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Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1754-3371 - ISSN (Online) 1754-338X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Optimised sight adjustment processes for archers

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      Authors: James L Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      During an archery competition, archers frequently fail to correctly adjust their bow’s sight so that their arrow groups are centred on the target. Arrows are shot in ends of three or six, depending on the phase of the competition, and consequently each end provides very limited data on which to make sight adjustments, although at the conclusion of the competition it is usually obvious if an archer has succeeded in the task or not. This paper considers three sight optimisation processes with a view to minimise score loss both in ranking rounds and in matches. It is shown that archers should take a more aggressive rather than a less aggressive approach to sight movements, especially for the first end. Each sight adjustment process can be implemented using a simple look-up table.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221109250
       
  • Validity and Reliability of A New Low-Cost Linear Position Transducer to
           Measure Mean Propulsive Velocity: The ADR device

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      Authors: Olga Lopez-Torres, Valentin Emilio Fernandez-Elias, Jiaxin Li, Miguel Angel Gomez-Ruano, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Many sports and recreational strength training coaches consider movement velocity essential to improve performance, and velocity-based training has gained attention over the past decade. Furthermore, there is a lack of low-cost, easy to use, and reliable methods to measure movement velocity. Therefore, this current research aims to analyze the validity and reliability of a new linear position transducer device (ADR) for the measurement of barbell mean propulsive velocity. Seventeen trained participants (n = 14 men; n = 3 women; 21.2 ± 4.0 years) performed an incremental bench press exercise test against five different loads (45%, 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% 1RM) at maximal concentric velocity. Barbell displacement was derived simultaneously from three devices including: a linear velocity transducer (T-Force, criterion measurement) and two linear position transducers (ADR and Speed4lifts (S4L)). The ADR mean propulsive velocity measurements demonstrated substantial validity compared to both T-Force and S4L at all loads (between the r values and p values r = .86–.99 p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:14:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221104345
       
  • Features of ball impact in straight, curve and knuckle kicks in soccer

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      Authors: Kaoru Kimachi, Masaaki Koido, Sungchan Hong, Shuji Shimonagata, Masao Nakayama, Takeshi Asai
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The quantitative relationship between kicking motion and ball behaviour can be easily explained by detecting the impact point and foot posture. In previous studies, the impact point of a kicking foot was difficult to capture using visual tracking. Thus, a virtual surface modelling technique was applied in this study to clarify the differences in the three-dimensional foot speed, impact point and foot posture between straight, curve, and knuckle kicks in soccer, as well as the relationship between the kick motion and ball rotation. An optical three-dimensional motion capture system (VICON) was used to record the kicking motion. The impact points of the straight, curve, and knuckle kicks were found to be centrally located in the instep area, at a lower (more downwards) inside area, and at the medial area between the instep and inside areas of the kicking foot, respectively. Moreover, an impact with a greater ‘swing vector deviation angle (relative to the direction from the impact point to the centre of gravity of the ball)’ is necessary for ball rotation. The impact point detection method employed in this study can be applied to other ball impact estimations beyond soccer kicks.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T09:12:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101234
       
  • Using wireless inertial measurement units for measuring hip range of
           motion through commonly used clinical tests

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      Authors: José M Oliva-Lozano, Isabel Martín-Fuentes, José M Muyor
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Hamstring extensibility is a crucial component of athletic performance and spinal health. In this regard, hip range of motion analysis through standardized clinical tests has been used as a valid and reliable method for measuring hamstring extensibility. Consequently, new inertial devices have been designed for this purpose. The aims of this study were to: (i) analyze the concurrent validity of inertial sensors for measuring hamstring extensibility through the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR) tests; and (ii) analyze the test-retest reliability of inertial sensors for measuring hamstring extensibility through the ASLR and PSLR tests. A total of 18 healthy participants took part in this cross-sectional study. The hamstring extensibility was measured through the range of motion of the left and right hip in the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR) tests. Data were collected by inertial sensors (WIMU Pro) and an ISOMED bi-level inclinometer, which was used as the reference instrument. The inertial sensors reported a standard error of the measurement (SEM) below 0.6° in all measurements. The R2 correlation and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were very close to 1 in all measurements. Regarding the reliability analysis, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between test and retest measures, and the SEM were below 0.8° in both instruments. The ICC were close to 1 in all cases as well. The coefficients of variation (CV) were below 2.7% in the inertial device and 2.2% in the inclinometer. This study showed that using microtechnology through WIMU Pro may be a valid and reliable method for measuring hip range of motion during the ASLR and PSLR tests.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T09:59:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221106707
       
  • Testing protocol for evaluating underhand serve-reception biomechanics in
           volleyball

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      Authors: Rocio L Callupe, Juan M Chau, Jose G Garcia, Christian G Chicoma, Cesar F Arrese, Manuel H Artieda, Dante A Elias, Elizabeth R Villota
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      A testing protocol for conducting biomechanical underhand serve-reception evaluation in volleyball in match-like conditions is presented. A launcher sends a ball over the net toward the reception zone for the player to pass it to the setter; the ball is tracked with video cameras and the player’s articular information is captured by inertial sensors, force plates, and video cameras. Test-retest reliability and, known-groups and concurrent validity of the test are evaluated. Left knee, right knee, left shoulder, and right shoulder angles were highly reliable (ICC > 0.88), with low standard errors of measurement (%SEM  0.79) and good correlation scores (PCC > 0.83) for professional athletes. The test offers a reliable and valid method for evaluating underhand serve-reception biomechanics in volleyball players.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221106360
       
  • Training intensity management during microcycles, mesocycles, and
           macrocycles in soccer: A systematic review

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      Authors: Javier Ramos-Cano, Andrés Martín-García, Markel Rico-González
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Training intensity (TI) monitoring has become a necessary aspect of professional soccer training. This study systematically reviewed the original investigations that have reported values regarding TI across macrocycles, mesocycles, and one-, two-, and three-match day (MD) microcycles in professional soccer, to analyze TI variations among months, weeks, and training sessions, respectively. A systematic review of PubMed, and FECYT (Web of Sciences, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, and SCIELO) was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. The articles were included following these criteria: (i) professional soccer players, (ii) players monitored for TI values, (iii) TI distribution in, at least, 3 days, weeks, or months, (iv) variables related to TI (physical/physiological), and (v) original studies. The quality assessment of included articles was done using MINORS checklist. From the 473 studies initially identified, 19 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. In microcycles, most articles showed lower values in MD+1 and progressively incremented until MD-4 or MD-3. As the number of days between matches decreased, TI values decreased, with values in MD-1 lower than 50% of MD’s intensity, or even values
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-06-03T12:38:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101227
       
  • Effects of a competitive half-season on the aerobic capacity and match
           running performance of Turkish elite professional soccer players

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Aytek Hikmet Güler, Erhan Çene, Luiz H Palucci Vieira, Rodrigo Aquino, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how exertion during matches affects participants’ physical capacity and match performance. The study included 13 elite football league players (21 ± 0.7 years old; height, 181.1 ± 8.98 cm; body mass, 74.7 ± 8.1 kg) and used global positioning system (GPS) data collected during 12 official matches. Four matches after the first Yo-Yo IR1 test, four matches before the second Yo-Yo IR1 test, and four matches after the second Yo-Yo IR1 test are examined. Sprint count per minute (SC) (N/min), (>19 km/h), p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T08:59:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101796
       
  • Investigation of the convergent validity and reliability of unit position
           differences of Catapult S5 GPS units in field conditions

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Deniz Şentürk, Barış Gürol, Mehmet Yildiz, Yücel Ocak, Mehmet Günay
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This research aimed to examine the validity and reliability of GPS units located in different positions. Nine recreational soccer players (age: 23.18 ± 2.21 years; height: 176 ± 7.65 cm; and body mass: 71.13 ± 4.67 kg) participated voluntarily in the current study. Athletes were tested through the team sports simulation cycle (TSSC) protocol. This protocol consisted of a total of 1200 m. Each lap consisted of a distance of 150 m, and the athletes were asked to perform eight laps. Two GPS units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Scoresby, Victoria) were used for each athlete during the TSSC protocol. The first unit was positioned in the scapula location, and the other GPS unit was positioned in the center of mass (COM) location, and simultaneous data were recorded. A paired-samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the meter values measured in the field and the devices. The main finding of this research was that the player load parameters, which are derived from the accelerometer in GPS units, changes with the player’s position (total player load scapula − total player Load COM p≤ 0.001, Cohen’d−2.449). There was no statistical difference between the other parameters (total distance covered, max velocity, deceleration max and acceleration max) examined in the study. CV% and SWC values showing the reliability of total distance covered scapula (CV% = 1.41; SWC = 0.28), total distance covered COM (CV% = 3.64; SWC = 0.73), total player load scapula (CV% = 2.29; SWC = 0.46), total player load COM (CV% = 1.83; SWC = 0.37), deceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.51; SWC = 0.70), deceleration max COM (CV% = 2.78; SWC = 0.56), Acceleration max scapula (CV% = 3.85; SWC = 0.77), and acceleration max COM (CV% = 2.74; SWC = 0.55) were within acceptable limits (CV% 5). The reliability of GPS units in different locations was investigated by CV% SWC analysis. It was found that all values in the scapula and COM locations were measured validly and reliably, but the total player load measurements were statistically different in the scapula and COM.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T08:57:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100592
       
  • An observational analysis of climbing an obstacle in mountain biking: A
           case study

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      Authors: Adrián Iglesias, Daniel Lapresa, Josep M Dalmau, M Teresa Anguera
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      An observation system has been designed within observational methodology that permits analysis and intervention in the technical action of climbing an obstacle in mountain biking. Using records that correspond to the performance of an elite athlete, the ideal technique for climbing an obstacle has been inferred. Data collection and coding was done using LINCE software. The reliability of the observation system was guaranteed via intra-observer concordance, using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient. The generalisability analysis carried out has guaranteed the homogeneity of the records and the validity of the observation instrument. The data packages obtained detail the behaviour of the cyclist in each observed technical action. Through a lag sequential analysis, regularities were found in performance technique, establishing four fundamental phases and nuances that characterise the action in detail at the start and end of the phases: pedal stroke, handlebar pull, hip push and stabilisation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:46:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101302
       
  • Relationships between internal and external training load demands and
           match load demands in elite women volleyball players

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      Authors: Emre Altundag, Zeki Akyildiz, Ricardo Lima, Henrique de Oliveira Castro, Erhan Çene, Cengiz Akarçeşme, Giovanni Miale, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the relationships between the internal and external load demands imposed on elite female volleyball players during training and matches. Fourteen elite female world champion volleyball league players participated in this study (mean ± standard deviation (SD); age, 22 ± 0.9 years; height, 195.1 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 71.4 ± 6.3 kg). The research lasted for 10 months. Moderate positive relationships were found between match load and training load (r = 0.48) and between high metabolic load distance (HMLD) in matches and HMLD in training (r = 0.56). There were also strong positive relationships between local positioning system (LPS) recorded jumps in matches and during training (0.61), accelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.72), and decelerations in matches and during training (r = 0.68). A weak positive relationship was reported between training accelerations/decelerations and match accelerations/decelerations (r = 0.28). The relationships between accelerations and decelerations in matches (r = 0.92) and between accelerations and decelerations during training (r = 0.90) were very strong. As a result, it is concluded that as the load, HMLD, jumps, accelerations, and decelerations values obtained during training increase, the values obtained in competitions also increase. The results of this study can help sports scientists and coaches understand the relationships between training and competition data obtained from electronic tracking devices.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:45:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221101233
       
  • Level of agreement and reliability of ADR encoder to monitor mean
           propulsive velocity during the bench press exercise

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      Authors: Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, Markel Rico-González, Carlos Esteban Pérez-Caballero, Guillermo Rodríguez-Valero, José Pino-Ortega
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and the level of agreement of the ADR encoder to measure the mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of the bar in the bench press (BP) exercise on the Smith machine. Eleven males (21.6 ± 1.5 years; body mass 76.05 ± 9.73 kg) performed the protocol with isometric phase prior to concentric muscle action (PP) and the protocol in the absence of isometric phase (N-PP) for BP exercise on Smith machine. ADR encoder reported reliability values with almost perfect correlations in all training zones and protocols (PP: ICC = 0.940–0.999, r = 0.899–0.997, CV = 1.56%–4.05%, SEM = 0.0022–0.0153,and MDC = 0.006–0.031 m/s; N-PP: ICC = 0.963–0.999, r = 0.946–0.998, CV = 0.70%–3.01%, SEM = 0.0012–0.0099, and MDC = 0.003–0.027 m/s). Although the levels of agreement were high in both protocols (PP: SEM = 0.0024–0.0204 m/s, MDC = 0.007–0.057 m/s; N-PP: SEM = 0.0034–0.0288 m/s, MDC = 0.009–0.080 m/s), ADR encoder considerably underestimated the MPV values in both protocols (PP: t = −2.239 to −9.486, p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T11:42:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100395
       
  • A method for calculating and interpreting the ratio of friction force to
           normal force imparted on a spherical object: Application to a cricket ball
           during bowling

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      Authors: Franz Konstantin Fuss, Adin Ming Tan, Yehuda Weizman, René E. D. Ferdinands
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The coefficient of friction (COF) is usually calculated from a force ratio or a translational velocity ratio. We developed a new method for calculating the COF between fingers and a thrown ball from the spin parameter (angular over translational velocity). We used triad data obtained from a motion analysis system. We rigidified the triad data with a new method by force-fitting a master triangle (obtained from average side lengths) to each triad, where the three distances between each pair of corresponding vertices are three virtual forces that are in force and moment equilibrium. We also applied a low-pass filter to the data. The following data were calculated: helical axis between two consecutive master triangles, angular velocity, translational velocity, and COF. We applied this method to cricket ball deliveries (finger-spin topspin Ft, finger-spin backspin Fb, wrist-spin topspin Wt, wrist-spin backspin Wb). The standard deviations of the triad side lengths were smaller without than with low-pass filter. The COF showed smaller interquartile and total ranges when force fitting the raw data than when force-fitting the filtered data; or filtered data without force fitting; or neither force-fitting nor filtering. The delivery finger-spin backspin exhibited the smallest COF, whereas wrist-spin backspin had the highest. Finger-spin deliveries had a smaller COF than wrist-spin ones. There was no significant difference between topspin and backspin in terms of the COF. Deliveries with the palm pointing medially (Ft, Wb) had a greater COF than deliveries with the palm pointing laterally (Fb, Wt). In conclusion, the force-fitting method was superior compared to low-pass filtering with the latter worsening the data because of filtering along the time axis rather than spatially. The COF imparted on cricket ball led to a new classification system of deliveries and to a proposal for a new bowling strategy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T08:35:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100368
       
  • The aerodynamic assessment of tandem cyclists in preparation for the 2021
           Paralympic Games: A case study

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      Authors: Bryce Dyer, Konrad Gumowski, Michal Starczewski
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Reducing the level of aerodynamic drag (CdA) via use of a wind tunnel will ultimately improve a competitive cyclists performance. Whilst this tool is widely considered a ‘gold standard’, previous studies have centred on single riders or scale models to evaluate aerodynamic drag. No study to date has assessed the precision of wind tunnel testing with the additional perceived complexity of a tandem bicycle with a pair of competitive paracyclists. The first part of this investigation evaluated the use of a wind tunnel in the assessment of tandem paracyclists. A male and female team of paracyclists riding tandem versions of either a time trial track bicycle or a road/time trial bicycle undertook a series of measurement intervals in a wind tunnel. Three different combinations of these riders and bicycles obtained a Coefficient of Variation of their mean CdA of 1.8%–2.6%. The second part of this investigation acted as a case study by implementing a range of aerodynamic interventions to potentially reduce the male team’s CdA. For example, progressive efforts reduced a team’s CdA from the baseline of 0.338 m2 to ultimately 0.321 m2 predominately by lowering both tandem riders heads Whilst tandem cyclist performance enhancement has recieved scant attention in the past, this case study only highlights the value of doing so in the future.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:29:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100050
       
  • Garmin wearable device offers reliable alternative for on-water stroke
           rate and velocity measurement in rowing

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      Authors: Sophie P Watts, Martyn J Binnie, Paul SR Goods, Matthew M Doyle, Jamie Hewlett, Peter Peeling
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Performance tracking devices in the form of wrist-worn watches are common in rowing; however, the accuracy of relevant output variables (i.e. stroke rate [SR] and velocity) during on-water training is unknown. To assess the quality of wrist-watch data output, 16 rowing athletes recorded 118 on-water rowing sessions using a Garmin Forerunner 735XT, which was compared to a Catapult Optimeye R4 tracking device. Garmin recording function was set to ‘Every Second’ (N = 68 sessions) or ‘Smart’ (N = 50 sessions). Catapult velocity was calculated as the average velocity per stroke, while a 15 s velocity moving average was determined for Garmin data. Catapult and Garmin were filtered for training-specific data (SR = 14–50 strokes per minute [spm]; velocity = 2.1–7.0 m/s−1). Efficacy and reliability of the Garmin was assessed via the difference between devices (% error), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC ± 95% confidence interval (CI)) and coefficient of variation (CV%). Error in 15 s smoothed velocity was 3.8% (‘Every Second’) and 8.2% (‘Smart’). Both recording functions demonstrated ‘good’ reliability (ICC = 0.75–0.9, CV 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:25:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221099364
       
  • An analytical framework to understand individual running-related injury
           risk response patterns to footwear

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      Authors: Patrick Mai, Leon Robertz, Johanna Robbin, Matthias Thelen, Markus Kurz, Matthieu B. Trudeau, Gillian Weir, Joseph Hamill, Steffen Willwacher
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Running footwear is continuously being modified and improved; however, running-related overuse injury rates remain high. Nevertheless, novel manufacturing processes enable the production of individualized running shoes that can fit the individual needs of runners, with the potential to reduce injury risk. For this reason, it is essential to investigate functional groups of runners, a collective of runners who respond similarly to a footwear intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a framework to identify functional groups based on their individual footwear response regarding injury-specific running-related risk factors for Achilles tendinopathy, Tibial stress fractures, Medial tibial stress syndrome, and Patellofemoral pain syndrome. In this work, we quantified the footwear response patterns of 73 female and male participants when running in three different footwear conditions using unsupervised learning (k-means clustering). For each functional group, we identified the footwear conditions minimizing the injury-specific risk factors. We described differences in the functional groups regarding their running style, anthropometric, footwear perception, and demographics. The results implied that most functional groups showed a tendency for a single footwear condition to reduce most biomechanical risk factors for a specific overuse injury. Functional groups often differed in their hip and pelvis kinematics as well as their subjective rating of the footwear conditions. The footwear intervention only partially affected biomechanical risk factors attributed to more proximal joints. Due to its adaptive nature, the framework could be applied to other footwear interventions or performance-related biomechanical variables.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T06:40:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221100044
       
  • Validity and reliability of 10 Hz GPS sensor for measuring distance and
           maximal speed in soccer: Possible differences of unit positioning

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      Authors: Zeki Akyildiz, Sumer Alvurdu, Halil Ibrahim Ceylan, Filipe Manuel Clemente
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In contemporary research literature, inconsistencies regarding the validity and reliability of different brands of global positioning systems (GPSs) have been reported regarding the positioning of GPS units on athletes. For this reason, the present work investigates the validity and reliability of the measurements of GPS units placed at different locations. Thirty-two amateur soccer players (age: 21.18 ± 3.16 years; height: 175 ± 8.03 cm; body mass: 74.21 ± 4.85 kg) voluntarily participated in the current study. Participants were asked to complete a team sport simulation cycle (TSSC). During the tests, two GPS units were placed between the shoulder blades and on the chest of each athlete. Data from Polar Team Pro GPS units at both locations on the body, previously measured test area distance, and a radar gun (the gold standard) were compared to determine validity. The reliability of GPS units in measuring maximum speed is moderate (CV = 9.77–9.08, ICC = 0.23). The reliability of GPS units in measuring total distance is good (CV = 4.43–9.39, ICC = 0.15). The reliability of GPS units in measuring distance covered is poor (CV = 17.51–35.37). The measurements of total distance covered, and maximum speed recorded by the chest and back GPS units are not valid (Max speed = GPS chest-radar gun; R2 = 0.075, GPS back-radar gun; R2 = 0.106, total distance = GPS chest-1200 m; R2 = 0.003, GPS back-1200 m; R2 = 0.097). Consequently, it can be said that 10-Hz Polar GPS sensors have good reliability for measuring total distance when placed on the chest and moderate reliability for measuring peak speed when placed on the chest and back; however, they have poor reliability at both positions for evaluating distances at different running speeds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T10:33:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221098888
       
  • A novel method to create long capture volumes for video tracking

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      Authors: Bin Lyu, Lloyd Smith, Jonathan Ward, Jeff Kensrud
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined a novel method to create a long and narrow calibrated capture volume for tracking objects. The methodology relies on the reflection of parallel distance-measuring lasers. Images of a board, blocking the lasers as it is moved through the field of interest, were assembled into a virtual calibration fixture. The method accommodates large calibration volumes and can be used with multiple cameras, providing a consistent absolute positional reference that is difficult to achieve with large mechanical calibration boards. This study considered a 17.4 m long tracking volume. A 0.9 m long rod was tracked throughout the calibrated volume where its average tracked length was within 0.2% of its measured length. The speed of balls traveling through the calibrated volume were within 0.1% of independent speed sensors. The average residual error of a ball’s tracked trajectory and a polynomial fit was within 1.5 mm. The method shows promise as an efficient means of calibrating large calibration volumes with multiple camera pairs.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T09:53:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221099369
       
  • Feasibility of a hip flexion feedback system for controlling exercise
           intensity and tibia axial peak accelerations during treadmill walking

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      Authors: Nuno Oliveira, Chuang-Yuan Chiu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The ability to meet high exercise intensities is limited by the increased risk of injury in some clinical populations. Previous studies have linked large tibia peak positive accelerations resulting from running to increased risk of developing lower-extremity injury. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using a hip flexion feedback system (HFFS) to meet and maintain different exercise intensities while maintaining low tibia axial accelerations. Ten healthy participants were tested on a HFFS test and an independent walking/running test to meet exercise intensities of 40% and 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR). During the HFFS test, the HFFS controlled in real time the exercise intensity by directing individuals to specific maximum hip flexion targets during walking and providing visual information that assists them in maintaining low tibia peak positive accelerations during the initial contact phase. Maximum hip flexion targets during walking are calculated based on real-time readings of the participant’s heart rate. During the independent test, exercise intensity was controlled independently by the participant using treadmill speed. Compared to the independent test, using the HFFS at 60% HRR resulted in similar heart-rate error but lower tibia peak positive accelerations. No differences were observed for the 40% HRR intensity. This paper describes a novel exercise approach that uses the individual’s heart rate to calculate maximal hip flexion targets that an individual should meet during treadmill walking. The HFFS also provides tibia peak positive peak acceleration cues. Therefore, the HFFS can increase and control exercise intensities while maintaining low tibia accelerations. In particular, the HFFS might be an alternative strategy to meet moderate to vigorous exercise intensities in populations at risk of developing lower-extremity injuries.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T11:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221095642
       
  • Reliability and validity of velocity measures and regression methods to
           predict maximal strength ability in the back-squat using a novel linear
           position transducer

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      Authors: Jonathan Kilgallon, Emily Cushion, Shaun Joffe, Jamie Tallent
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of load-velocity profiles (LVPs) and validity of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) prediction methods in the back-squat using the novel Vitruve linear position transducer (LPT). Twenty-five men completed a back-squat 1-RM assessment followed by 2 LVP trials using five incremental loads (20%–40%–60%–80%–90% 1-RM). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) were measured via a (LPT). Linear and polynomial regression models were applied to the data. The reliability and validity criteria were defined a priori as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Pearson correlation coefficient (r) > 0.70, coefficient of variation (CV) ≤10%, and effect size (ES)
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T01:18:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221093189
       
  • Effect of variability when estimating throwing arm stress for fastball in
           youth baseball pitchers

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      Authors: Tessa Hulburt, Brianne Kimura, Kristen Nicholson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      Intra-player movement pattern variability in baseball pitching has been demonstrated to affect metrics of performance and injury risk. It is currently unknown how many pitches are necessary to properly accommodate for intra-player variability for an appropriately representative analysis of a pitcher’s throwing mechanics. The purpose of this study was to establish a standard for how many fastball pitches are necessary to account for within and between-individual pitching variability for fastballs thrown by youth athletes. Motion capture data were collected for seven fastballs thrown by 17 male youth pitchers (age = 13.5 ± 1.07 years) using a 3D motion analysis system, incorporating 10-cameras. Maximum shoulder distraction force (MSDF) and maximum elbow valgus torque (MEVT) were compiled from pitching reports previously generated using Visual 3D and the Qualisys baseball module. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula was used to calculate how many pitches were required to account for within and between subject variability for throwing arm metrics analyzed. Results showed that 2, 4, and 19 fastballs are needed to accurately report MSDF and MEVT metrics with 90%, 95%, and 99% reliability, respectively. The results of this study provide the first methodological guidelines for how to account for the factor of fastball pitch variability in youth baseball biomechanics studies.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221094645
       
  • Objectivity and reliability of the Judo Attack System Software

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      Authors: Daniel Brandão Kashiwagura, Felipe Brandão Kashiwagura, Marcus Fábio Agostinho, André Luis Gomes de Moraes, Emerson Franchini
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      In judo matches, athletes perform different technical-tactical actions according to age, sex, and competitive level. To identify these differences, the Judo Attack System Software (JASS) was developed specifically to assess the combat attack system, consisting of the tori (athlete executing the action) and uke (athlete receiving the action) approach, tori’s grip, final displacement, stance (laterality) and direction of attack. To assess the reliability of the software, the Robotic Process Automation (RPA) method was used and resulted in 100% of correct records. To verify the objectivity of the analyses, 40 international matches were used to determine inter-rater and intra-rater agreement. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) demonstrated inter-rater and intra-rater agreement between 0.89 (good) and 1 (excellent) for total attacks, scoring attacks and no-scoring attacks. For the 39 variables analyzed, Cohen’s Kappa index (κ) showed that 74.3% obtained classification almost perfect, 20.5% substantial, 2.6% fair and 2.6% poor for the intra-rater analysis. In the inter-rater analysis 15.4% had an almost perfect classification, 41% substantial, 25.6% moderate, 12.8% fair, 2.6% slight, and 2.6% poor. The Judo Attack System Software showed good objectivity inter-rater and intra-rater in most of the proposed measures, becoming an auxiliary tool to register the attack systems in judo combat.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:14:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221088191
       
  • Inelastic bouncing of a spherical ball in the presence of quadratic drag
           with application to sports balls

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      Authors: Marko V. Lubarda, Vlado A. Lubarda
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      The bouncing motion of a spherical ball following its repeated inelastic impacts with a horizontal flat surface is analyzed. The effect of air resistance on the motion of the ball is accounted for by using the quadratic drag model. The effects of inelastic impacts are accounted for by using the coefficient of restitution, which is assumed to remain constant during repeated impacts. Also presented is an extension of the analysis allowing for a velocity-dependent coefficient of restitution. Closed-form expressions are derived for the velocity, position, maximum height, duration, and dissipated energy during each cycle of motion. The decrease of successive rebound heights in the presence of air resistance is more rapid for higher values of the launch velocity, because the drag force is stronger and acts longer. Air resistance can significantly affect the value of the coefficient of restitution determined in a dropping ball test. For a given number of rebounds, the energy dissipated by inelastic impacts is greater than the energy dissipated by air resistance, if the launch velocity is sufficiently small. The opposite is true for greater values of the launch velocity. The derived formulas are applied to analyze the bouncing motion of a ping pong ball, tennis ball, handball, and a basketball.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T11:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221086190
       
  • Validity of a mobile-based specific test to estimate metabolic thresholds
           in boxers

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      Authors: Leonardo Borges de Oliveira, Jader Sant’ Ana, Guilherme Weiss Freccia, Victor Silveira Coswig, Fernando Diefenthaeler
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This study aimed to investigate the validity of a boxing-specific test to predict anaerobic threshold (AT) using the heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in boxing athletes with mobile technology. Ten male boxing athletes performed the boxing-specific incremental test (TBOX). Maximal heart rate (HRMAX), HRDP, pace, maximal punch frequency (FPMAX), and punch frequency relative to HRDP (FPAT) were measured. Participants also performed an incremental running test on a treadmill (IT) as a reference test. Paired t-tests were performed to verify differences between the mean values of HRMAX and HRDP during TBOX and IT. Pearson linear correlation was applied to test correlations and the Bland and Altman visual analysis was used to verify the level of agreement. A significant level of p 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T10:30:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371221084563
       
  • History, philosophy, and value of mechanical models in sports science and
           engineering

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      Authors: Veit Senner
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, Ahead of Print.
      This article is giving an introduction to JSET’s special section on mechanical models. It explains why mechanical models represent essential tools in sports engineering, defines their potential application fields and proposes a possible categorization. Further two short examples of mechanical models with corresponding literature and an overview of the manuscripts included in this special section are given.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T10:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/17543371211062799
       
 
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