Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 281)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 312)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 410)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.695
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 27  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1556-2891 - ISSN (Online) 1547-769X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Fatal injuries due to direct helicopter propeller strike

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      Abstract: Abstract During a helicopter exercise, due to the scarce visibility caused by the presence of snow, a collision between a landing helicopter and one already on the ground occurred. The 40-year-old pilot of the already landed aircraft was killed as a result of a direct propeller impact in the right side of the pilot’s cockpit, while the co-pilot remained uninjured. At autopsy, the macroscopic characteristic findings in the form of cut injuries and amputations along the axis of the rotor blade impact as well as a 3D reconstruction through CT-Scan were analyzed and discussed for a thorough reconstruction of the injuries and the dynamics.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • A 9-year retrospective review of lightning deaths from the Eastern
           Anatolian Region of Turkey

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, deaths from lightning strikes in Eastern Turkey revealed distinct patterns in lifestyle and physical injury. Farmers, sailors, and those engaged in outdoor sports are all at risk of being struck by lightning. Death from a lightning strike is associated with cardiovascular and central nervous system damage. This study examines cases of autopsies that were performed on bodies that had suffered a lightning strike, including sociodemographic data, burns on the body, injured regions, histopathological findings, and causes of death. This retrospective evaluation included 17 cases. The cases comprised 88.2% males and 11.8% females, with a mean age of 41.5 years. The person’s occupation was farmer in 29.4% of the cases and shepherd in 70.6%. Their deaths occurred most frequently in the summer months. Deaths associated with lightning strikes are more frequent in east of Turkey than in other regions, as agriculture and livestock are common sources of income. The majority of the victims among the cases were males working outside because of their occupations. Histopathologically, subarachnoid fresh bleeding was seen in five cases, subpleural fresh bleeding in the lungs in five cases, and interlobular rupture in the lungs in three cases. Deaths associated with lightning strikes have been correlated with a low level of education in this subject. This study is the largest case study of deaths associated with lightning strikes in Turkey.
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
       
  • A suicide attempt by intramuscular injection of pentobarbital sodium into
           rectus abdominis suggested by computed tomography

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      Abstract: Abstract Suicide attempts in humans due to injections of the veterinary drug pentobarbital sodium have been rarely reported. Herein, we present a case of a suicide attempt by intramuscular injection of pentobarbital sodium into the rectus abdominis muscle, which was suggested by computed tomography (CT). A 73-year-old man was brought to the emergency department with GCS 3 (E1V1M1) and an incised wound on the right side of the neck. A bottle of Somnopentyl® (pentobarbital sodium, 64.8 mg/ml), a 20-ml empty syringe with an 18-mm needle, and no. 10 scalpel were present at the scene. At the emergency department, the patient was intubated and was admitted to the intensive care unit. A urine drug screen test by SIGNIFY® ER was positive for benzodiazepines and barbiturates, and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CHF) was initiated. The route of drug administration was initially unknown; however, a CT scan revealed swelling of the left rectus abdominis muscle with a wound suggestive of a needle puncture, and the CT analysis suggested 38.16 ml as the maximum dose of pentobarbital sodium. On day 3, the patient’s consciousness improved, and he was weaned off CHF and mechanical ventilation. There have been several reports of postmortem CT yielding information on the site of administration of intoxicants, but there have been none for surviving intoxicated patients. This is the first report of the usefulness of CT to identify the site of administration of the causative agent of intoxication while the patient is still alive.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
       
  • Lethal hemorrhage from iliac vein rupture complicating inferior vena cava
           thrombosis demonstrated by post-mortem CT angiography

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      Abstract: Abstract Spontaneous iliac vein rupture is a rare cause of retroperitoneal hemorrhage that may present to the forensic pathologist. It has been reported in association with venous thrombosis, anatomical variants such as May-Thurner syndrome, and as a complication of a long-term indwelling IVC filter. It has a female predominance and most often occurs due to rupture of the left iliac vein. This is the first report of the use of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) as an adjunct to a conventional autopsy to diagnose rupture of the left iliac vein causing retroperitoneal hemorrhage arising as a complication of an inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus. We discuss the use of PMCTA as a useful tool in the diagnosis of vascular injury and how it can be used to assist the forensic pathologist. The use of PMCT with PMCTA is an invaluable adjunct to conventional autopsy to diagnose the site of vascular rupture.
      PubDate: 2022-07-27
       
  • Causes of fatalities in motor vehicle occupants: an overview

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      Abstract: Abstract Injuries from motor vehicle collisions are frequently encountered in routine forensic practice. While the most common lethal events involve blunt force trauma with injuries to the head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and limbs, review of the literature and case files shows that a wide variety of other fatal situations can occur that may involve sharp force and penetrating trauma, incineration, drowning, asphyxia, organic diseases and combinations of these. The following overview details potential factors that may contribute to death following vehicle crashes.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
       
  • Utility of the sternal synostosis for age-at-death estimation in a
           Mediterranean population

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      Abstract: Abstract Age estimation is essential for the identification of skeletal remains in Forensic Anthropology. Numerous studies have been performed on diverse regions of the skeleton, including the synostosis of the sternal segments. In this sense, the fusion of the different sternal segments was assessed to analyze whether it had a correlation with age-at-death in a Mediterranean population. A total of 189 sternums which belonged to individuals between the ages of 20 and 98 from both sexes (56.6% males; 43.4% females), from the San José’s Cemetery of Granada Contemporary Collection (Spain), were selected. Scores ranging from 1 to 3 were assigned in accordance with the degree of manubrio-sternal fusion and sterno-xyphoidal fusion. Cohen’s kappa coefficient for intra- and inter-observer error was performed and then chi-square test was run to analyze any correlation between the stage of synostosis and the skeletal age. Only the sterno-xyphoidal fusion, which starts between 30 and 39 years old, provided a predictable result, as the manubrium and the sternal body usually remain without fusion. This study demonstrates a direct correlation between fusion of the xyphoid process and chronological age.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
       
  • Non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy presenting as sudden
           unexpected maternal death: an autopsy diagnosis

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      Abstract: Abstract Pregnancy on a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare condition that can lead to a catastrophic outcome when it ruptures. The majority of cases are diagnosed late, after the rupture has occurred. We present the case of a 29-year-old female G2 P1 who complained of abdominal pain. She consulted a medical practitioner who prescribed her analgesics. In the next day, she was found dead in her bedroom. The pregnancy was undiagnosed as she was not aware that she was in a gravid state. At autopsy, there was massive haemoperitoneum and a 24-week gestation foetus lying outside the uterus. The uterus revealed an anomaly in keeping with a non- communicating rudimentary horn. Forensic pathologists do encounter undiagnosed ectopic pregnancies in practice. However, abdominal ectopic pregnancy with a uterine anomaly remains uncommon. These cases are often associated with a high maternal and foetal mortality.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • Autopsy and its role in Franco’s dictatorship: a case of the last
           Republican mayor of the town Calera y Chozas (Toledo, Spain)

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      Abstract: Abstract In the town of Calera y Chozas (Spain), five mass graves containing the remains of 28 individuals were discovered during a 2012 excavation. The witnesses and historical evidence indicated that the body of the last Republican mayor of the town, Felipe Fernández Varela, who had died in September 1939, was located in the mass grave designated as no. 1. Within this particular grave, only two bodies were found. Anthropological analysis showed that the first individual was significantly younger than 50 years, being the mayor’s age at the time of death, while the age of the second individual was closer to 50. This second individual had a fractured skull, with a depression on the left parietal bone, and there were unmistakable signs of autopsy, which consisted of cut marks on the frontal bone and the sternal extremity of the right clavicle. Further historical research revealed documents concerning the autopsy performed on this individual. Although, according to the report, the cause of death was a stroke — the consequence of atherosclerosis and alcoholism — no reference was made to the forceful impact to the skull or intracranial bleeding. Considering the size of the fracture on the skull and the fact that there were no signs of bone healing, we believe that this impact, and not the stroke, was the direct cause of the death of the last Republican mayor. The mayor’s case is a clear example of the role forensic medicine performed at the beginning of Franco’s dictatorship. The task was not only to conceal the crime but also to tarnish the victim’s name.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • An analysis of child suicide from three centers (2008–2017)

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      Abstract: Abstract Although the overall suicide rate worldwide has changed minimally over the past 100 years, different trends have been observed over time in the USA, Australia, and New Zealand (NZ). However, few studies have focused on suicides in children (< 18 years), making evaluation of possible trends difficult. The last 20 years has also seen an increase in childhood obesity, eating disorders, and body image issues for children in many developed nations; however, few studies have shown whether a significant proportion of child suicides have an abnormal BMI. The current study evaluates child suicides (from 2008 to 2017) in South Australia (Australia), compared with the jurisdictions of Auckland (NZ) and Hennepin County (USA). Demographic data (age, sex, ethnicity), body mass index (BMI), the number of cases of youth suicide, and the method of suicide from these three regions were collected and analyzed. Across the 10-year period, the jurisdiction of Auckland had a downward trend, while Hennepin County and South Australia had increasing numbers of cases. The most common method of child suicide in all centers was hanging, occurring in > 80% of cases in South Australia and Auckland and 56% in Hennepin County. Hennepin County had a greater proportion of suicides using firearms (28%), compared to 1.9% in Auckland and 5.1% in South Australia. Unusual means of suicide were used less frequently by youth than previously.
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
       
  • Extensive direct spreading of “groin hit”-related soft tissue
           infections: a report of three cases

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      Abstract: Abstract We present fatal extensive soft tissue infections, a consequence of groin heroin injection, in three subjects, who were 27, 34, and 39 years old and had a history of over 10-, 15-, and 5-years of heroin injection (cases 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In all cases, the first symptoms of the infection appeared at least a week prior, with rapid deterioration on the last day. The hallmark was a disproportion between external and internal findings in the affected thighs. The latter presented as extensively spread suppurative inflammation with soft tissue necrosis. In case 1, subtle skin erythema was present in the left groin, with a wound suggestive of a recent abscess incision and injection-related scarring. However, dissection revealed that inguinal regions and deep soft tissue (including the muscle sheets) of the left thigh, gluteal region, and lower third of the anterior abdominal wall were inflamed with pus, alongside fibrinopurulent peritonitis. Case 2 had pronounced erythema and swelling of the thigh and knee. Diffuse suppuration was observed upon dissection in the inguinal regions, which extended into the iliopsoas muscles, with soft tissue and muscle necrosis. In the abdominal cavity, we detected 150 mL of serofibrinous exudate. Only case 3 had a prominent, 4 × 3.5-cm necrotic skin defect through which pus spontaneously drained. In contrast to the other two, although extensive pus collection within predominantly necrotic thigh’s soft tissue was present, the inflammation did not expand above the inguinal ligament, and peritonitis was not observed. Toxicology analysis excluded acute heroin intoxications.
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
       
  • Commentary on the “Entrapment within an ottoman storage bed: an unusual
           accidental asphyxial death”: the complex asphyxiation

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      PubDate: 2022-07-09
       
  • Findings and inferences from full autopsies, minimally invasive autopsies
           and biopsy studies in patients who died as a result of COVID19 — A
           systematic review

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      Abstract: Abstract Many articles on COVID19 deaths have been published since the pandemic has occurred. On reviewing the articles published until June 2021, the findings were very heterogeneous. Adding to the existing knowledge, there were also some unique observations made in the pathogenesis of COVID19. This review was done to determine the findings obtained and inferences drawn from various studies published globally among patients who died due to COVID19. PRISMA guidelines were used to conduct this systematic review. A search of databases like PubMed, ScienceDirect and Epistemonikos was done. The articles focusing on postmortem sample studies involving full autopsies, minimally invasive autopsies and tissue biopsy studies were screened and searched. The studies included were all the case reports, case series, narrative reviews and systematic reviews obtained in full text and in the English language containing study information, and samples obtained postmortem. The information obtained was tabulated using Microsoft excel sheets. The duplicates were removed at the beginning of the tabulation. Zotero referencing software was used for article sorting and citation and bibliography. Two authors independently reviewed the articles throughout the process to prevent bias. Adding to the heterogeneity of COVID19, the concept of lethality in preexisting disease conditions, the occurrence of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, and other pathogenetic mechanisms uniquely encountered are to be considered in treating the patients. Also, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 postmortem is established and should be considered a hazard.
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
       
  • Forensic odontology and dental age estimation research: a scoping review a
           decade after the NAS report on strengthening forensic science

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      Abstract: Dental age estimation (DAE) is one of the most reliable and useful scientific methods employed by forensic odontology (FO) for human identification. In 2009, the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report highlighted the need to deepen research in many disciplines, among which FO received strong criticism for specific expertise. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview in order to systematically map the latest original research done in FO, as well as identify DAE within this field. A systematic search was performed from 2014 to 2019. In total, 644 studies were identified for qualitative analysis: DAE was the most studied topic (41.30%). Asia was the most productive continent with 58.27% of the global production on DAE; India was the most productive Asian country, with 32.33% and 55.48% of global and Asian production, respectively. The University of Macerata (Italy), KU Leuven (Belgium), University of Split (Croatia), and University of São Paulo (Brazil) led DAE research.
      Authors from leading countries on DAE research demonstrated great individual productivity, which is evidence of their scientific efforts, but also possible risks if the continuity of this line of research depends on them. Although FO has significantly focused its research on DAE, the absence of publications on controversial topics but necessary for research according to the NAS report shows the possible lack of interest of authors or journals to address them.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • A comparative autopsy study of the injury distribution and severity
           between suicidal and accidental high falls

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      Abstract: Abstract Falls are the second cause of accidental deaths worldwide. Falls from height are also a common method of suicide. The aim of this study is to compare the characteristics of the victims, the circumstances of the fall and the severity and distribution of the injuries reported in an autopsy case series of falls from height. This study is a retrospective analysis of consecutive autopsy cases of suicidal and accidental falls from height which were investigated in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens during the period 2011–2019. The recorded variables included demographic data of the victim, height of fall, length of hospital stay, toxicological results, the existence and location of injuries and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Victims of suicidal falls were younger (55.53 vs. 62.98, p = 0.001), they fell from higher heights (12.35 vs. 5.18 m, p < 0.001), and they sustained more severe injuries compared with victims of accidental falls (ISS 51.01 vs. 40.88, p < 0.001). Injuries in the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower extremities were more frequently observed after a suicidal fall (93.6% vs. 67.3%, 72.1% vs. 21.4%, 72.1% vs. 27.6%, 42.9% vs. 15.3%, 45.7% vs. 13.3%, respectively-p < 0.001), probably due to the higher height of fall. Our study outlines the differences in the profile of the victims and in the severity of injuries caused by falls from height depending on the intention of the victim to fall. However, a distinctive injury pattern in victims of suicidal falls was not demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
       
  • Author Correction: Review of autopsy reports of deaths relating to fire in
           South Australia 2000–2015

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      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Histological changes in lingual striated muscle tissue of human cadavers
           to estimate the postmortem interval

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      Abstract: Abstract Although there are physiological methods to determine the postmortem interval (PMI), interval forensic histopathology can be applied to obtain accuracy. The aim was to describe the histological changes in human lingual striated musculature at different PMI. Seven groups were formed according to increasing PMI of 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h postmortem (PM). Each group was made up of 16 samples of tongues from each cadaver. The samples were fixed in buffered formaldehyde at 10% and processed for embedding in paraplast. Section 5 μm thick were cut and dyed with H&E for analysis. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. The histological changes in the striated muscle cells of the tongue were associated with the different PMI. From 6 to 24 h PM, there were initial changes in the cellular and nuclear morphology. At 48 h PM, at least 50% of the samples presented poorly conserved and reduced muscle striations. At 72 h PM, 100% of the cases presented myofibers with altered morphology, cytoplasmic vacuoles (93.75%), edema (68.55%) and pyknosis (93.75%). At 96 and 120 h PM, the myofibers presented pyknotic nuclei, and they were absent in the rest. The changes in the histology of the human lingual striated muscle make it possible to estimate the PMI, either in the early phase (0—72 h) or the late phase (92–120 h). However, further research is needed to verify, refine and expand on these results.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
       
  • Could herbal soup be a potentially unrecognized cause of hepatotoxicity at
           autopsy'

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      Abstract: Abstract Unexpected hepatic failure with liver necrosis is sometimes encountered during a forensic autopsy. Determining the etiology may sometimes be difficult, although increasingly herbal medicines are being implicated. To determine whether such effects might also be caused by foodstuffs, the following in vitro study was undertaken. Four formulations of traditional herbal soup advertised as bak kut teh were prepared and added to cultures of liver carcinoma cells (HepG2). Cell viability was assessed using an MTT colorimetric assay at 48 h demonstrating that all formulations had significant toxicity prior to dilution (p < 0.05). Formulation #1 showed 21% cell death (p = 0.023), Formulation #2 30% (p = 0.009), and Formulation #3 41% (p < 0.0001). Formulations #1–3 showed no significant toxicity once diluted (p > 0.05). Formulation 4 showed approximately 83% cell death before dilution (p < 0.0001) and persistent toxicity even with dilutions at 1:10 (15% ± 3.7, p = 0.023) and 1:1000 (14% ± 3.8, p = 0.024). This study has shown that herbal foodstuffs such as bak kut teh may be responsible for variable degrees of in vitro hepatotoxicity, thus extending the range of herbal products that may be potentially injurious to the liver. If unexpected liver damage is encountered at autopsy, information on possible recent ingestion of herbal food preparations should be sought, as routine toxicology screening will not identify the active components. Liver damage may therefore be caused not only by herbal medicines but possibly by herbal products contained in food.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
       
  • Vaginal injuries after consensual sexual intercourse — a survey among
           office-based gynecologists in Hamburg, Germany

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      Abstract: Abstract Studies on the occurrence of injuries following consensual sexual intercourse (CSI) among patients treated by office-based gynecologists are lacking. This survey aimed to assess the presence and medical relevance of vaginal injuries after CSI in gynecological office-based practice, associated risk factors, and their significance for forensic medical assessment practice. All office-based gynecologists in Hamburg, Germany (n = 316), were asked to fill in a one-page questionnaire via a fax survey. The questionnaire covered various aspects such as having observed CSI-related injuries, injury severity, risk factors, and concomitant factors (bleeding, need for surgical care, hospitalization). Response rate was 43.2% (n = 115). Overall, 83.5% of office-based gynecologists reported having observed vaginal injuries after CSI at least once and 59.1% repeatedly. Regarding maximum injury severity, 52.1% observed mucosal erosions, 32.3% mucosa penetrating injuries, and 14.6% injuries penetrating the vagina. Having observed bleeding was reported by 56.3%, 28.1% had to perform surgical suture care, and hospital admission was initiated by 20.8%. Menopause (37.5%), use of objects (19.8%), alcohol, and/or drug use (16.7%) were reported as the most frequently observed associated risk factors. Vaginal injuries after CSI have been observed by the majority of office-based gynecologists in Hamburg involving a wide spectrum of severity, including the necessity of surgical care and hospital admission. Complementing published work in clinical and emergency medicine, these findings are highly relevant to the forensic evaluation of injuries in an allegation of sexual assault, as the severity of a vaginal injury in this setting does not necessarily support a conclusion on the issue of consent.
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
       
  • Patterned injuries from screwdrivers

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      Abstract: Abstract A 40-year-old man was stabbed multiple times with a cross-tipped, Phillips head screwdriver with many of the puncture wounds characterized by a cruciate pattern consistently measuring approximately 5 × 5 mm corresponding to the shape of the weapon. Death was due to a single penetrating wound to the chest that had transfixed the aorta. This report characterizes the features of injuries that may be inflicted by Phillips head screwdrivers, contrasting this with injuries that may occur if the weapon is a flat or slotted head screwdriver. Given their ready availability, ease of handling, and sharpness, screwdrivers are surprisingly rarely used in fatal assaults.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • Fatal intoxication with new synthetic cannabinoids 5F-MDMB-PICA and
           4F-MDMB-BINACA—parent compounds and metabolite identification in blood,
           urine and cerebrospinal fluid

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      Abstract: Abstract Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) remain one of the largest groups of new psychoactive substances. Recently, new synthetic cannabinoids 5F-MDMB-PICA and 4F-MDMB-BINACA are increasing in popularity. A 33-year-old man lost consciousness after smoking an unknown substance. A glass pipe and two lumps of substance that turned out to contain 5F-MDMB-PICA and 4F-MDMB-BINACA were found at the scene. Blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid were collected during the examination of the body. The synthetic cannabinoids were isolated from autopsy materials by precipitation with acetonitrile and extraction with ethyl acetate. The screening and quantitative analyses were performed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–Q/TOF) technique was used for metabolite identification. 5F-MDMB-PICA was detected and quantified in all analysed materials, whereas 4F-MDMB-BINACA was found only in cerebrospinal fluid. The determined concentrations of 5F-MDMB-PICA were 0.9 (blood), 0.1 (urine) and 3.2 ng/mL (cerebrospinal fluid). The concentration of 4F-MDMB-BINACA in cerebrospinal fluid was 0.1 ng/mL. The main metabolites of both compounds (hydrolysis and oxidative defluorination) were found in all analysed body fluids. Cerebrospinal fluid may be important alternative material in autopsy cases. Rapid elimination of 5F-MDMB-PICA and 4F-MDMB-BINACA compounds also means that the metabolite analysis can be crucial for the investigation. Laboratories must be made aware of their presence and incorporate these SCs and their metabolites into workflows for detection and confirmation. Ester hydrolysis and oxidative defluorination products can be found in blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid making them useful biomarkers of intake.
      PubDate: 2022-06-14
       
 
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