusions: There was no significant difference in KAM impulse on the unaffected side before and after TKA, suggesting that TKA did not influence medial knee loading increase on the unaffected side even six months post-TKA.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • The influence of closed or open grip type during a pull-up test to
           exhaustion

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aim of this study is to assess whether a closed (CG) or open grip (OC) can influence the maximum number of repetitions during the pull-up test to exhaustion.Material and methods: Ninety-five physically active males (age 23.5 ± 6.2 years, body mass 69 ± 7.9 kg, height 174.0 ± 6.4 cm, BMI 22.9 ± 2.2) randomly performed the pull-up test to exhaustion twice, once for each type of grip, one week apart.Results: No significant difference (p = 0.092) was found between the maximum number of repetitions performed with the OG (14.2 ± 5.7) or the CG (13.9 ± 5.9). Spearman’s correlation showed no significant association between participants’ body mass and the number of repetitions (r = 0.128, p = 0.22 for OG; r = 0.157, p = 0.13 for CG).Conclusions: According to our results, the grip is not relevant in the determination of the performance during a pull-up test to exhaustion. Thus, using one grip instead of another may be recommended independently of performance needs. Grip type may be adapted considering the practised sport, and specific athletic requirements, as well as individual preference.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Cognitive task performance in sitting and standing: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Study aim: The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of performing tasks involving different cognitive functions in sitting versus standing positions and to assess the perceived workload. Standing or moving at work increases energy expenditure and brings health benefits while lowering the risk of diseases related to physical inactivity. The question arises whether this occurs at the expense of the effectiveness of professional activities.Material and methods: Twenty-nine physical education students (including 20 women and 9 men) volunteered to participate in the study. The participants performed four cognitive tests: two tests based on the Vienna Test System (Cognitron and ALS) and two paper-and-pencil tests (TUS and Toulouse-Pieron test).Results: There were no significant differences found between the sitting and the standing groups as regards the results of the cognitive tests. The number of omissions in the TUS test was higher in a standing position. The groups significantly differed in the perceived workload: A greater value of the summary weighted index was obtained in the sitting group. Also, the sitting students perceived their mental effort as significantly more onerous.Conclusions: The results of this pilot study suggest that the standing position does not reduce the effectiveness of activities involving cognitive functions. This is an incentive to continue randomized trials with a greater number of individuals.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Changes of the gait induced by two different conservative methods applied
           to correct flexible flat feet in children 5 to 9 years old: foot orthoses
           vs foot orthoses supplemented with Zukunft-Huber manual therapy

    • Abstract: Study aim: A flexible flat foot (FFF), one of the most common postural deformities among children, should not be perceived as an isolated problem of static alignment of foot and ankle, but as a part of dynamic biomechanical chain of a lower extremity, pelvis, and lower back. The aim of the study was to compare the impact of two methods, used for treating FFF, on the gait pattern in children after 12 months treatment.Material and methods: 49 study participants with FFF were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention methods. One group was treated with foot orthoses (FOs), the other group with manual therapy, corrective bandaging and FOs.Results: After one year of therapy, no significant differences were observed within either group before and after treatment regarding dimensional, spatio-temporal parameters, and ground reaction forces. However, noteworthy changes emerged in hip flexion moment, ankle plantar flexion moment, and ankle power in the group treated with the combined method. In the FOs-treated group, significant changes were found in ankle plantar flexion moment and ankle power.Conclusion: The observed changes in joints’ peak moments and powers in both groups were positive changes, but the combine method seems to be more effective than wearing FOs only.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • POWERbreathe® S-Index Test – guidelines and recommendations for
           practitioners

    • Abstract: Study aim: POWERbreathe® S-Index Test is an accessible and functional evaluation of inspiratory muscle strength. The main purpose of this study is to present guidelines that allow to successfully apply the test in sports settings with high accuracy, robustness, and repeatability.Material and methods: Review of available literature and professional guidelines regarding traditional spirometry testing and POWERbreathe® trainers’ application was performed. The obtained information was summarized, analyzed, and interpreted to create POWERbreathe® S-Index Test guidelines and recommendations for practitioners. POWERbreathe® K4 and K5 (POWERbreathe International Ltd., Southam, UK) devices paired with Breathe-Link Live Feedback Software (POWERbreathe International Ltd., Southam, UK) were considered during the analysis and guidelines creation.Results: We recommend performing POWERbreathe® S-Index Test with 8 forceful and dynamic inspiratory maneuvers from residual volume to full inspiratory capacity, divided into 2–3 series of 2–3 maneuvers, in a standing position, after respiratory warm-up.Conclusion: POWERbreathe® S-Index Test may be a useful tool to measure functional inspiratory muscle strength in athletes. When performed with the presented guidelines, it can be successfully applied in sports settings with high accuracy, robustness, and repeatability.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of local and whole-body cryotherapy on hip pain and general
           activity in the course of coxarthrosis

    • Abstract: Study aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of whole-body and local cryotherapy on pain and function of the osteoarthritic hip.Material and methods: The study included 40 patients (26 women and 14 men) aged 36 to 85 years with confirmed hip osteoarthritis. Twenty participants received whole-body cryotherapy whereas twenty received local cryotherapy in the hip region. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the effects of therapy.Results: Based on the examinations, improvements in both reported pain and general functional status of the participants were observed in both groups. Slightly greater improvement regarding reported pain was found in the group of participants undergoing local cryotherapy treatments.Conclusion: The results showed that the analgesic effect of both whole-body and local cryotherapy noticeably increased the ability of the participants to engage in activities of daily living.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Determining and comparing the optimum power loads in hexagonal and
           straight bar deadlifts in novice strength-trained males

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aimed to determine and compare the ‘optimum power load’ in the hexagonal (HBDL) and straight (SBDL) bar deadlift exercises.Material and methods: Fifteen novice strength-trained males performed three repetitions of the HBDL and SBDL at loads from 20–90% of their one-repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power, average power, peak velocity, and average velocity were determined from each repetition using a velocity-based linear position transducer.Results: Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of load for HBDL and SBDL (all p < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses revealed peak power outputs for HBDL were similar across 50–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 80% 1RM (1053 W). The peak power outputs for SBDL were similar across 40–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 90% 1RM (843 W). A paired sample t-test revealed that HBDL showed greater peak power at 60% (Hedges’ g effect size g = 0.53), average power at 50–70%, (g = 0.56–0.74), and average velocity at 50% of 1RM (g = 0.53). However, SBDL showed greater peak velocity at 20% (g = 0.52) and average velocity at 90% of 1RM (g = 0.44).Conclusion: Practitioners can use these determined loads to target peak power and peak velocity outputs for the HBDL and SBDL exercises (e.g., 50–90% 1RM in HBDL). The HBDL may offer additional advantages resulting in greater peak power and average power outputs than the SBDL.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Biochemical assessment of insulin and vitamin D levels in obese
           adolescents after diet and physical activity: A retrospective
           observational study

    • Abstract: Study aim: Obesity is a serious public health problem that has spread over the past 40 years in industrialized countries. This condition can predispose to the onset of several chronic diseases for instance hyperlipidemia which is involved in multiple signaling pathways for bone homeostasis. There is a communication between adipose tissue and bone, which can regulate each other through feedback mechanisms including glucose consumption by bone, also regulating insulin levels. In our observational study, we analyzed the effects of low-impact training, particularly swimming, combined with a mediterranean diet on obese pre-adolescents.Material and methods: Six-month of an observational study was performed involving twenty pre-adolescents aged between 8 and 12 years with diagnosed obesity with z-BMI >2, according to the World Health Organization guidelines.Results: The assessment was carried out at the beginning of the intervention (T0) and at the end of treatment (T1). All participants were randomly assigned to either: the control group (CG) just followed the mediterranean diet whilst the experimental group (EG) over the mediterranean diet followed a planned physical activity.The results showed statistically significant differences between T0 and T1 in both CG and EG, especially concerning 1,25(OH)2D and insulin levels. However, the differences were more impressive in EG (1,25(OH)2D 9.27 vs 25.64; Insulin 29.31 vs 12.66) compared with CG (1,25(OH)2D 8.7 vs 13.7; Insulin 28.45 vs 22.76).Conclusions: In conclusion, these results showed the importance of diet and low-impact exercise intervention to improve pre-adolescent’s health especially those with obesity.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Effects of complex-contrast training on physical fitness in male field
           hockey athletes

    • Abstract: Study aim: This study aimed to examine the effects of a six-week complex-contrast training (CCT) intervention on the physical fitness of male field hockey athletes.Material and methods: Participants were randomized into a CCT (n = 8) or control (CG; n = 6) group. Physical fitness was assessed pre- and post-six-week intervention using a 30 m linear sprint test, medicine ball throw, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJA), modified T-test (MAT), and unilateral isokinetic maximal strength test (knee flexion and extension) of both legs. The six-week CCT intervention was integrated as three weekly sessions within the sport-specific training schedule of field hockey athletes. Each session included four contrast pair exercises (e.g., squat + squat jump). ANCOVA with baseline scores as a covariate was used to analyze the specific training effects.Results: Significant differences between CCT and CG were observed in the 30 m sprint, CMJA, MAT, and isokinetic strength (p < 0.001–0.013) after the intervention, favoring the CCT group. Further, post-hoc analyses revealed significant pre to post improvements in all dependent variables for the CCT group (p < 0.001–0.001; effect size [g] = 0.28–2.65; %Δ = 3.1–16.3), but not in the CG (p = 0.169–0.991; g = 0.00–0.32; %Δ = 0.0–2.6).Conclusion: Supplementing regular field hockey training with CCT is recommended as an effective training strategy to improve the performance of linear sprints, vertical jumps, changes of direction, and muscle strength in amateur male field hockey athletes.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Knock knee deformity and body mass index among the male school students of
           9 to 13 years old of chandigarh, India

    • Abstract: Study aim: To study knock knee deformity and the body mass index among male school students of Chandigarh, India. The study also intended to evaluate the association of knock knee deformity with BMI.Material and method: In total, 900 school students were selected, and out of these 300 each were from private, government model and government schools in slum areas. Convenient sampling was employed. The age of the subjects ranged from 9 to 13 years. Height, weight, BMI and intermalleolar distance of selected subjects were assessed. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and correlation were employed.Results: The highest percentages of obese (11.3%) and overweight (15.3%) students were found in the private schools. The highest percentages of severe knock knee deformity (10.7%) were found in the students of the private schools, whereas 16.7% of students in the government model schools had moderate knock knee deformity. Height, weight and BMI were significantly correlated with knock knee deformity.Conclusion: Body weight among the school students might be associated with the school type, as the problem of obesity and underweight was pervasive in private and government schools. Knock knee deformity was related to the school type and body weight status.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
  • Reliability of a self-report questionnaire to assess parents’
           postural knowledge

    • Abstract: Study aim: To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess parents’ postural knowledge.Material and methods: This questionnaire was conducted on 30 Iranian parents. The questionnaire assessed knowledge of abnormalities in body posture and ergonomic knowledge of parents, which were in line with their postural knowledge. The kappa coefficient (test–retest reliability) of the questionnaire included assessing its stability over 1 week among 30 participants. The validity of the content of the questionnaire was checked and agreed upon by three experts from three different institutions.Results: The kappa coefficient for 19 questions and their 46 sub-questions ranged from 0.30 to 1. Out of these items, 89% (n = 41) had a value of 0.6 or above and 11% (n = 5) were below 0.6. Questions were categorized as “no change expected” (0.86÷1), “change unlikely” (0.68÷1), and “change likely” (0.30÷0.68).Conclusions: The Parent’s Postural Knowledge Questionnaire was found to be highly reliable and its contents relevant for the assessment of postural knowledge among Iranian parents. This tool is appropriate for studying larger populations in the variable of interest.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2023 00:00:00 GMT
       
 
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