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International Journal of Exercise Science
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1939-795X
Published by Western Kentucky University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Efficacy of a 6-Week Suspension Training Exercise Program on Fitness
           Components in Older Adults

    • Authors: Christina Pierle et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 1168-1178, 2022. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a 6-week suspension training exercise program on fitness components in older adults. Eleven participants (age = 80 ± 5 yrs) completed a 6-week suspension training exercise program. Pre- and post-fitness assessments comprised of body composition, handgrip dynamometer, functional reach, and balance. The 6-week suspension training intervention required individuals to perform suspension training exercises for fifty minutes, twice per week. A paired sample t-test was used to determine differences from pre-and post-assessments. An improvement was observed in functional reach (57.2 ± 6.4 cm vs 68.6 ± 4.3 cm; p = 0.02) and overall balance score (67.5 ± 2.4 vs 72.2 ± 2.2; p = 0.02). A 6-week suspension training exercise program can be adequate to enhance core stability and overall balance amongst older adults. This paradigm should be explored further to determine the effects on fall-risk and fall prevention.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:09:02 PDT
  • The Association Between Handgrip Strength Asymmetry Severity and Future
           Morbidity Accumulation: Results from the Health and Retirement Study

    • Authors: Lukus Klawitter et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 1133-1141, 2022. Analyzing the severity of handgrip strength (HGS) asymmetry in aging populations may help to screen for morbidities and add utility to handgrip dynamometer testing. Our study sought to determine the relationships between HGS asymmetry severity and future accumulating morbidities in older Americans. Secondary analyses from the 2006-2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study included 18,506 adults ≥ 50 years old. The highest recorded HGS values from each hand were used to calculate HGS asymmetry ratio (non-dominant HGS/dominant HGS). If the HGS asymmetry ratio < 1.0, it was inversed to make all asymmetry ratios ≥ 1.0. Participants were categorized into groups based on the severity of their HGS asymmetry ratio: 1) 0.0% - 10.0%, 2) 10.1% - 20.0%, 3) 20.1% - 30.0%, and 4)> 30.0%. Healthcare provider-diagnosed morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, arthritis, and psychiatric problems) were self-reported. Covariate-adjusted ordinal generalized estimating equations evaluated the relationships between HGS asymmetry severity on future accumulating morbidities. Results showed 8,936 (48.3%) participants had HGS asymmetry 0.0%-10.0%, 6,105 (33.0%) participants had HGS asymmetry 10.1%-20.0%, 2,411 (13.0%) participants had HGS asymmetry 20.1%-30.0%, and 1,054 (5.7%) participants had HGS asymmetry> 30.0%. Overall, every 10% increase in HGS asymmetry was associated with a 1.17 (CI: 1.05, 1.32) greater odds of future morbidity accumulation. Additionally, asymmetry between 10.1% - 20.0%, 20.1% - 30.0%, and> 30.0% was associated with a 1.10 (CI: 1.05, 1.15), 1.11 (CI: 1.04, 1.18), and 1.20 (CI: 1.09, 1.33) greater odds for morbidity accumulation during aging. These findings suggest that severe functional asymmetries may elevate the odds for accumulating morbidities.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:08:35 PDT
  • Impact of Acute Uninterrupted Sitting on Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics

    • Authors: Raymond Jones et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 1156-1167, 2022. Reductions in brain blood flow are associated with reduced cognitive function and cerebrovascular disease. Acute periods of uninterrupted sitting can lead to endothelial dysfunction, namely due to a reduction in shear stress and subsequent reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability. Little is known of the impact of sitting on brain health. The purpose was to determine the total brain blood flow response following a 60-minute bout of uninterrupted sitting. Using a parallel design, this study evaluated the impact of 60-minutes of sitting on total brain blood flow. Fifteen participants (n=15; age=24 ± 1yr; BMI=25 ± 1 kg/m2) sat, uninterrupted, for 60-minutes during the SIT protocol. To ascertain the contribution of blood pooling effects on total brain blood flow, ten participants (n=10; age=23±2yr; BMI=27±4 kg/m2) sat in a modified sitting (MOD) for 60-minutes. Finally, thirteen participants (n=13; age=23±3yr; BMI=26±4 kg/m2) remained supine for the duration of the 60-minutes as a time-control (TC). Brain blood flow was quantified through Doppler-ultrasound measurements of blood flow through the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) arteries: (ICA blood flow + VA blood flow) x 2. Following the 60-minutes of sitting (SIT), there was a significant reduction in brain blood flow with time (p=0.001, ηp2=0.05). Total brain blood flow did not significantly change in MOD (p=0.69, ηp2=0.05) or TC (p=0.06, ηp2=0.58) conditions. These findings indicate 60-minutes of sitting may alter cerebrovascular hemodynamics characterized by a reduction in total brain blood flow.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:08:05 PDT
  • Effects of Creatine Supplementation and Progressive Resistance Training in
           Stroke Survivors

    • Authors: Sara Butchart et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 1117-1132, 2022. The purpose was to investigate the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) and creatine supplementation in stroke survivors. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: creatine (n = 5; 51 ± 16y) or placebo (n = 3; 73 ± 8y) during 10 weeks of supervised PRT. Prior to and following PRT and supplementation, assessments were made for body composition (lean tissue and fat mass), muscle thickness, muscle strength (1-repetition maximum), functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, Berg Balance Scale; BBS), cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA), and symptoms of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7; GAD-7) and depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; CES-D). There were time main effects for leg press strength (increased; p = 0.001), chest press strength (increased; p = 0.003), elbow flexor muscle thickness (increased; p = 0.007), BBS (increased; p = 0.002), MoCA (increased; p = 0.031) and CES-D (decreased; p = 0.045). There was a group x time interaction for the 6 minute walk test (p = 0.039). The creatine group significantly increased walking distance over time (p = 0.002) with no change in the placebo group (p = 0.120). Ten weeks of PRT had some positive effects on measures of muscle strength and size, balance, cognition and depression. The addition of creatine to PRT significantly improved walking performance in stroke survivors.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:07:37 PDT
  • Muscle Activation Patterns of The Proximal Medial And Distal Biceps
           Femoris And Gluteus Maximus Among 6 Hip Extension And Knee Flexion
           Exercises In Trained Women.

    • Authors: Bryn M. Stevens et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(1): 1179-1189, 2022. The biceps femoris (BF) is a double-jointed muscle that performs both hip extension and knee flexion, making it a challenging muscle to train during common resistance training movements. An imbalance between the posterior and anterior chain increases the risk of lower-extremity injury. The purpose of this study was to compare BF proximal (BFprox), BF medial (BFmed), and BF distal (BFdist) peak and mean muscle activation among four hip hinging movements and two knee flexion movements. A secondary variable was gluteus maximus (GMax) muscle activation among the same six movements. Fifteen trained females completed three repetitions at 75% estimated 1-repetition max among the following exercises: Romanian-deadlift (RDL), step-up, hip-extension, kickbacks, Nordic hamstring curls (Nordics), and leg-curls. Repetition voltage was normalized to percent maximal voluntary isometric contractions. Eight separate one-way repeated measures ANOVAs with Sidak post hoc analysis indicated the BFprox elicited greater voltage in the kickback, Nordic, and leg-curl exercise compared to the RDL, step-up and hip-extension (p < 0.05), BFmed voltage was higher in the hip-extension, kickback, Nordic, and leg-curl vs. the step-up and RDL (p < 0.05), BFdist voltage was greater during the kickback, Nordic, and leg-curl exercise vs. the RDL, step-up and hip-extension (p < 0.05), while the GMax elicited the lowest voltage during the leg-curl vs. the other five exercises (p < 0.05). All eight ANOVAs reached statistical significance (p < 0.01). The Nordic exercises consistently elicited the highest voltage among the six exercises. Coaches, trainers, and therapist can use these findings to target different aspects of the BF for training purposes and hamstring injury management.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:07:05 PDT
  • Freely Chosen Cadence is Increased during Repeated Bouts of Submaximal
           Ergometer Pedalling

    • Authors: Andreas Schmidt et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(1): 1142-1155, 2022. It was investigated whether the phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement occurs during submaximal ergometer cycling. Repeated bout rate enhancement is defined as an increase of the freely, or spontaneously, chosen cadence during repeated bouts of pedalling and has previously been reported for finger tapping. This is relevant to study since cadence can affect biomechanical and physiological responses. Recreationally active individuals (n=27) performed five consecutive 5-min bouts of cycling at 100 W using freely chosen cadence. All bouts were separated by 10-min rest. Cadence, pedal force profile characteristics, heart rate, tympanic temperature, and rate of perceived exertion were determined during cycling. The primary result was that cadence at the end of 5. bout was statistically significantly higher than at the end of all other bouts. Overall, the cadence at the end of 5. bout was 15.6%±20.4% higher than at the end of 1. bout. The altered rhythmic motor behaviour was accompanied by a statistically significant effect of bout on the pedal force profile. Also, there was a statistically significant effect of bout on heart rate, which amounted to 125±17 and 131±26 beats/min at the end of 1. and 5. bout, respectively. Perhaps the observed increase of cadence occurred as a nonconscious rhythmogenesis process in form of a net excitation of relevant parts of the nervous system. In conclusion, repeated bout rate enhancement during submaximal ergometer cycling occurred. The freely chosen cadence showed an increase of on average about 15%, or 10 rpm, as accumulated values across five bouts of cycling.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Aug 2022 13:06:43 PDT
  • Physical Activity and Mindfulness are Associated with Lower Anxiety in
           Different but Complementary Ways

    • Authors: Allison L. Mizzi et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(7): 1075-1084, 2022. Introduction: Anxiety is the most prevalent mental illness worldwide. Physical activity and mindfulness both reduce anxiety. The two are highly related; however, the relative association of physical activity and mindfulness on anxiety has yet to be examined. The present study aimed to evaluate the unique variance accounted for by physical activity and mindfulness on anxiety. Methods: Fifty young adults from a student population (M ± SD = 19 ± 0.2 years old; 58% female) reported their physical activity, mindfulness, and anxiety symptoms at the start of the study and reported their change in state anxiety to an acute psychological stress test, Trier Social Stress Test. Results: Mindfulness explained more of the variance associated with anxiety symptoms at baseline, whereas physical activity explained more of the variance associated with change in state anxiety in response to the acute stressor. Females had higher rates of anxiety symptoms than males suggesting that females may benefit more from mindfulness. In contrast, both males and females reacted similarly to an acute stressor suggesting that both genders may benefit from physical activity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that physical activity and trait mindfulness may have related, but distinct impacts on anxiety levels. These results have important implications for using these lifestyle interventions to support mental health and point to personalizing interventions to help ease the burden of anxiety felt by the individual.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 12:36:11 PDT
  • Impact of an Acute Bout of Submaximal Aerobic Exercise on Circulating
           Leukocytes in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    • Authors: Garett S. Jackson et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 1085-1104, 2022. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and organ function dysregulation. Sequelae include reduced catecholamine secretion and attenuated immune responses which may impact exercise-induced leukocytosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize major leukocyte subtypes following 30 minutes of acute, submaximal aerobic exercise, in line with updated international SCI exercise guidelines for adults. It was hypothesized that exercise would increase major leukocyte subtypes when compared to fasted baseline. Eight participants with SCI (incomplete n = 6; complete n = 2) completed a 30-minute bout of aerobic exercise on an arm cycle ergometer at 60% of their peak power output followed by 90 minutes of recovery, or a 2-hour seated control condition, in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-14 days. Blood samples were taken at baseline, post exercise, and 90 minutes after exercise (with time matched control). Leukocyte subtypes were analyzed via flow cytometry and plasma catecholamines by ELISA. Several leukocytes increased from pre- to post-exercise (time X condition interaction; all P < 0.05; mean ± SD), including CD3+ Lymphocytes (19 ± 16%), CD4+ T helper (16 ± 13%), CD8+ T cytotoxic (24 ± 23%), CD3+/CD56+ natural killer T (31 ± 34%), and CD3-/CD56+ natural killer (63 ± 82%). CD16+/CD14dim monocytes decreased by 27 ± 38% following exercise to 90 minutes post-exercise. No changes were observed for catecholamines for either condition. Thirty minutes of acute submaximal aerobic exercise sufficiently increased most lymphocyte subsets with effector functions, while leading to decreased proinflammatory monocytes during the recovery phase. This exercise duration and intensity appear to be an appropriate option for modulating circulating immune cells in individuals with SCI.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 12:34:54 PDT
  • Aerobic Performance Detriments while Wearing a Face Mask Diverge Among
           Males and Females

    • Authors: Jose M. Moris et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 1105-1116, 2022. The current study examined the impact of wearing a face mask (FM) at rest and while exercising on cardiorespiratory variables and aerobic performance between males and females. Nine males (21.4 ± 0.5 yr) and 9 females (21.8 ± 3.6 yr) performed a pulmonary function test and a graded maximal exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill with an FM and without an FM in random order. During the GXT, cardiorespiratory variables were measured at different exercise intensities (rest, 40%, 55%, 70%, 80%, 100% of VO2max) and during recovery. Regardless of sex, both males and females significantly (p = .01) reduced their resting pulmonary functions, including forced vital capacity (18.7% and 19.6%, respectively), forced expiratory volume in one second (43.9% and 45.7%, respectively), and peak expiratory flow (85.2% and 87.5%, respectively) with an FM. During the GXT, both VO2 and ventilation (VE) in males were significantly (p < .01) lower with an FM only at 100% of VO2max, while females showed a significantly (p < .01) lower VO2, VE, and tidal volume (Vt) with an FM throughout the entire GXT. The partial pressure of exhaled CO2 was significantly (p = .02) higher at 100% of VO2max with an FM only in males. Although wearing an FM reduced resting pulmonary functions and the maximal aerobic performance for both males and females, there was a clear sex-specific response during the GXT, indicating that females were less capable to adapt to the pulmonary obstruction induced by wearing an FM.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jul 2022 12:34:22 PDT
  • The acute effect of in natura beetroot juice intake on intra-session
           exercise sequences during concurrent training

    • Authors: Diego Souza et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 1075-1085, 2022. The purpose of this study was to analyze the acute effects of in natura beetroot juice intake on intra-session exercise sequences during concurrent training. Following a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 20 well-trained men (21.4 ± 2.9 years; 74.8 ± 6.3 kg; 175.7 ± 5.0 cm) performed two concurrent training sessions with different intra-session exercise sequences: CT1 (aerobic exercise + resistance exercises) and CT2 (resistance exercises + aerobic exercise). The resistance exercises were bench-press, lat-pull down, and shoulder-press (three sets to failure; 2 s cadence for the concentric and eccentric phases; 90 s rest interval between sets and exercises; 75% 1RM), and the aerobic exercise was 4-km running. Each concurrent training session was randomized to placebo, beetroot juice, and control (no substances), totaling six exercise sessions. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was reported at the end of each exercise in each session. The beetroot juice significantly increased plasma nitric oxide concentration from 14.5 ± 3.9 mmol/L to 140.2 ± 37.5 mmol/L (P < 0.01) and there was no significant change after placebo intake (13.8 ± 4.2 vs 15.1 ± 5.7 mmol/L). The 4-km running time was significantly less (P < 0.05) after beetroot juice intake in CT1 (17.0 ± 2.1 min) and CT2 (18.5 ± 1.9 min) than placebo (19.1 ± 3.2 and 22.2 ± 2.9 min, respectively) and control (19.4 ± 2.6 and 21.7 ± 3.0 min, respectively). No differences were identified in the total number of repetitions in resistance exercises and RPE. In conclusion, the acute intake of in natura beetroot juice decreased the 4-km running time independently of concurrent training exercise sequences. Our results may assist trainers in order to choose the supplement to increase performance.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jul 2022 10:21:14 PDT
  • Investigating the Psychophysiological Response to Grade One Muscular
           Injury in Professional Australian Football Athletes

    • Authors: Billymo Rist et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(5): 1052-1063, 2022. The purpose of this study was to examine Australian Football athletes’ responses to a grade one muscular injury from a psychophysiological perspective to understand the strength of the association between stress, optimism, and cortisol. Forty-five players listed with one professional Australian Football club volunteered for this study. Inclusion criteria consisted of sustaining a muscular injury during the course of the season with four-weeks predicted recovery time (as diagnosed by club medical staff, n=9). The control group were age, position, and career history matched players from the same sample. Players were also matched for their personality (10-item Big Five Personality Inventory) and fluid intelligence (Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices). Injured players and matched controls completed perceived stress and optimism measures (paper-based questions) as well as salivary cortisol testing once per week for four weeks. Significant increases in cortisol (p=0.015) and perceived stress (p
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 10:08:42 PDT
  • Living Situation and Physical Activity in the COVID-19 Pandemic Among
           American Private University Students

    • Authors: Eduardo Gonzalez Villarreal et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 1064-1074, 2022. Many university students experienced changes during the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential changes in physical activity (PA) levels and living situation. As PA behaviors in young adulthood help establish life-long habits and future health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate overall change in PA, as well as change in PA due to living situation, among private university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Private university students (n = 109) between 18 and 25 years of age completed an online survey that included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – Short Form. T-tests examined changes in overall time spent in PA from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the differences in MET-minute distributions between groups. Students performed significantly less activity during the COVID-19 pandemic than before (t(108) = 3.51, p = .001, d = 0.493), with 70.6% of all students meeting exercise recommendations before the pandemic and 51.4% after. Students living with vs. without a parent/guardian attained similar PA levels (t(107) = -.114, p = .910) before the pandemic (73.1% vs. 69.9%, respectively), but students living with a parent/guardian engaged in significantly less PA (t(107) = 2.04, p = .044, d = 0.475) than those living without a parent/guardian during the pandemic (37.5% vs. 57.1%, respectively). The declines in PA suggest the need for targeted interventions and education among private university students. In order to maximize the health benefits of PA, it is crucial that activity engagement return to at least pre-COVID-19 levels.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2022 10:08:14 PDT
  • Short-term effects of repeated-sprint training on vertical jump ability
           and aerobic fitness in collegiate volleyball players during pre-season

    • Authors: Petrus Gantois et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 1040-1051, 2022. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of repeated-sprint training (RST) on vertical jump ability and aerobic power in college volleyball players. Nineteen male volleyball players, aged between 18-24 years, were randomized into the RST group (RST; n = 10) and control group (CG; n = 9). The RST included 2-3 sets of 6x30m all-out sprints, twice per week, in addition to the regular training routine. The control group performed only the regular volleyball training sessions (i.e. mainly of technical-tactical drills). All players performed a maximal graded treadmill test, vertical countermovement jump (CMJ), and repeated-vertical jump ability (RVJA) test before and after 6-weeks of the training program. The following variables were determined from the RVJA: peak (RVJApeak), average (RVJAmean), and rate of decrement (RVJADec). A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed an interaction effect on CMJ (F(1,17) = 6.92; p = 0.018; η2 = 0.289), RVJApeak (F(1,17) = 4.92; p = 0.040; η2 = 0.225), maximal oxygen uptake (F(1,17) = 9.29; p = 0.007; η2 = 0.353) and maximal speed attained in the treadmill test (F(1,17) = 8.66; p = 0.009; η2 = 0.337), with significant improvements only on the RST group. In conclusion, RST, twice per week, improved RVJA and aerobic power in comparison to regular skill-based volleyball training.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jul 2022 13:32:27 PDT
  • Health and Fitness Comparisons Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with
           Long-Term Participation in Four Different Sports

    • Authors: Peixuan Zheng et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 1028-1039, 2022. Physical activity is known to confer numerous health benefits. However, few studies have assessed the prolonged impact of participation in different sports on health and fitness. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the impact of long-term participation (i.e., ≥9 years) in four different sports, including two traditional Chinese (Tai Chi; diabolo) and two modern sports (aerobics; track and field [TF]) on health and fitness measures among middle-aged and older adults. Participants (n=252, 56.6±8.5y, 66% female) completed the following measures: height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body fat%, resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, vital capacity, grip strength, reaction time, flexibility, balance. Compared to Tai Chi, aerobics was associated with lower systolic BP and fat%, and greater vital capacity, while TF was associated with lower systolic BP, shorter reaction time, greater vital capacity and better balance (p-values
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:34:44 PDT
  • Individual Fluctuations In Blood Lactate Concentration During An Ice
           Hockey Game; Differences Between Player Positions

    • Authors: Nestor Lögdal et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 985-993, 2022. The main purpose of the current study was to provide an in-depth description of individual player’s intra-game physiological responses during an ice hockey game. A secondary aim was to compare these responses between forwards and defensemen. Six elite junior ice hockey players, three forwards and three defensemen, median (interquartile range) 17 (17–17) years, 182 (180–185) cm, and 78 (74– 80) kg were recruited to participate in the study. Capillary blood samples were taken following each shift and analyzed for blood lactate concentration (BLC). Heart rate (HR) was registered continuously throughout the game. The game was filmed and shift lengths were determined retrospectively using a time-motion analysis. All players had BLC ranging between 1.8 and 10.7 mmol/L (mean = 5.5 mmol/L), with forwards reaching a significantly higher value than defensive players (F1, 32 = 75.2, p < 0.0001), a significant effect of time was also observed (F2, 25 = 6.4, p = 0.0058). During the game, the players accumulated 11:18 ± 5:04 (minutes:seconds) above 90% of their maximal heart rate (HRmax), but the majority of the time was below 80% of HRmax. The fluctuations in BLC and heart rate demonstrate that the intensity is highly variable during games and challenges both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The higher BLC of forwards might indicate that they perform more high-intensity work during games than defensive players.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:34:24 PDT
  • Relationships between Lower-body Power, Sprint and Change of Direction
           Speed among Collegiate Basketball Players by Sex

    • Authors: Javier A. Zaragoza et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 974-984, 2022. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between absolute and relative lower-body power and selected measures of speed among male and female collegiate basketball players. Archived performance testing data from 29 (male = 14; female = 15) NCAA division II collegiate basketball players were used for this analysis. These measures included lane agility, 10-yard sprint, and shuttle run time (sec). A Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine if significant relationships existed between measures of lower-body power and linear sprint time, change of direction speed (CODS), and shuttle performance. Statistical significance was set a priori at p ≤ 0.05. A significant large correlation was found between absolute power and lane agility (r = 0.54, p = 0.05) among male players. No significant correlations were found between absolute or relative power for 10-yard sprint times, lane agility, or shuttle run performance (p> 0.05). Females showed no significant correlations between relative power and lane agility (r = -0.25, p = 0.37) or 10-yard sprint (r = -0.47, p = 0.08), but did show a significant large correlation (r = -0.64, p = 0.01) between relative power and shuttle run performance. Generating high amounts of relative power is vital in intermittent team sports such as basketball. In particular, this study provided evidence that relative power in female collegiate basketball players is significantly related to shuttle run ability.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:34:00 PDT
  • Immediate Effect of Warm-Up on Single-Leg Balance in Individuals with and
           without Functional Ankle Instability

    • Authors: Emily Abalos et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 1019-1027, 2022. Ankle sprains account for about 20% of all sports injuries in the United States. About 5-10 minutes of general warm-up is recommended to enhance performance and reduce injuries. However, its immediate impact on single-leg balance is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine if different warm-up protocols could impact single-leg balance in individuals with and without functional ankle instability. Thirty volunteers (aged 19-29 years) participated in the study. The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool was used to examine functional ankle stability and the Athletic Single-leg Stability Test of the Biodex Balance System was used to examine single-leg balance. Subjects were examined in three separate sessions (no warm-up, 5-minute warm-up, or 10-minute warm-up) with one week apart. Results show warm-up conditions had a significant impact on single-leg balance (p = .021). Pairwise comparisons showed the balance after the 5-minute warm-up was significantly worse than the no warm-up condition (p = .000). It is possible that warm-up makes the tissues surrounding lower extremity joints more flexible, therefore making single-leg balance control more challenging. In addition, subjects with functional ankle instability exhibited significantly worse single-leg balance than those without functional ankle instability (p = .003). However, the immediate effect of warm-up on balance control was similar between individuals with and without functional ankle instability. Clinicians should consider implementing single-leg balance testing and training for those who are identified as having functional ankle instability. Despite its known benefits of enhancing performance and reducing injuries, general warm-up activities may have an immediately negative effect on single-leg balance control.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:33:12 PDT
  • Efficacy of Six Weeks Stability Exercises on the Glenohumeral Joint of
           Female Tennis Players with Scapular Dyskinesia

    • Authors: Sahar Modares Gorji et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 962-973, 2022. Background: Stabilizing exercises reduce pain intensity, improves shoulder position and scapular function, and provides an appropriate strategy for the improvement of scapular dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of six weeks of stability exercises (stretching-strengthening) on joint proprioception, strength, and range of motion of the glenohumeral joint in female tennis players with scapular dyskinesia. Methods: Thirty-six female elite tennis players with scapular dyskinesia in both experimental and control groups participated in this study. Goniometer, Isokinetic and Biodex devices were used to evaluate the range of motion, internal and external rotation strength in 60° and 180°, and joint proprioception at 45° and 60°, respectively. Also, the lateral scapular slide test (LSST) was used to evaluate the scapulohumeral rhythm. For analyzing dependent variables and determining statistical significance the ANCOVA and an alpha of 5% was used. Results: The results of this study indicated the effect of the stability exercise program on the range of motion of internal (p = 0.016) and external (p = 0.023) rotation of the shoulder. Also, significant differences were observed between the control and training groups for internal rotation strength 60° (p = 0.013), 180° (p = 0.017) and external rotation strength 60° (p = 0.005), 180° (p = 0.045) and strength ratio 60° (p = 0.001) and 180° (p = 0.023). However, there were no significant differences for proprioception. Conclusion: In general, the findings of this study support the effectiveness of exercise therapy as a safe intervention for improving scapular function in tennis players with scapular dyskinesia.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:32:48 PDT
  • Gender Differences in the Glycemic Response to Structured Exercise
           Interventions in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Adults: a Systematic Review

    • Authors: Amaya Prat-Luri et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(3): 948-961, 2022. Despite physiological sex differences in the prevalence, pathogenesis, and responses to pharmacologic therapies of glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the current evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity in people with T2DM, there is still a lack of information about the response to physical activity in T2DM depending on the sex. Thus, the aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the physiological sex differences response to physical activity programs in adults with T2DM. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed up to 4th January 2022 in PubMed, SportDiscus and Web of Science databases. The research protocol of this systematic review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020189020). The PEDro scale and Cochrane risk of bias tools were used to analyze the quality and risk of bias of the studies included. Glycaemic (blood glucose, HbA1c, AUC glycemia, metabolic clearance rate, QUICKI) insulin (HOMA-IR, insulin levels, C-peptide) and cardiovascular parameters (VO2max, body fat mass, waist circumference, cardiovascular index) were registered. 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. Physical activity showed improvements in the glycaemic and insulin profiles and cardiovascular risk parameters for both men and women, but no relevant and significant differences between sex were found. No significant differences between males and females with regard to the effects elicited by physical activity on glycaemic biomarkers and cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with T2DM were found. These results seem to lead towards the same physical activity prescription in men and women.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:32:28 PDT

    • Authors: Helton Pereira dos Santos Nunes de Moura et al.
      Abstract: International Journal of Exercise Science 15(2): 1007-1018, 2022. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two acute doses of Capsiate (CAP; 6 vs. 12 mg) on upper body resistance exercise performance in trained men. Methods: Using a randomized, crossover and double-blind design, 20 resistance-trained males were supplemented with low-dose CAP (6 mg), high-dose CAP (12 mg) or placebo 45 minutes before exercise. Subjects performed 4 sets of bench press with repetitions to failure at 70% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 2 minutes of rest between each set. The ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were analyzed at baseline and after exercise. Results: Total weight lifted was greater in the low CAP (2,454.6 ± 448.6 kg) compared to placebo (2,354.7 ± 458.6 kg, p = 0.039) and high CAP (2,309.3 ± 428.1 kg, p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between conditions for RPE (p = 0.155) and blood lactate (p = 0.434). Conclusion: In summary, 6 mg CAP increased total weight lifted and repetitions to failure on bench press exercise in trained men, while 12 mg did not present any effect.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jul 2022 09:31:49 PDT
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