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German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research : Sportwissenschaft
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2509-3142 - ISSN (Online) 2509-3150
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Dynamic postural control and physical stress: an approach to determining
           injury risk in real sporting conditions

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      Abstract: Abstract Dynamic postural control is one of the essential factors in situations where non-contact injuries mainly occur, i.e., landing, cutting, or stopping. Therefore, testing of dynamic postural control should be implemented in injury risk assessment. Moreover, non-contact injuries mainly occur under loaded conditions when the athlete is physically stressed. Therefore, risk factors and mechanisms of these injuries should also be regarded under loading conditions and not only when the athlete is recovered. Current studies examining the influence of physical load on risk factors, such as dynamic postural control, often use cycling protocols to stress the participants. Nevertheless, most types of sports require running as a central element and the induced internal load after cycling might not be the same after running. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the influence of a running and a cycling protocol on dynamic postural control and to determine the potential injury risk under representative conditions. In total, 128 sport students (64 males and 64 females, age: 23.64 ± 2.44, height: 176.54 ± 8.96 cm, weight: 68.85 ± 10.98 kg) participated in the study. They were tested with the Y Balance Test before and after one loading protocol. A total of 64 participants completed a protocol on a cycle ergometer and the other 64 on a treadmill. A mixed ANOVA showed significant interactions of time and load type. Dynamic postural control was reduced immediately after cycling but did not change after running. These findings indicate a load type dependence of dynamic postural control that must be considered while assessing an athlete’s potential injury risk and they support the need for more representative designs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • Impact of prior accumulated work and intensity on power output in
           elite/international level road cyclists—a pilot study

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      Abstract: Background This study aimed to investigate the impact of the intensity of prior accumulated work on the decline in power output in elite/international level road cyclists, comparing the effects of prior continuous moderate intensity versus intermittent high intensity cycling. Methods Nine elite/international level road cyclists (age 26.2 ± 4.0 years; body mass: 66.6 ± 5.5 kg; height: 176 ± 0.4 cm) conducted a 12-min field test (12 minfresh) during two consecutive training camps. Participants then performed both a 150-min moderate intensity continuous (MIC) work bout or a 150-min high intensity intermittent (HII) race simulation in randomized order, cross-over design. After each condition a 12-min field test (12 minfatigue) was completed. Results Absolute and relative 12 minfresh power output were not significantly different between training camps (p > 0.05). The 12 minfatigue power after HII was significantly lower than 12 minfatigue after MIC (∆ = 14 W; p = 0.014). Participants recorded more percentage time (%Time) in heart rate (HR) zone 3 (∆ = 9.2%; p = 0.003) and power output band between 5.0–7.9 W  \(\cdot\) kg−1 (∆ = 8.9%; p = 0.002) as well as higher total work (∆ = 237 kJ; p ≤ 0.001) during HII. Conclusion These findings reveal that the decline in power output is higher after HII compared to MIC cycling work bouts. This suggests that the quantification of total work and intensity should be used in conjunction to predict a distinctive decline in power output. Future research is required to better understand the mechanisms of endurance “durability” in elite/international level road cyclists.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Correction: Entwicklung und Validierung eines videobasierten
           Testinstruments zur Erfassung des Noticing mit dem Fokus auf
           Anerkennungsprozesse im inklusiven Sportunterricht

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      PubDate: 2022-06-09
       
  • Kompetenzorientierung im Sport: eine Taxonomie für den
           Sportunterricht

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      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Die Kompetenzorientierung im Sportunterricht wurde in den vergangenen Jahren durch unterschiedliche Modellierungsansätze angeregt, um zu klären, was Kompetenzen von Schüler*innen im Fach Sport auszeichnet. Wissen und Können haben sich diesbezüglich als zentrales Begriffspaar für Kompetenz etabliert. Die vorhandenen Konzeptionen für den Sportunterricht bleiben insgesamt jedoch weitgehend abstrakt darin, wie dieses Wissen und Können sowie deren Interaktionen in einem kompetenzorientierten und Erziehenden Sportunterricht operationalisiert werden können. Der vorliegende Beitrag verfolgt das Ziel, Wissen und Können vor dem Hintergrund der Handlungsfähigkeit als Bildungsauftrag des Faches Sport zu operationalisieren und deren Interaktion in einer dreidimensionalen Taxonomie abzubilden. Als Ausgangspunkte greifen wir vorhandene bildungswissenschaftliche Ansprüche zur Modellierung von Kompetenzen auf. Weitere Orientierungspunkte sind sportdidaktische Kenntnisse zu Anforderungssituationen in der Sport- und Bewegungskultur, zur Handlungsfähigkeit im Erziehenden Sportunterricht, zum Wissen als ein Kernbestandteil eines kompetenten sportbezogenen Handelns sowie zu ausgewählten Kompetenzmodellen im Fach Sport. In Anlehnung an kognitionspsychologisch ausgerichtete Modelle untergliedert sich die Taxonomie in drei Dimensionen. Die Dimension der Themen skizziert, welche Wissensinhalte bezugnehmend zu Bewegungsfeldern und pädagogischen Perspektiven im Fach Sport bedeutsam sind. Die Dimension der Aktivitäten umfasst sechs Aktivitäten, die übergreifend in die Bereiche Wissenserwerb, Wissensnutzung und Wissensschaffung eingebettet sind. Die Dimension der Anforderungsniveaus beschreibt drei Niveaustufen, welche kompetenzorientierte Lernziele, Lernaufgaben und Leistungsaufgaben hinsichtlich ihrer Komplexität untergliedern. Die vorliegende Taxonomie bietet Ansätze zur Operationalisierung von Kompetenzen im Sport. Sie dient damit als Orientierungsraster für die methodisch-didaktische Konzeption sowie die empirische Analyse von kompetenzorientierten Lehr-Lern-Prozessen und deren Wirkungen im Erziehenden Sportunterricht.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Opportunistic behaviour of players’ agents in football and its
           monitoring by the players—an empirical analysis from the perspective of
           the players

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      Abstract: Abstract This article explores the following questions: (1) To what extent and in relation to which activities do football players perceive actions of their agents that are directed against their own interests depending on their performance levels' (2) Are players’ agents monitored by their players, and if so, in relation to which activities' (3) Which factors influence the monitoring behaviour of players' The relationship between the actors is modelled as a principal–agent relationship. The explorative study includes a dataset of 336 professional German football players. A logistic regression model was used to consider relevant factors influencing players’ monitoring behaviour. The results indicate that players’ agents across all leagues take actions potentially harmful to the players and show that approximately 50–60% of the players had their current agent monitored. Monitoring behaviour is influenced by ‘selection criteria’ and ‘framework conditions of the working relationship’, but not to the extent that could be expected. The research helps to understand the increasingly important relationship between players and agents. Players need to be aware that agents pursue their own objectives, which could be against the players interests. Therefore, monitoring is necessary. But data also show a lack of transparency, so that players do not know what agents are allowed to do and what is forbidden. If the associations and/or the players’ unions want to prevent possible damage to the players by their agents, it seems advisable to intensify and support information and awareness-raising campaigns or to adopt new statutes that regulate the players’ agents market more closely.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Adaptive Selbstregulation von Sportstudierenden: Unterscheiden sich
           angehende Sportlehrkräfte von Sportstudierenden mit einem anderen
           Berufsziel'

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      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Eine adaptive Selbstregulation gilt in der Professionsforschung zum Lehrer*innenberuf als wichtige individuelle Ressource von Lehrkräften für die Bewältigung von beruflichen Belastungen. Dies legt eine Auseinandersetzung mit der Frage nahe, über welche Regulationsprofile angehende Sportlehrkräfte hinsichtlich der Bewältigung von Anforderungen verfügen und welche Implikationen sich hiermit für die universitäre Lehrer*innenbildung ergeben. Von Interesse ist dabei nicht nur, ob Sport-Lehramtsstudierende über eher günstige oder eher ungünstige Verhaltensstile verfügen, sondern auch, ob sie Spezifika gegenüber anderen Sportstudierenden aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse einer Befragung von 851 Sportstudierenden sprechen dafür, dass sich diese zu vier verschiedenen Profilen der Selbstregulation zuordnen lassen. Signifikante Unterschiede existieren hinsichtlich der Verteilung auf diese Muster zwischen Studierenden des Lehramts und anderer sportwissenschaftlicher Studiengänge. So weisen Lehramtsstudierende mit einer höheren Wahrscheinlichkeit häufiger ein Schonungsmuster und seltener einen risikobehafteten Regulationsstil auf. Innerhalb der Subgruppe der Lehramtsstudierenden lassen sich marginale Unterschiede in der Musterverteilung in Abhängigkeit vom Geschlecht und keine Unterschiede für das Zweitfach nachweisen.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • dvs Informationen

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • “Capturing life as it is lived”—Ambulatory Assessment for physical
           activity, sport and exercise research

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • BISp Informationen

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • DOSB Informationen

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Self-tracking of daily physical activity using a fitness tracker and the
           effect of the 10,000 steps goal

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      Abstract: Abstract Activity self-tracking technologies have become a popular tool for monitoring physical activity, used to assist individuals in increasing physical activity. Previous findings, however, are inconclusive on whether standalone activity self-tracking, alone or in combination with a step goal, is efficient in encouraging physical activity behavior. This study aimed at investigating the effects of mere activity self-tracking and activity self-tracking with a daily 10,000 steps goal on physical activity levels in a randomized-controlled parallel group trial (N = 150; mean age= 24.66, standard deviation = 4.75), using a publicly available fitness tracker and associated smartphone application. Two experimental groups, one of which without and the other with step goal, recorded daily physical activity (daily step count) via a fitness tracker wearable and associated smartphone application and via daily self-reports of activity over the course of 6 weeks. An unequipped control group recorded physical activity only via daily self-reports. Both experimental groups were compared against each other based on step count data, and against the control group based on daily self-reports of activity. Results of mixed-effect multilevel analyses suggest that activity tracking using fitness trackers and externally assigned goals do not drive greater physical activity behavior. Rather, results indicate substantial individual differences that should be targeted in future studies to better understand individual behavioral processes boosting or hindering daily activity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Validation of human activity recognition using a convolutional neural
           network on accelerometer and gyroscope data

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      Abstract: Background Human activity recognition (HAR) means identifying sequences of data recorded by specialized wearable sensors into known, well-defined classes of physical activity. In principle, activity recognition provides great societal benefits, especially in real-life, humancentric applications such as healthcare and care of the elderly. Using raw acceleration and angular velocity to train a convolutional neural network shows great success in recognition accuracy. This article presents the quality of activity recognition obtained using convolutional neural network on acceleration and angular velocity data recorded from different sensor locations. Methods Thirty-five volunteers from two studies (16 women and 19 men) with an average age of 28.54 years wore Move4/EcgMove4 accelerometers on 6 different body positions (ankle, thigh, hip, wrist, upper arm, chest) while completing typical activities (sitting, standing, lying, walking, jogging, cycling). We then used those databases to evaluate a two-dimensional convolutional neural network (2D-CNN) that takes 3D acceleration and 3D angular velocity signals as inputs to recognize human activity. We measure the networks performance using accuracy and Cohen’s κ. Results Depending on the location of the sensor, the accuracy of the network varies from 96.57% (ankle) to 99.28% (thigh) and Cohen’s κ varies from 0.96 (ankle) to 0.99 (thigh). Conclusions The performance of the 2D-CNN concerning human activity recognition showed excellent results. Using raw signals may enable real-time, on-device—also known as at the edge—activity recognition even in small devices with low computational power and small storage.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • The association of stress and physical activity: Mind the ecological
           fallacy

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      Abstract: Abstract Psychological stress and physical activity are interrelated, constituting a relevant association to human health, especially in children. However, the association’s nature remains elusive, i.e., why psychological stress predicts both decreased and increased physical activity. To test whether effects vary as a function of the level of analyses, we derived intensive longitudinal data via accelerometers and stress questionnaires from 74 children across 7 days as they went about their daily routines (n = 513 assessments). Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that between children, higher psychological stress predicted decreased physical activity (standardized beta coefficient = −0.14; p = 0.046). Concurrently, within those children, higher psychological stress predicted increased physical activity across days (standardized beta coefficient = 0.09; p = 0.015). Translated to practice, children who experienced more stress than others moved less, but children were more active on days when they experienced heightened stress. This suggests that the analyses level is crucial to the understanding of the association between psychological stress and physical activity and should be considered to receive unequivocal results. If replicated, e.g., including high-frequency sampling and experimental manipulation in everyday life for in-depth insights on underlying mechanisms and causality, our findings may be translated to individually tailored (digital) prevention and intervention strategies which target children’s distress-feelings despite impairing their heightened physical activity in stressful situations and identify tipping points of chronic stress phases. Therefore, we especially call for more intensive longitudinal data approaches to tackle thus far neglected within-subject issues in the field of physical activity, sport and exercise research.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
       
  • Validation of an open-source ambulatory assessment system in support of
           replicable activity studies

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      Abstract: Abstract Purpose: Inertial-based trackers have become a common tool in data capture for ambulatory studies that aim at characterizing physical activity. Many systems that perform remote recording of accelerometer data use commercial trackers and black-box aggregation algorithms, often resulting in data that are locked into proprietary formats and metrics that make later replication or comparison difficult. Methods: The primary purpose of this manuscript is to validate an open-source ambulatory assessment system that consists of hardware devices, algorithms, and software components of our approach. We report on two validation experiments, one lab-based treadmill study on a convenience sample of 16 volunteers and one ’in vivo’ study with 28 volunteers suffering from diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Results: A comparison between data from ActiGraph GT9X trackers and our proposed system reveals that the original inertial sensor signals at the wrist strongly correlate (Pearson correlation coefficients for raw inertial sensor signals of 0.97 in the controlled treadmill-walking setting) and that estimated steps from an open-source wrist-based detection approach correlate with the hip-worn ActiGraph output (average Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.81 for minute-wise comparisons of detected steps) in day-long ambulatory data. Conclusion: Recording inertial sensor data in a standardized form and relying on open-source algorithms on these data form a promising methodology that ensures that datasets can be replicated or enriched long after the wearable trackers have been decommissioned.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
       
  • Development and evaluation of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system
           for jump detection and jump height estimation in beach volleyball

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      Abstract: Abstract Wearables are commonly used in practice for measuring and monitoring performance in high-level sports. That being said, they are often designed and intended for use during sports conducted on rigid surfaces. As such, sports that are conducted on sand, e.g. beach volleyball, lack equipment that can be specifically applied in the field. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based system for automatic jump detection and jump height measurement in sand. The system consists of two IMUs, which were attached to different parts of the athletes’ bodies. For validation under laboratory conditions, 20 subjects each performed five jumps on two consecutive days in a sandbox placed on force plates. Afterwards, five beach volleyball athletes performed complex combinations of beach volleyball-specific movements and jumps wearing the IMUs whilst being video recorded simultaneously. This was conducted in an ecologically valid setting to determine the validity of the IMU to correctly detect jumping actions. The results of the laboratory tests show excellent day-to-day reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.937, two-way mixed effects, single measurement, consistency) and excellent concurrent validity (ICC = 0.946, two-way mixed effects, single rater, absolute agreement) compared to the gold standard (force plates). The accuracy in jump detection of the IMU was 100 and 97.5% in the laboratory and ecologically valid settings, respectively. Although there are still some aspects to consider when using such devices, the current findings provide recommendations regarding best practice when using such a device on a variable and unstable surface. Collectively, such a device could be applied in the field to provide coaches and practitioners with direct feedback to monitor training or match play.
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
       
  • Self-tracking via smartphone app: Potential tool for athletes’
           recovery self-management'

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      Abstract: Abstract Self-tracking technologies are possible approaches to support recovery self-management activities for athletes. These may have become even more appealing due to stay-at-home restrictions as part of the 2020 pandemic regulations. This study examined user behaviour of smartphone and wearable technologies among 217 athletes (29% women, M age = 26.9 ± 7 years). The online survey comprised demographic questions and standardised questionnaires to assess usage of technologies, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), attitudes about sleep (Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale), bedtime procrastination (Bedtime Procrastination Scale), and self-control (Brief Self-Control Scale). Fitness apps (46.5%) were more popular than sleep apps (15.7%) followed by nutrition apps (12%). The correlation between sleep apps and the other two apps indicate that non-users of sleep apps are probably also non-users of fitness or nutrition apps. Wearables were more frequently used to track fitness activities (36.9%) than sleep (17.5%). Considering sex, type of sport, competition participation, and training volume, no remarkable characteristics among users versus non-users of sleep apps were identified. There were also no significant differences among sleep indices between sleep app users and non-users. However, self-control was highest among sleep app users compared to non-users (d = 0.58). Despite 34.1% being identified as poor sleepers, behavioural sleeping patterns were within normal range. The results imply that athletes are not as attracted to self-tracking technologies as expected, which makes them less vulnerable to unsubstantiated feedback and inappropriate interventions by those tools. This serves as a starting point to explore the potential of self-tracking ambulatory assessment for physical activity and sleep behaviour of athletes in the post-pandemic era.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Children and adolescents do not compensate for physical activity but do
           compensate for sedentary behavior

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      Abstract: Abstract Little is known about behavioral transfer and compensation within and between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Thus, taking a within-person perspective, this study investigated across 1 week whether (a) children and adolescents compensate for increased MVPA and sedentary behavior with less of the respective behavior the next day and (b) transfer and compensation occur between these behaviors within 1 day and across 2 days. We obtained data from 2676 participants (6–17 years) of the national Motorik-Modul (MoMo) study in Germany. Participants wore an ActiGraph accelerometer (Pensacola, FL, USA) for 7 days. We analyzed within- and between-day associations using hierarchical linear modeling. If youth engaged in 2 h more sedentary behavior than typical on any given day, they engaged in 37.20 min less MVPA the same day (B = −0.31, p < 0.001) as well as in 4.80 min more MVPA (B = 0.04, p < 0.001) and 7.20 min less sedentary behavior (B = −0.06, p < 0.001) the next day. If youth engaged in 1 h more MVPA than typical on any given day, they engaged in 97.80 min less sedentary behavior the same day (B = −1.63, p < 0.001) and in 5.40 min less sedentary behavior the next day (B = −0.09, p < 0.001). No association with next-day MVPA was observed. Our results indicate that children do not compensate for enhanced MVPA but transfer to less sedentary behavior, while more sedentary behavior is compensated with less sedentary behavior and more MVPA the next day. This provides essential information for the design of intervention studies to tackle physical inactivity and sedentary behavior.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Does dispositional self-control moderate the association between stress at
           work and physical activity after work' A real-life study with police
           officers

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      Abstract: Background Psychosocial stress is a major health threat in modern society. Short-term effects of stress on health behaviors have been identified as relevant processes. This article examines the moderating effect of dispositional self-control on the association between stress at work and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after work. Methods In a sample of 153 police officers (103 men, 50 women, mean age = 39.3 ± 10.4 years), daily occupational stress and hours worked were assessed via ecological momentary assessment (smartphone-based single item) in real-life. Dispositional self-control was assessed via an online questionnaire, whereas physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was performed to test main and interaction effects. Results Bivariate correlations showed that perceived stress at work was positively correlated with hours worked (r = 0.24, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.09, 0.39]), whereas a negative association was found with dispositional self-control (r = −0.27, p < 0.001, 95% CI [−0.41, −0.12]). After-work MVPA was neither associated with stress at work nor with dispositional self-control. The regression analysis yielded no significant interaction between stress at work and dispositional self-control on after-work MVPA. Conclusion Using a state-of-the-art ecological momentary assessment approach to assess feelings of stress in real-life, stress at work did not seem to impact after-work MVPA in police officers. More research is needed to establish whether this finding is specific to police officers or whether it can be generalized to other populations.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Impact of weekdays versus weekend days on accelerometer measured physical
           behavior among children and adolescents: results from the MoMo study

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      Abstract: Abstract Structured activities, in which children participate for example at school, are consistent and limited in scope. After-school or weekend activities, by contrast, involve a wider range of behaviors. Studies have shown that physical activity (PA), as measured by accelerometers, is lower on weekends compared to weekdays or school days, whereas PA does not differ between weekdays. In the present study, we examined accelerometer data of children and adolescents living in Germany for the different weekdays and weekend days. The current analysis used cross-sectional data of participants (n = 2743) aged 6–17 years collected between 2014 and 2017. The final valid sample consisted of 2278 children and adolescents divided into three age groups (6–10 years, n = 713; 11–13 years, n = 706; 14–17 years, n = 859) and two gender groups (1072 boys, 1206 girls). Physical behavior, including sedentary behavior, as well as light, moderate, vigorous PA, and wear time were analyzed. Absolute and percentage intensity distributions were evaluated daily. The average wear time was 807 min daily from Monday–Thursday with significant deviations from the mean on Friday (+38 min), Saturday (−76 min), and Sunday (−141 min). Absolute moderate to vigorous PA times were lower on weekends than during the week. However, the percentage intensity distribution remained constant over all days. Girls were less physically active and more sedentary than boys (F1,2272 = 38.3; p < 0.01) and adolescents were significantly less active than younger children (F2,2272 = 138.6; p < 0.01). Waking times increased with age (F2,2272 = 138.6; p < 0.01). Shorter awake periods limit possible active times on weekends, resulting in lower PA and sedentary behavior compared to weekdays. The percentage distributions of the different physical behavior intensity categories are similar over all weekdays and weekend days. We could not find a justification for specific weekend interventions. Instead, interventions should generally try to shift activity away from sedentary behavior towards a more active lifestyle.
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
       
  • Sleep quality, valence, energetic arousal, and calmness as predictors of
           device-based measured physical activity during a three-week mHealth
           intervention

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      Abstract: Abstract Physical inactivity is known to be a risk factor for several noncommunicable diseases and has a high prevalence in today’s society. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the psychological factors associated with physical activity (PA). Recent developments in the field of ambulatory assessment and technological advances are promising to enhance our understanding of this relationship by analyzing longitudinal data within- and between-persons. These analyses can reveal important factors to design behavior change interventions to enhance PA. Therefore, this study used an ecological momentary assessment during the 3‑week intervention period in the SMARTFAMILY2.0 trial and aimed to investigate whether valence, calmness, energetic arousal, and sleep quality predict daily steps and moderate to vigorous PA. Overall, 49 adults (35–60 years) and 40 children (5–19 years) were included in this analysis and self-rated their mental state within our smartphone application while also wearing a hip-worn accelerometer for 21 consecutive days (996 days included) during the intervention period. Multilevel analyses were conducted to predict daily PA while considering covariables (e.g., child/adult and non-wear time) both within- and between-persons. The results indicated that higher than average ratings of a person’s valence and energetic arousal on one day predicted increased PA while higher than average calmness predicted decreased PA at the same day within this person. Sleep quality and between-person effects of the affective states showed no clear associations to PA. Overall, these results showed that within-person associations of valence, calmness, and energetic arousal should be considered when designing PA interventions for both children and adults. The influence of sleep quality, as well as between-person effects, should be further explored by future studies.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
       
 
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