Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 281)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 312)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 410)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.645
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-9869 - ISSN (Online) 0928-1371
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Violent and Nonviolent Terrorist Suspects: a Comparative Analysis Based on
           Data from the Netherlands

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      Abstract: What are similarities and differences between violent and nonviolent terrorist suspects' Our study aims to answer this question by comparing violent terrorist suspects (VTS) (n = 57) to nonviolent terrorist suspects (NVTS) (n = 292) in the Netherlands. Guided by social control theories and using register data from the Dutch Public Prosecution Service, Statistics Netherlands, and the Research and Documentation Centre of the Ministry of Justice and Security, we investigated the 2 years leading up to the terrorist suspicion by examining demographic characteristics, household composition, socioeconomic factors, and criminal background. Findings demonstrate more similarities than differences between the groups. Nonetheless, VTS were significantly more often male and had more often a (violent) criminal background. For NVTS, we found possible preventive effects of living with parents and employment. Furthermore, the differences in socioeconomic status (SES) we found urge us to develop a better understanding of the socioeconomic environment VTS and NVTS are part of and whether and how their perception of this environment influences their behavior. Notwithstanding the limitations in our study (e.g., potential police bias in register data, small sample sizes), the analyses provide insight into what factors, and potential underlying mechanisms, need further investigation to understand violent and nonviolent outcomes.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Punishment in Slovenia: Seventy Years of Penal Policy Development

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      Abstract: This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of penal policy in Slovenia in the last 70 years, providing an analysis of statistical data on crime, conviction, and prison populations. After a sharp political and penal repression in the first years after World War II, penal and prison policy began paving the way to a unique “welfare sanction system”, grounded in ideas of prisoners’ treatment. After democratic reforms in the early 1990s, the criminal legislation became harsher, but Slovenia managed to avoid the general punitive trends characterized by the era of penal state and culture of control. The authoritarian socialist regime at its final stage had supported the humanization of the penal system, and this trend continued in the first years of the democratic reforms in the 1990s, but it lost its momentum after 2000. In the following two decades, Slovenia experienced a continuous harshening of criminal law and sanctions on the one hand and an increasing prison population rate on the other. From 2014 onwards, however, there was a decrease in all segments of penal statistics. The findings of the study emphasize the exceptionalism of Slovenian penal policy, characterized by penal moderation, which is the product of the specific local historical, political, economic, and normative developments.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • EU Harmonisation of Norms Regulating Detention: Is EU Competence (Art.
           82(2)b TFEU) Fit for Purpose'

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      Abstract: The EU has acquired the competence to harmonise individual rights in the field of criminal procedure (Art. 82(2)b TFEU). This was hailed as a positive development helping redress the unbalance towards a too security-oriented development of the Area of Freedom Security and Justice. This article discusses the breath of this competence and designs an analytical framework illustrating what requirements need taking into account to legitimate EU regulatory action in the field of detention. It argues that the wording of the provision, especially its utilitarian framing, strongly limits its potential for the EU to act in at least two areas, compensation for unjust detention and material detention conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
       
  • Upholding Fundamental Rights in National Arrest Warrant Proceedings in
           Practice: a Need for Third Level of Judicial Protection'

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      Abstract: The European Commission has repeatedly attempted to introduce EU legislation on pre-trial detention but has so far met with an overwhelming reluctance of Member States to address the issue. The latest initiative proposes to adopt an EU recommendation on the rights and conditions in pre-trial detention. This article seeks to highlight gaps in the protection of fundamental rights in national arrest warrant proceedings and whether standards on pre-trial detention alone will offer a solution for the full protection of fundamental rights in a cross-border context. It draws the link between the national arrest warrant, the EAW and the responsibility of the issuing state to guarantee the legality and validity of the national arrest warrant. The article finds that currently, compliance of judicial decision-making with the existing ECHR standards on pre-trial detention cannot be presumed in practice. This compliance also cannot be verified in an adversarial and equal judicial process until after the requested person has been surrendered. In the absence of a judicial process to challenge the legality of a national arrest warrant before the execution of an EAW, protection of the requested person’s rights and access to an effective remedy remains problematic.
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Professionals’ Knowledge and Perceptions on Child Trafficking:
           Evidence from Portugal

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      Abstract: Children who have been trafficked may experience longer-term mental health consequences with a significant impact on all life domains. Key professionals must be prepared and adopt practices that help to prevent and fight child trafficking and the harm caused. This study aims to explore the current knowledge of professionals from Portugal on child trafficking and perceptions about their practices and skills. The sample consisted of 614 professionals from justice (47.1%), education (19.4%), social (18.9%), and health care (14.7%) areas who completed an online survey. Professionals were more knowledgeable about forms of exploitation and less about victims' profile. Professionals who had direct contact with and/or training in human trafficking presented more knowledge and positive perceptions about their practices and skills. This study aims to raise awareness and develop informed training programs based on professionals’ needs and challenges.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Towards a More Evidence-Based Risk Assessment for People in the Criminal
           Justice System: the Case of OxRec in the Netherlands

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      Abstract: Risk assessment tools are widely used throughout the criminal justice system to assist in making decisions about sentencing, supervision, and treatment. In this article, we discuss several methodological and practical limitations associated with risk assessment tools currently in use. These include variable predictive performance due to the exclusion of important background predictors; high costs, including the need for regular staff training, in order to use many tools; development of tools using suboptimal methods and poor transparency in how they create risk scores; included risk factors being based on dated evidence; and ethical concerns highlighted by legal scholars and criminologists, such as embedding systemic biases and uncertainty about how these tools influence judicial decisions. We discuss the potential that specific predictors, such as living in a deprived neighbourhood, may indirectly select for individuals in racial or ethnic minority groups. To demonstrate how these limitations and ethical concerns can be addressed, we present the example of OxRec, a risk assessment tool used to predict recidivism for individuals in the criminal justice system. OxRec was developed in Sweden and has been externally validated in Sweden and the Netherlands. The advantages of OxRec include its predictive accuracy based on rigorous multivariable testing of predictors, transparent reporting of results and the final model (including how the probability score is derived), scoring simplicity (i.e. without the need for additional interview), and the reporting of a wide range of performance measures, including those of discrimination and calibration, the latter of which is rarely reported but a key metric. OxRec is intended to be used alongside professional judgement, as a support for decision-making, and its performance measures need to be interpreted in this light. The reported calibration of the tool in external samples clearly suggests no systematic overestimation of risk, including in large subgroups.
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • Intimate Partner Homicide Against Women Typology: Risk Factor Interaction
           in Spain

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      Abstract: This investigation studied the interaction between seven risk factors included in the police risk assessment of the VioGén System and found that these factors formed groups based on the dimensions of violence and psychopathology. The 171 femicides analysed were categorised into four groups: normalised (23.4%), violent (25.7%), pathological (18.7%), and pathological/violent (32.2%). These groups exhibited significant differences concerning their psychosocial profile and relationship dynamics. One of the main findings is the identification of the pathological type that had not been detected in previous typologies, thus highlighting the importance of the psychological factor when classifying the perpetrators of femicide. These results have important practical implications, as the classification of the aggressor could be a preliminary step taken before the risk assessment, which would make it possible to individualise predictions and improve the protection of the victims as well as the therapies and intervention programmes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • Pretrial Detention and Incarceration Decisions for Foreign Nationals: a
           Mixed-Methods Approach

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      Abstract: An increase in the mobility of persons across national borders coincides with an overrepresentation of foreign nationals in the penal systems of Western Europe, though this phenomenon is not yet well understood. This paper positions itself at the intersection of migration and criminology by examining citizenship disparities in pretrial detention and whether said disparities affect incarceration outcomes. Leveraging a mixed-methods strategy, we make use of individual-level criminal case and interview data from the Netherlands. Our quasi-experimental quantitative analyses show significant and substantive differences in the assignment of pretrial detention to foreign citizens, which affects the risk of future incarceration. Our interviews reveal that citizenship disparities manifest themselves through multiple mechanisms: (i) foreign defendants are viewed as flight risks, (ii) fewer non-prison sanctions are assigned in cases involving foreign defendants, and (iii) pretrial detention is seen as an efficient method for punishment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
       
  • Examining the Role of Legal Culture as a Protective Factor Against High
           Rates of Pre-trial Detention: the Case of Ireland

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      Abstract: Ireland has a comparatively low pre-trial detention rate by European standards, at around 14 pre-trial detainees per 100,000 population. This article seeks to explore one factor which may explain a lower use of pre-trial detention in Ireland: its legal culture. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with judges, prosecution lawyers, defence lawyers and probation staff, the article finds that the constitutional protection of the right to bail (the key alternative to pre-trial detention in Ireland), an enduring legal tradition which historically prohibited the use of a risk of offending ground, and shared views and assumptions about the objectives of pre-trial detention hearings amongst judges, prosecution and defence lawyers, have influenced how such actors engage in the decision-making process about the use of pre-trial detention. The article argues that more attention needs to be given to the role of legal culture to examine why detention rates differ across Europe.
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
       
  • Predicting Recidivism Risk Meets AI Act

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      Abstract: Quantitative recidivism risk assessment can be used at the pretrial detention, trial, sentencing, and / or parole stage in the justice system. It has been criticized for what is measured, whether the predictions are more accurate than those made by humans, whether it creates or increases inequality and discrimination, and whether it compromises or violates other aspects of fairness. This criticism becomes even more topical with the arrival of the Artificial Intelligence (AI) Act. This article identifies and applies the relevant rules of the proposed AI Act in relation to quantitative recidivism risk assessment. It does so by focusing on the proposed rules for the quality of the data and the models used, on biases, and on the human oversight. It is concluded that legislation may consider requiring providers of high-risk AI systems to demonstrate that their solution performs significantly better than risk assessments based on simple models, and better than human assessment. Furthermore, there is no single answer to evaluate the performance of quantitative recidivism risk assessment tools that are or may be deployed in practice. Finally, three approaches of human oversight are discussed to correct for the negative effects of quantitative risk assessment: the optional, benchmark, and feedback approach.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • The Prevalence, Directionality, and Dyadic Perpetration Types of Intimate
           Partner Violence in a Community Sample in Portugal: a Gender-Inclusive
           Inquiry

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      Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major concern across the world, and its prevalence assessment has been a priority in numerous countries. However, data about IPV prevalence in Portugal is scarce and not up-to-date. This study aims to estimate IPV prevalence in Portugal. A community sample of 1392 adults (77.4% female, mean age = 34.95 years, SD = 12.80) was collected through a web-based survey, between March and June of 2020. Participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Conflict Tactic Scales-2 (CTS-2). Accounting for all forms of IPV, a past-year prevalence of 64.4% and 64.6% were found, for victimization and perpetration, respectively. Regarding gender or sexual orientation, no significant differences were found in the past-year or the lifetime prevalence, neither concerning frequency. Directionality and dyadic concordance types were analyzed and showed that most violence was bidirectional. Having perpetrated violence in previous intimate relationships was the most influential factor when predicting past-year perpetration or victimization. Other significant predictors were age, being victimized before 15 years old, cohabitation with the intimate partner, and drug use, but the last two were only significant for victimization. Findings support the idea that IPV is a relevant phenomenon, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. It is the first nationwide, gender-inclusive study to do so in Portugal. Studies based on different samples might provide important evidence to prevent hasty conclusions about IPV prevalence and patterns and to guide empirically driven policies.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
       
  • Risk Assessment—the Key to More Security' Factors, Tools, and
           Practices in Dealing with Extremist Individuals

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      Abstract: In recent years, risk assessments for violent extremism have attracted great interest from both scholars and practitioners, and many assessment tools have been developed. After a critical review of this development, the paper examines differences and similarities between the indicators of various violent extremist risk assessment tools and checklists. Based on an interview study with 34 experts in the field of Counter Violent Extremism and 24 (formerly) radicalized persons from the right-wing radical and Salafi-Jihadist spectrum, risk factors were identified and the findings merged and compared with already existing risk assessment tools. The paper will present results especially regarding the risk signals’ occurrence and applicability in the German context. One key finding is that existing assessment tools insufficiently take into account personal contacts in the radicalization process. Thus, the paper—based on the results of a social network analysis—draws attention to the potential and importance of networks. The paper concludes by outlining the potential of risk assessment, suggesting improvements, and raising awareness of the limits and deficits of these tools. The paper thus scientifically addresses the challenge of more security through efficient risk assessment and management. It offers a list of radicalization process characteristics (ARISNA: Assessment of Radicalized Individuals including Social Network Analysis), which is designed to help users analyze the risk of radicalization based on concrete traits of a person and their environment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • A Biographical Perspective on Processes of Radicalisation

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      Abstract: This article reconstructs four ideal types of biographical self-descriptions outlining radicalisation processes that are based on longitudinal biographical interviews conducted with male (former) right-wing extremists. In the first self-description, the biographers explain how they were born into radicalised families whose ideological norms and values they adopted without question. The second self-description outlines how the biographers’ actions were guided by a longing for stability and community. Initially, ideology plays a tangential role, with involvement in Kameradschaften and violence providing key momentum. In the third self-description, biographers refer to their German heritage and glorify National Socialism. They see themselves as guardians of the German Volk, and partly resort to violence to defend this idea. The fourth self-description outlines engagement with right-wing extremism as an outlet for frustrations with social discrimination. During our analysis, we examine whether any of these ideal types also correspond to self-descriptions given by Islamists, concluding that the latter do indeed describe their pathways into radicalisation in a similar manner.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Does democracy or personal freedom affect the flow and return of IS
           foreign fighters'

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      Abstract: A considerable number of foreign fighters who joined the Islamic State (IS) came from developed countries enjoying high levels of democracy and personal freedom. Even after the demise of the Islamic State, the IS “returnees” remain a source of severe security risk globally. Many countries, especially those with a considerable number of IS fighters and returnees, face the challenge of striking the right balance between protecting national security against IS terrorism and preserving fundamental democratic institutions. This paper examines the effect of democracy and personal freedom on foreign fighters joining IS in Syria and Iraq. We also examine whether democracy and/or personal freedom affect the fraction of IS fighters returning home. Whereas the effect of democracy appears to be inconclusive, our cross-country regressions show that countries with a higher level of personal freedom (i) had a significantly larger fraction of their population joining IS, and (ii) receive a significantly larger percentage share of returning IS fighters. Our results are robust across different model specifications and account for possible collinearity concerns.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Social Welfare and ISIS Foreign Fighters

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      Abstract: We provide empirical support for a positive relationship between social safety spending and the phenomenon of ISIS foreign fighters, particularly among OECD countries. We argue that the problem with social safety spending is not its abuse by recipients but the way it is distributed. When examining the nature of social safety spending, we find that OECD countries that prioritize passive rather than active labor market programs have, on average, proportionally more ISIS foreign fighters. We conclude that social safety spending that supports socioeconomic immobility is significantly associated with radicalization and terrorism.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The Use of Facial Recognition Technology by Law Enforcement in Europe: a
           Non-Orwellian Draft Proposal

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      Abstract: The European legal framework is not devoid of norms that are directly or indirectly applicable to facial recognition technology for identification purposes within law enforcement. However, these various norms, which have different targets and are from multiple sources, create a kind of legal patchwork that could undermine the lawful use of this technology in criminal investigations. This paper advocates the creation of a specific law on the use of facial recognition technology for identification in law enforcement, based on existing regulations, to specifically address the pressing issues arising in this domain. The ultimate aim is to allow its use under certain conditions and to protect the rights of the people involved, but also to provide law enforcement authorities with the necessary tools to combat serious crimes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Pathways to School Shooting Subculture: Re-thinking Theory Across Strain,
           Imitation, and Digital Mediation

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      Abstract: Since the Columbine High School-massacre, the world continues to witness school shootings. The current state of research presents us with nuanced categories for understanding the phenomenon, such as the school shooters’ use of media, their psychological features, and their intentions. Similarly, the discussion of preventive measures is equally bountiful. While there are a number of empirical studies that are related to digitalization, a gap in how we theorize the meaning of digitalization persists. Our aim is to provide an integrated synthesis needed for understanding school shootings in the digital era. Via a narrative literature review, we identified three explanatory themes, namely strain, imitation, and digital mediation. These were synthesized in order to explain more thoroughly how individuals come to participate in online school shooting subculture, possibly leading to their perpetration of school shootings. Based on this, a model is presented that excels in its focus on the ever more prominent role of digitality in everyday life as well as in its broad social science and behavioral explanations. Finally, the article provides potential venues for further research along with prevention strategies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10610-022-09513-x
       
  • Linguistic Radicalisation of Right-Wing and Salafi Jihadist Groups in
           Social Media: a Corpus-Driven Lexicometric Analysis

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      Abstract: Social media groups, for example on Facebook, WhatsApp or Telegram, allow for direct exchange, communication and interaction, as well as networking of different individuals worldwide. Such groups are also used to spread propaganda and thus allow for self-radicalisation or mutual radicalisation of their members. The article reports selected results from a research project analysing online communication processes of extremist groups. Based on data from group discussions in social media, corpus linguistic analyses were carried out, examining quantitative relationships between individual lexical elements and occurring regularities. To this end, four different corpora were built. These consist of data collected in right-wing and Salafi jihadist groups of a low or medium radicalisation level on Facebook and VKontakte via fake profiles, and of group communication in forums, messenger apps and social networks of highly radicalised persons, which were extracted from files of (e.g. terrorism) cases prosecuted in Germany. Quantitative linguistic analyses of social media data continue to be challenging due to the heterogeneity of the data as well as orthographic and grammatical errors. Nevertheless, it was possible to identify phenomenon specific sociolects that point to different levels of linguistic radicalisation. Based on the results of the analyses, the article discusses the prospects, problems and pitfalls of lexicometric analyses of online communication, especially as a tool for understanding radicalisation processes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10610-022-09509-7
       
  • More Than a Glance: Investigating the Differential Efficacy of
           Radicalizing Graphical Cues with Right-Wing Messages

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      Abstract: In recent years, online radicalization has received increasing attention from researchers and policymakers, for instance, by analyzing online communication of radical groups and linking it to individual and collective pathways of radicalization into violent extremism. But these efforts often focus on radical individuals or groups as senders of radicalizing messages, while empirical research on the recipient is scarce. To study the impact of radicalized online content on vulnerable individuals, this study compared cognitive and affective appraisal and visual processing (via eye tracking) of three political Internet memes (empowering a right-wing group, inciting violence against out-groups, and emphasizing unity among human beings) between a right-wing group and a control group. We examined associations between socio-political attitudes, appraisal ratings, and visual attention metrics (total dwell time, number of fixations). The results show that right-wing participants perceived in-group memes (empowerment, violence) more positively and messages of overarching similarities much more negatively than controls. In addition, right-wing participants and participants in the control group with a high support for violence directed their attention towards graphical cues of violence (e.g., weapons), differentness, and right-wing groups (e.g., runes), regardless of the overall message of the meme. These findings point to selective exposure effects and have implications for the design and distribution of de-radicalizing messages and counter narratives to optimize the efficacy of prevention of online radicalization.
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10610-022-09508-8
       
  • Radicalization in Adolescence: the Identification of Vulnerable Groups

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      Abstract: Given that the normative search for identity and belonging, as well as political socialization, plays an important role during adolescence, this life stage is characterized by high vulnerability to radicalization processes. When investigating the influence of different factors on radicalization processes, latent profile analysis can identify and analyze groups of adolescents with different vulnerabilities. Based on a sample of 6,715 ninth-graders from Germany, we identified six latent classes with specific vulnerabilities to right-wing attitudes as one possible outcome of radicalization. The results show that the class with the highest approval of right-wing statements mainly consists of male adolescents with a high sense of relative disadvantage and social deprivation. Specific family ties constitute a unique feature among those who are indifferent in their attitudes.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10610-022-09505-x
       
 
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