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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1754-3371 - ISSN (Online) 1754-338X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The utility of markerless motion capture for performance analysis in
           racket sports

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      Authors: Julian Quah Jian Tan, Jia Yi Chow, John Komar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent technological advancements have allowed movements to be tracked ecologically via markerless motion capture (mocap). However, occlusions remain a major concern pertaining to markerless mocap. Within racket sports where the number of players involved are low and occlusions are minimal, there exists a unique opportunity to delve into and provide an overview on the utilisation of markerless mocap technology. Twenty studies were included after a systematic search. Several methods were applied to obtain 2D positional data. Most studies adopted some form of background subtraction or thresholding method (n = 12), the remaining relied on pose estimation algorithms (PEA; n = 3), Hawk-Eye (n = 2) and object recognition (n = 1). Conversely, only the visual hull method was found to obtain 3D joint kinematics (n = 2). Markerless mocap are conventionally used to extract joint kinematics, however, study results revealed that the predominant use of markerless mocap was to capture the movement of a player’s location on court, this finding was unexpected. Low sampling frequencies of input videos and unsuitability of model detection used in the included studies could have limited the ability for markerless mocap to accurately track movements in racket sports. While current evidence suggests that the use of PEA in racket sports to extract 3D kinematics is limited, perhaps a slightly different approach gearing towards performance analysis, specifically stroke classification with the amalgamation of player location data and joint kinematics may be worth exploring further.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-14T03:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241230731
       
  • Synthetic turf finite element model development and validation

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      Authors: Michael C Bustamante, Brock Watson, Matheus A Correia, Aleksander L Rycman, Jared Yoder, Cody O’Cain, Gwansik Park, Philipe Aldahir, Meade Spratley, Duane S Cronin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Assessment of synthetic turf performance has been undertaken using a variety of experimental methods but is limited in understanding the complex physics of cleat-turf interaction. Computational models could provide insight, but there is currently no validated model of synthetic turf available. The scope of this study was to develop a Finite Element (FE) model of synthetic turf using a hierarchical approach and validate the model using independent test data. A physical third-generation synthetic turf comprising slit-film fibers with sand and rubber crumb infill was constructed. Experiments were conducted using a direct impact (Clegg) device and an artificial cleat-form. Material characterization tests were performed on the individual turf components, integrated into constitutive models, and a full turf FE model was constructed. The carpet was modeled with shell elements while the granular infill was modeled using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) elements. A method to simulate the physical pre-conditioning performed on the experimental turf was developed. Both unconditioned and pre-conditioned turfs were assessed using Clegg tests. The re-created Clegg tests on the turf model demonstrated good agreement with the physical tests, with higher acceleration for the pre-conditioned turf. The turf model was validated using experiments with a turf test apparatus including dynamic translation and rotation of a cleat-form. The model predicted results in good agreement with the experiments (average CORA rating of 0.863) on pre-conditioned turf. The resulting model and methods can be expanded to synthetic turf of different constituent materials, to investigate their effects on cleat-surface interaction, optimizing performance, and reducing injury risk.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T05:14:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241231358
       
  • Internal and external load profiles of male basketball players during
           training

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      Authors: Javier García-Rubio, Pablo López-Sierra, Maria Reina, Sergio José Ibañez
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Traditionally in basketball, five specific positions have been distinguished, often due to the anthropometric characteristics of the players. In recent years, different research has emerged that tries to break with this paradigm, giving rise to different classifications of players based on other characteristics that are more closely related to the actual game of basketball. The aim of this research was to determine the load profiles of players according to internal and external load values. An observational design was used, in which 12 professional players from the Spanish Men’s First Division Basketball (ACB league) team participated, obtaining data from all the training sessions carried out over two microcycles. All players were equipped with WIMUPRO™ inertial devices, using a UWB system for the players’ positioning in indoor spaces. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to group the variables and determine the profiles. The results showed four different player profiles: versatile, explosive, dynamic, and fast players. Within these load profiles are included players from the five specific positions according to the traditional basketball classification, possessing distinct anthropometric characteristics among themselves. These results allow strength and conditioning coaches to train players physically in a more efficient way, using small-sided games in mid court, or games in full court more adequately, and achieving greater specificity and applicability in their exercises and tasks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T05:05:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241231033
       
  • Unlocking the potential: A comprehensive meta-synthesis of Internet of
           Things in the sports industry

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      Authors: Sadegh Fatahi Milasi, Nooshin Benar, Ali Nazarian, Mohsin Shahzad
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The current research aims to answer two significant research questions: What are the dimensions of the application of the Internet of Things in the sports industry' And what are the components of each aspect of using the Internet of Things in the sports industry' Also, this study responds to the development of literature on Industry 4.0 technologies in the sports industry. The current research used the meta-synthesis method and the seven-step method of Sandelowski and Barroso to review 131 related qualitative studies. The results of the surveys include 10 dimensions and 79 indicators of Internet of Things applications in the sports industry, including health management, safety and security management, optimization of management processes, fan experience, management of sports facilities and venues, improving performance (of referees and athletes), marketing and media, smart equipment, and sports tourism. The applications obtained from Internet of Things technology can be used in the determined dimensions for developing and improving sports. Finally, it is important to emphasize the importance of continuing to deepen knowledge about the Internet of Things as well as the new technologies available in the fourth generation of the industrial revolution and its applications in the field of sports. Research aimed at studying the potential of these technologies in the sports industry and its management is necessary.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-12T07:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241229521
       
  • Performance analysis of the teams that remained in the top-tier division
           of the Spanish LaLiga during eight consecutive seasons

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      Authors: Ibai Errekagorri, Roberto López-Del Campo, Ricardo Resta, Julen Castellano
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to analyse the performance of 2212 collective observations of the eight teams that remained in the Spanish men’s top professional football division (Spanish LaLiga) for eight consecutive seasons (from 2011–2012 to 2018–2019), intending to understand the reference values of these teams. The variables recorded were passes, successful passes, crosses, shots, goals, corners, fouls, width, length, height, distance from the goalkeeper to the nearest defender (GkDef) and total distance covered (TD). A linear mixed model was performed for each dependent variable (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-09T06:04:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241232034
       
  • Stryd biomechanical parameters as indicators of running economy and
           performance

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      Authors: Diego Jaén-Carrillo, Santiago A Ruiz-Alias, Javier Olaya-Cuartero, Felipe García-Pinillos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The interplay of biomechanical and neuromuscular aspects aids in the conversion of power production in running performance, and when combined with metabolic factors, these aspects may lead to improved running economy (RE). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the association between the Stryd Power Meter foot pod metrics with RE and performance. Fifteen high-caliber male athletes completed two treadmill running sessions. First, RE was determined at 10 and 12 km/h. Second, two all-out efforts of nine and three minute duration were completed. At 10 km/h, the simple and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that form power (FP) was the best RE predictor (adjusted R2 = 0.464; p = 0.005) followed by vertical oscillation (VO) (R2 = 0.424; p = 0.005) and ground contact time (GCT) (R2 = 0.363; p = 0.010). At 12 km/h, such regressions confirmed that GCT was the best RE indicator (adjusted R2 = 0.222; p = 0.043) followed by FP (adjusted R2 = 0.213; p = 0.047). During the nine and three minute all-out effort sessions, GCT was the best performance predictor (R2 = 0.491; p = 0.002 and R2 = 0.380; p = 0.014, respectively). The biomechanical factors of GCT and FP are good indicators of RE and running performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T08:53:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231220760
       
  • Tactical factors that influence shooting success in the Chinese Football
           Association Super League

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      Authors: Liu Tianbiao, Chen Qiu, Pietzonka Micha, Huang Yuhan, Ji Haoyang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the tactical factors influencing shooting success in the Chinese Football Association Super League (CSL). The data set comprised 5914 shooting actions collected from all 240 matches in the CSL 2018 season, featuring 16 different teams. The variables assessed included pass number (PN), playing minute (M), match status (MS), final passing area (FPA), regaining possession position (RPP), offense category (OC), and shooting position (SP). To distinguish the attacking patterns of teams of varying strengths, all 16 teams were clustered into two groups based on two contextual factors: their starting season budgets and their rankings at the end of the season. Firstly, a descriptive analysis was conducted, followed by the application of a binomial-logit model (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T08:50:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231219730
       
  • Objective and subjective measurements of the influence of dampers on the
           shooting experience of barebow archers

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      Authors: Francesco Pietra, Philip W Loveday, Robert Reid
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The barebow archery shooting style previously limited the stabilisation system to weights connected to the riser, which is the central part of the bow, but recently the use of damping devices has been allowed. No scientific study is available to evaluate the effect of damping on the archers’ shooting experience. A human-centred methodology was developed to address this problem. Objective metrics (measurable quantities) and subjective metrics (archers’ sensations using the equipment) were defined. These metrics were correlated to obtain a deeper understanding of the problem. Fifty-one weight configurations were tested for mechanical vibrations and sound of the bow on shooting. The mechanical vibration was measured at five positions on the bow. Fifteen configurations were selected and tested by eight archers to evaluate the subjective metrics. The results show that dedicated vibration-damping devices are capable of significantly reducing the mechanical vibrations and the intensity and pitch of the sound of the bow on shooting. A strong correlation exists between reduced vibrations, lower intensity and pitch* of the sound of the bow and the quality of the shooting experience. The methodology used in this work was successful in fostering an understanding of the relationship between objective and subjective metrics on shooting. The results of this analysis could be used to improve existing designs or create new products for archery.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-02-03T12:18:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231213420
       
  • Comparative analysis of recording system for collecting kinematic data in
           beach volleyball

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      Authors: José Pino-Ortega, Pedro Reche-Soto, Antonio García-de-Alcaraz
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The monitoring and assessment of athletes’ behavior by Electronic Performance and Tracking Systems (EPTS) is a growing reality. However, the reliability and precision of the recording systems remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the differences between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Local Position Systems (LPS) based on Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) in terms of kinematic measurements. Twelve beach volleyball matches were recorded in a tournament, leading to a total of 469 rallies performed. Kinematic variables such as distance (total, explosive, and speed area), accelerations, decelerations, and speed (mean and maximum) were measured with GNSS and UWB systems. Mean-difference tests (T-test or Mann-Whitney U test) were applied to calculate the dissimilarity between systems (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T09:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241229526
       
  • Real time estimation of vertical jump height with a markerless motion
           capture smartphone app: A proof-of-concept case study

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      Authors: Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of the present proof-of-concept case study was to explore the potential of a novel technology using artificial intelligence techniques to measure countermovement jump height (CMJ-h) in real time. Four hundred jumps were recorded from a single male participant over a period of 24 consecutive weeks, while CMJ-h was simultaneously registered with a force plate and a newly developed version of the My Jump Lab iOS app that used computer vision to measure CMJ-h in real time with the iPhone camera. A very high correlation (r = 0.971, 95% CI = 0.963–0.975) and large agreement (ICC = 0.969, 95% CI = 0.963–0.975) were observed between measurements. Statistically significant, large differences were observed between instruments (mean absolute difference = 0.06 ± 0.01 m, d = 4.4, p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T09:08:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371241227817
       
  • Modeling and analysis of Alpine skiing downhill based on the DPAS model
           considering four-way inhomogeneous environmental winds with digital twins
           at downhill course of the Beijing Olympic Winter Games

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      Authors: Bo Li, Zhiyang Li, Ruifang Shen, Hui Huang, Zheyao Wang, Yuanzhao Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In Alpine skiing, the influence of the environment wind on the athlete is crucial. To accurately analyze the coupling effect of environment wind speed, wind direction, and the athlete’s skiing process, this paper establishes the kinematic equations of the athlete based on Newtonian classical mechanics and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and proposes a discretization method for the course. Simulation results were obtained by using CFD to obtain digital twins for the course and its surroundings. The simulation results were also used as input to the wind parameters to analyze the athletes’ sliding performance. The Downhill Process in Alpine Skiing (DPAS) model was constructed to validate the actual downhill course in the Beijing Olympic Winter Games. An analytical framework for downhill skiing with way inhomogeneous winds was demonstrated to be a good simulation and validation of our analytical framework, proving its good simulatability and reliability. The downhill process is also subdivided into four phases: start-up acceleration phase, core acceleration phase, intermittent acceleration phase, and endurance sprint phase, based on the velocity-time curve derived from the actual course simulation. Tactical skiing strategies for skiers to improve their performance are proposed for the different stages of the process. We believe that the DPAS model can also be applied to other parts of Alpine skiing such as slalom, giant slalom, and super-G, and that the results can be used to suggest tactical strategies to improve performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T06:28:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231222677
       
  • Introducing mobile learning in sport management education: Exploring
           gender differences in Pinterest usage

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      Authors: Samuel López-Carril, María Huertas González-Serrano, Fernando García-Pascual
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      We live in an increasingly interconnected world thanks to the advance of digitalization. Digital tools such as mobile devices or social media platforms have transformed the way in which people and organizations relate to each other. Higher education and sports are two of the areas of society where we have seen more changes caused by the rise of digitalization. In education, digital tools have revolutionized the way in which classes are taught, moving classrooms toward hybrid or online models. In the case of sport, digital tools such as social media are essential for sport managers when interacting with the sport ecosystem. Despite the advances that digital technology is bringing about in society, studies exploring the potential of social media and digital tools in sport management classrooms are scarce. This work explores the possibilities that a little-studied social media platform, such as Pinterest, offers when introduced in the classroom through mobile-based learning and active learning methodologies. In addition, and in a pioneering way in the case of Pinterest, it explores the possible differences depending on the gender of the students. A total of 72 students of the “Sports Equipment and Facilities” course at a Spanish university participated in this study. After finishing the educational intervention with Pinterest, students completed a questionnaire to share their perceptions. Subsequently, t-tests for independent samples were performed through the statistical package SPSS 27.0. The results obtained highlight that all students, regardless of gender, had a positive perception of Pinterest in the teaching-learning process. In addition, women scored higher on all items, with significant differences in four areas. In view of these results, it is concluded that the use of Pinterest through mobile learning is positive in the university context. Furthermore, there is a gender variable influence in the students’ perceptions regarding Pinterest.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-27T09:22:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231219381
       
  • Comparisons of external load variables among periods, playing status, and
           positions in professional soccer team: A case study

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      Authors: Hadi Nobari, Amir Barjaste, Alexandre Duarte Martins, Rafael Oliveira
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were to compare weekly variations of training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) among periods of the season, playing status and playing positions in professional soccer athletes. Nineteen male professional soccer players were monitored daily over a 43-week period for their total distance, sprint distance (>23 km h−1), acceleration (Acc,>4 m s−2), and decelerations numbers (Dec,>−4 m s−2). Players were divided in groups of 10 starters and 9 non-starters; and by three central defenders (CD), four wide defenders (WD), four central midfielders (CM), four wide midfielders (WM), and four strikers (ST). Season data was divided in pre-, early-, mid-, and end-season. There were significant differences for TM through sprint distance between playing positions in mid- and full-season. In mid-season, sprint distance was meaningfully greater for CD than WD (p = 0.006; g = 1.74 [0.06, 3.95]), CM (p = 0.002; g = 2.04 [0.28, 4.46]), WM (p = 0.005; g = 1.78 [0.09, 4.02]), and ST (p = 0.002; g = 2.05 [0.28, 4.46]). Regarding full-season, TM of sprint distance was significantly greater for CD than WD (p = 0.031; g = 1.59 [−0.04, 3.73]), CM (p = 0.011; g = 1.83 [0.13, 4.11]), and ST (p = 0.023; g = 1.52 [−0.10, 3.59]). The study revealed that TM and TS of sprint distance in mid-season was meaningfully greater for CD than for WD, CM, WM, and ST. No differences between starters and non-starters were found.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-27T08:11:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231225285
       
  • Special issue on innovative approaches in the implementation of technology
           in sports science and engineering

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      Authors: Miguel Ángel Oviedo-Caro, Horacio Sanchez-Trigo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The technological advances of recent decades are having a great impact on society, modifying traditional ways of life by transforming social relationships, transactions, and jobs, among others. The physical activity and sport sectors are not immune to the technological transformation of society, and its adaptation is also taking place, resulting in great technological innovations. The implementation of technology in sports is playing an ever-increasing role by advances in modeling and materials, the design of sports equipment, the monitoring and control of physical and physiological performance, and the improvement of the daily performance of athletes, coaches, and referees.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-18T12:21:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231226346
       
  • Team selection strategies for major international target archery
           competitions

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      Authors: James L Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Results from major international target archery competitions from 1995 to 2023 have been used to show the score trends and the probability of winning either a podium position or the event versus the archer’s position in a ranking round. The probabilities versus ranking position fall approximately exponentially. Subjectively, archers need to rank at least in the top 16 to have a reasonable probability of winning a medal. Ideally, a team selection process should select those archers with the highest probabilities of winning at least a podium position at the international competition. That can be achieved by using the arrow value scores over the entire selection process, providing bonuses for exceeding given scores in ranking rounds or matches and by not including elimination matches in the selection process.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-10T12:58:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231225288
       
  • Lead-free 22lr ammunition for sport shooting: A simple implementation or a
           huge challenge'

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      Authors: Pär Marklund, Anders Pettersson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In Europe it is approximated that around six million people are active in sport shooting. Currently, most bullets are manufactured out of lead which in many cases is combined with a copper jacket. There are several reasons for using lead; lead is relatively cheap, soft, and has a high density, and is therefore often the ideal material for bullets. Currently, the EU is seeking a restriction or ban on the use of lead in firearm bullets, with the main motivation that hunting with lead bullets might result in lead poisoning of both animals and people. The proposed lead ban will also have a major impact on sport shooting, as it is likely to be subjected to the same regulations. One caliber that has been shown to be very difficult to produce as a lead-free alternative is 22lr (long rifle), which today is the most common caliber for sport shooting in many disciplines. Today, there are not many scientific investigations available which show the performance of lead versus lead-free ammunition in caliber 22lr, even though it would make sense to investigate the possibilities of designing lead-free ammunition before a possible lead ban is further discussed. In this work the performance of two common lead-free 22lr-cartridges is evaluated and shown in comparison with existing lead-based ammunition, with a primary focus on sport shooting. Performance has been evaluated under both summer and winter conditions to cover different sports shooting disciplines. The results of this study clearly show the difficulty of finding lead-free 22lr cartridges with acceptable performance on the market today. In fact, the performance of the tested lead-free ammunition is so poor that the EU’s proposed lead ban could completely ruin shooting as a sport due to a lack of functioning ammunition.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2024-01-02T11:52:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231219379
       
  • Review of World Rugby’s Test Method 01 head injury criteria: Procedure
           analysis and optimisation

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      Authors: E Colino, JL Felipe, M Douglas, E Harrison, C Webb, J del Corral, L Gallardo, J Garcia-Unanue
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Rugby is a close-contact sport in which players occasionally fall headfirst to the ground during scrums and tackles. Because head impacts represent an obvious threat to players’ integrity and safety, World Rugby, Rugby’s International Governing Body, developed a test method named Test Method 01 to evaluate the capacity of the playing surface to mitigate head impacts by determining the critical fall height (CFH). The aim of this study is to analyse World Rugby’s current Test Method 01 head injury criteria (HIC), which consider a field as unsafe if the CFH is below 1.3 m. To make this analysis, a pilot study was performed on seven artificial turf rugby fields. At each field, a three-drop procedure was performed to estimate the initial CFH (CFH0). Subsequently, the procedure was repeated on each surface at 50-mm intervals, from 0.6 m below to 0.6 m above CFH0. All possible combinations of four height–HIC data pairs with two height values below and above 1000 HIC were obtained. A comparison was performed between the linear adjustment, currently prescribed in Test Method 01 to calculate the CFH0, and the quadratic adjustment. In particular, the percentage of outliers obtained when applying both the linear and quadratic adjustment and the robustness of the regressions were investigated. The results show that the current Test Method 01 can be improved by applying two main modifications: first, replacing the linear adjustment with a quadratic adjustment, and second, adapting the current test restrictions by maintaining the maximum difference between the highest and the lowest drop heights in 1.00 m, increasing the minimum difference between consecutive drop heights from 0.15 to 0.20 m and removing the current prohibition on obtaining HIC values close to 1000.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T10:24:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231219738
       
  • Football and the video assistant referee: A grounded theory approach

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      Authors: Sajjad Pashaie, Geoff Dickson, Fatemeh Abdavi, Yaqhub Badri Azarin, Hamed Golmohammadi, Jinming Zheng, Romina Habibpour
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Few studies have examined the impact of technological officiating aids on football. The purpose of this study is to design a comprehensive model examining the use of video assistant referee (VAR) technology in football. Based on interviews with eminent sports experts, this study explores the use of VAR technology in football and provides a paradigm model. Data analysis was based on the continuous comparison method during three stages of open, axial and selective coding. The findings point to the ability of a referee to make an informed decision regarding an incident during a match and trends suggest continuing adoption of new technologies in decision support systems. In the model, causal conditions (e.g. rules and regulations, innovation in football) attract attention to the axial phenomenon (i.e. application of VAR technology to football) and strategies for its use (e.g. Total Quality Management, justice, increasing referee supervision) given the interfering factors (e.g. fair play, competition) and existing contexts (e.g. control of anti-football behaviours, referee performance, information technology, IT, control of violence and aggression), which create consequences (i.e. process weakness, slowing down the game, passion killing, increasing the quality of the referee’s decision, increasing referee confidence, economical, increasing decision-making accuracy). Therefore, given the contextual conditions and the intervening factors, implementing VAR technology should improve the quality of football competitions. The research concludes that VAR has the potential to enhance the quality of football competitions but also acknowledges the need to address its negative impacts and ensure sustainable development.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T10:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231213739
       
  • Validity of smartphones for assessing kayak paddler training

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      Authors: Diego Álvarez, Antonio M López, Juan C Alvarez, Leticia González
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last few years, the use of automatic performance measurement systems has become relatively common among professional kayak paddlers. Although these systems are not able to perform a complete evaluation of the athlete, they can extract relevant parameters about the training result. Thus, different devices have been developed to measure relevant information such as paddling rhythm. The high price of these devices limits their use for amateur athletes. To overcome this limitation, the validity of the measurements provided by different smartphones, obtained from the integrated inertial sensors, has been analyzed. This study has compared the performance of different phones versus professional Movella DOT inertial measurement devices. The article presents a comparison of the results obtained and proves that smartphones produce results equivalent to those of conventional sensors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T08:20:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231221013
       
  • Mathematical modelling of the application of lane conditioner to a Tenpin
           bowling lane

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      Authors: Curtis George Hooper
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      We construct a mathematical model to describe the application of lane conditioner (oil) onto an initially dry bowling lane via lane machines that use Kegel Sanction® Technology. The model consists of two coupled first order ordinary differential equations which describe the volume of oil on each of the brushes present in the oiling mechanism. Unknown parameters are fitted to best give certain features of the Highway to Hell oil pattern. The model, with the fitted parameters, is validated by using it to plot the Boardwalk oil pattern where certain key features are described well according to physical measurements of the actual oil pattern. The model is also shown to capture the need for the lane machine to dress two lanes before the output of oil becomes consistent.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T03:40:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231217021
       
  • Female breast motion during exercise based on the Lagrange method

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      Authors: Guangwu Sun, Shiyuan Liu, Xiaona Chen, Hong Xie
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Breasts can move considerably when women are active, which can sometimes be uncomfortable. Many studies have measured breast movement by a camera recording the movement of multiple markers attached to the breast. However, an excessive number of markers may hinder the subject’s movement. Additionally, camera images cannot readily distinguish closely arranged LED markers owing to interference of light from the markers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a numerical model to minimize experimental limitations. The present numerical model was developed based on the Lagrange method to enable simultaneous prediction of the movement of multiple positions on the breast during successional vertical jumps. The modeling results revealed the nipple demonstrated a larger displacement (average displacement ≈ 52.73 mm) than other marker positions during successive jumps. The breast top showed lower displacement (average displacement ≈ 46.18 mm) than other marker positions. The model also revealed the force variation on the breast during a jump. The whole breast movement was dependent on a combination of multiple forces. The viscoelastic force provided resistance to breast deformation. The restoring force drove the breast upward, while the gravity force pulled it down. The model synchronously calculated the displacements of more than 30 positions on the breast, then exported the vertical movement path of the whole breast. The model can only predict the vertical displacement and force; it still needs to be improved in other directions.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T03:38:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231211074
       
  • How are the impact attenuation properties of men’s and women’s helmets
           affected after one season in professional ice hockey'

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      Authors: Mikael Swarén, Madelen Fahlstedt
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to investigate if the impact attenuation properties of ice hockey helmets change after being used for one season in a professional ice hockey league. Eighteen helmets from a male team and 10 helmets from a female team were compared to 13 new helmets. Every helmet was impact tested three times for two impact locations, side and front. The median peak linear acceleration for all front impacts were significantly higher (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-09T11:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231213780
       
  • The informative power of heart rate along with machine learning regression
           models to predict maximal oxygen consumption and maximal workload capacity
           

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      Authors: Alessandro Gentilin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Prediction of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal workload capacity (MWC) through submaximal exercise tests is an important topic for sports sciences. Numerous studies highlighted the predictive power of submaximal heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in predicting VO2max and MWC. The challenge is achieving the best possible precision and accuracy by identifying the best predictors and regression models. This project assessed the performance of different indexes along with machine learning regression models to estimate VO2max and MWC. Predictors consisted of biodata (age, weight, and height) along with different combinations of change-scores of HR and VO2 between 0–50 Watts, 50–65 Watts, and 65–80 Watts (Δ0–50, Δ50–65, and Δ65–80, respectively). The use of biodata + HR Δ50–65 + HR Δ65-80 via a Squared Exponential Gaussian Process Regression model resulted in the best performance in predicting VO2max, while the use of biodata + HR Δ0–50 via a Robust Linear Regression model resulted in the best performance in predicting MWC. These results suggest that information provided by HR only during submaximal exercise offers the best predictive mean for estimating VO2max and MWC, while the use of VO2 changes or its addition along with HR changes does not improve predictions. Moreover, different predictors need to be selected for the best estimation of VO2max and MWC. Change-scores refer to absolute value changes, providing information to develop athlete assessment protocols through standardized workloads. These results show practical applicability for sports assessments to be performed indirectly, rapidly, sub-maximally, and through the simple measurement of HR.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T05:44:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231213904
       
  • Comparison of ground reaction force and contact time during
           various-direction lunges between badminton shoes without and with a
           lateral forefoot wedge sole

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      Authors: Wei-Han Chen, Chi-Hsien Chen, Wen-Wen Yang, Gin-Yun Lin, Wei-Chun Hsu, Tzyy-Yuang Shiang, Chiang Liu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study compared the ground reaction force (GRF), GRF ratio, and contact time between badminton shoes without and with a lateral forefoot wedge sole during lunges in three directions. Fifteen collegiate athletes wore forefoot wedge shoes (5° incline) and control shoes without a lateral forefoot wedge sole (in random order) and performed three typical badminton lunge movements (forward, lateral, and backward directions). A total of nine GRF, GRF ratio, and contact time parameters were analyzed. A paired t test was performed to assess the differences between two shoes. The significance level was set at p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T05:38:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231213772
       
  • A comparative evaluation of Elo ratings- and machine learning-based
           methods for tennis match result prediction

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      Authors: Rory Bunker, Calvin Yeung, Teo Susnjak, Chester Espie, Keisuke Fujii
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Elo ratings-based methods, including the recently proposed Weighted Elo method, have been found to perform well when forecasting tennis match results, however, whether they can outperform machine learning (ML) has not been established. In this study, a comparative evaluation of the two types of methods is conducted using the Sports Result Prediction CRISP-DM experimental framework. The first full year of mens ATP tennis data (2006), in a dataset containing matches from 2005 to 2020, was set to be the initial training set and 1 year of data was incrementally added to this set to predict 14 test years, from 2007 to 2020. Features were ranked based on their average rank across five feature selection techniques. It was found that, of the five ML models, Alternating Decision Trees (ADTrees) and Logistic Regression achieved higher accuracies than Elo ratings and similar accuracies to predictions derived from betting odds. Furthermore, ADTrees show potential in this domain, with solid performance achieved with an interpretable decision tree that allows for variation in the average betting odds difference threshold.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-11T07:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231212235
       
  • SALUTRACK: A smartphone application to evaluate and monitor injuries and
           health problems in athletes from the Balearic Islands

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      Authors: Andreu Sastre-Munar, Natalia Romero-Franco
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Athletes and coaches often normalize injuries and pain to gain sports performance. Consistent supervision of workload and psycho-physiological aspects may prevent injuries and maximize performance, mainly integrating insights from healthcare and sports. Although these aspects could be facilitated through smartphone devices, no smartphone applications (apps) have been designed to monitor these aspects of the athlete experience. This study aimed to evaluate the capability of an app to collect sports and health data and identify areas for app enhancement. An observational study was designed to test the app (named: SaluTrack). Eleven young athletes, eight males and three females, were invited to participate. During 5 weeks, all participants used the app to complete four questionnaires periodically: wellness, pain, urinary incontinence (UI), and catastrophizing. The questionnaires were completed by 90.9% of participating athletes periodically. Regarding the wellness questionnaire, athletes responded with 10.94 ± 4.37 as the average rating. Regarding pain, all athletes who completed the questionnaire affirmed to have pain (3.63 ± 1.73), the knee being the anatomical region most affected (26.67%). Also, 27.27% of athletes affirmed to have UI. Regarding catastrophizing level, athletes showed 8.91 ± 9.02 points. Regarding qualitative feedback from athletes, we received three comments, all positive aspects gained from using this tool. SaluTrack showed to be an appropriate app to easily collect sports and health data from athletes related to wellness, pain, UI, and catastrophizing. This methodology is useful for weekly monitoring of potential injury risk and to improve coaching staff’s communication with athletes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-07T01:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231208847
       
  • Principal components approach of physiological and physical metrics
           collected through GPS technology in soccer referees

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      Authors: Alfonso Castillo-Rodríguez, Wanesa Onetti-Onetti, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Francisco Tomás González-Fernández
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was to define and classify the different physical and physiological performance metrics on national and non-national soccer referees (SRs) through GPS technology. Sixty SRs (age: 28.9 ± 4.9 years; weight: 70.2 ± 8.0 kg; height: 175.7 ± 5.5 cm) were tested using the 18 Hz global positioning system (GPS) (WimuPro, Realtrack, Almería, Spain). An exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) on performance indicators with orthogonal rotation (VariMax). Thirteen metrics (total distance, distance covered at different speeds, maximum heart rate, and heart rate recorded in different zones) were integrated in three principal components, activation (PCA1), recovery (PCA2), and high intensity (PCA3). They represented 86% and 89% of total explained variance of the competition performance in national and non-national SRs, respectively. Distance covered at very high speed and heart rate between 80% and 89.9% of the maximum integrated the high-intensity principal component and were higher in non-national SRs. The main finding of this study was that it defined for the first time in the scientific literature the main components that discriminate physical performance between national and non-national referees, where high intensity metrics have greater weight in non-national referees. In addition, GPS technology together with PCA analysis were presented as useful methods to discriminate the most representative physical and physiological performance metrics in sports competition in SRs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-04T11:13:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231208401
       
  • Tribological devices in cycling: A review

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      Authors: Rémi Aubert, Xavier Roizard, Frédéric Grappe, Fabrice Lallemand
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This review, focussed on transmission efficiency and wear in cycling, presents existing friction measuring devices. It discusses their pros and cons and compares the lubrication regime they are in to the ones determined for elite cycling. Finally, it addresses technical guidelines for measuring friction forces from the transmission (Ft). Ft depend on normal load and coefficient of friction (µ). Indeed, these factors are influenced by chain tension, alignment and velocity, sprocket size, lubricants and contamination. Such parameters also have an impact on lubrication regime which influences µ. To characterise Ft, measuring devices were developed. Forty devices were classified in five categories, ranging from those closest to ecological conditions to the most specific ones. Full transmission (FTR) and single speed rigs (SSR) results can be extrapolated into real cycling, although they are less accurate as they involve more elements. Dedicated rigs engender high precision measurements on precise phenomena. All lubrication regimes are encountered in elite cycling, which is in good accordance with most of the testing conditions presented in this review, especially FTR and SSR. If Boundary and Mixed regimes are unavoidable due to the reciprocating movements of the chain elements, they should be limited. The Elasto-Hydrodynamic regime is on target as it provides low µ and wear. In conclusion, the closer the measure is to real cycling, the higher the variability. Inversely, dedicated rigs are accurate but less representative of complete transmissions. Technology improvements now make FTR and SSR reliable enough to measure small differences, along with a strong protocol.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-11-04T11:09:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231202562
       
  • Test-retest reliability and comparison of single- and dual-beam photocell
           timing system with video-based applications to measure linear and change
           of direction sprint times

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      Authors: Rohit K Thapa, Bhargav Sarmah, Tanvi Singh, Gaurav S Kushwah, Zeki Akyildiz, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of untested single- and dual-beam timing gates and compare them with previously validated video-based applications to measure linear and change of direction sprint (CODS) times. Twenty-three participants were concurrently assessed for 30 m linear sprint and CODS time using single- and dual-beam timing gates and the MySprint and COD Timer applications. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson correlation, independent t-test and Bland-Altman plots were used for comparison between instruments. ICC, Cronbach’s alpha and coefficient of variation (CV) analyses were used to assess the test-retest reliability. Excellent ICC was noted for test-retest reliability (0.982–0.984 [sprint], 0.940–0.942 [CODS]), with a high Cronbach’s alpha (all 0.997 [sprints], 0.988–0.989 [CODS]) and acceptable CV (1.296–1.946%) for all the timing systems. Similarly, excellent ICC (0.989–0.994 [sprint], 0.998–0.999 [CODS]) and very high correlation (r = 0.990–0.994 [sprints] and r = 0.998–1.000 [CODS]) were reported between the single- and dual-beam timing gates, and the MySprint and COD Timer applications, with non-significant differences between the measurements (p = 0.754–0.960). However, the Bland-Altman plots represented that values measured with the three instruments were inconsistent with most values away from the mean of the difference between instruments. In conclusion, both photocell timing systems are reliable instruments for measuring linear sprint time and CODS time. However, the timing systems should not be used interchangeably to interpret findings. Furthermore, it is suggested that similar timing systems with an identical setup should be used for the measurement of timings for interpretations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T08:58:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231203440
       
  • Determining critical power and W′ in running: Accuracy of different
           two-point models using the power metric

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      Authors: Santiago A Ruiz-Alias, Alberto A Ñancupil-Andrade, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Felipe García-Pinillos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to determine the validity of the critical power (CP) and the work capacity over CP (W′) obtained from different two-time trial combinations with respect a five-point model. In a 3-week training period, 15 athletes (age: 23 ± 5 years; height: 166 ± 6 cm; body mass: 58 ± 8 kg; 5 km season-best: 15:29 ± 00:53 mm:ss) performed five time-trials (i.e. 3, 4, 5, 10, 20 min) on a 400 m track, from which the mean power outputs were obtained through the Stryd Power Meter. An acceptable level of agreement was considered if the following criteria were met: low bias and standard error of the estimate (SEE) ( 0.81. The CP presented an acceptable SEE for CPwork (1.3 ± 0.5%) and CP1/time (2.7 ± 1.1%) when using the five time-trials. For both CP models, the 3–10 min was the shortest valid combination, whereas the 3–20, 4–20, and 5–20 min showed the greatest level of agreement. The W′ presented a high SEE for CPwork (14.1 ± 5.2%) and CP1/time (13.8 ± 6.2%) when using the five time-trials, therefore, none of the two time-trials combinations were considered. The CP parameter can be accurately estimated from different two time-trial combinations, whereas none reached an acceptable level of accuracy for the determination of W′.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-27T10:46:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231200295
       
  • Technology and digital transformation for the structural reform of the
           sports industry: Building the roadmap

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      Authors: Ana María Magaz-González, Marta García-Tascón, César Sahelices-Pinto, Ana María Gallardo, Juan Carlos Guevara Pérez
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, has accelerated technological immersion into society, economy and public administrations. The sports organisations are no strangers to this digitisation and must carry out their own digital transformation. However, investment in digital technology must be preceded by a diagnosis of the technological needs of each sports entity. Said mapping will help organisations know the most appropriate technological tools for their core businesses so they can properly design their digital transformation strategies. The objectives of this study were to design and create a tool to understand the digital structure of Spanish sports. The result has been the configuration of an instrument that includes the description of different technologies and different digital competencies specific to the sports industry, and which allows individuals to know the use, importance, perceived difficulty of use and economic accessibility of available technologies, as well as the degree of developed competency in the different sports organisations. It is concluded that the creation and application of a consultation instrument on digitalisation is the first and necessary step to carry out relevant, in-depth, valid and replicable research, which allows information to be gathered on the digitalisation needs of sports organisations to design their digital transformation roadmap and that the aids for digital transformation is distributed efficiently.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T09:31:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231197323
       
  • The use of mobile solutions for biomechanical assessment in combat sports:
           A narrative review

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      Authors: Jader Sant’ Ana, Rafael Lima Kons, Daniele Detanico, Fernando Diefenthaeler
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      New technologies have amplified the possibilities for processing and incorporating data and scientific methods in algorithms through the integration of the use of mobile technology and a wide range of wearables that allow acquisition metrics in real-time. These technologies arise as a possible alternative to supply market demand and to present practical solutions to problems that coaches and athletes face in their daily routines. Concerning biomechanical assessment in combat sports (i.e. reaction time, velocity, and force), the literature is scarce regarding studies that carried out surveys of new assessments and monitoring technologies, with solutions for coaches and athletes. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate, through a literature review, mobile technologies available on the market for biomechanical analyses in combat sports modalities. Significant growth has been observed in the number of studies involving mobile technologies with practical tools for biomechanical assessment in combat sports athletes. However, only seven technological proposals presented scientific reliability studies, and six assessed validity, showing the necessity of more original articles to investigate scientific validation. As a suggestion, a flowchart is presented with operational guidelines for the research and development of new technologies for biomechanical assessment and monitoring in combat sports in real-time.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-26T09:28:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231199810
       
  • Using machine learning to determine the positions of professional soccer
           players in terms of biomechanical variables

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      Authors: Fatma Hilal Yagin, Uday CH Hasan, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Ozgur Eken, Georgian Badicu, Mehmet Gulu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to predict professional soccer players’ positions with machine learning according to certain locomotor demands. Data from 20 male professional soccer players (five defenders, eight midfielders, and seven attackers) from the same team were tracked daily with a global navigation satellite system. A total of 1910 individual training sessions were recorded. The 10-fold cross-validation method was used. Soccer player positions were predicted using predictive models created with random forest (RF), gradient boosting tree, bagging classification, and regression trees algorithms, and the results were evaluated with comprehensive performance measures. Ratios and an importance plot were used to analyze the importance of the variables according to their contributions to the estimation. The findings show that the RF model achieved 100% accuracy, which means that RF can predict all player positions (100%). Running distance (26.5%), total distance (17.2%), and player load (15.8%) were the three variables that contributed the most to the estimation of the RF model and were the most important factor in distinguishing player positions. Consequently, our proposed machine learning approach (RF model) can reduce false alarms and player mispositioning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T10:36:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231199814
       
  • Horse gait analysis using wearable inertial sensors and machine learning

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      Authors: Manju Rana, Vikas Mittal
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Equestrian sports require horses to possess physical and mental attributes such as agility, strength, balance, and gymnastic skills. Performance analysis is critical in evaluating a horse’s performance, which involves assessing athleticism, gait quality, jumping ability, and general health. Assessing the kinematics of horses is crucial for selecting, training, and managing sports horses. Understanding a horse’s gait pattern and detecting Ground Reaction Forces (GRF) help diagnose lameness in the horse. Traditional gait analysis methods are performed visually, which can be biased due to subjectivity and human error. Optical motion capture (OMC) technology for equine gait analysis is expensive and ideal for indoor use. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) offer a cost-effective alternative for analyzing kinematic parameters. This study has devised novel wearable sensor devices for horses and riders to measure forces acting on the legs and body of the horse and the orientation of their legs during field performance. Ground Reaction Forces (GRF) were measured using 100g accelerometer data from each leg to assist owners and riders in analyzing the magnitude of forces and detecting any anomalies. Machine-learning models were developed to classify horse movements, such as jumps, stands, gallops, and trots, using features extracted from the data collected by wearable sensor devices. These models were compared to identify the most effective model for accurately classifying horse movements. This approach provides a valuable tool for recognizing patterns and trends in the data, enabling owners and riders to make informed decisions about training and management strategies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T10:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231196814
       
  • A Random Forest clustering to explore the influence of physical fitness
           level of youth basketball players on match-related physical performance

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      Authors: Diego Marqués-Jiménez, Javier Raya-González, Silvia Sánchez-Díaz, Daniel Castillo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to analyse the influence of different physical fitness levels of youth basketball players on match-related physical performance, using Random Forest clustering to distinguish between high-fitness level players and low-fitness level players. Twenty male youth basketball players completed the following physical performance tests in two separate sessions: bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps, bilateral and unilateral horizontal jumps, single leg lateral jumps, the 20 m linear straight sprint test, the 505 test and a repeated sprint ability test. 1 week after the second testing day, players completed a simulated match while external loads were monitored using an ultra-wide band-based Local Positioning System. A Random Forest clustering was used to create two different clusters composed of players with similar physical fitness attributes (high- and low-fitness level players). Results indicate that the Random Forest clustering adequately discriminated among the players in different groups according to their physical fitness attributes. High-fitness level players covered more distance per min in all intensity thresholds and reached higher maximal speed and acceleration intensity during the simulated matches (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T04:41:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231200056
       
  • The use of technology in the assessment and monitorization of a season in
           a professional padel player: A case study

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      Authors: Angel Carnero-Diaz, Javier Pecci, Gonzalo Reverte-Pagola, Marzo Edir Da Silva-Grigoletto
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Training process in elite padel players is influenced by travels and competitions density. The irregularity in the workloads, as well as demands of the season, could affect the musculoskeletal structures. Strength training has a protective role against the injury incidence, but the competitive context does not always allow adequate periodization of training and thus achieve adaptations. The aim of this study is to analyze, using technological tools, if improvements in player’s fitness are accompanied by improvements in sport performance through a case study. An elite padel player was analyzed during the 2021 season. Physical fitness was evaluated using different technological tools. Athlete monitoring was carried out using self-reported forms and sport performance was assessed through the results obtained in the World Padel Tour ranking at the end of the season. During the training process, multidimensional training was carried out in order to achieve the maximum availability of specific loads through coadjuvant training. Results of the assessment show slight improvements in all fitness tests. Assessment of sport performance reports an increased number of victories and a better position in the professional ranking. Musculoskeletal improvements helped the athlete’s workload tolerance, allowing overall improvement in padel performance. The training approach from this study has shown to be effective in maintaining or even improving force-producing capacity in lower and upper limbs, force-velocity relationship, agility and sport performance, despite the high competitive density. This work provides coaches with a practical approach to assess, monitor and design a competitive season for an elite padel player.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-15T04:38:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231199812
       
  • The effects of a 12-week yoga program on the CoP of military pilots before
           and after a flight emergency simulation using Biosignals Plux force
           platform

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      Authors: Sara Santos, José Alberto Parraca, Joana Alegrete, Carolina Alexandra Cabo, Filipe Melo, Orlando Fernandes
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the effects of Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga Supta on Center of Pressure (CoP) displacement in healthy student pilots, using the Biosignals Plux force platform, under the premise that yoga would lead to improvements in postural control responses. CoP response was analyzed by the Plux (Portugal) one-dimensional force platform. A total of 18 military pilots participated in this study. The pilots were in their Portuguese Air Force Academy course “Masters in Military Aeronautics: Aviator Pilot Specialist,” also called Tirocinium. Participants were randomly assigned to yoga classes (intervention group) or a waiting list (control group) and completed a flight emergency protocol in a flight simulator. CoP displacement was collected before and after all these maneuvers had been completed and both measures occurred before (baseline values) and after a 12-week yoga program. Although the differences observed between groups are not significant, after calculating the effect size, we can theorize that the intervention group maintains CoP displacement before and after flight and the control group has a higher CoP displacement after flight simulation. CoP information collected through noninvasive portable devices such as the Biosignals Plux force platform can relay important information quickly and easily. Knowing under what circumstances pilots are affected can then lead to development or enhancement of training strategies to improve those psychophysiological responses. In this study the effects, while not significant, are present, so it may be necessary to add more weeks of training to make the yoga program effective.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T12:24:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231196340
       
  • Novel tactical insights from Men’s 2022 FIFA World Cup: Which
           performance indicators explain the teams’ goal difference'

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      Authors: Gibson Moreira Praça, Leandro Henrique Albuquerque Brandão, Cristóvão de Oliveira Abreu, Pedro Henrique de Almeida Oliveira, André Gustavo Pereira de Andrade
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined positional and event-based tactical variables during the Men’s 2022 FIFA World Cup to detect differences between winning and losing teams and to verify which variables would better predict the goal difference between the teams. All 64 matches played during the competition were initially considered. Due to the purpose of the current article, draw matches were excluded from the sample. The data were compared between the match statuses using a MANOVA. A stepwise multiple linear regression was used to detect which variables predict the outcome of the matches. Results indicated differences between winning and losing in Line Breaks per Pass (p = 0.011), Defensive Line Break per Pass (p = 0.004), Final Third Phase Height (p = 0.023), and Width (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T12:05:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231194291
       
  • Acute:chronic workload ratio and training monotony variations over the
           season in professional soccer: A systematic review

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      Authors: Markel Rico-González, Francisco Tomás González Fernández, Rafael Oliveira, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and training monotony have been criticized as injury risk predictors. Therefore, the use of intensity measures should be oriented to understand the variations of intensity across the season. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the main evidence about the ACWR and training monotony variations over the season in professional soccer players. The search was made in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and FECYT according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. From the 225 studies initially identified, 27 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. Existing literature revealed a variety of designs, ACWR and training monotony ranges, variables assessed and durations of the studies. Overall, the range values for ACWR were 0.4–3.39 AU, while those focused on monotony were 0.49–5.7 AU. Regarding ACWR, the ratios located around 0.85–1.25 could predict lower risk values and ratios around ≥1.50 could predict higher risk values. On the contrary, with respect to training monotony, the ratios are approximately between 0.5 and 2.00 (low values in the preseason and low competition weeks and high values when soccer players are in highly scheduled competition weeks). Nevertheless, ACWR and training monotony methods should be addressed and considered based on their real value before using this indicator to reduce injury risk. In fact, the data did not conclusively define injured and non-injured players. For this reason, utilizing standardized approaches will allow for more precise conclusions about professional soccer players.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-08T11:59:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231194283
       
  • Non-exercise-based racing time prediction of cross-country skiers using
           machine learning methods combined with Relief-F feature selection

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      Authors: F Abut, MF Akay, S Daneshvar, A Özcan, D Heil
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes new non-exercise models for estimating the racing time of cross-country skiers. Machine learning methods employed to build the prediction models include General Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Network (MFANN), and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), whereas the Relief-F algorithm combined with a ranker search has been utilized as the feature selector. The self-created data set contains samples collected from 370 cross-country skiers with inhomogeneous capabilities. Each sample in the data set contains physiological variables such as sex, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) combined with an immersive set of survey data. The outcomes suggest that generally, the GRNN-based models exhibit the best prediction performance and can be used as a feasible tool for the prediction of the racing time of cross-country skiers with tolerable root mean square errors (RMSEs). It is seen that inclusion of age and assigned starting wave of cross-country skiers in models leads to much lower RMSEs, suggesting that the racing time of cross-country skiers is highly correlated to these two predictor variables. When compared with the exercise-based models, the proposed non-exercise-based models produce consistently comparable prediction performance for all evaluated machine learning methods. The non-exercise-based models have the relevant benefit of practical feasibility, as the models do not require the skiers to complete physical exercises and are also applicable to a wide range of cross-country skiers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-09-02T07:13:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231194011
       
  • Investigating the influence of head kinematics on head injury metrics and
           factors to consider for football helmet design

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      Authors: Lillian S Chatham, Trevor S Young, Richard M Wojcik, Lyssa A Bell, Amir H Torbati, Robert Dana Carpenter, Peter E Jenkins, Sourav K Poddar, Christopher M Yakacki
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      There is a need to understand the relationship between head kinematics, impact severity metrics, and overall helmet performance as sports-related concussions continue to be prevalent. This study evaluates these relationships, emphasizing newly developed severity metrics that consider both translational and rotational contributions. Impact tests were performed following the NFL testing protocol on four prominent football helmets. The resulting data was used to determine Head Acceleration Response Metric (HARM), Diffuse Axonal Multi-Axis General Evaluation (DAMAGE), and Head Injury Criterion (HIC). HARM scores, a combination of HIC and DAMAGE, were ultimately used to solve for a Helmet Performance Score. When analyzing all impacts, DAMAGE showed a stronger correlation to HARM than HIC (R2 = 0.76 vs R2 = 0.57); however, the strongest correlation existed between peak resultant angular velocity (PRAV) and HARM (R2 = 0.87). When examining impacts at only the side, side upper (SU), and oblique front (OF) locations grouped together, HIC demonstrated the strongest correlation to HARM in the study (R2 = 0.96). PRAV was the best predictor for HARM over peak resultant linear acceleration (PRLA) and peak resultant angular acceleration for four of the six impact locations (C, D, FMCO, and FMS) when analyzing the sites individually. The remaining locations (SU and OF) best predicted HARM using PRLA. These results are presented and discussed to aid in the research, design, and development of football helmets.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T06:46:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231194669
       
  • Do contextual factors influence running and accelerometry GPS based
           variables in professional women soccer players' A case study about the
           effect of match location and result

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      Authors: Rafael Oliveira, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Renato Fernandes, Ryland Morgans, Hadi Nobari, Matilde Nalha, João Paulo Brito
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were to compare external match load between home and away matches as well as the result of the match (win, draw, and loss). The secondary aim was to quantify external training load that preceded the next match taking into account both match location and result. Ten elite women soccer players participated in the study (age 24.6 ± 2.3 years). Seven home and seven away matches in which four wins, three draws, and seven losses occurred. The following global positioning system (GPS) metrics were analyzed: duration, total distance, high-speed running distance (HSR, ≥15 km h−1), number of accelerations (ACC) and decelerations (DEC), average speed, and player load. There were no significant differences between match results and match locations. Regarding comparisons of training data preceding different match results, only duration and player load did not differ while HSR, number of ACC and DEC showed to be higher when the next match was a loss (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-16T11:04:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231194004
       
  • Transportation sand leakage and turf performance of sand-based removable
           modular turf as affected by the combined action of coir fiber and
           polyacrylamide

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      Authors: Chen Yufeng, Zhang Peng, Han Liebao, Qian Yongqiang, Song Guilong, Yang Xiaohui
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Removable modular turf with a sand-based rootzone is a solution for high-end stadiums which can organize various events on the turf. However, the low stability of sand leads to serious sand leakage during the transportation of modular turf, which reduces the evenness and safety of the turf. Previous studies have shown that adding coir fibers (CF) and polyacrylamide (PAM) will improve soil stability. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of CF and different amounts of PAM on soil properties, turfgrass growth, shear strength, and sand leakage during simulated transport vibrations in a sand-based modular turf planted with tall fescue (Festuca elata Keng ex E. Alexeev). Each treatment comprised a mixture of 0.4% (weight material/weight soil) CF and six concentrations of PAM (0%, 0.025%, 0.050%, 0.075%, 0.100%, 0.125%, w/w) in the sand-based rootzone, with no addition of CF or PAM as the control. The results show that, in the sand-based rootzone, CF could improve tall fescue growth, shear strength, and resistance to sand leakage owing to transport vibration due to the physical properties of the coir fiber. However, the combined effect of CF and 0.100% PAM was better for tall fescue growth, shear strength, and resistance to sand leakage. However, owing to the lubricating effect of PAM, adding a low (≤0.025%) or a high rate (≥0.125%) amount of PAM would reduce the effect of CF and PAM. Therefore, the combined effect of CF + 0.100% PAM in this study had the best effect on the turf module and can be used as an application scheme for the removable modular turf.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-16T11:01:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231193268
       
  • Consequences of field obstacles on tactical, conditional, and emotional
           dimensions in young female soccer players during small-sided games

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      Authors: Asier Los Arcos, Asier Gonzalez-Artetxe, Uxue Bayer-Perez, Hugo Folgado
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to compare tactical, conditional, and emotional responses of young female soccer players with two small-sided games (SSG) conditions – with and without field obstacles. Twelve Spanish under-12 female soccer players (age: 12.5 ± 0.7 years) played two different 6-a-side SSGs (i.e. 5 vs 5 plus goalkeepers): one with field obstacles (SSGobstacles) and the other without these (SSGfree). Positional data were gathered using a GPS to measure tactical (distance between players, stretch-index [SI], spatial exploration index [SEI] and their normalized approximate entropy measures [ApEn norm], and longitudinal and lateral synchronizations) and conditional performances (total and walking, jogging, running, and high-speed running distances). Participants assessed the intensity of their emotional experience using the BECS scale of perceived enjoyment and competence. SSGobstacles reduced the SEI values (p = 0.038, Cohen’s d = −0.40 [−0.77; −0.02]), impaired lateral synchronization (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-09T11:59:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231191845
       
  • Aerodynamic drag study of speed skaters using CFD simulations

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      Authors: Yuju Wei, Yanqing Wang, You Nie, Ding Weng, Lei Chen, Yuan Ma, Zuobo Pang, Jiadao Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aerodynamic drag of speed skaters was analyzed numerically at different posture angles of head, back and arm as well as team formation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to investigate the optimized posture of the skater and the drag law of the team formation. Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) was used as the numerical technique. CFD results showed that the drag area of the skater increased with the increasing angle of the head, back, and arms due to the increased high-pressure areas on the windward side and the increased low-pressure areas on the leeward side of the skater. CFD results also showed that all three skaters had lower drag area in the team pursuit competition compared with an isolated skater. The drag area of the latter two skaters was significantly smaller than that of the first skater, and the drag area of the foremost skater increased sharply when the axial spacing was more than 0.6 m. The drag area for all three skaters increased as the lateral offset increased. Moreover, the research in this paper presented an important reference for the drag reducing optimization of speed suits and helmets, and the method could be expanded to other sports.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-05T10:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231188558
       
  • Development of prototypes in sport: A systematic review

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      Authors: Júlio César Gomes da Silva, Kalinne Fernandes Silva, Carlos Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista, Gabriel Teixeira Patrício, Gilmário Ricarte Batista
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study systematically reviewed the available scientific evidence pertaining to the different types of prototypes available, discussed their current use, and present and future applications in sports science. The electronic databases National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Web of Science™ and Scopus were searched from January 2016 to September 2021. Of the 750 articles identified, 714 articles were excluded based on title and abstract and/or for duplicates. Moreover, of the 36 articles selected, 11 articles (30.5%) were related to the development of prototypes for carrying out tactical-technical or physical performance analyzes of athletes in different sports, 22 articles (61.1%) were related to the creation of “equipment or clothing” prototypes used in sports activities and three articles (8.3%) were related to the creation of prototypes that aim to improve the technical performance of athletes. It was concluded that the development of prototypes in sport had a significant impact on the monitoring of athletes in the field of sport sciences. The prototypes provide coaches and technical professionals with the monitoring of physiological, tactical-technical, and physical parameters in real time during training and sports competitions. These parameters can be used for recognition of movement patterns and prevention of potential injuries, such as concussion and fatigue.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-08-02T06:19:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231189920
       
  • Validity of a wearable device for measuring vertical displacement and jump
           count in young artistic roller skating athletes

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      Authors: André Rebelo, Diogo Santos Teixeira, João Valente-dos-Santos, Ricardo Franco Lima
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The present study aimed to investigate the validity of a small inertial sensor (Vert IMU) for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in young female artistic roller skating athletes. Two separate investigations were completed. In the first, 12 subjects were asked to perform 24 jumps each, and jump heights were simultaneously assessed by the Optojump photocells (criterion instrument) and by the Vert IMU and compared to evaluate concurrent validity of this latter system. The second investigation evaluated the capacity of the Vert to correctly identify jumps during training sessions. The correlation between the Vert device and the Optojump was strong for all jump types (r = 0.84–0.95), except for the double Salchow which had a moderate correlation (r = 0.55). All 288 jumps in Investigation One had a significant (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-21T09:56:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231188400
       
  • Experimental characterization of artificial turf infill mixtures and
           implementation in smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical model

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      Authors: Brock Watson, Michael C Bustamante, Aleksander Rycman, Matheus A Correia, Duane S Cronin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Quantifying the response of infill used to construct contemporary artificial turf is critical to the development of computational models and providing insights to reduce sports injury associated with artificial turf. In the current study, confined compression and direct shear tests were performed on typical infill materials (sand, SBR and two mixtures (33%: 67%) by-weight). The experimental tests exhibited a progression from high strength and stiffness (sand) to low strength and stiffness (SBR) with the mixtures having intermediate values. Increasing particle size, particularly sand, tended to increase the resistance of the infill to deformation. The experimental results were implemented into a soil constitutive material model and the experimental tests were simulated using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method to verify the implementation in a commercial explicit finite element solver. The SPH method successfully captured the initial loading up to yield, material flow and post-yield behavior, enabling large-scale particle flow that will be necessary to simulate artificial turf. The simulation results predicted the test force-displacement response well for SBR and mixture infills. The proposed methodology demonstrated the ability to measure properties of contemporary artificial turf infills in both compression and shear for pure sand, pure SBR and mixtures of the two, and use these properties to accurately represent the infill in a computational environment. The resulting model can be extended to large-scale turf models, to investigate athlete performance and injury risk when interacting with artificial turf.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-13T11:23:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231186861
       
  • A technology-based experience to improve badminton skills: A
           challenge-based learning application

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      Authors: Alba González-Peño, Luis Simón-Chico, Leonor Prieto, Evelia Franco
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, it has become evident that technologies are part of daily life and can be useful and helpful to improve teaching and learning processes in education. Specifically, this evidence has highlighted the positive effect of technologies on improving motor skills. This study presents a technology-based learning (TBL) proposal and analyses how the implementation of such a proposal in physical education (PE) might affect students’ academic performance (theoretical knowledge and practical competence). A quasi-experimental study was carried out with experimental and control groups. A total of 84 participants (35 males and 49 females) between 13 and 15 years of age (Mage = 13.35, SD = 0.62) took part in the experience over a period of 6 weeks (ncontrol = 49; nexperimental = 35). The teacher assessed students’ practical competence level in both the experimental and control groups to verify homogeneity. Theoretical knowledge and badminton-specific motor skill tests were performed in both groups after the intervention. Analysis showed that, after the intervention, students in the TBL group significantly increased their levels of badminton-specific motor skills (Mcontol = 7.01 vs Mexperimental = 7.73) compared with students in the control group. No significant changes were observed for theoretical knowledge. The findings of this study highlight that the integration of technologies in PE might be a valid and effective methodological approach for PE students to achieve adaptive learning outcomes and improve their academic performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-07-05T09:39:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231185913
       
  • Impact of a cue with a billiard ball

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      Authors: Rod Cross
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental results are presented to show how the speed and spin of a billiard ball vary as the impact point of the cue is varied above and below the center of the ball. The results are compared with a simple impact model to estimate how the normal and tangential impact forces vary with impact location.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-29T08:22:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231184011
       
  • Three-defender versus two-defender systems in football: A comparison of
           offensive play

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      Authors: Fernando M Otero-Saborido, Sergio Torreblanca-Martinez, Victor Torreblanca-Martinez, Fabio Nevado-Garrosa, Manuel Nuñez-Campos, Jose A González-Jurado
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Scientific research on tactical formations in football is scarce and the studies that do exist focus on aspects linked to physical conditioning. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyse offensive play differences between three-centre-back (3CB) and two-centre-back (2CB) formations. A total of 72 matches played by eight LaLiga teams (Spain) during the 2018–19 season were analysed. Four teams used a 3CB system and four teams a 2CB system. Data were obtained from the Opta sports company, and the reports were generated using Mediacoach. Three groups of variables were analysed (passes, possession and finishing). The results showed that both the number of team passes (‘passes received’, ‘passes attempted’) and their effectiveness (‘number’ and % of ‘completed’ passes) were significantly greater (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-06-02T10:08:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231178043
       
  • Application of technology for the analysis of Small-Sided Games in
           football. From complexity to chaos in training design: Reference to number
           of players, playing space, orientation, time distribution, directionality
           with goalkeepers, and feedback

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      Authors: Iván Asín-Izquierdo, Luis Gutiérrez-García, Carlos Galiano
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Small-sided games (SSGs) are frequently used in football training programs and their design has been analyzed in scientific literature. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in the mechanical and physiological demands of football SSGs with various configurations over an effective time of 6 min through the application of GPS/GNSS technology, heart rate monitoring, and player self-perceived effort. Thirty football players (21.59 ± 4.35 years, 72.74 ± 9.01 kg, and 178.16 ± 0.93 cm) completed 138 recordings during MD-3 sessions (matchday-3, 76 h pre-match) using Catapult OptimEye S5 devices, synchronized with the Polar system. The training structure was similar for all measurements. Analyses and comparisons were made using a total of ten training tasks and six study variables (dimensions, orientation, number of players, directionality, time distribution, and coaches’ feedback). SSGs played as 3 versus 3 showed higher mechanical responses with greater pitch sizes (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-26T10:46:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231175946
       
  • Quantifying athlete wellness: Investigating the predictive potential of
           subjective wellness reports through a player monitoring system

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      Authors: Andreas Alexandersen, Susann Dahl Pettersen, Dag Johansen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the potential of self-reported wellness data from a player monitoring system and its predictive power of individual match performance among a female professional football player cohort. Using longitudinal data collected from the Pm Reporter Pro mobile application and corresponding individual performance scores (InStat Index), the study investigated if pre-match perceived wellness could predict individual match performance. The results show no significant evidence for a correlation between the two. This result may suggest that other factors might have a larger impact on performance, that the data quality captured by the current version of the player monitoring system is not sufficient, or that the impact of personally perceived wellness on performance is minimal. The limitations of bias in self-reported data and relatively small sample size might have affected the results. Despite these findings, the study provides valuable insights into the use of data-driven analytics with a concrete and widely used player monitoring system and suggests recommendations for future research.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T11:42:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231176625
       
  • Does the operating temperature of accelerometers affect data measurement
           during static and dynamic conditions in sports' A randomized-control trial
           

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      Authors: Carlos D Gómez-Carmona, Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Sergio J Ibáñez, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to analyse the effect of two operating temperatures (optimal vs environmental) on IMU internal temperature and accelerometry-based data in two conditions of measurement: (a) static, no movement; and (b) dynamic, a U’16 game-based training soccer session with 14 players. Each session took a 60-min duration and followed an ecological design (no intervention in environmental conditions). Fifty-six WIMU PROTM inertial devices were randomly grouped in four conditions (two operating temperatures × two measurement conditions, 14 devices in each group) and recorded IMUs’ internal temperature, resultant acceleration vector and PlayerLoad (PLRT). Devices were placed in the manufacturer’s docking station at the static condition and in a specific harness at the interscapular level at the dynamic condition. Repeated measures t-tests were employed for between-group comparisons at 1-min average sections throughout the register. Between-group differences were found in the static and dynamic conditions in IMUs internal temperature (static: 0–31 min; dynamic: 0–20 min) and resultant acceleration vector (static: 0–29 min; dynamic: 0–19 min). Instead, no differences were found in PLRT dynamics and accumulated PLRT although values in the environmental group were overestimated. In conclusion, WIMU PROTM devices must achieve the optimal operating temperature (38–39°) to avoid measurement error, regardless of the application (short or long sessions).
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-17T10:19:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231175545
       
  • Validity and reliability of a new portable and cost-effective
           photoelectric cells device for measuring vertical jump performance: “The
           ADR Jumping”

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      Authors: Victor Rodrigo-Carranza, Olga Lopez-Torres, Valentin E Fernandez-Elias, Miguel-Angel Gomez-Ruano, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The vertical jump is one of the most used testing movements to assess athlete’s physical performance and fatigue status in several sports. However, low-cost, portable, field-based, and reliable methods are needed to measure jumping performance. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the validity and reliability of a new photoelectric cells device (ADR) for measuring the vertical jump height. Twenty-three trained male participants (age: 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass: 74.2 ± 7.3 kg; height: 1.76 ± 0.04 m) performed four maximal countermovement jumps (CMJ). Flight time-derived jump height was extracted simultaneously from three devices including a force plate (FP) (Kistler Quattro-Jump, criterion measurement) and two photoelectric cells (PC) devices (ADR and Optojump). The ADR mean CMJ height measurements demonstrated substantial validity compared to both FP and Optojump (r = 0.98 p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-05-16T05:54:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231174665
       
  • A multi-view automatic table tennis umpiring framework

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      Authors: Patrick Wong, Hnin Myint, Laurence Dooley, Adrian Hopgood
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a low-cost, portable, multi-view table tennis umpiring framework, as a viable alternative to the current expensive systems which are almost exclusively restricted to elite professional sports. Table tennis has been selected as the sport to evaluate this framework primarily because it comprises many different complex match elements, including the service, return and rally elements, which are governed by a strict set of regulations which need to be umpired. The aim is to develop novel methods to analyse and judge the legality of such key match facets, with ball detection and tracking in video frames being integral to reliably and accurately determining the ball’s position and flight path during rallies. While a low-cost option is attractive and offers several benefits, it is a technically challenging problem due to the small number and generally low-resolution cameras that are used. A novel multi-view camera setup and multi-agent system (MAS) framework is presented, which comprises computationally lightweight agents which detect and track the table tennis ball, create a 3D representation of the flight path of the ball, predict the ball’s trajectory, and identify and analyse key facets in a table tennis rally. The MAS correctly detects all state transitions in seven test table tennis sequences with minimal latency and while the processing rate of a standard computer may be unable to analyse long rallies in real time, the potential of running the MAS on a parallel architecture is a propitious alternative. The MAS is also scalable, enabling additional camera pairs to be deployed to achieve enhanced accuracy and coverage. The framework affords the potential to reform the way matches are umpired, especially for amateur players, providing an economic and objective manner of dispute resolution, while the multi-view facility is extendible to other relevant ball-based sports. The ball flight path analysis mechanism can be exploited as a valuable training tool for skill development.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-28T07:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231171433
       
  • Sight settings for archers shooting up and down hills

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      Authors: James L Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Field archery is conducted on an archery course similar in layout to a golf course. Archers shoot at targets placed one after another, usually involving the archers shooting up, down and across slopes. Archers need accurate sight settings if they are to obtain high scores. However, the required sight settings for slopes differ from those on flat ground. One method used by archers is to set the sight to the horizontal distance to the target (the ‘rifleman’s rule’). It has been shown that method does not provide the required precision. It has also been shown that a simple ‘percentage distance cut’ is not viable. An alternative method is provided.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-24T12:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231171194
       
  • Validity and reliability of ergonauta encoder to assess countermovement
           jump performance

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      Authors: Rodrigo G Gheller, Rafael L Kons, Wladymir Külkamp, Juliano Dal Pupo, Daniele Detanico
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to test the reliability and criterion validity of the Ergonauta encoder to assess countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, considering jump height and mean propulsive velocity metrics. Twenty-three recreationally active men participated in this study. The participants were positioned on a force plate with the Ergonauta individually connected through a belt. Two CMJs were performed, and the jump height and mean propulsive velocity metrics were analyzed. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error (TE) were used as relative and absolute reliability indicators, respectively. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the relationship between the Ergonauta and force plate derived-metrics, and the Bland-Altman plot was used to verify the agreement between the metrics (Ergonauta encoder and force plate), with the level of significance set at p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-24T12:44:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231171192
       
  • The influence of technical performance indicators on the results of the
           Chinese Football Super League at different stages of the season-based on
           evidence from the 2010–2019 seasons

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      Authors: Xiaoni Ma, Xiaotian Li, Tao Quan, Hongyou Liu, Tianbiao Liu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study explored the different influences of technical indicators on match results in different stages of football league play. Sample data from 2400 Chinese Super League matches during 2010–2019 were divided into three season stages according to round sequence: the early stage (1–10 rounds), the middle stage (11–20 rounds), and the late stage (21–30 rounds). A two-way, fixed-effect ordered logit model was then constructed and used, together with Fisher’s combination test, to compare regression results. The study results showed that: (1) when controlling for other variables, as the league progresses, an increase in goals will gradually increase the possibility of better match results, and this increase shows significant differences between the early and late stages (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T06:40:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231170065
       
  • Monitoring the external load of counter-attack drills in youth soccer
           using GPS devices: The influence of time pressure and numerical
           superiority on players’ responses

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      Authors: Marcelo Rochael, Gibson Moreira Praça
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to analyse the impact of including time pressure on players’ physical responses related to distance covered at different speed zones and accelerations performed during balanced and unbalanced small-sided soccer games. Forty-four U-17 athletes from elite clubs were recruited. Players engaged in four formats of small-sided games: 4vs4 (with and without time pressure) and 5vs4 (with and without time pressure, plus additional floaters). Physical responses were monitored through Global Positioning System devices. A MANOVA compared data at a level of significance of 5%. There were no differences between with and without time pressure formats for both distances and accelerations. However, games played in numerically balanced conditions elicited greater physical responses regarding distance covered and distances covered in different speed zones. Specifically, the numerically balanced condition showed higher distances in the higher speed zones than the floater condition, which showed higher values in the lowest speed zone than the 4vs4 condition. This study concluded that adopting the time pressure to represent counter-attack situations does not change the players’ physical responses; adopting numerical superiority without adjusting the pitch size will reduce the physical responses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-04-15T06:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231168173
       
  • Concurrent validity of the Polar Precision Prime® photoplethysmographic
           system to measure heart rate during a tennis training session

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      Authors: Emilio J Ruiz-Malagón, Santiago Castro-Infantes, Maximiliano Ritaco-Real, Victor M Soto-Hermoso
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Monitoring heart rates has always been important for coaches and athletes. Photoplet-ismographic systems (PPG) are supposed to be less capable of determining heart rate measure in activities with high upper limb movement, such as tennis. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of the Polar Precision Prime® (PPP®) system existing in the Polar Ignite® sports watch. This was accomplished by measuring averaged heart rates during a tennis training session, divided in three parts (warm-up, main-part and cool-down) and averaged per 10 s intervals by comparing data with the Polar H-10® chest strap synchronised with the Polar V800® (criterion measure). A group of 40 tennis players (32 males, 8 females) took part in the study. Mean average values and between-systems differences and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) were obtained ( 0.96) in all session parts except the 10 s intervals where the ICC were good (0.85). The systematic bias and random error during the warm-up and 10 s intervals were greater (−0.99 ± 6.02 bpm and −2.41 ± 5.86 bpm, respectively) than the main-part and cool-down (−0.51 ± 1.16 bpm and −0.44 ± 4.02 bpm, respectively). Results suggest that the PPP® system precision is not altered despite upper limb movements during 1-h tennis training sessions. In conclusion, the Polar Ignite® PPG system is a valid tool for monitoring heart rate during a tennis training session.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-31T10:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231165102
       
  • Head Impact Exposure in Youth Soccer: Comparing across Activity Types

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      Authors: Nicholas Stewart Pritchard, Tanner M Filben, Sebastian J Haja, Logan E Miller, Mark A Espeland, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Soccer is a popular youth sport in the United States, but the effect of repetitive head impacts experienced during training on neurocognitive outcomes is not well understood. Modifying practice structure may be an avenue for reducing head impact exposure and concussion risk in soccer, but research has yet to characterize head impact exposure across common soccer activities. The objective of this study was to compare head impact exposure across common training activities in soccer. Eight female soccer players practicing on an age 15 and under (U15) club team participated in this study for two soccer seasons. Players wore an instrumented mouthpiece sensor during all practice and game sessions. Research personnel recorded duration of all activities performed by each player to characterize player-specific exposure time. Film review was performed to identify head contact events during each session and classify events according to the activity and drill the player was performing. Head impact exposure for each athlete was quantified in terms of peak kinematics and impact rate. Mixed effects models were used to compare peak kinematics and generalized linear models were used to compare impact rates across drills and activity type. Drill and activity type were associated with peak kinematics and impact rate. Technical training activities accounted for the second-highest exposure time and were associated with higher impact rates and lower mean kinematics than other activity types. Team interaction activities and game play were associated with the highest rotational kinematics but the lowest impact rates. Head impact exposure in female youth soccer is influenced by the type of activity in which the athlete is engaged. Interventions designed to reduce head impact frequency in female youth soccer can benefit from targeting technical training activities; whereas, interventions designed to reduce head impact magnitude should target team interaction and game activities.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-13T09:30:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231158669
       
  • Acceleration spikes and attenuation response in the trunk in amateur
           tennis players during real game actions

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      Authors: Gabriel Delgado-García, Jos Vanrenterghem, Alejandro Molina-Molina, Víctor Manuel Soto-Hermoso
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Although there are numerous locomotion studies analyzing the degree of attenuation of the acceleration spikes in the lower limbs and the trunk, few of these studies relate to tennis, where a high percentage of injuries occur in these body segments. The aim of this study was to describe the acceleration spikes and the attenuation response along the trunk, in real game actions. For this purpose, accelerometers were placed on the lower trunk, the upper trunk, and the head on a sample of 19 players while playing tennis matches. An average of 530 ± 146 acceleration spikes per match were selected in the upper trunk and a clear attenuation response between the upper trunk and the head was found (acceleration spike magnitude was approximately 25 m/s2 in the upper trunk and approximately 20 m/s2 in the head; p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-07T12:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231157959
       
  • Field-based upper-body motor variability as determinant of stroke
           performance in the main tennis strokes

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      Authors: Emilio J Ruiz-Malagón, Jos Vanrenterghem, Maximiliano Ritacco-Real, Francisco T González-Fernández, Víctor Manuel Soto-Hermoso, Gabriel Delgado-García
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Performance in tennis relies heavily on the skilful repetition of several types of tennis strokes, yet the role of motor variability has still received little scientific attention – especially at the within subject level. The present study aims to evaluate the role of motor variability depending on the strokes/body segment and the level of expertise. Thirty-five players performed a field test (including first and second serves, forehand and backhand strokes) with four synchronized gyroscopes placed on the trunk, head, upper arm and forearm. Variability was measured based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the angular velocity peaks per stroke in each body segment. MANOVA revealed greater motor variability in the forehand and backhand than in the serve (p  15% in some cases). This result also translated to differences in variability between levels of expertise, with variability being greater among lower level players (p  1 in some cases). Summarized, groundstrokes could imply more compensatory kinematic movements to keep the result of the action stable. Motor variability must be considered to evaluate performance, as a reduced motor variability was found in players with higher level of expertise. The compensatory action of the body segments (especially in groundstrokes and in the forearm and head, where the coefficients of variation were high) should be studied in depth because it can help design motor tasks, making them more specific.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-03-01T08:44:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231156266
       
  • Analysis of preferred weight configuration for barebow shooting style

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      Authors: Francesco Pietra, Philip Loveday, Robert Reid
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The barebow archery shooting style limits the stabilisation system to weights connected to the riser, which is the central part of the bow. No scientific study is available to guide the barebow archer in the choice of the best weight configuration. In the following work, a human-centred methodology was developed to address this problem from both a scientific and user-oriented perspective. The proposed methodology is based on subjective metrics (archers’ sensations using the equipment), objective metrics (measurable quantities) and precision. The study sought a correlation between the subjective and objective metrics to provide insight into the problem of configuring a bow. Eleven weight configurations were considered. The vibration was measured at five positions on the bow and the 3D dynamic motion was measured using an inertial measurement unit. Seven archers completed a questionnaire to evaluate the subjective shooting sensations. The results show that the two best weight configurations are the 250–200 g and the 350–200 g, at the central and lower attachment points, respectively. A strong correlation exists between the vibration level of the bow and the feeling archers associated with the shooting, and between the dynamic motion of the bow and the comfort of the shooting. No correlation was found between the vibration time and the physical sensations felt by the archers. Determining the influence of the weight configuration on shooting accuracy, with statistical significance, would require an impractically large number of arrows to be shot for each weight configuration. A new methodology was developed to correlate the archers’ physical sensations to measurable parameters and this was applied to understand the barebow weight selection problem. This methodology could be further developed to correlate additional subjective and objective metrics. An understanding of these correlations would allow objective metrics, which can be simulated in the design process, to be used to ensure satisfaction of subjective metrics by the final design.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-14T09:09:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231155510
       
  • Energy loss in oblique collisions

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      Authors: Rod Cross
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The decrease in kinetic energy of a ball incident vertically on a rigid horizontal surface depends on the normal coefficient of restitution, [math]. It is shown in the present paper that if the ball is incident obliquely on the surface then the total decrease in kinetic energy has two independent contributions, one depending on [math], the other depending on the tangential coefficient of restitution, [math].
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-03T12:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231151794
       
  • Bounce of a golf ball on the green

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      Authors: Rod Cross
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A ball incident on a horizontal surface with backspin can rebound forwards or backwards depending on the angle of incidence and the amount of backspin. The ball can also bounce forwards several times before it bounces backwards. The outcome depends on whether the ball slides throughout the impact or whether the ball grips the surface during the impact. The physics of the bounce of a golf ball on a green is described in the present article and estimates are given of the stopping distance after the ball first lands on the green, based on experimental bounce data.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T11:37:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221150289
       
  • Inter-system and inter-unit reliability of Polar Team Pro and WIMU PRO
           devices during external load measurements indoors

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      Authors: Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández, David Suárez-Iglesias, Alejandro Vaquera, Anthony S Leicht, José Antonio Rodríguez-Marroyo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim was to examine inter-system and inter-unit reliability of both WIMU PRO (UWB) and Polar Team Pro devices in measuring indoor sport-specific movements. Seventeen active and healthy adults (age: 21.4 ± 5.2 years; height 170.3 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 71.2 ± 4.5 kg) completed one repetition of an indoor team sport circuit (i.e. accelerations, decelerations, change of direction, jumps and arc runs). Participants carried two 10-Hz Polar Team Pro GPS and wore two 20-Hz GPS (UWB) WIMU PRO chest- and back-mounted devices, respectively. Distance (absolute, relative and in different speed thresholds), mean and peak speed, accelerations and decelerations at different intensities and jumps were recorded. A repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance and ICC and CV were utilised. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.001) main effect of the system for all variables except the total distance, mean speed and distance covered during low- and high-intensity running. There were significant differences (p  0.05) between the two WIMU PRO units were detected. Poor inter-system reliability was ascertained, with inter-unit reliability being moderate-excellent for most variables of both systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T10:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221147857
       
  • A trajectory simulation model to analyse the factors influencing the
           descent of a Skeleton athlete

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      Authors: N.S. Vracas, D. Short, J. Banks, D.J. Taunton, S.R. Turnock
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Subtle differences in aerodynamic drag, ice friction and sprint start, all influenced by the skill and physique of athletes, determine the descent time and hence competitive success in the sport of Skeleton. A trajectory based simulation was created by parameterising the geometry of the Altenberg Ice Track in Saxony, Germany to find the physically realistic descent time that captures the physics of the aerodynamic drag, ice friction and sprint start. A sensitivity study was used to analyse the influence of each factor on the overall performance down a fixed mid-line trajectory. Comparisons are made to the actual descent times to confirm applicability for a set of male and female sliders. It was found that the combined mass of the athlete and sled should be maximised within the rules, the initial velocity from the push should be as fast as possible, the aerodynamic drag should be optimised for each athlete and the ice friction of the runners reduced to their lowest limit. If each variable is optimum, then the final race standings will depend solely on the skill of the athlete traversing the ice track by finding the ‘best’ trajectory.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T10:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221150820
       
  • Parametric design methods development for the comparison of American
           football faceguards using validated structural stiffness models

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      Authors: William D Ferriell, Noah P Wright, John D DesJardins, Gregory S Batt
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in headgear design research have sought to inform athletes’ safety related decisions by ranking headgear systems according to impact performance. These rankings have provided athletes with greater agency in their safety-related decisions. Despite these improvements, little quantitative information exists to compare faceguard performance. Using validated structural stiffness finite element models, this study sought to develop a parametric design approach that could be consistently applied to faceguards of different qualitative categories and of different helmet-compatible series. The methods presented in this study detail the objective measurement techniques and parameters of interest used to fully define three common American football faceguards. The results of this study indicate an ability to define parameters consistently for faceguards of different qualitative categories and of different helmet-compatible series. The high degree of correlation between mass and structural stiffness indicates expected model performance – providing increased confidence in results. Intuitively, the greatest effect on mass and structural stiffness was the size of the diameter of the main bars. Increases in mass were achieved with minimal changes in structural stiffness. Conversely, increases in structural stiffness were achieved with minimal changes in mass. These results have implications for manufacturers as some faceguards, such as those classified as “overbuilt,” are banned – in part – for their weight. Future work should continue to compare manufacturers’ original designs and investigate other metrics to further quantify performance and safety for athletes. This tool may be used to improve new faceguard designs by comparing new models to faceguards allowed for use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T08:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140674
       
  • The impact of cross-country skiers’ tucking position on ski-camber
           profile, apparent contact area and load partitioning

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      Authors: Kalle Kalliorinne, Gustav Hindér, Joakim Sandberg, Roland Larsson, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Andreas Almqvist
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In cross-country skiing races, the difference between the fastest and the second fastest time can be minuscule. As in all endurance sports, cross-country skiing requires the use of energy to overcome resistive forces, in this case primarily aerodynamic drag and friction between the skis and snow. Even a slight reduction in either of these can determine the outcome of a race. The geometry of the ski exerts a profound influence on the friction between the skis and snow. As a result of the flexible modern cross-country skis, the camber profile and gliding properties to be influenced by the skiers’ position. Here, based on the location of the normal force corresponding to the plantar pressure, we characterize the ski camber while performing three variations of the downhill tucking position. We found that when gliding on a classic ski, the risk of contact between the kick wax and snow can be reduced by tucking in a leaning backwards position (i.e. by moving the skier’s center of mass backwards). With the tucking position, the percentage of the skier’s body weight that is distributed onto the friction interface at the rear of the skis varies between 63.5% in Gear 7 (leaning forward) on a skating ski and 93.0% in Gear 7 (leaning backwards) on a classic ski.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T08:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221141748
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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