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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1754-3371 - ISSN (Online) 1754-338X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Energy loss in oblique collisions

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      Authors: Rod Cross
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The decrease in kinetic energy of a ball incident vertically on a rigid horizontal surface depends on the normal coefficient of restitution, [math]. It is shown in the present paper that if the ball is incident obliquely on the surface then the total decrease in kinetic energy has two independent contributions, one depending on [math], the other depending on the tangential coefficient of restitution, [math].
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-02-03T12:28:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371231151794
       
  • Bounce of a golf ball on the green

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      Authors: Rod Cross
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A ball incident on a horizontal surface with backspin can rebound forwards or backwards depending on the angle of incidence and the amount of backspin. The ball can also bounce forwards several times before it bounces backwards. The outcome depends on whether the ball slides throughout the impact or whether the ball grips the surface during the impact. The physics of the bounce of a golf ball on a green is described in the present article and estimates are given of the stopping distance after the ball first lands on the green, based on experimental bounce data.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T11:37:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221150289
       
  • Inter-system and inter-unit reliability of Polar Team Pro and WIMU PRO
           devices during external load measurements indoors

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      Authors: Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández, David Suárez-Iglesias, Alejandro Vaquera, Anthony S Leicht, José Antonio Rodríguez-Marroyo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim was to examine inter-system and inter-unit reliability of both WIMU PRO (UWB) and Polar Team Pro devices in measuring indoor sport-specific movements. Seventeen active and healthy adults (age: 21.4 ± 5.2 years; height 170.3 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 71.2 ± 4.5 kg) completed one repetition of an indoor team sport circuit (i.e. accelerations, decelerations, change of direction, jumps and arc runs). Participants carried two 10-Hz Polar Team Pro GPS and wore two 20-Hz GPS (UWB) WIMU PRO chest- and back-mounted devices, respectively. Distance (absolute, relative and in different speed thresholds), mean and peak speed, accelerations and decelerations at different intensities and jumps were recorded. A repeated-measures two-way analysis of variance and ICC and CV were utilised. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.001) main effect of the system for all variables except the total distance, mean speed and distance covered during low- and high-intensity running. There were significant differences (p  0.05) between the two WIMU PRO units were detected. Poor inter-system reliability was ascertained, with inter-unit reliability being moderate-excellent for most variables of both systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-26T10:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221147857
       
  • A trajectory simulation model to analyse the factors influencing the
           descent of a Skeleton athlete

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      Authors: N.S. Vracas, D. Short, J. Banks, D.J. Taunton, S.R. Turnock
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Subtle differences in aerodynamic drag, ice friction and sprint start, all influenced by the skill and physique of athletes, determine the descent time and hence competitive success in the sport of Skeleton. A trajectory based simulation was created by parameterising the geometry of the Altenberg Ice Track in Saxony, Germany to find the physically realistic descent time that captures the physics of the aerodynamic drag, ice friction and sprint start. A sensitivity study was used to analyse the influence of each factor on the overall performance down a fixed mid-line trajectory. Comparisons are made to the actual descent times to confirm applicability for a set of male and female sliders. It was found that the combined mass of the athlete and sled should be maximised within the rules, the initial velocity from the push should be as fast as possible, the aerodynamic drag should be optimised for each athlete and the ice friction of the runners reduced to their lowest limit. If each variable is optimum, then the final race standings will depend solely on the skill of the athlete traversing the ice track by finding the ‘best’ trajectory.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-20T10:55:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221150820
       
  • Parametric design methods development for the comparison of American
           football faceguards using validated structural stiffness models

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      Authors: William D Ferriell, Noah P Wright, John D DesJardins, Gregory S Batt
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent advances in headgear design research have sought to inform athletes’ safety related decisions by ranking headgear systems according to impact performance. These rankings have provided athletes with greater agency in their safety-related decisions. Despite these improvements, little quantitative information exists to compare faceguard performance. Using validated structural stiffness finite element models, this study sought to develop a parametric design approach that could be consistently applied to faceguards of different qualitative categories and of different helmet-compatible series. The methods presented in this study detail the objective measurement techniques and parameters of interest used to fully define three common American football faceguards. The results of this study indicate an ability to define parameters consistently for faceguards of different qualitative categories and of different helmet-compatible series. The high degree of correlation between mass and structural stiffness indicates expected model performance – providing increased confidence in results. Intuitively, the greatest effect on mass and structural stiffness was the size of the diameter of the main bars. Increases in mass were achieved with minimal changes in structural stiffness. Conversely, increases in structural stiffness were achieved with minimal changes in mass. These results have implications for manufacturers as some faceguards, such as those classified as “overbuilt,” are banned – in part – for their weight. Future work should continue to compare manufacturers’ original designs and investigate other metrics to further quantify performance and safety for athletes. This tool may be used to improve new faceguard designs by comparing new models to faceguards allowed for use.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-04T08:57:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140674
       
  • The impact of cross-country skiers’ tucking position on ski-camber
           profile, apparent contact area and load partitioning

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      Authors: Kalle Kalliorinne, Gustav Hindér, Joakim Sandberg, Roland Larsson, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Andreas Almqvist
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In cross-country skiing races, the difference between the fastest and the second fastest time can be minuscule. As in all endurance sports, cross-country skiing requires the use of energy to overcome resistive forces, in this case primarily aerodynamic drag and friction between the skis and snow. Even a slight reduction in either of these can determine the outcome of a race. The geometry of the ski exerts a profound influence on the friction between the skis and snow. As a result of the flexible modern cross-country skis, the camber profile and gliding properties to be influenced by the skiers’ position. Here, based on the location of the normal force corresponding to the plantar pressure, we characterize the ski camber while performing three variations of the downhill tucking position. We found that when gliding on a classic ski, the risk of contact between the kick wax and snow can be reduced by tucking in a leaning backwards position (i.e. by moving the skier’s center of mass backwards). With the tucking position, the percentage of the skier’s body weight that is distributed onto the friction interface at the rear of the skis varies between 63.5% in Gear 7 (leaning forward) on a skating ski and 93.0% in Gear 7 (leaning backwards) on a classic ski.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2023-01-03T08:55:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221141748
       
  • Development of a shooting machine for the selection of arrows

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      Authors: Masashi Ohara, Naoki Kawasaki, Hyunwoo Song, Ayane Shinojima, Yuma Naka, Yogo Takada, Hitoshi Watanabe
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      It is important to select reliable tools that archers should use in archery competitions. For this reason, we focused on the arrows among the tools and developed a shooting machine for selecting arrows. It is important to imitate the movement of the right finger to release the arrow and the forward movement of the bow after the arrow is released. Therefore, these factors were considered when designing the machine. In this study, a shooting experiment was conducted in which the shooting cycle of twelve ends of six arrows was repeated five times (one end is defined as six arrows). Next, using the data from the impact points on the target, specific arrows with a large dispersion were identified. Cluster analysis was then conducted to identify the arrows that showed a high similarity distribution. Based on the above results, we were able to identify arrows with the most flaws and select arrows that archers should use. The results indicate the effectiveness of the method of selecting reliable arrows by rejecting flawed arrows.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-20T01:50:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221141779
       
  • All devices are not created equal: Simultaneous data collection of three
           triaxial accelerometers sampling at different frequencies

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      Authors: Allison H Gruber, Luca Marotta, James McDonnell, Jasper Reenalda
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The surge of wearable device technology has enabled out-of-the-lab collection of running gait data for commercial, clinical, and coaching applications. However, low sampling frequencies interfere with measuring peak acceleration magnitudes accurately, and the ability to track relative changes during a prolonged run with lower sampling devices is unknown. The purposes of this study were to compare peak resultant acceleration measured simultaneously at different sampling frequencies and evaluate if different sampling frequencies could track similar relative changes in peak acceleration over a 20-min treadmill run. Seventeen participants ran on a treadmill at a self-selected, “easy” pace for 20-min (mean ± SD = 2.6 ± 0.4 m s−1). Three research-grade, triaxial accelerometers (“HiRes” = 1200 Hz, “MedRes” = 462 Hz, and “LoRes” = 100 Hz) were secured to each of three anatomical locations (tibia, low-back, forehead). Mean peak resultant accelerations from each device during minutes 3 to 18 were compared within each location (linear mixed model, α = 0.050). No significant device by timepoint interaction was observed (p > 0.999). A significant main effect of sampling frequency at all three locations (HiRes > MedRes > LoRes; p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-20T01:45:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140517
       
  • Prediction of soccer clubs’ league rankings by machine learning methods:
           The case of Turkish Super League

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      Authors: Abdullah Erdal Tümer, Zeki Akyıldız, Aytek Hikmet Güler, Esat Kaan Saka, Riccardo Ievoli, Lucio Palazzo, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this research is to predict league rankings through various machine learning models using technical and physical parameters. This study followed a longitudinal observational analytical design. The SENTIO Sports optical tracking system was used to measure the physical demands and technical practices of the players in all matches. Then, the data regarding the last three seasons of the Turkish Super League (2015–2016, 2016−2017, and 2017−2018), was collected. In this research, league rankings were estimated using three machine learning methods: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Radial Basis Function (RBFN), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) with technical and physical parameters of all seasons. Performances were evaluated through R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). Prediction results of the models are the following: ANN Model; R2 = 0.60, RMSE = 3.7855 and MAE = 2.9139, RBFN Model; R2 = 0.26, MAE = 3.6292 and RMSE = 4.5168, MLR Model; R2 = 0.46, MAE = 3.4859 and RMSE = 4.2064. These results showed that ANN can be used as a successful tool to predict league rankings. In the light of this research, coaches and athletic trainers can organize their training in a way that affects the technical and physical parameters to change the results of the competition. Thus, it will be possible for teams to have a better place in the league-end success ranking.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-17T09:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140492
       
  • Reliability of isokinetic hip abductor and adductor strength measurements:
           A systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Authors: Guido Contreras-Diaz, Luis Javier Chirosa-Rios, Darío Martinez-Garcia, Leonardo Intelangelo, Ignacio Chirosa-Rios, Daniel Jerez-Mayorga
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were to: (I) examine the reliability of the abduction and adduction isokinetic strength measurements in healthy subjects and athletes; (II) determine which position is the most valid and reliable for strength measurement; and (III) determine the most reliable velocity to assess hip abductor and adductor strength. The databases used were Web of Science, SCOPUS, MedLine and PubMed. The metafor package of R software was used to conduct meta-analysis. A total of 767 studies were identified through a search of electronic databases, of which 10 were included in this meta-analysis. The main finding of the study revealed; (I) the reliability of isokinetic force measurement is good in abduction (ICC = 0.83) and adduction (ICC = 0.81); (II) standing position presents good reliability in abduction (ICC = 0.83) and adduction (ICC = 0.79); (III) the lateral position presents good reliability in abduction (ICC = 0.83) and adduction (ICC = 0.82); (IV) the velocity of 60°/s (ICC = 0.84), 90°/s (ICC = 0.84) and 120°/s (ICC = 0.86) show good reliability for abduction, and; (V) the velocity of 30°/s (ICC = 0.76), 60°/s (ICC = 0.83), and 120°/s (ICC = 0.89) show good reliability for adduction. Many factors influence the reliability of isokinetic assessments of the hip abductors and adductors, the best known of which are body position, isokinetic velocity, and type of muscle contraction. And although most of the researchers opt for the evaluation in lateral position, and at low velocities, our results conclude that the standing position, at a velocity of 120°/s is a better alternative to evaluate these movements (ABD-ADD), and not only because of its good reliability, but also because of the similarity of the evaluation with the gestures developed within the sport.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-17T09:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221137965
       
  • Development of an innovative method for evaluating a network of collective
           defensive interactions in football

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      Authors: Rui Pacheco, João Ribeiro, Micael Couceiro, Keith Davids, Júlio Garganta, Inês Marques-Aleixo, Fábio Nakamura, Filipe Casanova, Sixto González-Víllora
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Social network analysis (SNA) has been increasingly applied to performance analytics in team sports, seeking to better understand the dynamic properties of competitive interactions. Despite considerable potential to analyze individual (micro) and team (macro) behavioral patterns of play, there are important limitations that can undermine the potential applicability of SNA. One important limitation in existing research is the lack of network analyses of defensive interactions, curtailing understanding of the functionality and adaptability of teams during competitive performance. This study developed an innovative network method for assessing interactions between players in defensive phases of play in football. The networking method was evaluated using a small-sided and conditioned game (SSCG; GK+7v7+GK) of 20 min duration (two halves of 10 min each, interspersed by 5 min intervals of active recovery). The method traced interactions between groups of three players (effective defensive triangulations) as network nodes, weighted according to the number of passes performed by the attacking players. Results showed how this social network analysis method may provide researchers, coaches and performance analysts with relevant information regarding the functional properties of teams in the defensive phase of the game. For instance, coaches and performance analysts can evaluate the geometry of a team’s defense, with players engaged in effective triangular-shaped positioning, that allowed them to provide defensive cover and balance, to protect the goal and recover ball possession.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-14T12:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221141584
       
  • A comparison of protocols for measuring forces during landing on
           competition mats in gymnastics

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      Authors: Emma L Buxton, Michael J Hiley, Maurice R Yeadon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      During apparatus dismounts gymnasts land from up to 4 m above the landing surface. The gymnast needs to withstand high impact forces and the use of landing mats allows gymnasts to attenuate the forces with their landing strategy and interaction with the landing mats. Competition landings from various gymnastics apparatus involve the use of a 200 mm thick landing mat, with an additional 100 mm thick mat placed on top. The purpose of this research was to investigate the experimental protocols for measuring forces using force platforms during landings on competition mats. Three experimental protocols were compared, each of which used a force platform underneath landing mats in various set-ups. In Protocol 1 the mats were placed directly onto the force platform; in Protocol 2 the mats were placed on an enlarged raised extension; in Protocol 3 smaller mats were used with the extension. Differences between the vertical landing velocities calculated from kinematic data and from force platform data were used to assess how much impulse was transferred to the force platform in each of the protocols. Protocol 3 was the preferred method for collecting landing forces and resulted in a mean percentage velocity absolute difference of less than 2% for both one-mat and two-mat conditions. This study demonstrates the importance of keeping the landing mats clear of the force platform surroundings during the whole of the landing phase.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-12-09T09:37:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140495
       
  • Aerodynamic comparisons between Al Rihla and recent World Cup soccer balls

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      Authors: John Eric Goff, Sungchan Hong, Takeshi Asai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Wind-tunnel experiments were performed on Al Rihla, Telstar 18, Brazuca, and Jabulani, official match soccer balls used in the World Cup in 2022, 2018, 2014, and 2010, respectively. Aerodynamic coefficients extracted from wind-tunnel results were used to create computer simulations of trajectories of kicked soccer balls. The newest World Cup ball, Al Rihla, could be kicked for longer range compared to its recent predecessors. But there is also the possibility that knuckling effects at large speeds could be seen in the flights of the new ball kicked with little to no spin. Measurements were made of each soccer ball’s total seam length and seam width and depth. Two different measurement techniques were employed to assist with accuracy. Wider and deeper seams led to smaller critical speeds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T10:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221140497
       
  • Shoe wear test machine: What exists versus innovations and promising
           concepts. A scoping review

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      Authors: Elliot Polomé, Nicolas Théveniau, Cédric Vigier, Raphaël Dumas, Thomas Robert
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on test techniques that imitate the contact phase between the shoe and the ground to study shoe wear over time. Scoping review. Peer-reviewed studies were identified from electronic databases using a structured keyword search and a screening process. Relevant characteristics have been classified into three fields: the control of the test machines, the characteristics of the foot-ankle complex machine control and the outputs of the mechanical tests. Eight peer-reviewed studies were retrieved after screening and further analyzed. They described seven different machines and testing arrangements presenting different mechanical designs and controls. The most advanced machines not only controlled the kinematic of shod passive prosthesis, but also included a form of control of the vertical ground reaction forces and the use of an active foot system with two joints. Still, the resulting foot kinematics and ground reaction forces remained far from those of a real human when the machines simulate walking or running at a realistic speed. Moreover, none of the reviewed studies presented results of wear tests for a long period of time. This review summarizes the different mechanical approaches described in existing shoe wear study literature. Although none of the reviewed studies proposed a fully satisfying mechanical solution, they presented encouraging results. The most promising concepts and the remaining research tracks have been identified.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T01:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221133903
       
  • An experimental analysis of component contributions to shock absorption
           performance in third generation sport artificial turf

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      Authors: Nicolas Leiva-Molano, Breana Cappuccilli, Eric A Nauman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The increasing use of artificial turf across all levels of sports play has been hypothesized to contribute to an increase in athlete injuries. Current testing standards evaluate the shock absorbing performance of artificial turf surfaces through a single measure of acceleration after a drop test impact. However, these standards focus on the performance of the aggregate turf system, thereby neglecting the component-level contributions of the shock pad, carpet, and infill constituents. The purpose of this study was to explore a novel testing methodology that has the potential to isolate first-order and second-order contributions of components to total system performance. Various subsystems of the traditional, three layer artificial turf were treated as energy absorbing surfaces. A series of no-fatigue and fatigue tests were performed using a custom-built apparatus to characterize each energy absorbing surface at five different drop heights. During no-fatigue testing, it was found that the complete three-layer system outperformed all subsystems by mitigating resultant acceleration and force compared to the baseline. However, any energy absorbing subsystem that contained rubber infill outperformed any subsystem that included shock pad, the designated energy dissipating layer in third generation artificial turf. For fatigue testing, it was observed that energy absorbing surfaces began to deteriorate in as few as 20 impacts. In comparison to existing standards, the inclusion of a second data acquisition instrument yielded more accurate calculations of shock absorption. By capturing an input and output measurement during the impact, calculation of the surface’s characteristic transfer function is attainable and therefore, more information in gleaned from the impact test. Additional research is required to be able to deploy this testing methodology on-site, with fully installed artificial turf systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-11-05T01:14:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221132098
       
  • Aerodynamic analysis during the in-run phase of ski jumping: A numerical
           study of body posture effects

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      Authors: Wangbin Li, Long Chen, Tianyu Zhao, Gaohang Xu, Qian Li, Wanli Shi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The performance of ski jumping has a strong correlation to the in-run speed at take-off, which is underpinned by multi-disciplinary principles. Conventional research on the aerodynamics of ski jumping is supported by wind tunnels while the fluid physics leading to the performance is underexplored. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods, the aerodynamic drag, and its underlying flow patterns of seven typical in-run postures of a national-team athlete are investigated. The athlete model, including the suits and gear, are constructed through three-dimensional (3D) scanning. An optimal posture is proposed for this specific athlete to minimize the aerodynamic drag during the in-run. The critical adjustment of the posture is to spread the forearms and hands into a straight position. The effects of in-run speed on the aerodynamic drag production are related to the evolution of vortical structures around the athlete. This research encourages the usage of the CFD method in determining the optimal posture of ski jumping (during both in-run and flight phases) and thus serves as another critical technique in training. Our results also infer that the optimal posture should be customized for each athlete according to their biological features and training background.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T01:33:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221133907
       
  • Influence of match status in ball possessions in the FIFA Women’s
           World Cup France 2019

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      Authors: Iyán Iván-Baragaño, Rubén Maneiro, José L Losada, Antonio Ardá
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      There is little scientific knowledge about the influence of the match status criteria (winning, drawing, losing) in ball possessions in women’s football. Therefore, the aims of this study were: (i) to discover how technical-tactical criteria in ball possessions in women’s football are modified based on the match status, and (ii) to find out which criteria provide the best probability for offensive success (i.e. goal, shot, and sent to area) under the influence of match status. To this end, 2323 ball possessions were analyzed in the FIFA Women’s World Cup France 2019 using observational methodology. Two types of analysis were applied: firstly, a bi-variate analysis between match status and the rest of the criteria, followed by a predictive multivariate binary logistic regression analysis. The results obtained from the bi-variate analysis reveal the existence of significant statistical differences in the start and development of ball possessions in this championship depending on the match status. On the other hand, there was no evidence of differences when it comes to goal scoring, shots, and passes into the area based on these criteria. From the logistic regression models used, it was observed that there is a common pattern of success regardless of the match status, consisting of ball possessions that start in forward zones, in contexts of offensive interaction and with the intention of rapid progression toward the opponent’s goal. These results could be used for planning match and training strategies in elite women’s football.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T01:30:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221133624
       
  • Head impacts in non-helmeted sports: Measuring and locating the impact
           force

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      Authors: Jazim Sohail, Filipe Teixeira-Dias, Susan Merriman
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Mild traumatic brain injury within contact sports is a growing concern due to the serious risk of injury and concussion. Extensive research is being conducted looking into head kinematics during impacts in non-helmeted contact sports utilizing instrumented mouthguards, allowing researchers to record accelerations and velocities of the head during and after an impact. This does not, however, allow the location of the impact on the head, and its magnitude and orientation, to be determined. This research proposes and validates an algorithm using rigid body dynamics that approximates the impact force and determines its location and orientation from instrumented mouthguard kinematic data. Impact data captured from an experimental laboratory test using an instrumented mouthguard and five finite element simulations are used to validate the algorithm. The obtained results from both validation methods highlight the effectiveness of the proposed impact magnitude and location algorithm as impact locations were calculated within 12 mm of the impact center for all conducted tests. Additionally, components of force unit vectors (direction cosines) obtained from the algorithm were within ±0.03, which equates to less than 11% of the components of applied force unit vectors, highlighting the accuracy of impact direction vector established from the algorithm. This algorithm has the potential to significantly aid researchers conducting field tests within non-helmeted sports by reducing the time required to analyze and determine head impact locations.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-10-27T01:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221130894
       
  • Shot distribution in target archery, with application to arrow selection

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      Authors: Ian Dall, James L Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This work examines the distribution of shots in target archery. In previous work, based on a small sample size, it was concluded that the radial distance [math] from the centre of the target to the point of impact had a half-normal distribution. In this work, with a very large sample size, we find that [math] follows a Rayleigh distribution very closely, and that only varying the scale, this holds for subpopulations of interest: compound, recurve, male, female, indoors, outdoors and from intermediate to elite skill level. The importance and utility of an accurate statistical model of shot distribution is demonstrated by developing a model of the expected increase in qualification score due to arrow diameter, and the probability of winning head-to-head matches, conducted under World Archery rules. It is concluded that the choice of shot distribution has a significant impact on the accuracy of predictive models of archery performance and that shot distribution is accurately characterized by the Rayleigh distribution. It is found that there are substantial benefits in selecting the maximum permitted arrows shaft diameter, for indoor archery. The benefits vary with archer skill level but are not confined to elite archers.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-10-20T12:16:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221130537
       
  • The validity and reliability of a portable device (ADR-Jumping) to
           estimate vertical jump performance

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      Authors: Adrián González-Conde, Daniel González-Devesa, David Suárez-Iglesias, Carlos Ayán
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to evaluate the relative, absolute reliability, and concurrent validity of the ADR-Jumping system. Fifty-two participants performed three countermovement jumps (CMJ) and three squat jumps (SJ) with a 1-week interval for test and retest reliability; Chronojump contact-mat was used while simultaneously measuring with the ADR-Jumping system for validity. Very strong correlations were observed between both devices for all types of jumps (CMJ: r = 0.98, p = 0.01; SJ: r = 0.97, p = 0.01). Regardless of the jump modality (CMJ and SJ), greater jumping heights were observed for ADR-Jumping compared to Chronojump, but these were trivial differences. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC = 0.89) for CMJ, and very high for SJ (ICC = 0.91). Absolute reliability was excellent for CMJ and SJ, with SEM and MDC percentage values of 2.99% and 4.77% for CMJ, and 2.71% and 4.11% for SJ, respectively. The ADR-Jumping is a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring jump height.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-10-07T06:27:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221127079
       
  • Joint energy and shot mechanical energy of glide-style shot put

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      Authors: Chao-Fu Chen, Ming-Hsiu Chuang, Hui-Ju Wu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Shot put is a throwing exercise in track and field. Performance has a strong relationship with the thrower’s height, technique, and energy transferred. The purpose of this study was to compare basic kinematics, joint movement, shot mechanical energy, and joint energy of the male glide-style shot put between high-performance (HP) and low-performance (LP) athletes. Data for 12 right-handed male shot putters with glide-style was captured at the National Games held in Taipei city in 2013. The HP (n = 6) and LP (n = 6) groups were classified according to their best throwing distance in the competition. Additionally, the 2D kinematics of their joints and shots were obtained by Kwon 3D motion analysis. Finally, the kinematics and energy were calculated in Excel software package. Results showed significant differences in throwing distance, the relationship between throwing distance and body height index (RDH index), release velocity, and the shoulder-shot (BSX) angle at right toe-off ground instant (RTF) and the angle difference between the right toe-off instant and release instant (RI-RTF) between the HP and LP groups. However, the energy of the joints and shots were not significantly different between the two groups. The better throwers exhibited a faster release velocity, accompanied by a smaller change in the SSX angle, and the SSX angle can be used by the coach to assess the body’s forward or backward tilt during training.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T11:13:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221123168
       
  • Finish-line photography system based on multi-scale convolutional neural
           network deblurring

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      Authors: Zhixin Jin, Wenbo Tian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In sports science research, the dynamic non-uniform blur caused by the movement of running athletes is a challenging problem in computer vision, that seriously affects the judgment accuracy of the finish-line photography system. With the rapid development of deep learning technology, image preprocessing, object identification, and object classification have been widely used and studied. This work proposes multi-scale convolutional neural network image deblurring to eliminate dynamic blur generated by the athletes in the shooting process. This network comprises three end-to-end convolutional neural subnetworks of different scales to recover the blurry athlete image caused by various factors on the field. The system effectively extracts the detailed edge of the image on each scale from coarse to fine. Many experiments show that this method can deblur the image captured by the finish-line photography system in real-time and rapidly achieve a better visual effect in the athlete’s dynamic image.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T11:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221122082
       
  • Variations of distance and accelerometry-based GPS measures and their
           influence on body composition in professional women soccer players

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      Authors: Renato Fernandes, Alexandre Duarte Martins, Filipe Manuel Clemente, João Paulo Brito, Hadi Nobari, Victor Reis, Rafael Oliveira
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      External intensity quantification and body composition assessments across the season allow soccer coaches to adjust the intensity during training sessions, thereby avoiding excessive fatigue and helping players maximize their physical fitness status during matches. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to describe variations in external intensity periods of distance and accelerometry-based measures across the early and mid-competitive phases and (2) to analyze whether the intensity variations influenced body composition across the 2019/20 competitive season. Ten players from a Portuguese BPI Ligue team (professional league) participated in this study. The participants completed ≥80% of 57 training sessions and 13 matches. The athletes were assessed in three phases (before the start of the season, after 2 months, and after 4 months) for the following variables: body fat mass, soft lean mass, fat-free mass, intracellular water, extracellular water, total body water, and phase angle (50 kHz) through bioelectrical impedance analysis (InBody S10). A 10-Hz GPS device (PlayerTek) was used to collect distance and accelerometry-based measures, which included total distance, high-speed running distance, sprint distance, acceleration, deceleration, and player load. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with GPS-derived measures as covariates or repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the three moments of assessment. Although the patterns of variables’ responses were not the same as the season progressed, the values of body fat mass, fat-free mass, intracellular water, extracellular water, total body water, ratios of ECW/TBW, ECW/ICW, and phase angle improved. Variations in external intensity measures seem to influence the body composition variables across the season. These results may indicate good adaptations to the training and conditioning strategies managed by the coach and technical staff.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T11:07:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221122076
       
  • Effect of increasing the mass of the ball on power output during the
           overarm throw in professional male handball players

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      Authors: Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila, Francisco Sánchez-Sánchez, Carmen Gutiérrez-Cruz, Amador Garcia-Ramos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to determine the effect of increasing the mass of the official handball ball on horizontal force, velocity, and power outputs. Twelve male handball players from the Spanish Asobal Handball League performed overarm throws with four balls: official (0.460 kg), Δ15% (0.529 kg), Δ45% (0.667 kg), and Δ75% (0.805 kg). The throws were filmed with two cameras temporally synchronized at 250 Hz and digitized at 125 Hz, making possible to obtain the spatial coordinates of a model composed by six body markers plus the geometric center of the ball. Incrementing the mass of the ball produced a progressive reduction in velocity and increase in force (p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T11:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221122075
       
  • The effect of the head surrogate on the performance of bicycle helmets

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      Authors: Arghavan Talebanpour, Lloyd V Smith, Achyut Paudel
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Inconsistent results have been reported for helmeted impact responses between the two most commonly used headforms: The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) and the Hybrid III (HIII). There is a need to understand the reasons for the different responses of the headforms so that helmet protection may be discerned independent of the headform. In this study, the kinematic response and brain injury measures of the NOCSAE and HIII headforms at three impact orientations with three helmet models on an inclined anvil were compared. The results showed that the peak linear acceleration from the two headforms were within 6.3% on average for all impacts. However, despite the higher moment of inertia of the HIII headform, it did not have a consistently lower rotational acceleration compared to the NOCSAE headform. The differing headform rotational responses were primarily due to differences in the headforms’ center of gravity location. This led to differences in couples and accelerations, which tended to be most severe in frontal impact orientations. The variation in rotational responses of the headforms seems to be also dependent on the helmet type, with helmet A having greater variation compared to helmets B and C. Differences in the rotational kinematics of the two headforms led to a 47% average difference in their brain injury measures.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T10:59:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221118797
       
  • Integrating notational and positional analysis to investigate tactical
           behavior in offensive and defensive phases of football matches

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      Authors: Gibson Moreira Praça, Pedro Emílio Drumond Moreira, André Gustavo Pereira de Andrade, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Warlen Borges de Oliveira, Giancarlo Demétrio
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Most literature has neglected the possible influence of game phase – offensive and defensive – on players’ and teams’ behaviors measured by positional data. Also, the combined effect of contextual variables – match period, match venue, and match outcome – and game phases has not been investigated yet. Therefore, this study aimed to integrate notational and positional analysis to investigate individual and collective tactical behavior in different game phases (offensive and defensive) in football matches under different contextual conditions. The sample comprised 18 matches played by 24 U-20 elite Brazilian athletes during the 2021 national championship. The authors designed a notational system to classify the start and the end of the offensive phase (and consequently, the defensive phase of the opposing team). The positional data was gathered through global positioning system devices and manually integrated with the notational analysis. Contextual variables comprised match period (first vs second halves), match venue (home vs away matches), and match outcome (win vs draw versus lose matches). Results showed significant differences between game phases, with a more spread tactical positioning observed in the offensive phase. Furthermore, interactions between contextual variables and the game phase were observed, although the game phase presented the highest impact on the dependent variables. We conclude that a more spread tactical positioning characterizes offensive behavior and that the impact of the game phase was higher than contextual variables on tactical behavior, which emphasizes the need for future studies to split positional data into attacking and defensive ones. Also, integrating notational and positional analysis are a viable alternative to enrich the data interpretation of football matches concerning the influence of game phases on players’ and teams’ behaviors.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T09:11:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221122044
       
  • Concurrent validity and intra-unit reliability of the Speedtrack X radar
           gun device for measuring tennis ball speed

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      Authors: Mekki Abdioglu, Zeki Akyildiz, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to test the concurrent validity of the Speedtrack X radar device for measuring tennis ball speed in comparison to a Pocket radar gun and (ii) to test the intra-unit reliability of the Speedtrack X radar device for measuring tennis ball speed. A total sample of 116 tennis ball throws performed by the same machine were measured in a single session. All throws were simultaneously measured by one Pocket radar device (reference criterion) and one Speedtrack X radar gun. Reliability levels were calculated using Pearson’s correlation test (r), the intra-class correlation test (ICC), and coefficient of variation (CV), while concurrent validity was tested using Bland-Altman and effect size (for measuring between-device differences). High correlation between the data obtained from the two devices was found (r = 0.932, p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T09:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221122027
       
  • Criterion validity and reliability of a new algorithm to detect jump
           performance in women’s volleyball players

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      Authors: Antonio García-de-Alcaraz, Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The limitation of tracking systems to assess short high intensity efforts has led to an exponential growth of inertial measurement units (IMU), capable of recording jumps at a very high sampling rate. However, the validity and reliability of each of them should be tested. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of a new algorithm to detect jump performance in professional women’s volleyball players during training using an IMU. A total of 1581 jumps performed by 13 players (17.31 ± 7.34 years’ experience, and 6.77 ± 7 years playing in the first league) were video recorded during two volleyball training sessions. Data were recorded with Realtrack Systems IMU (WIMU PRO™, RealTrack Systems, Almeria, Spain), and extracted data were compared against a video system (Sony HDR-CX240 high-definition camera, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) using an observational procedure (ICC = 0.99). The results showed that WIMU PRO™ identified 1569 from the total of 1581 jumps performed (i.e. 99.24%). Therefore, this wearable device proved to have excellent jump count accuracy in top-level women’s volleyball players, making its use feasible in this sport context. This finding supports the use of this IMU as a valid method to guide the monitoring of jump training load.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T10:19:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221114246
       
  • CORRIGENDUM to “Effect of temperature on the dynamic properties of
           soccer balls”

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      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T11:14:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221120699
       
  • A study on ski groups size and their relationship to the risk of injury

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      Authors: Boris Delibašić, Sandro Radovanović, Miloš Z Jovanović, Zoran Obradović, Milija Suknović, Ranko Lojić
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This paper addresses a novel topic in ski injury research - how a ski group size indicates the risk of ski injury. There is evidence in research literature that people ski in groups. However, the relationship between group size and the risk of injury has remained unexplored. Based on ski lift entrance data, we use the density-based clustering algorithm OPTICS to identify groups of skiers and discuss the advantages of using this algorithm. We show that the ski group size can be used to improve the identification of skiers who experience ski injury. The results of the identification of ski groups at Mt. Kopaonik Ski Resort in Serbia show that skiing alone is most susceptible to ski injury, while skiing in couples or in bigger groups reduces the risk of injury by 46%. In addition, it is confirmed that ski injuries are an early failure event phenomena. Based on the CHAID decision tree analysis, spending a small amount of time at the ski resort and skiing alone are associated with the: 6 times greater ski injury risk than the average ski injury risk.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-08-16T06:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221118193
       
  • The dependence of baseball lift and drag on spin

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      Authors: Bin Lyu, Lloyd Smith, Jack Elliott, Jeff Kensrud
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study measured the drag and lift of baseballs in free flight as a function of back spin for two spin axes. While others have measured baseball lift and drag, the mechanisms for their dependence on spin have not been explained. For increasing spin, drag was observed to initially decrease then increase at higher spin. The inflection point appears to occur when the flow on the bottom ball surface becomes fully turbulent. At low spin the lift of the four-seam spin axis was nearly constant and three times larger than the two-seam spin axis. The lower lift of the two-seam spin axis was shown to be due to a periodic reverse Magnus effect observed at low spin rates. At higher spin the lift of both spin axes increased at similar rates with spin. As observed with drag, the lift transition point appears to be associated with the bottom of the ball becoming fully turbulent.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T10:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221113914
       
  • Flight dynamics of ski jumping: Wind tunnel testing and numerical modeling
           to optimize flight position

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      Authors: Jason Barnes, Simon Tuplin, Alastair Duncan Walker
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Ski jumping is a highly competitive sport, where the distance jumped is greatly dependent on the aerodynamic effects of the athlete’s posture. In the current paper a wind tunnel experiment was conducted to generate a parametric database of the effects of posture on aerodynamics and to compute the aerodynamic force coefficients. The parameters considered were varied over ranges representative of modern ski jumping and included the ski incidence angle, the ski V-angle, the leg-to-ski angle, and the hip angle. Measured force data were then used to simulate ski jumping flightpaths via a numerical model, allowing for the effects of posture on jump distance to be investigated. The model was able to simulate single and multi-posture flights to suggest both static and dynamic optimums. It was found that the ski jumping system generated lift in previously unreported, non-linear methods, enabling the flow to stay attached at much larger incidences than traditional wings. When optimizing posture for distance, it was found that neither lift nor efficiency (lift-to-drag ratio) should be maximized, due to the reliance on both qualities for a successful jump. However, when considering multi-posture flight, it was found that the lift-to-drag ratio should be maximized immediately after take-off, to maintain horizontal velocity. Lift should be maximized as the athlete approaches landing, due to the highly curved flightpath reducing the negative impact of drag. Realistic recommendations have been made on the postures that athletes should utilize to improve their performance. This includes a single position optimum, a “safe” optimum which allows some variation in an athlete’s ability to hold posture, and a further optimum should the athlete be skillful enough to dynamically alter posture as the jump progresses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-27T05:56:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221111625
       
  • How reliable are the tactical measures obtained in soccer small-sided
           games' A test-retest analysis of observational instruments and
           GPS-based variables

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      Authors: Gibson Moreira Praça, Cristóvão de Oliveira Abreu, Marcelo Rochael, Pedro Drumond Moreira
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigated the test-retest reliability in both within and between-session reliability of commonly adopted tactical measures in small-sided games. GPS-based and observational tactical variables from three instruments were collected from a 4 versus 4 small-sided game played by 16 U-17 elite players. The games were played three times in the same training session (within-session reliability) and repeated after 1 week (between-session reliability). The reliability of the data was analyzed by calculating the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) for all dependent variables. Results showed good-to-excellent reliability and a low error for GPS-based tactical variables, mainly the width and length positioning (ICC  > 0.9, SEM 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T06:37:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221113925
       
  • Measuring the bat-ball impact location from bat acceleration

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      Authors: Bin Lyu, Lloyd Smith
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study describes a novel method to identify the bat-ball impact location from accelerations measured at the bat knob. The magnitude of mode 1 and mode 2 accelerations were normalized by the swing speed and found as a function of the impact location. The impact location was identified by minimizing the error of normalized acceleration from impacts of batters swinging at different speeds. Impact locations from the accelerations were then compared with locations measured by high-speed video. Good agreement was found for bats with an asymmetric acceleration signature.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T12:41:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221112239
       
  • Potential use of the medicine ball throw test to reveal the upper-body
           maximal capacities to produce force, velocity, and power

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      Authors: Ivan Marovic, Danica Janicijevic, Olivera M. Knežević, Amador Garcia-Ramos, Goran Prebeg, Dragan M. Mirkov
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the shape of the load-velocity (L-V) and force-velocity (F-V) relationships obtained during the medicine ball throw (MBT) test, (2) to explore the reliability of their parameters (L-V parameters: maximal load (L0), maximal velocity (V0(L-V)), slope of the L-V relationship (a(L-V)), and area under the L-V relationship line (Aline); F-V parameters: maximal force (F0), maximal velocity (V0(F-V)), slope of the F-V relationship (a(F-V)), and maximal power (Pmax)), (3) to explore the concurrent validity of the two-point with respect to the multiple-point method, and (4) to evaluate the external validity of L0 and F0 with respect to the maximal strength. Twelve males performed MBTs against four loads, a bench press 1-repetition maximum (1 RM), and maximal isometric medicine ball push. The L-V and F-V relationships were strongly linear (individual r ≥ 0.886). V0 was the only variable that always showed an acceptable reliability (CV ≤ 3.4%). L0 and F0 presented trivial to moderate correlations with the bench press 1RM and maximal isometric medicine ball push performance. Therefore, the MBT test can be implemented to reveal the maximal velocity capacity of upper-body muscles, but not maximal force or power capacities due to their low reliability and external validity.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T10:35:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221113127
       
  • Effects of free-play or introducing artificial rules on tactical behavior
           based on soccer-team lines: A pilot study

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      Authors: Asier Gonzalez-Artetxe, Asier Los Arcos, Hugo Folgado, Markel Rico-González, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Team-lines structures are particular subsystems determined strategically by the formation chosen by the team coach, and despite its relevance, no study has analyzed training effects on tactical behavior based on team lines. This study aimed to assess the effects of modified games playing freely and introducing artificial rules on tactical behavior based on team lines during the team-possession game phase in two youth-soccer categories. Two Spanish under-14s (U-14s: n = 16) and under-16s (U-16s: n = 16) teams took part in the study. Each team was divided into two groups, free-play and conditioned, that faced each other during three 7-min eight-on-eight games in four training sessions. The free-play group played freely without restrictions, while the conditioned group played constrained by artificial rules (i.e. a minimum number of touches, no return pass allowed, forward pass after a back pass) that modified the cooperative motor interactions between teammates. Tactical behavior was assessed by the three geometrical primitives’ representations (i.e. node: change in the centroid position (CCP), line: interpersonal distance between teammates (dyads), and area: surface area (SA)) and their time series approximate entropy (ApEn) normalized measures in subgroups based on team lines (goalkeeper – defenders, defenders – midfielders, and midfielders – forward) before and after the training intervention in an eight-on-eight game using a local positioning system (LPS). The results suggest that the short-term training intervention affected considerably (i.e. Cohen’s d≥ moderate) U-14s team lines’ behavior, especially those who played freely. On the other hand, U-16s’ tactical behavior based on team lines barely changed (i.e. Cohen’s d≤ small). It seems that playing freely for several training sessions could strengthen the tactical behavior of each line, enhancing team lines’ regularity in youth-soccer categories.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T10:53:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221107179
       
  • Test-retest reliability of customised inertial measurement units (IMUs) in
           evaluating skateboarding related manoeuvres

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      Authors: Aina Munirah Ab Rasid, Azlina Musa, Muhammad Amirul Abdullah, Anwar P.P. Abdul Majeed, Mohd Azraai Mohd Razmaan, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Noor Azuan Abu Osman, Rabiu Muazu Musa
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Recent developments in sports technology have enabled sports engineers to utilise the availability of inertial measurement units (IMUs) to develop a customised system for data collection during sports performances. Ensuring the reliability of such a system is essential for objective data collection and transmission of information that coaches could rely upon for improving athletes’ techniques and overall performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of a custom-made IMU system (embedded with Arduino Pro Mini) in the evaluation of skateboarding related manoeuvres. A skilful male and experienced amateur skateboarder (23 years, with 5 years skateboarding experience) performed five skateboarding tricks (Ollie, Nollie, Pop Shuvit, Kickflip and Frontside 180) using a customised ORY skateboard (IMUs fused). The skateboarder was permitted to execute two separate tricks (Tests A and B); thereafter, the reliability of the IMUs in recognising the similarity of the tricks was evaluated using a test-retest approach. Six time-domain signals obtained from the IMU system of each trick’s execution were extracted. Statistical analyses, including the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach alpha and correlation coefficients, were utilised to measure the scale’s reliability of the system. The results revealed no significant difference between Tests A and B of each trick p > 0.05, ICC > 0.80, Cronbach alpha > 0.80 and r > 0.80; p-value 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T11:17:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221110424
       
  • Reliability of the KiSprint force starting block to evaluate different
           push-off variables in high-level sprinters

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      Authors: Amador Garcia-Ramos, Dragan M Mirkov, Olivera M Knežević, Milan Čoh, Nejc Šarabon
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to determine the within- and between-session reliability of different variables collected during the starting block phase with the KiSprint force starting block and to identify the number of trials that maximise the reliability of the measurement. Thirty high-level sprinters (23 men and 7 women) completed two sessions separated by 1 week. The first session consisted of two sets of five sprints and the second session of one set of five sprints. Outcomes of each set were calculated as Aver3 (average of the first three sprints), Aver5 (average of the five sprints) and CENTRAL (average of the three central sprints). The instrumented sprint starting blocks (KiSprint system) served to record a total of 20 push-off variables. Within-session reliability was acceptable (coefficient of variation (CV)0.70) for 103 out of 117 comparisons and between-session reliability was acceptable for 60 out of 117 comparisons. Aver5 provided a lower CV (within-session: 4.8% ± 2.9%; between-session: 13.0% ± 6.4%) than Aver3 (within-session: 8.2% ± 6.6% (CV ratio = 1.72); between-session: 14.5% ± 7.1% (CV ratio = 1.11)) and CENTRAL (within-session: 5.3% ± 3.6% (CV ratio = 1.10); between-session: 15.2% ± 9.7% (CV ratio = 1.17)). These results indicate that the KiSprint system can collect several variables with acceptable reliability in high-level sprinters, while the Aver5 procedure is recommended to maximise the reliability of the measurement.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T10:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221110415
       
  • Comparison of GPS derived variables based on home versus away matches in
           the Asian professional soccer team

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      Authors: Hadi Nobari, Maryam Fani, Elena Mainer-Pardos, Rafael Oliveira
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Professional soccer with high training loads is defined with weekly competition. The purpose of this study was to compare external training load data of GPS derived variables that preceded a home versus away match. Twenty-two weeks of a national league meet schedule were analyzed, which included 11 home and 11 away matches. Twelve professional soccer players (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± 8.6 cm; BMI, 22.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) participated in this study. All matches were monitored using GPSPORTS systems Pty Ltd. The following variables were selected: total duration of the matches and training sessions, high-speed running distance (18–23 km h−1), sprint distance (>23 km h−1), maximal speed, body load, metabolic power, accelerations Zone1 (4 m s−2) (AccZ3), decelerations Zone1 (−4 m s−2) (DecZ3). The results indicated that metabolic power showed higher values at home than away matches [p = 0.047, ES = 0.53, (−0.28, 1.34)]. Furthermore, there was a higher value in accumulated external training load that preceded away matches for high-speed running and lower value [p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T09:08:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221109729
       
  • Optimised sight adjustment processes for archers

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      Authors: James L Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      During an archery competition, archers frequently fail to correctly adjust their bow’s sight so that their arrow groups are centred on the target. Arrows are shot in ends of three or six, depending on the phase of the competition, and consequently each end provides very limited data on which to make sight adjustments, although at the conclusion of the competition it is usually obvious if an archer has succeeded in the task or not. This paper considers three sight optimisation processes with a view to minimise score loss both in ranking rounds and in matches. It is shown that archers should take a more aggressive rather than a less aggressive approach to sight movements, especially for the first end. Each sight adjustment process can be implemented using a simple look-up table.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221109250
       
  • Validity and Reliability of A New Low-Cost Linear Position Transducer to
           Measure Mean Propulsive Velocity: The ADR device

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      Authors: Olga Lopez-Torres, Valentin Emilio Fernandez-Elias, Jiaxin Li, Miguel Angel Gomez-Ruano, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Many sports and recreational strength training coaches consider movement velocity essential to improve performance, and velocity-based training has gained attention over the past decade. Furthermore, there is a lack of low-cost, easy to use, and reliable methods to measure movement velocity. Therefore, this current research aims to analyze the validity and reliability of a new linear position transducer device (ADR) for the measurement of barbell mean propulsive velocity. Seventeen trained participants (n = 14 men; n = 3 women; 21.2 ± 4.0 years) performed an incremental bench press exercise test against five different loads (45%, 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% 1RM) at maximal concentric velocity. Barbell displacement was derived simultaneously from three devices including: a linear velocity transducer (T-Force, criterion measurement) and two linear position transducers (ADR and Speed4lifts (S4L)). The ADR mean propulsive velocity measurements demonstrated substantial validity compared to both T-Force and S4L at all loads (between the r values and p values r = .86–.99 p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:14:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221104345
       
  • Features of ball impact in straight, curve and knuckle kicks in soccer

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      Authors: Kaoru Kimachi, Masaaki Koido, Sungchan Hong, Shuji Shimonagata, Masao Nakayama, Takeshi Asai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The quantitative relationship between kicking motion and ball behaviour can be easily explained by detecting the impact point and foot posture. In previous studies, the impact point of a kicking foot was difficult to capture using visual tracking. Thus, a virtual surface modelling technique was applied in this study to clarify the differences in the three-dimensional foot speed, impact point and foot posture between straight, curve, and knuckle kicks in soccer, as well as the relationship between the kick motion and ball rotation. An optical three-dimensional motion capture system (VICON) was used to record the kicking motion. The impact points of the straight, curve, and knuckle kicks were found to be centrally located in the instep area, at a lower (more downwards) inside area, and at the medial area between the instep and inside areas of the kicking foot, respectively. Moreover, an impact with a greater ‘swing vector deviation angle (relative to the direction from the impact point to the centre of gravity of the ball)’ is necessary for ball rotation. The impact point detection method employed in this study can be applied to other ball impact estimations beyond soccer kicks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101234
       
  • Using wireless inertial measurement units for measuring hip range of
           motion through commonly used clinical tests

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      Authors: José M Oliva-Lozano, Isabel Martín-Fuentes, José M Muyor
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Hamstring extensibility is a crucial component of athletic performance and spinal health. In this regard, hip range of motion analysis through standardized clinical tests has been used as a valid and reliable method for measuring hamstring extensibility. Consequently, new inertial devices have been designed for this purpose. The aims of this study were to: (i) analyze the concurrent validity of inertial sensors for measuring hamstring extensibility through the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR) tests; and (ii) analyze the test-retest reliability of inertial sensors for measuring hamstring extensibility through the ASLR and PSLR tests. A total of 18 healthy participants took part in this cross-sectional study. The hamstring extensibility was measured through the range of motion of the left and right hip in the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR) tests. Data were collected by inertial sensors (WIMU Pro) and an ISOMED bi-level inclinometer, which was used as the reference instrument. The inertial sensors reported a standard error of the measurement (SEM) below 0.6° in all measurements. The R2 correlation and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were very close to 1 in all measurements. Regarding the reliability analysis, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between test and retest measures, and the SEM were below 0.8° in both instruments. The ICC were close to 1 in all cases as well. The coefficients of variation (CV) were below 2.7% in the inertial device and 2.2% in the inclinometer. This study showed that using microtechnology through WIMU Pro may be a valid and reliable method for measuring hip range of motion during the ASLR and PSLR tests.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:59:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221106707
       
  • Testing protocol for evaluating underhand serve-reception biomechanics in
           volleyball

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      Authors: Rocio L Callupe, Juan M Chau, Jose G Garcia, Christian G Chicoma, Cesar F Arrese, Manuel H Artieda, Dante A Elias, Elizabeth R Villota
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A testing protocol for conducting biomechanical underhand serve-reception evaluation in volleyball in match-like conditions is presented. A launcher sends a ball over the net toward the reception zone for the player to pass it to the setter; the ball is tracked with video cameras and the player’s articular information is captured by inertial sensors, force plates, and video cameras. Test-retest reliability and, known-groups and concurrent validity of the test are evaluated. Left knee, right knee, left shoulder, and right shoulder angles were highly reliable (ICC > 0.88), with low standard errors of measurement (%SEM  0.79) and good correlation scores (PCC > 0.83) for professional athletes. The test offers a reliable and valid method for evaluating underhand serve-reception biomechanics in volleyball players.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221106360
       
  • Training intensity management during microcycles, mesocycles, and
           macrocycles in soccer: A systematic review

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      Authors: Javier Ramos-Cano, Andrés Martín-García, Markel Rico-González
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Training intensity (TI) monitoring has become a necessary aspect of professional soccer training. This study systematically reviewed the original investigations that have reported values regarding TI across macrocycles, mesocycles, and one-, two-, and three-match day (MD) microcycles in professional soccer, to analyze TI variations among months, weeks, and training sessions, respectively. A systematic review of PubMed, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The articles were included following these criteria: (i) professional soccer players, (ii) players monitored for TI values, (iii) TI distribution in, at least, 3 days, weeks, or months, (iv) variables related to TI (physical/physiological), and (v) original studies. The quality assessment of included articles was done using MINORS checklist. From the 473 studies initially identified, 19 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. In microcycles, most articles showed lower values in MD+1 and progressively incremented until MD-4 or MD-3. As the number of days between matches decreased, TI values decreased, with values in MD-1 lower than 50% of MD’s intensity, or even values
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T12:38:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101227
       
  • Effects of a competitive half-season on the aerobic capacity and match
           running performance of Turkish elite professional soccer players

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Aytek Hikmet Güler, Erhan Çene, Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Rodrigo Aquino, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how exertion during matches affects participants’ physical capacity and match performance. The study included 13 elite football league players (21 ± 0.7 years old; height, 181.1 ± 8.98 cm; body mass, 74.7 ± 8.1 kg) and used global positioning system (GPS) data collected during 12 official matches. Four matches after the first Yo-Yo IR1 test, four matches before the second Yo-Yo IR1 test, and four matches after the second Yo-Yo IR1 test are examined. Sprint count per minute (SC) (N/min), (>19 km/h), p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T08:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101796
       
  • Investigation of the convergent validity and reliability of unit position
           differences of Catapult S5 GPS units in field conditions

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Deniz Şentürk, Barış Gürol, Mehmet Yildiz, Yücel Ocak, Mehmet Günay
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research aimed to examine the validity and reliability of GPS units located in different positions. Nine recreational soccer players (age: 23.18 ± 2.21 years; height: 176 ± 7.65 cm; and body mass: 71.13 ± 4.67 kg) participated voluntarily in the current study. Athletes were tested through the team sports simulation cycle (TSSC) protocol. This protocol consisted of a total of 1200 m. Each lap consisted of a distance of 150 m, and the athletes were asked to perform eight laps. Two GPS units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, Victoria) were used for each athlete during the TSSC protocol. The first unit was positioned in the scapula location, and the other GPS unit was positioned in the center of mass (COM) location, and simultaneous data were recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the meter values measured in the field and the devices. The main finding of this research was that the player load parameters, which are derived from the accelerometer in GPS units, changes with the player’s position (total player load scapula − total player Load COM p≤ 0.001, Cohen’d−2.449). There was no statistical difference between the other parameters (total distance covered, max velocity, deceleration max and acceleration max) examined in the study. CV% and SWC values showing the reliability of total distance covered scapula (CV% = 1.41; SWC = 0.28), total distance covered COM (CV% = 3.64; SWC = 0.73), total player load scapula (CV% = 2.29; SWC = 0.46), total player load COM (CV% = 1.83; SWC = 0.37), deceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.51; SWC = 0.70), deceleration max COM (CV% = 2.78; SWC = 0.56), Acceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.85; SWC = 0.77), and acceleration max COM (CV% = 2.74; SWC = 0.55) were within acceptable limits (CV% 5). The reliability of GPS units in different locations was investigated by CV% SWC analysis. It was found that all values in the scapula and COM locations were measured validly and reliably, but the total player load measurements were statistically different in the scapula and COM.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T08:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100592
       
  • An observational analysis of climbing an obstacle in mountain biking: A
           case study

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      Authors: Adrián Iglesias, Daniel Lapresa, Josep M Dalmau, M Teresa Anguera
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      An observation system has been designed within observational methodology that permits analysis and intervention in the technical action of climbing an obstacle in mountain biking. Using records that correspond to the performance of an elite athlete, the ideal technique for climbing an obstacle has been inferred. Data collection and coding was done using LINCE software. The reliability of the observation system was guaranteed via intra-observer concordance, using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient. The generalisability analysis carried out has guaranteed the homogeneity of the records and the validity of the observation instrument. The data packages obtained detail the behaviour of the cyclist in each observed technical action. Through a lag sequential analysis, regularities were found in performance technique, establishing four fundamental phases and nuances that characterise the action in detail at the start and end of the phases: pedal stroke, handlebar pull, hip push and stabilisation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101302
       
  • Relationships between internal and external training load demands and
           match load demands in elite women volleyball players

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      Authors: Emre Altundag, Zeki Akyildiz, Ricardo Lima, Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Erhan Çene, Cengiz Akarçeşme, Giovanni Miale, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the relationships between the internal and external load demands imposed on elite female volleyball players during training and matches. Fourteen elite female world champion volleyball league players participated in this study (mean ± standard deviation (SD); age, 22 ± 0.9 years; height, 195.1 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 71.4 ± 6.3 kg). The research lasted for 10 months. Moderate positive relationships were found between match load and training load (r = 0.48) and between high metabolic load distance (HMLD) in matches and HMLD in training (r = 0.56). There were also strong positive relationships between local positioning system (LPS) recorded jumps in matches and during training (0.61), accelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.72), and decelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.68). A weak positive relationship was reported between training accelerations/decelerations and match accelerations/decelerations (r = 0.28). The relationships between accelerations and decelerations in matches (r = 0.92) and between accelerations and decelerations during training (r = 0.90) were very strong. As a result, it is concluded that as the load, HMLD, jumps, accelerations, and decelerations values obtained during training increase, the values obtained in competitions also increase. The results of this study can help sports scientists and coaches understand the relationships between training and competition data obtained from electronic tracking devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101233
       
  • Level of agreement and reliability of ADR encoder to monitor mean
           propulsive velocity during the bench press exercise

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      Authors: Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, Markel Rico-González, Carlos Esteban Pérez-Caballero, Guillermo Rodríguez-Valero, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and the level of agreement of the ADR encoder to measure the mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the bar in the bench press (BP) exercise on the Smith machine. Eleven males (21.6 ± 1.5 years; body mass 76.05 ± 9.73 kg) performed the protocol with isometric phase prior to concentric muscle action (PP) and the protocol in the absence of isometric phase (N-PP) for BP exercise on Smith machine. ADR encoder reported reliability values with almost perfect correlations in all training zones and protocols (PP: ICC = 0.940–0.999, r = 0.899–0.997, CV = 1.56%–4.05%, SEM = 0.0022–0.0153,and MDC = 0.006–0.031 m/s; N-PP: ICC = 0.963–0.999, r = 0.946–0.998, CV = 0.70%–3.01%, SEM = 0.0012–0.0099, and MDC = 0.003–0.027 m/s). Although the levels of agreement were high in both protocols (PP: SEM = 0.0024–0.0204 m/s, MDC = 0.007–0.057 m/s; N-PP: SEM = 0.0034–0.0288 m/s, MDC = 0.009–0.080 m/s), ADR encoder considerably underestimated the MPV values in both protocols (PP: t = −2.239 to −9.486, p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100395
       
  • A method for calculating and interpreting the ratio of friction force to
           normal force imparted on a spherical object: Application to a cricket ball
           during bowling

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      Authors: Franz Konstantin Fuss, Adin Ming Tan, Yehuda Weizman, René E. D. Ferdinands
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The coefficient of friction (COF) is usually calculated from a force ratio or a translational velocity ratio. We developed a new method for calculating the COF between fingers and a thrown ball from the spin parameter (angular over translational velocity). We used triad data obtained from a motion analysis system. We rigidified the triad data with a new method by force-fitting a master triangle (obtained from average side lengths) to each triad, where the three distances between each pair of corresponding vertices are three virtual forces that are in force and moment equilibrium. We also applied a low-pass filter to the data. The following data were calculated: helical axis between two consecutive master triangles, angular velocity, translational velocity, and COF. We applied this method to cricket ball deliveries (finger-spin topspin Ft, finger-spin backspin Fb, wrist-spin topspin Wt, wrist-spin backspin Wb). The standard deviations of the triad side lengths were smaller without than with low-pass filter. The COF showed smaller interquartile and total ranges when force fitting the raw data than when force-fitting the filtered data; or filtered data without force fitting; or neither force-fitting nor filtering. The delivery finger-spin backspin exhibited the smallest COF, whereas wrist-spin backspin had the highest. Finger-spin deliveries had a smaller COF than wrist-spin ones. There was no significant difference between topspin and backspin in terms of the COF. Deliveries with the palm pointing medially (Ft, Wb) had a greater COF than deliveries with the palm pointing laterally (Fb, Wt). In conclusion, the force-fitting method was superior compared to low-pass filtering with the latter worsening the data because of filtering along the time axis rather than spatially. The COF imparted on cricket ball led to a new classification system of deliveries and to a proposal for a new bowling strategy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100368
       
  • The aerodynamic assessment of tandem cyclists in preparation for the 2021
           Paralympic Games: A case study

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      Authors: Bryce Dyer, Konrad Gumowski, Michal Starczewski
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Reducing the level of aerodynamic drag (CdA) via use of a wind tunnel will ultimately improve a competitive cyclists performance. Whilst this tool is widely considered a ‘gold standard’, previous studies have centred on single riders or scale models to evaluate aerodynamic drag. No study to date has assessed the precision of wind tunnel testing with the additional perceived complexity of a tandem bicycle with a pair of competitive paracyclists. The first part of this investigation evaluated the use of a wind tunnel in the assessment of tandem paracyclists. A male and female team of paracyclists riding tandem versions of either a time trial track bicycle or a road/time trial bicycle undertook a series of measurement intervals in a wind tunnel. Three different combinations of these riders and bicycles obtained a Coefficient of Variation of their mean CdA of 1.8%–2.6%. The second part of this investigation acted as a case study by implementing a range of aerodynamic interventions to potentially reduce the male team’s CdA. For example, progressive efforts reduced a team’s CdA from the baseline of 0.338 m2 to ultimately 0.321 m2 predominately by lowering both tandem riders heads Whilst tandem cyclist performance enhancement has recieved scant attention in the past, this case study only highlights the value of doing so in the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100050
       
  • Garmin wearable device offers reliable alternative for on-water stroke
           rate and velocity measurement in rowing

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      Authors: Sophie P Watts, Martyn J Binnie, Paul SR Goods, Matthew M Doyle, Jamie Hewlett, Peter Peeling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Performance tracking devices in the form of wrist-worn watches are common in rowing; however, the accuracy of relevant output variables (i.e. stroke rate [SR] and velocity) during on-water training is unknown. To assess the quality of wrist-watch data output, 16 rowing athletes recorded 118 on-water rowing sessions using a Garmin Forerunner 735XT, which was compared to a Catapult Optimeye R4 tracking device. Garmin recording function was set to ‘Every Second’ (N = 68 sessions) or ‘Smart’ (N = 50 sessions). Catapult velocity was calculated as the average velocity per stroke, while a 15 s velocity moving average was determined for Garmin data. Catapult and Garmin were filtered for training-specific data (SR = 14–50 strokes per minute [spm]; velocity = 2.1–7.0 m/s−1). Efficacy and reliability of the Garmin was assessed via the difference between devices (% error), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95% confidence interval (CI)) and coefficient of variation (CV%). Error in 15 s smoothed velocity was 3.8% (‘Every Second’) and 8.2% (‘Smart’). Both recording functions demonstrated ‘good’ reliability (ICC = 0.75–0.9, CV 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221099364
       
  • An analytical framework to understand individual running-related injury
           risk response patterns to footwear

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      Authors: Patrick Mai, Leon Robertz, Johanna Robbin, Matthias Thelen, Markus Kurz, Matthieu B. Trudeau, Gillian Weir, Joseph Hamill, Steffen Willwacher
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Running footwear is continuously being modified and improved; however, running-related overuse injury rates remain high. Nevertheless, novel manufacturing processes enable the production of individualized running shoes that can fit the individual needs of runners, with the potential to reduce injury risk. For this reason, it is essential to investigate functional groups of runners, a collective of runners who respond similarly to a footwear intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a framework to identify functional groups based on their individual footwear response regarding injury-specific running-related risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy, Tibial stress fractures, Medial tibial stress syndrome, and Patellofemoral pain syndrome. In this work, we quantified the footwear response patterns of 73 female and male participants when running in three different footwear conditions using unsupervised learning (k-means clustering). For each functional group, we identified the footwear conditions minimizing the injury-specific risk factors. We described differences in the functional groups regarding their running style, anthropometric, footwear perception, and demographics. The results implied that most functional groups showed a tendency for a single footwear condition to reduce most biomechanical risk factors for a specific overuse injury. Functional groups often differed in their hip and pelvis kinematics as well as their subjective rating of the footwear conditions. The footwear intervention only partially affected biomechanical risk factors attributed to more proximal joints. Due to its adaptive nature, the framework could be applied to other footwear interventions or performance-related biomechanical variables.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:40:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100044
       
  • Validity and reliability of 10 Hz GPS sensor for measuring distance and
           maximal speed in soccer: Possible differences of unit positioning

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Sumer Alvurdu, Halil Ibrahim Ceylan, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In contemporary research literature, inconsistencies regarding the validity and reliability of different brands of global positioning systems (GPSs) have been reported regarding the positioning of GPS units on athletes. For this reason, the present work investigates the validity and reliability of the measurements of GPS units placed at different locations. Thirty-two amateur soccer players (age: 21.18 ± 3.16 years; height: 175 ± 8.03 cm; body mass: 74.21 ± 4.85 kg) voluntarily participated in the current study. Participants were asked to complete a team sport simulation cycle (TSSC). During the tests, two GPS units were placed between the shoulder blades and on the chest of each athlete. Data from Polar Team Pro GPS units at both locations on the body, previously measured test area distance, and a radar gun (the gold standard) were compared to determine validity. The reliability of GPS units in measuring maximum speed is moderate (CV = 9.77–9.08, ICC = 0.23). The reliability of GPS units in measuring total distance is good (CV = 4.43–9.39, ICC = 0.15). The reliability of GPS units in measuring distance covered is poor (CV = 17.51–35.37). The measurements of total distance covered, and maximum speed recorded by the chest and back GPS units are not valid (Max speed = GPS chest-radar gun; R2 = 0.075, GPS back-radar gun; R2 = 0.106, total distance = GPS chest-1200 m; R2 = 0.003, GPS back-1200 m; R2 = 0.097). Consequently, it can be said that 10-Hz Polar GPS sensors have good reliability for measuring total distance when placed on the chest and moderate reliability for measuring peak speed when placed on the chest and back; however, they have poor reliability at both positions for evaluating distances at different running speeds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T10:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221098888
       
  • A novel method to create long capture volumes for video tracking

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      Authors: Bin Lyu, Lloyd Smith, Jonathan Ward, Jeff Kensrud
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined a novel method to create a long and narrow calibrated capture volume for tracking objects. The methodology relies on the reflection of parallel distance-measuring lasers. Images of a board, blocking the lasers as it is moved through the field of interest, were assembled into a virtual calibration fixture. The method accommodates large calibration volumes and can be used with multiple cameras, providing a consistent absolute positional reference that is difficult to achieve with large mechanical calibration boards. This study considered a 17.4 m long tracking volume. A 0.9 m long rod was tracked throughout the calibrated volume where its average tracked length was within 0.2% of its measured length. The speed of balls traveling through the calibrated volume were within 0.1% of independent speed sensors. The average residual error of a ball’s tracked trajectory and a polynomial fit was within 1.5 mm. The method shows promise as an efficient means of calibrating large calibration volumes with multiple camera pairs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221099369
       
  • Feasibility of a hip flexion feedback system for controlling exercise
           intensity and tibia axial peak accelerations during treadmill walking

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      Authors: Nuno Oliveira, Chuang-Yuan Chiu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to meet high exercise intensities is limited by the increased risk of injury in some clinical populations. Previous studies have linked large tibia peak positive accelerations resulting from running to increased risk of developing lower-extremity injury. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using a hip flexion feedback system (HFFS) to meet and maintain different exercise intensities while maintaining low tibia axial accelerations. Ten healthy participants were tested on a HFFS test and an independent walking/running test to meet exercise intensities of 40% and 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR). During the HFFS test, the HFFS controlled in real time the exercise intensity by directing individuals to specific maximum hip flexion targets during walking and providing visual information that assists them in maintaining low tibia peak positive accelerations during the initial contact phase. Maximum hip flexion targets during walking are calculated based on real-time readings of the participant’s heart rate. During the independent test, exercise intensity was controlled independently by the participant using treadmill speed. Compared to the independent test, using the HFFS at 60% HRR resulted in similar heart-rate error but lower tibia peak positive accelerations. No differences were observed for the 40% HRR intensity. This paper describes a novel exercise approach that uses the individual’s heart rate to calculate maximal hip flexion targets that an individual should meet during treadmill walking. The HFFS also provides tibia peak positive peak acceleration cues. Therefore, the HFFS can increase and control exercise intensities while maintaining low tibia accelerations. In particular, the HFFS might be an alternative strategy to meet moderate to vigorous exercise intensities in populations at risk of developing lower-extremity injuries.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T11:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221095642
       
  • Reliability and validity of velocity measures and regression methods to
           predict maximal strength ability in the back-squat using a novel linear
           position transducer

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      Authors: Jonathan Kilgallon, Emily Cushion, Shaun Joffe, Jamie Tallent
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of load-velocity profiles (LVPs) and validity of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) prediction methods in the back-squat using the novel Vitruve linear position transducer (LPT). Twenty-five men completed a back-squat 1-RM assessment followed by 2 LVP trials using five incremental loads (20%–40%–60%–80%–90% 1-RM). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) were measured via a (LPT). Linear and polynomial regression models were applied to the data. The reliability and validity criteria were defined a priori as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Pearson correlation coefficient (r) > 0.70, coefficient of variation (CV) ≤10%, and effect size (ES)
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T01:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221093189
       
  • Effect of variability when estimating throwing arm stress for fastball in
           youth baseball pitchers

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      Authors: Tessa Hulburt, Brianne Kimura, Kristen Nicholson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Intra-player movement pattern variability in baseball pitching has been demonstrated to affect metrics of performance and injury risk. It is currently unknown how many pitches are necessary to properly accommodate for intra-player variability for an appropriately representative analysis of a pitcher’s throwing mechanics. The purpose of this study was to establish a standard for how many fastball pitches are necessary to account for within and between-individual pitching variability for fastballs thrown by youth athletes. Motion capture data were collected for seven fastballs thrown by 17 male youth pitchers (age = 13.5 ± 1.07 years) using a 3D motion analysis system, incorporating 10-cameras. Maximum shoulder distraction force (MSDF) and maximum elbow valgus torque (MEVT) were compiled from pitching reports previously generated using Visual 3D and the Qualisys baseball module. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was used to calculate how many pitches were required to account for within and between subject variability for throwing arm metrics analyzed. Results showed that 2, 4, and 19 fastballs are needed to accurately report MSDF and MEVT metrics with 90%, 95%, and 99% reliability, respectively. The results of this study provide the first methodological guidelines for how to account for the factor of fastball pitch variability in youth baseball biomechanics studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221094645
       
  • Objectivity and reliability of the Judo Attack System Software

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      Authors: Daniel Brandão Kashiwagura, Felipe Brandão Kashiwagura, Marcus Fábio Agostinho, André Luis Gomes de Moraes, Emerson Franchini
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In judo matches, athletes perform different technical-tactical actions according to age, sex, and competitive level. To identify these differences, the Judo Attack System Software (JASS) was developed specifically to assess the combat attack system, consisting of the tori (athlete executing the action) and uke (athlete receiving the action) approach, tori’s grip, final displacement, stance (laterality) and direction of attack. To assess the reliability of the software, the Robotic Process Automation (RPA) method was used and resulted in 100% of correct records. To verify the objectivity of the analyses, 40 international matches were used to determine inter-rater and intra-rater agreement. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) demonstrated inter-rater and intra-rater agreement between 0.89 (good) and 1 (excellent) for total attacks, scoring attacks and no-scoring attacks. For the 39 variables analyzed, Cohen’s Kappa index (κ) showed that 74.3% obtained classification almost perfect, 20.5% substantial, 2.6% fair and 2.6% poor for the intra-rater analysis. In the inter-rater analysis 15.4% had an almost perfect classification, 41% substantial, 25.6% moderate, 12.8% fair, 2.6% slight, and 2.6% poor. The Judo Attack System Software showed good objectivity inter-rater and intra-rater in most of the proposed measures, becoming an auxiliary tool to register the attack systems in judo combat.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221088191
       
  • Inelastic bouncing of a spherical ball in the presence of quadratic drag
           with application to sports balls

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      Authors: Marko V. Lubarda, Vlado A. Lubarda
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The bouncing motion of a spherical ball following its repeated inelastic impacts with a horizontal flat surface is analyzed. The effect of air resistance on the motion of the ball is accounted for by using the quadratic drag model. The effects of inelastic impacts are accounted for by using the coefficient of restitution, which is assumed to remain constant during repeated impacts. Also presented is an extension of the analysis allowing for a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution. Closed-form expressions are derived for the velocity, position, maximum height, duration, and dissipated energy during each cycle of motion. The decrease of successive rebound heights in the presence of air resistance is more rapid for higher values of the launch velocity, because the drag force is stronger and acts longer. Air resistance can significantly affect the value of the coefficient of restitution determined in a dropping ball test. For a given number of rebounds, the energy dissipated by inelastic impacts is greater than the energy dissipated by air resistance, if the launch velocity is sufficiently small. The opposite is true for greater values of the launch velocity. The derived formulas are applied to analyze the bouncing motion of a ping pong ball, tennis ball, handball, and a basketball.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221086190
       
  • Validity of a mobile-based specific test to estimate metabolic thresholds
           in boxers

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      Authors: Leonardo Borges de Oliveira, Jader Sant’ Ana, Guilherme Weiss Freccia, Victor Silveira Coswig, Fernando Diefenthaeler
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the validity of a boxing-specific test to predict anaerobic threshold (AT) using the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in boxing athletes with mobile technology. Ten male boxing athletes performed the boxing-specific incremental test (TBOX). Maximal heart rate (HRMAX), HRDP, pace, maximal punch frequency (FPMAX), and punch frequency relative to HRDP (FPAT) were measured. Participants also performed an incremental running test on a treadmill (IT) as a reference test. Paired t-tests were performed to verify differences between the mean values of HRMAX and HRDP during TBOX and IT. Pearson linear correlation was applied to test correlations and the Bland and Altman visual analysis was used to verify the level of agreement. A significant level of p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T10:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221084563
       
  • History, philosophy, and value of mechanical models in sports science and
           engineering

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      Authors: Veit Senner
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This article is giving an introduction to JSET’s special section on mechanical models. It explains why mechanical models represent essential tools in sports engineering, defines their potential application fields and proposes a possible categorization. Further two short examples of mechanical models with corresponding literature and an overview of the manuscripts included in this special section are given.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T10:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371211062799
       
 
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