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  Subjects -> SPORTS AND GAMES (Total: 199 journals)
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Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.138
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2081-2221 - ISSN (Online) 1899-4849
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [389 journals]
  • Does “We” Matter for Esports Fans' Analyzing the Mediating Effects

    • Abstract: As an emerging field of study, scholars have constantly compared esports and traditional sports to find similarities and differences between the two sports fields. As various studies have called for more studies regarding the fan communities of esports, the present study analyzed the mediating effect of the sense of the esports fan community between team identification and consumer behaviors. This study employed a path analysis technique, utilizing online survey responses from 182 participants who identified as fans of the esports team. The findings revealed that a sense of fan community did not have mediating effects by showing statistically non-significant (in)direct effects on consumer behaviors. In contrast, team identification showed a significant positive effect on the sense of fan community and some consumer behaviors. The implications of the study suggest that esports organizations should focus their marketing strategies on individual fan bases and strive to maintain the competitiveness of their leagues to attract more fans to esports.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • “We Should Not Have the Same Restrictions as Everybody Else:”
           Southeastern US CrossFit Coaches’ Perceptions of COVID-19 Restrictions

    • Abstract: The spread of the COVID-19 virus significantly impacted the fitness industry with government restrictions including mandated closures. CrossFit, a major player in the global fitness industry, faced a new industry landscape and significant internal division while coping with the crisis. This study contributes to the literature on CrossFit coaches, who are important cultural figures in fitness services. This study investigated CrossFit coaches’ perceptions of COVID-19 restrictions through semi-structured interviews with a diverse sample in Georgia and Florida, U.S. The coaches displayed CrossFit exceptionalism, believing that fitness facilities should have been treated differently, and CrossFit gyms in particular were distinctive enough to merit special consideration. Some coaches approved of the governmental response, but others disapproved, and many expressed gratitude that they were in states with short restriction periods. Their demonstration of uncertainty, however, somewhat conflicted with their exceptionalism. These perceptions may influence coaches’ behaviors and impact CrossFit participants, which makes the topic worthy of additional study.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Can the Media Discourse Surrounding the Paralympic Games Alter the
           Perception of Disability Held by Children With Disabilities and Their

    • Abstract: This qualitative and exploratory study aimed to investigate whether contact with media content related to the Paralympic Games (PG) could affect the perception of disability held by children with disabilities (CWD) and their families. The research featured 12 CWD not involved in sports and 13 of their relatives. It consisted of two sessions, one before and another after participants viewed two videos related to the PG that showed athletes and other people with disabilities (PWD) successfully playing sports and/or performing other activities. In both sections, we asked them to write the first five words that came to mind upon hearing the expression PWD. Next, we conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore their views on disability. We computed the words mentioned in the first dynamic and conducted an inductive reflexive thematic analysis of the interviews. Before the videos were shown, the words written most were “difficulty,” “problem,” and “limitation.” During the interviews, they focused on impairments and difficulties associated with disability. Following the videos, the most predominant written words were “overcoming” and “capacity.” Throughout the interviews, they focused more on the potential and capabilities of PWD. This study suggests that materials such as those that we used can help CWD and their families develop a more positive view of the potential and capabilities of PWD. These materials might also be used in other contexts (e.g., in schools and community education programs), especially in places where it is still rare to see PWD practicing sports and performing other activities such as those shown in the videos.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Are Esports Players Inactive' A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: As esports grow, public authorities have many concerns about the potential negative health effects of this “sedentary” practice. This work proposes a systematic review on the links between esports and physical activity (PA). The research questions guiding this review are as follows: (1) What is the PA level of esports players' (2) Do data exist regarding the influence of participation in esports on players’ PA' (3) Based on these findings, what future research questions should be asked and what studies should be conducted' Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed that esports players appeared to be active, exceeding World Health Organization recommendations, in 13 studies and inactive or low-active in four studies. The different populations of players do not appear to have the same degree of PA. High-level, professional, and/or supervised players appear to be more physically active. However, some data are inconsistent, and our review highlights several biases and methodological limitations. Additionally, while we have found no studies providing data on the influence of esports on PA, five studies highlight several factors that could push players to engage in PA. Finally, further research is needed using objective measurement tools and characterizing and accurately distinguishing between players’ levels of expertise and the type of game played. The nature and modalities of the PA also need to be clarified. We encourage supplementing these quantitative data with qualitative data obtained through interviews to provide a description and understanding of the influence of esports on PA engagement, re-engagement, retention, and withdrawal.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Effect of Educational Intervention on Sports Law Concepts on the Attitude,
           Knowledge, and Behavior of Coaches

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to measure the effects of educational intervention on sports law concepts on coaches’ attitude, knowledge, and behavior. The method of the study was quasi-experimental, including two groups, pretest and posttest stages, and a follow-up study. A total of 50 coaches from Eghlid in Fars Province, Iran, were selected using the convenience sampling method. They were then randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. A researcher-made educational protocol was used for educating coaches who participated in the experimental group on the concepts of sports law. Then, in order to measure the efficiency of the educational protocol, three questionnaires were employed to measure the coaches’ attitudes and their knowledge about the concepts and regulations of sports law, as well as their behavior related to the principles and regulations of sports law at sports clubs. The covariance analyzing test and ANOVA with repeated measures were employed to analyze the data provided by the study’s instruments. The results indicated that the educational intervention of this study positively changed the attitude of the coaches in the experimental group towards the concept of sports law. In addition, the educational intervention of this study significantly improved the knowledge of coaches in the experimental group about the rules and regulations of sports law. Furthermore, the behavior of the coaches in the experimental group changed in that they began properly implementing the principles and regulations of sports law after participating in eight educational sessions. Moreover, the effects of the educational intervention in this study remained for three months following the completion of the intervention.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Students’ Attitudes Toward Assessment in Physical Education

    • Abstract: Despite the recent increase in attention on studies focusing on different types of assessment of student participation in physical education (PE), there is little research concerning students’ attitudes toward the PE assessment process. This study aimed to investigate students’ attitudes toward assessment procedures in PE by developing and validating a quantitative instrument concerning crucial areas of pedagogy such as curriculum, teachers, grading, and fitness tests. It further investigates important attitude determinants such as grade level and gender differences. The scale was distributed to 1,403 students in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 10th grades. Principal components analysis showed an eigenvalue factor greater than 1, which accounted for 47% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded satisfactory indices that confirmed the unidimensional model with high internal consistency (α = .84). A two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between the 7th and 10th grades. At the same time, students expressed a high level of positive attitudes toward the different aspects of assessment procedures. The study examined various aspects of students’ attitudes toward assessment and resulted in a reliable, valid, and easy-to-use quantitative instrument that can be used by educators and researchers to assess students’ attitudes toward assessment in PE.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Is Home Advantage Diminished When Competing Without Spectators'
           Evidence From the Israeli Football and Basketball Leagues

    • Abstract: Sports spectators are one of the factors that affect home advantage. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic created unique conditions under which most of the leagues in the world played matches without crowds for over six months. This situation facilitated an analytical comparison of two different periods: before and during the coronavirus pandemic. The current study sought to examine home advantage in the Israeli sport domain in general, and specifically the impact of the absence of a crowd. The study consisted of 4,030 matches played in Israel’s top football and basketball leagues, of which 3,589 took place with crowds from August 2015 to March 2020, while the others were held without spectators from May 2020 to February 2021. Descriptive and analyses of variance procedures indicated a home advantage independent of crowd size, density, geographic region, league level, and type of sport. However, higher-quality teams demonstrated a higher home advantage ratio for the goals conceded. The findings of the study indicate that in the Israeli context, the crowd plays less of a role in home advantage than other potential factors.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Nov 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Wrestling Gym in Dagestan as a Space for Masculine Socialization

    • Abstract: The paper analyzes the process of sports gender socialization of boys and adolescents in the case of freestyle wrestling in Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian North Caucasus Republic of Dagestan. The methods and practices of educating future men in the wrestling gym are functionally related to the model of hegemonic masculinity rooted in the local gender and social order, which is under pressure from urbanization and modernization. The wrestling gym insulates students from both the “demoralizing” influence of the home environment and the marginalized scripts of masculinity associated with street life. Through training, boys and adolescents acquire a masculine habitus that can later become the basis for their careers in sports and other spheres of social life, as well as the social capital necessary for successful participation in coalition clinches. They internalize the principle of consistency in gender and age stratification and the lifestyle associated with the ideology of “muscular Islam.”
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Sociological Analysis of Branding of Professional Football League Players

    • Abstract: The role of branding the sports performance of Iranian professional football League players was investigated by adopting a survey-based research strategy. Players with a history of competing in the Iranian Football League made up the statistical population for the study. 200 players were selected from this population as the study sample. The questionnaire data obtained were analyzed using IBM® SPSS® Amos TM 23 software. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires were acceptable and a good fit. The results showed that the structural equation model used is a strong theoretical model for studying the branding of Iranian League players, and that such branding has a significant positive effect on sports performance. Therefore, sports clubs need to understand the power of branding players to increase their athletic performance in sports expertise, competitive style and fair play. On the other hand, the most important aspect of branding is branding the whole club, rather than each product or player, since each individual product can benefit from the income belonging to the brand family of the club or organization. It is suggested that professional and strategic methods can help players and motivate them to acquire the necessary skills to grow branding.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investigation of Coronaphobia, Anxiety, Stress, and Mental Well-Being
           Levels According to Employees’ Participation in Recreational Activities
           During the Covid-19 Pandemic

    • Abstract: This study aims to determine the difference between coronaphobia, anxiety, stress, and mental well-being levels among public institution employees according to their participation in recreational activities during the pandemic and to compare them in terms of variables. The field research method was used in the study, which had 376 (215 males, 161 females) voluntary participants. During the data collection process, a questionnaire was used to determine persistent anxiety, coronavirus-19 phobia, stress, mental well-being levels, and demographic characteristics. The form inquired about age, gender, whether participants attended recreational events during the pandemic, and, if so, what types of activities they participated in. Significant differences were found among the participants’ scores for continuous anxiety, mental well-being, coronavirus-19 phobia, and the psychological, somatic, and social sub-dimensions. It was found that those who participated in recreational activities had higher mental well-being scores and lower anxiety and phobia scores than those who did not. Significant differences were found in some of the scales used according to gender and age variables. Since recreational activities reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, it is recommended that individuals participate in activities that comfort them and make them happy under pandemic conditions.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Examining the Relationships Among Perceived Quality, Perceived Value,
           Customer Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention in Turkish Fitness Centers

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships among perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intention in Turkish fitness centers. The data were collected from 305 fitness customers (149 women and 156 men) using the quantitative method of a questionnaire. The main procedure of this study was to conceptualize fitness clubs’ perceived value as a multidimensional construct of four dimensions. Through a comprehensive review of the literature, a questionnaire was developed to measure perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intention, which took into consideration the unique characteristics of Turkish fitness centers. After examining the measurement properties by conducting confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model analysis, the results revealed positive relationships among perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intention. The findings showed that perceived quality was positively related to social value, functional value, emotional value, and economic value. Likewise, functional value and economic value were positively related to customer satisfaction, and social value and emotional value were not positively related to customer satisfaction. Finally, customer satisfaction was related to behavioral intentions. The implication for management is significant as it shows that quality management is important for the different dimensions of value. Therefore, sports managers must work on quality processes to achieve positive perceived quality and its consequences, such as perceived value or behavioral intentions. This chain of positive perceptions improves consumer loyalty.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Social Media Marketing for Professional Soccer Clubs: Focusing on the
           Quality of the Relationship Between the Club and Fans

    • Abstract: This study investigates how the social networking service (SNS) activities of professional football clubs have affected the quality of the relationship between clubs and fans during the period in which the COVID-19 pandemic caused limited fan service activities. This study selected a sample population of professional football fans, provided by football clubs, who were experienced in using SNSs. Data collected through convenience sampling using 215 questionnaires completed online by respondents were analyzed using frequency, exploratory factor, reliability, correlation, and multivariate regression analyses with SPSS 23.0 and AMOS 22.0. The study’s findings are as follows: among the sub-factors of professional football clubs’ SNS characteristics, interactivity and playfulness have a positive (+) effect on trust, a sub-factor of relationship quality, but information and recentness do not have a significant effect; interactivity, information, and playfulness have a positive (+) effect on immersion, a sub-factor of relationship quality, but recentness does not have a significant effect; and interactivity, information, playfulness, and recentness have a positive (+) effect on satisfaction, a sub-factor of relationship quality. This study provides practical and academic data useful for effective marketing activities by investigating how clubs’ SNS marketing activities can help fans connect with them despite the limitations owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Oct 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Investment Activities of the Polish YMCA in the Interwar Period

    • Abstract: Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) appeared in Poland in 1918. Three years later, the American branch of the organization ceased its activity in this country. In its place the Christian Young People Association ‘Polska YMCA’ (The Polish YMCA) was established. This organization, although maintained contact with the centers of organizations in other countries, remained fully independent. The Polish YMCA was most active in large cities and centers of particular symbolic and economic importance for the Second Republic of Poland – Warsaw, Cracow, Łódź and Gdynia. The Polish YMCA was one of the most active and efficient social organizations dealing with physical education and sport in interwar Poland. It gained considerable popularity and was one of the most important institutions offering extracurricular activities for young people. One of the reasons for its success was its excellent material base. The Polish YMCA successfully built three representative buildings in the center of Cracow, Warsaw and Łódź in the interwar period. Their construction was partially financed by American funds. There were sports equipment, rare in interwar Poland, such as indoor swimming pools, sports halls and indoor tennis courts located in there. The Polish YMCA also developed the infrastructure of summer camps.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Complex Ice Hockey Team Performance Model based on Expert Interviews

    • Abstract: Scientific research focusing on ice hockey is growing, although a complex model describing team performance is yet to be added to the knowledge base. The purpose of the study is to finalize the authors’ proposed model of ice hockey team performance and gain insights on how the included factors contribute to the operation of the team and the coach. Based on the processed literature, it was assumed that the psychological aspect is among the key factors contributing to team performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly qualified experts on Hungarian ice hockey (five national team coaches and five senior national team players). The results indicate that the psychological factors of the coach and the team are essential for high team performance, along with the influence ability of both sides, creating two-way communication and feedback loops. The practical knowledge of the coach was emphasized over theoretical knowledge, and the team’s tactical knowledge was emphasized over technical knowledge. It also emerged that the coach must know the team well in order to make appropriate decisions. The role of the coach is no longer to act as a stressor, but rather to set a good example as a role model while remaining open to feedback from the team’s side. It was concluded that although many psychological methods are available to improve performance, the use of these methods has not yet been sufficiently exploited. While the use of these methods could improve performance, the team could experience more success and make sporting activity a fundamental part of players’ health through bonding and belonging.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Bullying in Physical Education: Awareness of Physical Education Teachers

    • Abstract: This study investigates how physical education (PE) teachers make sense of peer bullying, which types of behaviors they associate with peer bullying, their opinions about these behaviors, and methods for preventing bullying. The study group consisted of 18 PE teachers. The interview technique was used as a qualitative research method in the study. The data obtained after one-on-one interviews were analyzed through content analysis. According to the data obtained, PE teachers are the most important variable in the decrease or increase of peer bullying in classes. However, PE classes provide a suitable environment for the emergence of peer bullying. Additionally, bullying caused by the individual characteristics of students and environmental reasons can increase in schools, and there are generally no collective intervention programs within schools to prevent it. According to the teachers’ opinions, some of the important results are that students who are exposed to bullying experience the same fear every week in PE lessons, and although it is known that the majority of them do not want to participate in the activity in order to avoid being bullied, no solution can be found.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Associations between Sports Videogames and Physical Activity in Children

    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of sports video gaming behaviour in the sociological concept of Physical Activity Relationships (PAR) and to see if sports video gaming differs by gender.Methods: A convenience sample of children between 11–12 years of age (n = 114) from three Finnish regions completed a questionnaire on perceptions of their video gaming and physical activity habits. Differences by gender were tested by contingency tables, and blockwise binary logistic regressions were used to examine the strength of association with physical activity behaviour in PAR.Results: Almost all girls had low importance to video gaming and over two thirds (71%) reported their frequency in sports video gaming was less than monthly. Sports video gaming was positively associated with physical activity behaviours (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.3–9.0), but when combined with perceived physical activity importance and spectating in sports, the association was no longer statistically significant. There were no differences in gender for non-sports video gaming.Conclusions: For children who partake in sports video games, the activity can be an integral part of their overall PAR. These preliminary results require further exploring prior to drawing societal implications or sports video games or applying them for intervention to promote physical activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • COVID-19 Sport Transformation: New Challenges and New Opportunities

    • Abstract: The new pandemic lifestyle advocates new rules for sport at all levels, from amateur to elite. Consequently, it has transformed the ways in which sports are performed and consumed, provoking demand for new technologies and/or the development of existing ones. This paper aims to identify, describe, and visualize the process of sport transformation as radical internal and external industry changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is intended to qualitatively explain the current ‘metamorphoses’ in the field and subsequently answer the question of how the COVID-19 pandemic drastically changed all aspects of sports and physical culture. The literature and empirical dataset (qualitative open-ended written interviews, N = 147) were analysed in the spirit of grounded theory, referring to the holistic approach. The results demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on sports by touching on all aspects, levels, and stakeholders. The paper also outlines challenges and opportunities for the industry in these extraordinary times. The key dimensions of transformation are identified and explained. The findings of this research have significant implications for the understanding of how COVID-19 gave rise to the transformation of sports in different aspects. This study adds to the growing body of research on the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on sports, new technologies demand, and the transformation of sports.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The Problematic Institutional Context of Greek Football and the Role of
           FIFA and UEFA

    • Abstract: Greek football is on the periphery of European football and it frequently faces scandals and corruption issues. Also, there appears to be a correlation between the wider social and political context and football. Additionally, FIFA and UEFA arguably have contributed to the fate of Greek football. For example, in the past when the Greek government tried to intervene in football, FIFA prevented them several times with the threat of a ban. During the previous years, FIFA and UEFA decided to cooperate with the Greek government and play a more active role in Greek football. However, little has changed in the governance of Greek football. This study has examined the context, critical incidents and the role of actors in Greek football. By using the Institutional Theory approach, our analysis indicates that the institutional context is highly problematic, as the big clubs dominate the institutional mechanisms of football. Corruption appears to be deeply embedded in the structures and operations of football, while the Hellenic Football Federation is controlled by the big clubs. In parallel, there is no plan for the overall development of football, from the grassroots to the elite level. The study concludes with a recommendation for the reformation of Greek football.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Negative Focus, Self-Doubt, and Issues of ‘Tool Proficiency’:
           Beginner-Coaches’ Reflections on Reflective Practice

    • Abstract: In the field of sports coaching education and learning, reflective practice is considered central to transforming experience and knowledge into expertise, and many governing bodies execute this through professional development and specific guidelines (Vallance, 2019). However, whilst the general consensus within academia and the vocational sector of coaching continue to espouse this approach, there is a lack of evidence to suggest how this is useful for beginner-coaches (defined as emerging-new, with less than three years of experience) as studies generally focus on expert coaches and oftentimes sit within the context of performance and/or elite sport. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the benefits and limitations of reflective practice, and to identify aspects of ideal learning for in-situ, practice-based context as perceived by beginner-coaches who operate more within recreational (although still competitive) sport fields. Situated within the UK context, the methodology comprised of semi-structured interviews conducted with six beginner-coaches. The findings demonstrated that whilst there were tangible benefits to the use of reflective practice (such as perceived additional competency and critical thinking), there were also limitations centred on time constraints, and an over-focus on negative emotions with a subsequent adverse impact on self-confidence and anxiety. The implications, including recommendations and thoughts for the future, are outlined within the paper.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Applying Dyer’s Star Theory to Sport: Understanding the Cultivation
           of Athlete Stardom

    • Abstract: Sports stars and heroes have always been a product of the times in which they have existed and, as such, athlete stars, largely constructed by and through the media, have evolved over time. In particular, the meanings of characteristics that have defined stars of different generations have changed as society’s expectations and social norms have evolved. This can be understood through Richard Dyer’s (1998) star theory, which states that to cultivate their stardom a celebrity must resonate with the ideals, values, and spirit of the time.This theoretical paper aims to highlight how Dyer’s star theory – originally developed as a means of understanding the construction of movie stars by mainstream media – can be used to understand the ways in which athlete stars can promote star attributes to cultivate their stardom by displaying modern values and presenting themselves as both “ordinary” and “extraordinary.” By creating a framework for understanding the process of creating athlete stardom, we are also able to begin to understand how athletes’ social media activities and stardom will evolve in the future, thus creating an important tool for athletes and their managers responsible for enhancing their brand. To expound and enrich the theory a survey of sports fans is included. The survey responses provide insights into how the expectations of fans can influence social athlete social media strategies and the cultivation of athlete stars.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2022 00:00:00 GMT
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