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International Journal of Exercise Science
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1939-795X
Published by Western Kentucky University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effects of Self-myofascial Release Instruments on Performance and
           Recovery: An Umbrella Review

    • Authors: Ricardo M. Ferreira et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 861-883, 2022. Introduction: Currently, the use of self-myofascial release (SMR) instruments is not uncommon in our society, especially in sports. The most common SMR instruments are foam rollers, roller massagers, and balls. Regardless of the instrument used, the main objectives are to enhance performance and recovery. Nevertheless, many studies point out that there is still a lack of robust scientific evidence documenting the exact mechanisms that explain its true effects, therefore some authors affirm that the reported benefits are anecdotal in nature. Objective: This overview aims to summarize, from systematic reviews, the effectiveness of SMR instruments on performance and recovery. Material and Methods: This study followed the PRISMA principles. Systematic reviews were found on the electronic databases according to an established P (healthy active individuals) I (SMR using instruments) C (other treatment, placebo, sham, or no treatment) O (performance and recovery) S (systematic reviews) search strategy. Additionally, methodological analysis was performed using R-AMSTAR. Results: Initially, it was found 15 systematic reviews. However, after methodological analysis, only 7 systematic reviews had sufficient quality to be included. From those, it was found that SMR using instruments is beneficial to enhancing short-term flexibility-related and recovery-related outcomes. Inconstant data was reported in muscular-related outcomes. Nevertheless, beyond pain during SMR, no major adverse effects were found. Different effects between time, pressure and other instrument characteristics were also found. Conclusion: SMR using instruments can be a safe intervention used in sports to enhance performance and recovery from previous training/competition or between matches.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 11:47:59 PDT
  • The Effects of Acute Caffeine Supplementation on Repeated-Sprint Ability
           in Healthy Young Non-Athletes

    • Authors: Michael D. Belbis et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 846-860, 2022. The ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) have produced equivocal results. This study aimed to examine the effects of 200 mg of caffeine during repeated-sprint running on heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate (BLa) concentration, and sprint time (ST). Thirty-two individuals (males: n = 17, females: n = 15; age: 22 ± 1 years) participated in the study. The study followed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in which each participant ingested 200 mg of caffeine or placebo on separate visits 60 minutes prior to repeated-sprinting exercise. The repeated-sprint protocol consisted of three sets of six maximal-effort 30-meter sprints with 20 seconds and 5 minutes of active recovery in between sprints and sets, respectively. During each set, HR, RPE, BLa, and ST were recorded. Caffeine supplementation did not significantly (set 1: p = 0.535; set 2: p = 0.602; set 3: p = 0.189) impact HR during exercise. Similarly, RPE was not statistically (p = 0.052) altered between conditions during any of the sprint sets. The caffeine trials elicited greater BLa values after all three sets compared to the placebo trials (p < 0.001). Moreover, the caffeine trials demonstrated significantly reduced total STs during all sets compared to the placebo trials (p < 0.001). Thus, our findings suggested that 200 mg of caffeine supplementation elicited an increase in RSA in young, healthy non-athletes. These findings are accompanied by a blunted perceived exertion relative to an increase in exercise intensity during repeated-sprint exercise.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jun 2022 11:47:26 PDT
  • Acute Handgrip Fatigue and Forearm Girth in Recreational Sport Rock

    • Authors: Grace Antoinette Macdonald et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 834-845, 2022. Indoor sport rock climbing has been increasing in popularity both recreationally and competitively. Despite this increase in popularity, the physiological responses to sport climbing as an exercise to specific muscle groups are not well defined. The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in handgrip strength over a 30-minute bout of continuous climbing, specifically in intermediate-level sport climbers. Ten intermediate rock climbers (age = 27 ± 2 years; climbing experience: 7.3 ± 1.5 years) completed baseline handgrip strength and forearm girth measurements. Each participant ascended one of two 5.9 difficulty routes as many times as possible in 30 minutes. After each ascent, heart rate was obtained, and handgrip strength and forearm girth were measured. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with significance set at a < 0.05. Dominant arm handgrip strength decreased by 22%, and non-dominant handgrip strength reduced by 23%. Dominant and non-dominant forearm girth increased by 4.5% and 4.4%, respectively. Weak but significant negative correlations were observed between handgrip strength and forearm girth in dominant (r = -0.311, p = 0.001) and non-dominant limbs (r = -.491, p = 0.001). These results indicate a relationship between increased forearm girth and decreases in muscular strength. Since handgrip strength decreases substantially during a 30-min climb in intermediate rock climbers, this population would be advised to carefully monitor recovery time between bouts.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 14:26:12 PDT
  • Development of a Standard Push-up Scale for College-Aged Females

    • Authors: Melanie M. Adams et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 820-833, 2022. The ACSM/CESP push-up test exemplifies the limiting nature of the gender binary in fitness. Males perform the standard push-up (from toes) while females perform the modified push-up (from knees), even if capable of multiple standard push-ups. Differences in upper body strength are used to justify the test protocol. Though the load difference between modified and standard positions is substantially less than the gender strength gap. Additionally, current fitness ratings are over 30 years old. The purpose of this study was to develop a new standard push-up rating scale for college-age females. Cis-female college students (n = 72) were recruited to perform maximal repetitions in the modified and standard positions. Health history and physical activity information was gathered prior to the test. Trained research assistants provided standardized warm-up, modelled correct form, and administered the tests. Order of the tests was randomized and there was at least 48 hours between test days. Mean push-ups in the standard position was 9 (8.87) and 17.5 (11.76) in the modified position. Participants who resistance train did significantly more repetitions of each. Linear regression was used to develop an equation to predict standard push-up repetitions from modified repetitions. The equation was applied to the current repetition ranges for each fitness category, and a new standard scale was developed. The new scale ratings are similar to the Revised Push-up but lower than the Fitnessgram® Healthy Zone. The modified or “girl” push-up contributes to gender stereotypes about muscular fitness. Providing females with the option to be graded on the standard push-up is a step to reducing gender bias in fitness. Future research is needed to validate this scale.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 14:25:49 PDT
  • Lifestyle Choices and Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease in College

    • Authors: Dieu-My T. Tran et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 808-819, 2022. The purpose of the study was to examine and evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in college students including their nutritional and social choices and how those choices related to their cardiovascular health. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of 148 college students, obtaining their blood pressure, body mass index, fasting lipid panel, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, serum cotinine levels, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. A high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was found: 23.8% were current or past smokers with more male than female smokers (p = .009); 65.5% consumed alcoholic beverages; 13.5% had elevated blood pressure; 25.7% had hypertension stage I; 3.4% had hypertension stage II; 36.5% were overweight while 19.9% were obese; 14.2% had prediabetes and 2% had diabetes; and 40.5% had borderline high cholesterol levels while 3.4% had hyperlipidemia. Elevated blood pressure and hypertension were most prevalent between the ages of 18 and 23 years and among males (p = .001). The top three risk factor co-occurrences were overweight and drinking alcohol (33.78%), followed by family history of heart disease and drinks alcohol (27.70%), and overweight and history of heart disease (25.68%). Of the 148 participants, 108 of them had at least two cardiovascular risk factors. The results of this study indicate that college students participate in risky behaviors that predispose them to develop CVD in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jun 2022 14:25:11 PDT
  • Differences Between Pullover and Pulldown Exercises on Maximal Isometric
           Force and Myoelectric Activity in Recreationally-Trained Men

    • Authors: Luis Felipe M. Teixeira et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 797-807, 2022. The aim of the present study was to compare the myoelectric activation and peak force (PF) between pullover (PO) and pulldown (PW) exercises in different shoulder joint positions during maximal isometric contractions (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º, and 180°). Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men were recruited. The participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions for each exercise at five shoulder joint positions. The myoelectric activation (iEMG) from pectoralis major (PM); latissimus dorsi (LD); posterior deltoid (PD), and PF were measured. For PF, there were significant main effects for exercise and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG PM, there was significant a main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between exercises and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG LD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For iEMG PD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For RPE, there were no significant differences between exercises and joint positions. The study concludes that specific shoulder joint positions affect PF production and iEMG during both exercises. RPE was not affected.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 15:02:25 PDT
  • Unilateral Handgrip Holds to Failure Result in Sex-Dependent Contralateral

    • Authors: Caleb C. Voskuil et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 782-796, 2022. This study examined changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force following dominant (Dm) and nondominant (NDm) unilateral, handgrip isometric holds to failure (HTF) for the exercised ipsilateral (IPS) and non-exercised contralateral (CON) limbs and determined if there are sex- and hand- (Dm vs NDm) dependent responses in the HTF time, performance fatigability (PF) for the exercised IPS limb, and changes in MVIC force for the CON limb after unilateral fatigue. Ten men and 10 women (Age = 22.2 years) completed an isometric HTF at 50% MVIC for the Dm and NDm hand on separate days. Prior to, and immediately after the HTF, an MVIC was performed on the IPS and CON limbs, in a randomized order. The Dm (130.3 ± 36.8 s) HTF (collapsed across sex) was significantly longer (p = 0.002) than the NDm (112.1 ± 34.3 s). The men (collapsed across hand) demonstrated IPS (%D = 22.9 ± 10.8%) PF and CON facilitation (%D = -6.1 ± 6.9%) following the HTF, while the women demonstrated differences in PF between the Dm and NDm hands for the IPS (%D Dm = 28.0 ± 9.4%; NDm = 32.3% ± 10.1%; p = 0.027), but not the CON limb (%D Dm = -1.6 ± 5.7%; NDm = 1.7 ± 5.9%). The cross-over facilitation of the CON limb for men, but not women, following a unilateral, isometric handgrip HTF may be related to post-activation potentiation.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 15:02:06 PDT
  • High and Low-speed Resistance Training Induce Similar Physical and
           Functional Responses in Older Women

    • Authors: Ádria S. N. Noronha et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 771-782, 2022. This study aimed to compare the effects of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) and low-speed resistance training (LSRT) in physical fitness, and functional performance in untrained older women. Twenty-four women (62.2 ± 2.7 years old) were allocated to the HSRT or LSRT groups. The HSRT and LSRT groups underwent a similar training program [3 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions at 90% of 10 maximum repetitions] for 14 weeks, twice a week. The LSRT group performed the exercises with 3 seconds in the concentric and eccentric phases, while the HSRT group performed with the concentric phase as quickly as possible and 3 seconds in the eccentric phase. Participants completed pre-and post-training testing to assess strength, flexibility, muscle endurance, power, walking speed, functional balance, and aerobic endurance. Two-way mixed-model ANOVA with repeated measures was applied for each variable, and the Bonferroni post hoc was used when necessary. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. No significant group*time interactions were found for any variable. Time main-effect suggested significant improvements for the 10 RM bench press (F = 46.1; p < 0.001), 10 RM leg press (F = 49.8; p < 0.001), sit-to-stand test (F = 10.4; p = 0.004), sit and reach (F = 10.5; p = 0.004), Timed Up-and-Go (F = 29.8; p < 0.001) and 6-min walking test (F = 41.6; p < 0.001). Thus, the configurations of RT tested here were similarly efficient to improve the functional performance of untrained older women. In addition, both groups showed significant gains in muscle strength, but not in muscle power and gait speed.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jun 2022 15:01:46 PDT
  • Influence of resistance training exercise order on acute thyroid hormone

    • Authors: José Maria Pereira da Silva et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 760-770, 2022. The present study aimed to compare the exercise order of an acute bout of resistance exercise (RT) on acute thyroid hormonal responses. Eight (n = 8) healthy men were randomly separated into two experimental groups: A) the order from multi- to single-joint exercises (MJ-SJ) and B) the order from single- to multijoint exercises (SJ-MJ). For all exercises in both orders, the subjects were submitted to 3 sets of 10 repetitions, with rest intervals of 2 minutes between sets and 3 minutes between exercises. Blood samples were collected at rest and 0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after the end of the exercise session. In thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), differences between groups (MJ-SJ < SJ-MJ) were observed within 15 minutes after the session. In 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3), differences between groups were observed between 30 (MJ-SJ> SJ-MJ) and 120 minutes (MJ-SJ < SJ-MJ) after the session. In 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodothyronine (T4), differences between groups (MJ-SJ> SJ-MJ) were observed within 15 minutes after the RT session. The order of RT exercises significantly changes the hormonal responses of TSH, T3 and T4. In addition, the exercise order should be chosen according to the individual’s objectives.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2022 13:29:28 PDT
  • Prediction of Functional Threshold Power from Graded Exercise Test Data in
           Highly-Trained Individuals

    • Authors: Eanna Mc Grath et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 747-759, 2022. The purpose of the current investigation was to derive an equation that could predict Functional Threshold Power (FTP) from Graded Exercise Test (GxT) data. The FTP test has been demonstrated to represent the highest cycling power output that can be maintained in a quasi-steady state for 60-min. Previous investigations to determine a comparable marker derived from a Graded Exercise test have had limited success to date. Consequently, the current study aimed to predict FTP from GxT data to provide an additional index of cycling performance. FTP has been reported to provide an insight not provided by a GxT and, in addition, does not require a formal exercise testing facility. The study design facilitated a deliberate and transparent sequence of statistical decisions, resolved in part from the perspective of exercise physiology. Seventy triathletes (male n=50, female n=20) completed cycling GxT and FTP tests in sequential order. Collected data (power output, blood lactate indices, VO2peak, body mass) were analysed using stepwise regression to identify the key parameters for predicting FTP, and confirmed using a Leave One Out (LOO) cross-validation. As a consequence of wittingly including some likely transiently highly correlated parameters on the basis of a physiological argument, the model’s function is limited to predicting FTP. This investigation concluded the model (FTP = -6.62 + 0.32 FBLC-4 + 0.42 BM + 0.46 Pmax) was the prediction model of choice.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 10:13:55 PDT

    • Authors: Tiago Volpi Braz et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 709-720, 2022. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of distinct resistance training frequencies with equated-volume conditions in morphological and functional adaptations of the patellar tendon. Twenty-seven recreationally resistance-trained subjects (men [n=17] and women [n=10]) (age: 20.8 ± 1.9 years [range 18 to 25 years]; height: 1.73 ± 9.8 cm; total body mass = 73.2 ± 11.7 kg; previous RT experience = 3.3 ± 1.6 years) volunteered to participate in this study. A total of 16 training sessions were performed during the study period. Each subject’s leg was randomly allocated to one of the following training protocols: 2 training sessions/week (2x) or 4 training sessions/week (4x). Measurements of tendon cross sectional area (CSA) and length were performed through ultrasound imaging. One repetition maximum test was performed to assess patellar tendon force (PTF) unilaterally. For CSA (2x: Δ= -1.3%; 4x: Δ= -0.9%), and length (2x: Δ= -0.4%; 4x: Δ= 1.2%), no significant differences were observed within or between conditions (all p> 0.05). For PTF, a significant difference was observed between conditions (mean difference = 0.05 [-125 to 224] p= 0.001). In conclusion, the leg extension exercise performed 2 vs 4x/week induces similar patellar tendon morphological responses. However, the increase in force seems to be enhanced by a lower weekly training frequency associated with a longer intervention period.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 10:13:34 PDT
  • Effects Of Two Different Exercise Training Programs Periodization On
           Anthropometric And Functional Parameters In People Living With HIV: A
           Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Weverton Fonseca Soares et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 733-746, 2022. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different exercise training programs periodization on anthropometric and functional parameters in people living with HIV (PLHIV). This was a randomized clinical trial that involved participants (n = 31) living with HIV aged over 18 years and undergoing antiretroviral therapy which were randomized to periodized exercise training (PET; n = 13), non-periodized exercise training (NPET; n = 13), or control group (CON; n = 15). The PET and NPET groups performed 12 weeks of combined training while the CON group maintained the usual activities. Before and after 12 weeks of intervention were measured body composition and perimeters, muscle strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test time. Results: The PET and NPET groups increased fat-free mass (p < 0,001), right (p < 0,001) and left thigh perimeter (p < 0,001), muscle strength (p < 0,001), handgrip force (p < 0,001), and reduced the fat mass (p < 0,001), neck perimeter (p < 0,001), chair stand (p < 0,001), and time-up and go test time (p < 0,001) compared to CON. Furthermore, PET was significantly different to increase right thigh and muscle strength (p < 0,05) compared to NPET. Conclusion: Both exercise training periodization protocols were effective to improve body composition and functional outcomes; however, seems that PET presents better results compare to NPET in PLHIV.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 10:12:58 PDT

    • Authors: Sophia Charitou et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 721-732, 2022. Athletes participating in endurance sports report frequent attempts to lose weight and greater training volumes in attempt to gain a competitive advantage. Increased exercise energy expenditure through training, weight periodization, and prevalence of eating disorder (ED) may affect energy availability. Low energy availability (LEA) is associated with negative physiological effects and an increased risk of bone fractures and illness in athletes. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported history of an ED with training, body satisfaction, and weight-control methods among female Olympic marathon trials participants. Female runners (n = 146; 30.8 + 5.0 years of age) who participated in the 2020 U.S. Olympic Team Trials Marathon completed an online questionnaire examining training volume, weight-control methods, and self-reported diagnosis of an ED. 32% of participants reported previous ED while 6% reported a current ED and were grouped together based on a self-reported lifetime diagnosis of ED (current or past) or no ED for further analysis. A Chi-square analysis indicated a statistical difference when p ≤ 0.05. Runners who reported ED were significantly more likely to experience weight dissatisfaction (χ2 3,146 = 9.59, p = .022) and restricting or reducing food in the three months prior to the marathon (χ2 5,146 = 17.58, p = .004). Consistent with previous literature, a substantial percentage of participants reported ED. This investigation suggests that ED may be associated with weight control methods and feelings of body dissatisfaction in competitive female runners.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2022 10:12:29 PDT
  • Participation in Higher Intensity Physical Activity Predicts Lower
           Depressive Symptom Incidence in College Students

    • Authors: Lucas D. Elliott et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(7): 667-675, 2022. The prevalence of depression and insufficient physical activity (PA) continue to rise in the United States, particularly among college students. PA is typically associated with decreased levels of depressive symptoms; however, the association between different intensities of PA and depressive symptoms is unclear among college students. The aim of this study was to examine how well weekly moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and strength training (ST) volumes predicted depressive symptoms in college students. Students self-reported weekly MPA, VPA, ST, depressive symptoms (CESD-7), restful nights of sleep, grade point average (GPA) and socio-demographic characteristics. Four individual linear regression models were performed to examine how MPA, VPA, and ST predicted depressive symptoms. Covariates controlled for socio-demographic characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation) and other variables (GPA and sleep) that could influence depressive symptoms. Data suggested that higher volumes of VPA (β = -0.11; R2 = 0.157) and higher days of ST (β = -0.11; R2 = 0.157) significantly predicted (p < 0.001) lower depressive symptoms. While MPA volume (β = -0.01; R2 = 0.147) did not significantly predict depressive symptoms. Higher volumes of VPA and more days of ST participation predicts lower depressive symptoms in college students. High intensity exercise programs should be promoted at universities and throughout the young adult population. Exercise prescription may be useful and successful for students at risk of depression. Emphasis placed on these intensities will attempt to decrease depressive symptoms in students.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 08:50:37 PDT
  • Montmorency Cherry Juice Consumption does not Improve Muscle Soreness or
           Inhibit Pro-inflammatory Monocyte Responses Following an Acute Bout of
           Whole-body Resistance Training.

    • Authors: Devin Drummer et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 686-701, 2022. Montmorency Cherry Juice (MCJ) may­­­ improve acute exercise recovery by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of MCJ on monocyte responses following resistance exercise have not been explored. Seven resistance-trained males (age: 22.9 ± 4.1 yrs; height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m; weight: 81.7 ± 13.2 kg) participated in this study. Participants completed a placebo-controlled crossover design, drinking either MCJ or placebo beverages, 7 days prior to completing an acute bout of unilateral resistance exercise. Statistical significance was assessed using a within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA; alpha level p ≤ 0.05. Main effects for time were observed for changes in classical and intermediate monocytes (p ≤ 0.05), but no significant treatment effects were observed for monocyte subtypes p> 0.05. Classical monocytes (CD14+ CD16-) increased and peaked 24 hr post-exercise (placebo 1.14 ± 0.04 and MCJ 1.06 ± 0.06-fold). Intermediate monocytes peaked 48 hr post-exercise increasing 1.82 ± 0.41 and 2.01 ± 0.80-fold. Nonclassical monocytes peaked post-exercise (placebo 1.17 ± 0.31 and MCJ 1.02 ± 0.20-fold). Peak pain visual analog scale (VAS) occurred post-exercise for MCJ (3.63 ± 2.01-fold) and 72 hr post-exercise for placebo (4.26 ± 3.46-fold). IL-6 and pressure pain threshold (PPT) peaked 24 hr post-exercise (IL-6 placebo 3.83 ± 1.01- and MCJ 6.43 ± 3.43-fold) and (PPT placebo 86.37 ± 3.95% and MCJ 82.81 ± 2.90% of pressure needed at pre-exercise). Our data suggests MCJ consumption does not decrease muscle soreness, IL-6, or monocyte subset responses following a high-intensity resistance exercise protocol in resistance-trained males.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 08:50:07 PDT
  • Acute Dose-Response of Duration During the Plank Exercise on Muscle
           Thickness, Echo-Intensity, Peak Force, and Perception of Effort in
           Recreationally-Trained Participants

    • Authors: Dani Al Sheikh Aleais et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 676-685, 2022. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of different durations of the isometric forearm plank exercise (IFPE) on peak force, echo intensity, muscle thickness, and perception of effort in recreationally-trained participants. Fifteen resistance-trained participants (23±3years, 76.4±6.5kg, 173.3±6.5cm) performed the IFPE with bodyweight in one of three durations in a randomized order: a). 1-min, b). 2-min, and c). 3-min. Muscle thickness (MT), echo intensity (EI), peak force (PF), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured pre-test and post-test. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVAs (2x3) were used to test differences between tests (pre-test and post-test) and treatment (1-min, 2-min, and 3-min) for PF, MT, and EI. One-way ANOVA was used to compare RPE between treatments (1-min, 2-min, and 3-min). There was a significant increase between pre- and post-test only for 3-min IFPE (p=0.008). For EI, there was a significant increase between pre- and post-test only for 3-min IFPE (p
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 08:49:42 PDT
  • The Effects of Static and Dynamic Stretching on Muscle Oxygen Saturation
           in the Rectus Femoris

    • Authors: Zachary R. Brodeur et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 702-708, 2022. The purpose of this study was to analyze the muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) of static and dynamic warm-up and assess their impact on athletic preparation. The acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on muscular and functional performance have been well established, with many studies highlighting physiological factors and performance markers (such as range of motion and flexibility). To date, no studies have analyzed the effects of dynamic stretching on muscle oxygenation. Twenty-three recreationally fit participants performed both static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) protocols targeting the rectus femoris muscle while the effects on SmO2 were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO2 levels after stretching were significantly (p = 0.04; d = 2.21) enhanced with DS (62.8 ± 12.6%) compared to SS (55.1 ± 17.8%). The effect persisted for two minutes after stretching had ceased, which may have implications for exercise prescription.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2022 08:49:02 PDT
  • Anaerobic Contributions Are Influenced by Active Muscle Mass and The
           Applied Methodology in Well-Controlled Muscle Group

    • Authors: Gabriel Luches-Pereira et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(7): 599-615, 2022. The anaerobic metabolism determination is complex and the applied methodologies present limitations. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different calculations (MAOD vs. AOD) on the anaerobic contribution using the dynamic knee extension. Twenty-four male were recruited [Mean (SD); age 27 (1) years, body mass 90 (3) kg, height 181 (2) cm]. This study was divided into two independent experiments (EXP1: ­one-legged; EXP2: two-legged). In both experiments, it was performed a graded exercise test to determine maximal power (MP-GXT); 2-4 submaximal efforts (VO2-intensity relationship); and an exhaustive effort. The theoretical energy demand for the exhaustive effort (TEDex) was constructed from the submaximal efforts. Therefore, MAOD was assumed as the difference between the TEDex and the accumulated VO2 (AVO2). In contrast, the energy demand for AOD was calculated as the product between VO2 at the end of exercise and time to exhaustion (TEDaod). Thus, AOD was assumed as the difference between TEDaod and AVO2. Bayesian paired t-test was used to compare the differences between the applied methods. Also, correlations between the anaerobic indices and performance were verified. In EXP1, AOD was higher than MAOD [1855 (741) vs. 434 (245); BF10 = 2925; ES = 2.5]. In contrast, in EXP2, MAOD was higher than AOD [2832 (959) vs. 1636 (549); BF10 = 3.33; ES = 1.4]. Also, AOD was correlated to performance (r = .59; BF10 = 4.38). We concluded that MAOD and AOD are a distinct phenomenon and must be utilized according to the exercise model.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 09:41:14 PDT
  • Predictors of Academic Performance in High School Students: The
           Longitudinal ASAP Study

    • Authors: Marie-Maude Dubuc et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 616-631, 2022. Academic performance is influenced by multitude factors. However, little is known about their relative importance and how they evolve over time. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative importance of cognitive control, physical, psychological and sociological factors as well as lifestyle habits in predicting academic performance in high school students using cross sectional and longitudinal approaches. One hundred and eighty-five grade seventh to ninth students (mean age: 13.1 ± 1.0 years old) from a single high school completed a 3-year prospective study. Academic performance, cognitive control, physical, psychological and sociological factors as well as lifestyle habits were assessed every year during the 3-year study. Results showed that different combinations of factors were found to predict academic performance measures in both male and female students at baseline and after a 3-year period. For example, in female students, screen time and VO2 max were found to be important predictors of academic performance, whereas working memory was the only recurring factor in predicting academic performance in male students. Moreover, our models were able to explain between 6.1 to 52.2% of the variation in the change of the different measures of academic performance. Results of the present study show that academic performance may be predicted by a wide range of multiple factors in high school students. Indeed, the factors that predicted academic performance varied between school subjects, sex and study design, highlighting the complexity of predicting academic performance in high school students.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 09:40:31 PDT
  • Stimulus Expectancy and Stimulus Response of Caffeine on 4-Km Running
           Performance: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled and Crossover

    • Authors: Giovanna Rohloff et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 645-654, 2022. The placebo effect of caffeine has been poorly investigated in endurance exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the placebo effect of caffeine on 4 km running performance in amateur runners. Twenty-two healthy and recreational male runners (25.5 ± 8.4 yrs; 75.0 ± 7.1 kg; 173.7 ± 6.3 cm) underwent a deceptive experimental design consisting of three different sessions: a) control (CON) in which participants did not ingest any substance; b) placebo (PLA) in which participants ingested a capsule filled with maltodextrin but they were informed that they would receive caffeine; c) caffeine (CAF) in which participants were informed that they would receive caffeine and actually received caffeine. After 60 min for substances absorption, participants performed a 4-km test and they completed the distance as fast as possible. The time employed to cover the distance was lower in PLA (17.4 ± 1.5 min) and CAF (17.4 ± 1.4 min) than CON sessions (18.6 ± 2.8 min; P0.05) and no differences were reported between treatments for RPE (P>0.05). In conclusion, there was a placebo effect of caffeine on a 4-km maximal running trial which entailed that believing to have ingested caffeine improved performance to a similar extent than actually receiving caffeine. Therefore, the expectancy induced by caffeine may be one of the mechanisms behinds the ergogenic effect of this stimulant on endurance exercise.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 May 2022 09:39:53 PDT
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