Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 366)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 409)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 323)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 313)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Forensic Toxicology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.407
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1860-8973 - ISSN (Online) 1860-8965
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Evaluation of decarboxylation efficiency of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic
           acid and cannabidiolic acid by UNODC method

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      Abstract: Purpose Decarboxylation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA) to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) by heating is a common method for determining total Δ9-THC. In the manual for cannabis identification and analysis, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) proposed decarboxylation conditions. Although the manual’s primary analytical target is Δ9-THC, some reports also quantified cannabidiol (CBD). The authors assessed the efficiency of decarboxylation of Δ9-THCA and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a carboxylated form of CBD, under four decarboxylation conditions, including the UNODC condition. Methods Δ9-THCA and CBDA were heated in 2-mL glass vials at 150 °C for 12 min after the following treatment: condition A involves the addition of ethanol without capping, condition B involves non addition of solvent without capping, condition C involves non addition of solvent with capping, and condition D (UNODC condition) involves the addition of 0.5 mg/mL tribenzylamine (TBA) in ethanol without capping. The residue after heating was dissolved in methanol and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results The production of Δ9-THC and CBD was low (≤ 10.1%) under conditions A and B. Under condition C, Δ9-THC production was increased (53.4%), but CBD production was hardly improved (11.7%). Under condition D, Δ9-THC and CBD production dramatically increased to 83.2 and 71.0%, respectively. Conclusions These findings indicated that TBA improved the production of Δ9-THC and CBD from their carboxylated forms; however, even in the presence of TBA, their production did not reach 100%. Forensic toxicologists should understand the effectiveness and limitations of decarboxylation under the UNODC condition.
      PubDate: 2022-09-23
       
  • A review of synthetic cathinones emerging in recent years
           (2019–2022)

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      Abstract: Purpose The emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been being a continuous and evolving problem for more than a decade. Every year, dozens of new, previously unknown drugs appear on the illegal market, posing a significant threat to the health and lives of their users. Synthetic cathinones are one of the most numerous and widespread groups among NPS. The purpose of this work was to identify and summarize available data on newly emerging cathinones in very recent years. Methods Various online databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, but also databases of government agencies including those involved in early warning systems, were used in search of reports on the identification of newly emerging synthetic cathinones. In addition, threads on various forums created by users of these drugs were searched for reports on the effects of these new substances. Results We have identified 29 synthetic cathinones that have been detected for the first time from early 2019 to mid-2022. We described their structures, known intoxication symptoms, detected concentrations in biological material in poisoning cases, as well as the countries and dates of their first appearance. Due to the lack of studies on the properties of the novel compounds, we compared data on the pharmacological profiles of the better-known synthetic cathinones with available information on the newly emerged ones. Some of these new agents already posed a threat, as the first cases of poisonings, including fatal ones, have been reported. Conclusions Most of the newly developed synthetic cathinones can be seen as analogs and replacements for once-popular compounds that have been declining in popularity as a result of legislative efforts. Although it appears that some of the newly emerging cathinones are not widely used, they may become more popular in the future and could become a significant threat to health and life. Therefore, it is important to continue developing early warning systems and identifying new compounds so that their widespread can be prevented.
      PubDate: 2022-09-15
       
  • Analysis of 2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamines and 2,5-dimethoxy-phenethylamines
           aiming their determination in biological matrices: a review

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      Abstract: Purpose The present review aims to provide an overview of methods for the quantification of 2,5-dimethoxy-amphetamines and -phenethylamines in different biological matrices, both traditional and alternative ones. Methods A complete literature search was carried out with PubMed, Scopus and the World Wide Web using relevant keywords, e.g., designer drugs, amphetamines, phenethylamines, and biological matrices. Results Synthetic phenethylamines represent one of the largest classes of “designer drugs”, obtained through chemical structure modifications of psychoactive substances to increase their pharmacological activities. This practice is also favored by the fact that every new synthetic compound is not considered illegal by existing legislation. Generally, in a toxicological laboratory, the first monitoring of drugs of abuse is made by rapid screening tests that sometimes can occur in false positive or false negative results. To reduce evaluation errors, it is mandatory to submit the positive samples to confirmatory methods, such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography combined to mass spectrometry, for a more specific qualitative and quantitative analysis. Conclusions This review highlights the great need for updated comprehensive analytical methods, particularly when analyzing biological matrices, both traditional and alternative ones, for the search of newly emerging designer drugs.
      PubDate: 2022-09-14
       
  • Short-term stability of a small amount of neat
           Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

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      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • Development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid
           chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of
           25 psychoactive drugs in cerumen and its application to real postmortem
           samples

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      Abstract: Purpose In the present study, a method for the detection of 25 psychoactive substances in cerumen was developed and validated. This method targets opiates, cocaine, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and antiparkinsons. Methods Analysis was performed on a SCIEX Triple Quad 6500+ system after liquid–liquid extraction. Methanol with 1% acetic acid was chosen as the extraction solvent. After the addition of the solvent, samples were vortexed, sonicated, centrifuged and directly injected into the liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry system. Results The method was found to be selective and sensitive (limit of detection: 0.017 ng–0.33 ng/mg), the assay was linear for all analytes with linear regression coefficient ranging 0.9911–1.00. The values for intra-assay precision was between 4.34 and 14.6% and inter-assay precision between 5.81 and 17.7%, with accuracy within the acceptable criteria for all analytes. All analytes in cerumen specimens were stable for 48 h at 4 °C and 72 h at − 20 °C, whilst no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. Applicability was proven by analyzing cerumen samples from 25 deceased with a history of drug abuse. All analytes were detected in real samples, thus confirming the sensitivity of the developed method. Conclusions According to our knowledge, it is the first time that a method for the simultaneous detection of 25 psychoactive drugs in cerumen was developed, fully validated and finally applied to 25 postmortem samples.
      PubDate: 2022-09-13
       
  • An unusual case of fatal hypothermia involving topical diphenhydramine

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      Abstract: Purpose Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine drug widely used to alleviate symptoms caused by allergies and the common cold. Diphenhydramine-involved fatalities have been reported in the past but usually involving overdose by ingestion. We report a peculiar case of fatal hypothermia during non-winter season involving topical diphenhydramine. Methods A 23-year-old male with no known preexisting medical conditions was found dead in the bathroom of his apartment with a small amount of running water on his back. Postmortem examinations and toxicological analysis on blood and urine were performed. Results Color difference was apparent between the right and left cardiac blood. Wischnewski spots were observed in the gastric mucosa. Histological examination revealed no obvious findings that could attribute to serious cardiovascular events. Drug screening by gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) detected diphenhydramine in blood and urine. Further quantification revealed the postmortem concentrations to be 0.44 μg/mL in blood and 2500 μg/mL in urine. Conclusions The cause of death was determined to be hypothermia. Diphenhydramine-induced drowsiness and possible intrinsic cardiac factor may have led to prolonged impaired consciousness, preventing his ability to escape from the running cold water leading to hypothermia and death.
      PubDate: 2022-08-20
       
  • Analysis of vaporized caffeine in smoke from e-cigarettes using liquid
           chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and clarification of minor
           components

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      Abstract: Purpose Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are used widely, and e-cigarettes containing caffeine (Caf) have recently become commercially available. However, no risk evaluation of these Caf-containing products has been performed to date. Such an evaluation requires a sensitive analytical method for quantifying Caf in smoke from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for quantifying vaporized Caf from commercially available e-cigarettes, and to determine minor components related to Caf in cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Methods A sampling system for Caf using a suction pump was designed and sampling conditions were optimized. Results The optimized LC–MS/MS conditions allowed the sensitive determination of Caf in smoke with a limit of detection of 0.03 ng/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The method was applied to CSEs from five e-cigarette products and the concentration of Caf ranged from 0.894 ± 0.090 to 3.32 ± 0.14 μg/mL smoke (n = 3). Additionally, minor components related to Caf, such as theobromine, theophylline, and paraxanthine, were detected in CSE and in e-liquid at very low concentrations, indicating that they were impurities in e-liquid and vaporized along with Caf. Conclusion This is the first report to determine the concentration of vaporized Caf using an LC–MS/MS method and to clarify several minor components in smoke from e-cigarettes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-10
       
  • Influence of long-term storage temperatures and sodium fluoride
           preservation on the stability of synthetic cathinones and
           dihydro-metabolites in human whole blood

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      Abstract: Purpose Synthetic cathinones, one of the largest groups of new psychoactive substances, represent a large analytical and interpretative challenge in forensic laboratories. Of these is the synthetic cathinones’ instability in different biological samples, which may lead to drug concentration discrepancies when interpreting toxicological findings. In this study, the stability of a panel of synthetic cathinones and their dihydro-metabolites (n = 26) together with internal standard was monitored in human whole blood stored at various temperatures over 6 months. The influence of sodium fluoride as a preservative in blood collection tubes was also investigated. Methods Samples were extracted using a two-step liquid-liquid extraction technique, and analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method following recommendations of published guidelines. Results The influence of temperature over analytes’ stability was an important element in whole blood samples, with − 40 °C being the best storage temperature for all tested analytes. Sodium fluoride did not significantly affect the stability of cathinones except at room temperature. Dihydro-metabolites displayed better stability in whole blood samples and remained detectable for a longer period of time under all tested conditions. Conclusions The data suggest that samples containing synthetic cathinones should be analyzed immediately, if possible. Alternatively, whole blood samples should be stored frozen (at − 40 °C or lower); however, (quantitative) results should be interpreted with caution after long-term storage. The data also promote the use of dihydro-metabolites as biomarkers for synthetic cathinones intake, as these reduced metabolites may be detected for longer period of time when compared with parent drugs in whole blood samples.
      PubDate: 2022-08-06
       
  • Blood transfusion causing false positive PEth

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      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Analysis of degradation products of nerve agents in biological fluids by
           ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose The detection of hydrolysis products of nerve agents (alkyl methylphosphonic acids; RMPAs) in biological samples from victims is important to confirm exposure to nerve agents. However, analysis of RMPAs is difficult due to their high hydrophilicity. The aim of this study was to develop ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (IC–MS/MS) methods using commercially available equipment and columns to analyze RMPAs in human urine and serum with high sensitivity and without using complicate techniques. Methods A Dionex IonPac AS11-HC anion-exchange column was used to analyze six RMPAs (MPA, EMPA, IMPA, iBuMPA, CHMPA, and PMPA). For pretreatments of biological fluids, we developed two pretreatment methods (Method 1: dilution and ultrafiltration; Method 2: removal of chloride ions with Ag cartridges). Results Six RMPAs including highly hydrophilic methylphosphonic acid and ethyl methylphosphonic acid could be analyzed with sufficient retention times and peak shape. The detection limits of RMPAs were improved using Dionex OnGuard II Ba/Ag/H cartridges and MetaSEP IC–Ag cartridges (urine: 0.5–5 ng/mL; serum: 1–5 ng/mL). These methods were also applied to the test samples for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Biomedical Proficiency Tests. Conclusions RMPAs could be sufficiently analyzed by IC–MS/MS. In addition, the limits of detection were superior to those obtained in our previous study involving LC–MS/MS or derivatization–LC–MS/MS method. For analysis of biological samples, an appropriate pretreatment method can be chosen according to the amount of sample available for analysis and expected RMPA concentrations.
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00633-x
       
  • Phase I-metabolism studies of the synthetic cannabinoids PX-1 and PX-2
           using three different in vitro models

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      Abstract: Purpose Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), highly metabolized substances, are rarely found unmodified in urine samples. Urine screening relies on SC metabolite detection, requiring metabolism knowledge. Metabolism data can be acquired via in vitro assays, e.g., human hepatocytes, pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM), cytochrome P450 isoforms and a fungal model; or in vivo by screening, e.g., authentic human samples or rat urine. This work describes the comprehensive study of PX-1 and PX-2 in vitro metabolism using three in vitro models. 5F-APP-PICA (PX-1) and 5F-APP-PINACA (PX-2) were studied as they share structural similarity with AM-2201, THJ-2201 and 5F-AB-PINACA, the metabolism of which was described in the literature. Methods For SC incubation, pHLM, cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and the fungal model Cunninghamella elegans LENDNER (C. elegans) were used. PX-1 and PX-2 in vitro metabolites were revealed comprehensively by liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry measurements. Results In total, 30 metabolites for PX 1 and 15 for PX-2 were detected. The main metabolites for PX-1 and PX-2 were the amide hydrolyzed metabolites, along with an indole monohydroxylated (for PX-1) and a defluorinated pentyl-monohydroxylated metabolite (for PX-2). Conclusions CYP isoforms along with fungal incubation results were in good agreement to those obtained with pHLM incubation. CYP2E1 was responsible for many of the metabolic pathways; particularly for PX-1. This study shows that all three in vitro assays are suitable for predicting metabolic pathways of synthetic cannabinoids. To establish completeness of the PX-1 and PX-2 metabolic pathways, it is not only recommended but also necessary to use different assays.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-021-00606-6
       
  • Facile determination of natural cannabinoids in cannabis products using a
           conventional fully porous particle column and isocratic high-performance
           liquid chromatography with diode-array detector

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      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00630-0
       
  • First liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry method for
           the determination of cocaine on banknote dust

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      Abstract: Purpose Prevalence measures of sociological interest concerning cocaine presence on banknotes are fraught with (i) the extreme variability of its concentration (seven orders of magnitude); (ii) the high number of banknotes needed for the statistical significance. Banknote dust from counting machines from a large and representative number of banknotes in circulation in a specific area represents the most eligible sample to ascertain cocaine circulation. No chromatographic method is available in this respect. This study aims at developing the first analytical methodology for the determination of cocaine in banknote dust samples. Methods This novel and straightforward approach consists of a simple methanol extraction followed by analytical determinations via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with a coefficient of determination of 0.996; maximum within-run and between-run precisions were, respectively, 1.85% and 5.20%. Limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, 3 and 9 ng/mL with an overall process efficiency of 93.2%. The method developed was successfully applied to 9 banknote dust samples from local banknote counter machines. The found concentrations ranged from 2.18E + 02 to 2.31E + 03 μg of cocaine per gram of banknote dust and varied only one order of magnitude, much less than cocaine concentration on banknotes. Conclusions To have an idea of cocaine circulation in a geographical area, the sampling of banknote dust, compared to banknotes, consists of tremendous advantages in terms of statistical significance, higher cocaine concentrations, and lower variability: this is crucial from the sociological point of view.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00627-9
       
  • Fast and reliable profiling of cannabinoids in seized samples using the
           method of HPLC–DAD followed by chemometrics

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      PubDate: 2022-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00625-x
       
  • 2-Methoxyqualone, a new recreational drug, discovered from a package
           seized by the police: a preliminary report

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      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00626-w
       
  • Chiral analysis of dextromethorphan and levomethorphan in human hair by
           liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

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      Abstract: Purpose Methorphan exists in two enantiomeric forms including dextromethorphan and levomethorphan. Dextromethorphan is an over-the-counter antitussive drug, whereas levomethorphan is strictly controlled as a narcotic drug. Chiral analysis of methorphan could, therefore, assist clinicians and forensic experts in differentiating between illicit and therapeutic use and in tracing the source of the drug. Methods A method for enantiomeric separation and quantification of levomethorphan and dextromethorphan in human hair was developed and validated using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Hair was extracted in hydrochloric acid/methanol (1:20, v/v). The supernatant were separated using a Supelco Astec Chirobiotic™ V2 column (250 × 2.1 mm, i.d., 5 μm particle size) and analyzed on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Results The limits of detection for dextromethorphan and levomethorphan were 2 and 1 pg/mg, respectively; the lower limit of quantification was 2 pg/mg for both drugs. Good linearity (r > 0.995) was observed for both analytes over the linear range. Precision values were below 10% for both analytes; accuracy values ranged from 87.5 to 101%. The extraction recoveries were 78.3–98.4%, and matrix effects were 70.5–88.6%. This method was applied to human hair samples from 120 people suspected of methorphan use to further distinguish the drug chirality. Dextromethorphan was detected in all 120 samples at a concentration range of 2.7–19,100 pg/mg, whereas levomethorphan was not detected in any sample. Conclusions A sensitive quantitative method was established for the enantiomeric separation of dextromethorphan and levomethorphan in hair. This is the first study to achieve chiral analysis of methorphan in human hair.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00620-2
       
  • The blood-to-plasma ratio and predicted GABAA-binding affinity of designer
           benzodiazepines

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      Abstract: Purpose The number of benzodiazepines appearing as new psychoactive substances (NPS) is continually increasing. Information about the pharmacological parameters of these compounds is required to fully understand their potential effects and harms. One parameter that has yet to be described is the blood-to-plasma ratio. Knowledge of the pharmacodynamics of designer benzodiazepines is also important, and the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) modelling provides a fast and inexpensive method of predicting binding affinity to the GABAA receptor. Methods In this work, the blood-to-plasma ratios for six designer benzodiazepines (deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, etizolam, meclonazepam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam) were determined. A previously developed QSAR model was used to predict the binding affinity of nine designer benzodiazepines that have recently appeared. Results Blood-to-plasma values ranged from 0.57 for phenazepam to 1.18 to pyrazolam. Four designer benzodiazepines appearing since 2017 (fluclotizolam, difludiazepam, flualprazolam, and clobromazolam) had predicted binding affinities to the GABAA receptor that were greater than previously predicted binding affinities for other designer benzodiazepines. Conclusions This work highlights the diverse nature of the designer benzodiazepines and adds to our understanding of their pharmacology. The greater predicted binding affinities are a potential indication of the increasing potency of designer benzodiazepines appearing on the illicit drugs market.
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00616-y
       
  • Comparison of serum and whole blood concentrations in quetiapine overdose
           cases

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      Abstract: Abstract This study aimed to compare whole blood and serum concentrations of quetiapine in acute poisoning cases. Authentic whole blood and respective serum samples were routinely collected from patients diagnosed with blood poisoning at our University Hospital. Accordingly, whole blood and serum paired samples from nine patients (one male and eight female patients) were analyzed for quetiapine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Quetiapine concentrations in whole blood and serum samples ranged widely from 5.4 to 2780 ng/mL and 9.9 to 2500 ng/mL, respectively. The whole blood/serum concentration ratio was 0.5–1.1 and increased together with an increase in whole blood and serum quetiapine concentrations. The ratio was reversed at around 2500 ng/mL to > 1. Our findings suggest that whole blood concentrations are more useful than serum concentrations in diagnosing quetiapine poisonings.
      PubDate: 2022-03-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00618-w
       
  • Determination of abamectin in heart blood and urine following lethal
           intoxication: a case report

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      PubDate: 2022-03-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-022-00617-x
       
  • Determination of cyanide in blood by GC–MS using a new high selectivity
           derivatization reagent 1,2,3,3-tetramethyl-3H-indolium iodide

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      PubDate: 2022-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11419-021-00610-w
       
 
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