Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 375)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 374)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 415)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 299)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Criminal Justice and Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.426
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 60  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0093-8548 - ISSN (Online) 1552-3594
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • An Open Source Virtual Reality Training Framework for the Criminal Justice
           System

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      Authors: Hermann Barbe, Jürgen L. Müller, Bruno Siegel, Peter Fromberger
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      We developed an open-source training framework to practice conversation skills in a controlled and immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. Virtual characters with different biographies were developed with which a conversation using natural language is possible. The virtual characters integrate a dialog management system (ChatScript) to provide different biographical memories. Natural language processing for the German language is integrated by using Kaldi, an open-source speech recognition toolkit. As the framework allows for interchangeable content there are many different possible application cases to apply within the criminal justice system. The VR frameworks code is available under an open-source license. In this article, an overview of the framework’s functionality is given as well as an outlook on possible areas of application. Statements about user acceptance and usability cannot yet be made, as relevant data have first to be gathered through a concrete application case.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-09-16T12:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221124128
       
  • Mental Health of Incarcerated Veterans and Civilians: Latent Class
           Analysis of the 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates

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      Authors: Emily R. Edwards, Ashley L. Greene, Gabriella Epshteyn, Molly Gromatsky, Adam R. Kinney, Ryan Holliday
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from the 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates, this study used latent class analysis to examine patterns of mental health comorbidity within a large, nationally-representative sample of incarcerated adults (N = 24,848), including 7.6% with prior military service. Classes were compared on Veteran status, military service-related variables, and treatment-related variables. Results suggest four latent mental health patterns—“Low Psychopathology” (70% of the total sample), “Internalizing + Thought Disorder” (8%), “Internalizing” (14%), and “High Psychopathology” (8%). The High Psychopathology class had the highest rates of prior psychiatric/psychological treatment. Incarcerated Veterans were more likely to be in the Internalizing class, and rates of combat exposure, military service-related injury, and less-than-honorable military discharge were highest in Internalizing and High Psychopathology classes. Results attest to the importance of person-centered mental health care within correctional settings and suggest a “treatment track” or “step-based” approach may best address the needs of individuals in these settings.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-09-10T05:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221121142
       
  • Family Connect: The Pilot Test of a Cross-Systems Behavioral Health
           Treatment Referral and Linkage Intervention for Youth on Probation

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      Authors: Katherine S. Elkington, Gail Robson, Corianna E. Sichel, Jacqueline Lee, Gail A. Wasserman
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Despite high rates of substance use, youth involved in the juvenile justice system are unlikely to be linked to the treatment services they need. Family Connect is a flexible, family-focused, linkage intervention developed to address multilevel barriers and increase youth engagement in care through the introduction of a linkage specialist. We describe the components of Family Connect and present findings from the intervention pilot test comparing 18 youth–caregiver dyads to 95 historical controls on referral, attending intake and initiating treatment. Results indicated preliminary support for Family Connect as an approach to increase cross-systems linkage and access to behavioral health care. Findings also suggested support for the feasibility of the intervention and indicated that justice-involved youth and their caregivers found the intervention to be acceptable. In addition to discussing our findings in the context of recent justice reforms, and the importance of improving access to treatment, we make recommendations to inform a future trial of Family Connect.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-09-09T06:25:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221121130
       
  • Jail-Based Competency Restoration Services in the United States: The Need,
           the Controversy, the Impact of COVID-19, and Implications for Future
           Treatment Delivery

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      Authors: Douglas E. Lewis, Peter Ash, Victoria C. Roberts, Tomina J. Schwenke, Melvin Pagán-González, Glenn J. Egan
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Jail-based competency restoration largely emerged as a method to address the backlog at forensic hospitals around the United States, as the number of justice-involved persons in need of restoration outgrew available beds. Jail-based competency restoration units (JBCRUs) appear to be highly effective and cost-saving. However, after the COVID-19 outbreak, services at some JBCRUs were stalled, as providers were forced to either quickly initiate or ramp up technology use to maintain services. The present study describes the course of programming for a JBCRU in Fulton County, Georgia, prior to and after the onset of COVID-19, during which time all treatment shifted to telehealth. A matched comparison group of prepandemic defendants was used to compare in-person versus telehealth services and findings indicated that while defendants’ length of stay remained effectively the same, the restoration rate for telehealth increased remarkably over prepandemic levels (χ2 = 10.1, p = .001). Such findings suggest that telehealth services are an effective mode of delivery for competency restoration.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-09-01T08:58:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221120280
       
  • Unpacking the Association between Corporal Punishment and Criminal
           Involvement

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      Authors: Bridget Joyner, Kevin M. Beaver
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      A great deal of research has revealed a link between corporal punishment and negative life outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms that explain how and why these associations exist are not well understood. The current study extends this line of research by analyzing a longitudinal sample of high-risk male and female youth drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The analyses revealed that the use of corporal punishment was differentially used depending on certain parental behavioral characteristics. Even after accounting for such attributes, our models generally demonstrated that corporal punishment was associated with later criminal involvement. The models also revealed that the corporal punishment-criminal involvement link was dependent upon the relationship of the parent to the child being spanked. Our analyses additionally address the importance of proper model specification when examining the association between corporal punishment and later life outcomes. We conclude by discussing implications for future research.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T09:22:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221107874
       
  • The Consequences of School Suspension at Different Developmental Stages:
           The Relationships Between Age, Race, Suspension, and Justice-Related
           Outcomes

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      Authors: Abigail Novak
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      School suspension is associated with increases in delinquency and arrest and is disproportionality experienced by youth of color. Limited research has examined the outcomes of suspension experienced at different developmental stages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between suspension, delinquency, and arrest, as well as if and how these relationships differed among youth first suspended in childhood and youth first suspended in adolescence and whether suspension experiences differed by race/ethnicity. Results indicated that suspension was more likely to be experienced by Black and Hispanic youth. Results also indicated suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, and suspension in childhood and suspension in adolescence were associated with increases in arrest. Suspension in adolescence was associated with increases in delinquency, while suspension in childhood was associated with greater increases in arrest. Results suggest policy makers and practitioners should consider alternatives to suspension to prevent delinquency and arrest.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:31:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221107568
       
  • Juvenile Probation Officer Perceptions of Parental Involvement in Juvenile
           Probation and With Contingency Management

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      Authors: Sydney N. Ingel, Lynnea R. Davis, Danielle S. Rudes, Faye S. Taxman, Taylor N. Hartwell, Tess K. Drazdowski, Michael R. Mccart, Jason E. Chapman, Ashli J. Sheidow
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Probation is a common sanction for youth substance users, and as such, juvenile probation officers (JPOs) shoulder much of the burden for treatment and rehabilitation. To improve youth outcomes and alleviate some of the burden, JPOs may seek parental involvement in the probation and substance use desistance processes. Using focus group data, we analyzed JPO perceptions of the role parents play in contingency management (CM)—an incentive system designed to produce and reward decreased substance use—and whether they perceived any value in CM. We found that most JPOs perceived parental involvement as critical to the success of both substance use treatment and CM for youth. Our findings also suggest JPOs found parental involvement in CM valuable given that CM was employed on nonstudy clients and future clients. This has implications for the practicality and sustainability of CM as a youth probation intervention.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T06:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221106468
       
  • Increased Protection Versus the Cost of Increased Protection:
           Victimization and the Use of Protective Measures Against Identity Theft

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      Authors: Alexander J. Vanhee
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Most identity theft victims experience no personal monetary loss or other financial problems; rational choice theory suggests that this could lead people to not change their behavior, increasing their future risk of victimization. Consequently, the current study will investigate if and how the severity and incidence of identity theft affect individuals’ protective behavior using the 2016 Identity Theft Supplement (ITS) victimization survey. It uses ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to predict the number of protective measures practiced and multinomial logistic regression to predict self-reported motivation for use of protective measures. The results indicate that victims use more protective measures than nonvictims and that victimization has a greater impact if it occurs repeatedly and/or the victims personally lost money or experienced other financial problems. However, there is evidence of a threshold effect. The multinomial results indicate victims who lost money or experienced other financial problems are more likely to say they practice protective measures because of their victimization.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T09:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105824
       
  • The Role of Hate Crime Victimization, Fear of Victimization, and Vicarious
           Victimization in COVID-19-Related Depression

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      Authors: Marin R. Wenger, Brendan Lantz, Gabriella Gallardo
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      As the COVID-19 pandemic has spread and continued, much attention has been focused on the physical costs of the virus. That said, early research has also demonstrated an impact on mental health, including depression. At the same time, there has been a documented increase in hate crime victimization during the pandemic. Importantly, hate crime victimization—and fear of victimization—has also been demonstrated to increase depressive symptoms. Following this, we posit that hate crime victimization, and fear of victimization, may play a significant role in COVID-19-related depressive symptoms. We test these hypotheses using results from a sample of 3,117 participants who responded to a survey administered in May 2020. Results indicate that not only do a higher perceived personal risk of COVID and experiences with hate crime predict higher depressive symptoms but that hate crime experiences mediate the relationship between perceived risk of COVID and depressive symptoms.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T09:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221104738
       
  • Technical Violations and Their Effects on Pretrial/Bond Supervision
           Outcomes

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      Authors: Haley R. Zettler, Kelli D. Martin
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The use of pretrial and bond supervision commonly referred to as supervised release has increased over the last several decades due to burgeoning jail and prison populations. Much research has been conducted on these release mechanisms but has yet to examine the effects of types of technical violations on pretrial failure. The current study examined the effects of technical violations committed by individuals under a felony “bond” supervision program, which included both pretrial releasees and individuals being supervised on bond awaiting a probation revocation hearing, in a large metropolitan area. The results demonstrate while technical violations are associated with pretrial failure, the effects vary by violation type. Furthermore, the findings illustrate differences in risk factors for technical violations while on pretrial/bond supervision. Relevant policy implications of the research are provided.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T09:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221104021
       
  • A Preliminary Exploration of the Multimedia Principle’s Applicability
           for Improving Comprehension of Youth Interrogation Rights

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      Authors: Christopher J. Lively, Brent Snook, Kirk Luther, Meagan I. Mccardle, John C. House
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      We examined the extent to which presenting youth interrogation rights using different combinations of three multimedia elements (Animation, Audio, and Caption) improved comprehension. A 2 (Animation: Present, Absent) × 2 (Audio: Present, Absent) × 2 (Caption: Present, Absent) between-participants design was employed using samples of adults (Experiment 1: N = 207) and youth (Experiment 2: N = 193). Participants in both experiments were shown one of eight multimedia presentations and asked about their understanding of the presented youth interrogation rights. In both experiments, the multimedia presentation that contained animation and caption led to the highest level of comprehension. Implications of these findings for protecting youth and the use of technology during interrogations are discussed.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:14:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221093283
       
  • Changes in the Use of Telehealth Services and Use of Technology for
           Communication in U.S. Community Supervision Agencies Since COVID-19

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      Authors: Jill Viglione, Thuy Nyugen
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The U.S. community corrections system supervises and provides services for nearly 4.4 million individuals. This study explored agency responses during the COVID-19 pandemic using data from 347 surveys of community supervision directors. We examined whether agency and local geographical factors were associated with increased use of telehealth services for mental health, substance use disorders, and criminal behavior. We also assessed whether these factors were significant predictors of changes in agencies’ supervision strategies. Findings indicated a positive association between prepandemic access to telecommunications technology and use of telehealth services, with observed differences regarding urbanicity and type of agency. Agencies with more COVID-19 mitigation strategies tended to avoid in-person contact. Given the vast needs and increased risks present within the community supervision population, it is important to understand the barriers and facilitators associated with innovation and change in the post-COVID-19 era to inform future reform efforts.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T01:34:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221092976
       
  • Does Convenience Come with a Price' The Impact of Remote Testimony on
           Perceptions of Expert Credibility

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      Authors: Ashley C. T. Jones, Ashley B. Batastini, Meera B. Patel, Donald F. Sacco, Craig A. Warlick
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of the present study was to experimentally examine whether testimony modality leads to differences in perceptions of expert witnesses and their opinions. We hypothesized that simulated testimony delivered via phone would be perceived as less credible, efficacious, and assigned less weight than testimony delivered via videoconference or in-court. We recruited a sample of 275 U.S. men and women via Amazon Mechanical Turk. After viewing a videotaped mock court scenario depicting testimony by a forensic psychological expert witness, participants completed measures of expert credibility, efficacy, and expert social presence. A simple contrast multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed perceptions did not differ between in-court, videoconferencing, and phone testimony conditions. Higher social presence scores predicted more favorable perceptions of the expert. These findings provide clearer support for the continued implementation of remote videoconference testimony in courts. We offer recommendations on how to optimize the use of remote testimony based on the present study and previous findings.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-04-14T09:58:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221087177
       
  • Corrigendum to Trauma-Informed Interventions for At-Risk and
           Justice-Involved Youth: A Meta-Analysis

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      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T12:43:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221082405
       
  • Redesigning Juvenile Probation to Align With Behavioral Health and
           Positive Development Principles: A Quasi-Experimental Study

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      Authors: Kathryn A. Cunningham, Noah R. Gubner, Kristin Vick, Jerald R. Herting, Sarah C. Walker
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Science advisory boards and policy organizations have called for adolescent brain science to be incorporated into juvenile probation operations. To achieve this, Opportunity-Based Probation (OBP), a probation model that integrates knowledge of adolescent development and behavior change principles, was developed in collaboration with a local juvenile probation department. The current study compares outcomes (recidivism and probation violations) for youth in the OBP condition versus probation as usual. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) and coarsened exact matching (CEM) were used to estimate causal effects of OBP’s average treatment effect (ATE). Results indicated clear effects of OBP on reducing criminal legal referrals, but no significant effects were observed for probation violations. Overall, results provide promising recidivism-reduction effects in support of developmentally grounded redesigns of juvenile probation.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T10:58:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221082997
       
  • Virtual Reality Job Interview Training for Adults Receiving Prison-Based
           Employment Services: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility and Initial
           Effectiveness Trial

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      Authors: Matthew J. Smith, Brittani Parham, Jamie Mitchell, Shannon Blajeski, Meghan Harrington, Brittany Ross, Jeffery Johnson, Daphne M. Brydon, Jennifer E. Johnson, Gary S. Cuddeback, Justin D. Smith, Morris D. Bell, Robert Mcgeorge, Kyle Kaminski, Aaron Suganuma, Sheryl Kubiak
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Returning citizens struggle to obtain employment after release from prison and navigating job interviews is a critical barrier they encounter. Implementing evidence-based interview training is a major gap in prison-based vocational services. We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the feasibility and initial effectiveness of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) within two prisons. Forty-four male returning citizens were randomized to receive service-as-usual (SAU) with VR-JIT (SAU + VR-JIT, n = 28) or SAU (n = 16). Participants reported VR-JIT was highly acceptable and usable. SAU + VR-JIT, compared with SAU, had significant improvements (with large effect sizes) in interview skills, interview training motivation, and interview anxiety (all p < .05; [math]> .15), and greater employment by 6-month follow-up (odds ratio [OR] = 7.4, p = .045). VR-JIT can potentially help fill a major gap in prison-based services. Future research is needed to validate VR-JIT effectiveness and evaluate VR-JIT implementation strategies within prisons.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T07:22:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221081447
       
  • CORRIGENDUM to “The Utility of SAPROF-YV Ratings for Predicting
           Recidivism in Male Youth under Community Supervision in Singapore”

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      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-02-05T04:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548211062751
       
  • Evaluation of a Peer-Facilitated Trauma Intervention for Incarcerated Men

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      Authors: Nena Messina
      First page: 1399
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      This pilot study examined a peer-facilitated trauma-focused intervention among 624 incarcerated men (Exploring Trauma). Pre- and postintervention data were collected on trauma-related mental health symptoms, aggression, and anger. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvement in trauma-related symptoms relative to pretreatment functioning and demonstrated support for the feasibility of peer-facilitation. Effect sizes were small to moderate, with the largest impact on current traumatic distress, depression, and anxiety (Cohen’s d = .54, .48, .46, respectively). The mixed-effects regression results showed the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on outcomes was strong and cumulative (i.e., greater exposure to ACEs increased the likelihood of participant program gain on mental health and aggression symptoms, ranging from .15 to .77). The findings showed that trauma can be safely addressed in corrections and provide promising support for peer-facilitation with training and oversight. Rigorous studies are needed on the impact of trauma-informed services and models of program delivery.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T05:54:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221093280
       
  • The Moderating Role of Incarcerated Mothers’ Psychosocial Functioning on
           the Association Between Maternal Sensitivity and Their Co-Residing
           Toddlers’ Attachment

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      Authors: Zülal İşcanoğlu
      First page: 1437
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The role of incarcerated mothers’ caregiving quality on their co-residing children’s development may not be fully understood without considering mothers’ psychosocial functioning. The current study aims to investigate the moderating role of incarcerated mothers’ psychosocial functioning (i.e., relationship with their outside children’s caregivers, psychological symptoms, and social support) on the associations between maternal sensitivity and their co-residing children’s attachment. The study sample consisted of 68 mothers and their 12- to 43-month-old co-residing children. Maternal sensitivity and child’s attachment were assessed based on a semi-structured mother–child interaction observation. Mothers reported their psychosocial functioning indicators that were determined based on the common distress factors that these mothers experience. Findings suggest that for the mothers who have the lowest relationship quality with their outside children’s caregivers, maternal sensitivity negatively predicts children’s disorganized attachment. Moreover, maternal sensitivity predicted children’s secure attachment positively and anxious attachment negatively only when maternal psychological symptoms were higher.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T01:06:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221082655
       
  • Psychopathy and Risky Sexual Behavior in Incarcerated Women

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      Authors: Amanda M. Cook, J. Michael Maurer, Brooke L. Reynolds, Carla L. Harenski, Kent A. Kiehl
      First page: 1456
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      To date, very few studies have explored the association between psychopathic traits and risky sexual behavior (RSB) among women. Here, we investigated this relationship in a sample of 137 incarcerated women. Psychopathic traits were assessed via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) and lifetime RSB measures, including number of lifetime sexual partners, frequency of engaging in sexual intercourse while intoxicated, and frequency of forgoing protection (e.g., condom usage) during sexual intercourse, were assessed through self-report. PCL-R Facet 3 scores (assessing lifestyle psychopathic traits) were associated with an increased frequency of engaging in sexual intercourse while intoxicated. In addition, women scoring high on the PCL-R were more likely to engage in sexual intercourse while intoxicated compared with a previously collected sample of men scoring high on the PCL-R. The results obtained in the current study help improve our understanding of the association between psychopathic traits and RSB among women.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:36:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105057
       
  • “The Prison System Doesn’t Make It Comfortable to Visit”: Prison
           Visitation From the Perspectives of People Incarcerated and Family Members
           

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      Authors: Breanna Boppre, Dana Dehart, Cheri J. Shapiro
      First page: 1474
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      While extensive research documents the causes and impacts of incarceration, the effects on families are under discussion. Prison visitation is one mechanism to help families communicate and bond, yet the institutions and restrictive policies often create distinct barriers and stressors. This qualitative descriptive study examines experiences and perceptions of visitation through focus groups with 77 people incarcerated and interviews with 21 family members in one southeastern U.S. state. Using thematic analysis, three major themes were developed through qualitative coding of participants’ responses: financial and time-related burdens, stress from rules and regulations, and familial interactions. Our findings highlight that although visitation can help maintain social bonds among families, the barriers, processes, and procedures overshadow the visit itself. The weight of such stressors is especially felt by immediate family members and women who visit. The findings are discussed in light of implications for correctional policy and future visitation research.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T09:29:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221094823
       
  • Is Reduced Visitation a Collateral Consequence of Restrictive Housing'

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      Authors: Claudia N. Anderson, Joshua C. Cochran, John Wooldredge
      First page: 1495
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Theory and logic suggest that placement in restrictive housing (RH) may affect prison visitation, which may be counterproductive given the potential benefits of visitation. The goal of this paper is to examine the potential correspondence between RH and visitation. We use data on incarcerated people in Ohio to conduct two related analyses. One analysis assesses whether the first incident of short-term disciplinary segregation impacts prison visits shortly after segregation. The second analysis examines longitudinal patterns of RH stays and visits to understand the interplay of the two throughout a prison term. Findings suggest that disciplinary segregation might reduce the odds of visitation immediately. RH early in a prison term may also operate to “cut off” future visitation. These results highlight an important knowledge gap and suggest that more research is needed that disentangles how RH may lead to the dissolution of social ties. Implications for research are discussed.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:27:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105238
       
  • Work in Long-Term Restrictive Housing and Prison Personnel Perceptions of
           the Humanity of People Who Are Incarcerated

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      Authors: Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, Vivian Aranda-Hughes, Jennifer M. Brown
      First page: 1516
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The punitive era in the United States and other countries has included reliance on long-term restrictive housing (LTRH)—consisting of solitary confinement with few privileges—as a means of managing violent and disruptive individuals in prison. We examine how work in such housing may influence how personnel, including officers and staff, view individuals in prison and assess two hypotheses. First, those who work in LTRH will be more likely to hold a dehumanized view of these individuals. Second, the theoretical mechanisms through which such a view may arise involve brutalization, organizational context and culture, role conflict and distancing, and empathy fatigue. We assess these hypotheses using a mixed-methods study, analyzing data from a large-scale prison personnel survey (n = 9,656) and qualitative focus group and interview data (n = 144). Implications of the study’s findings for theory and research on restrictive housing, corrections, and the punitive era are discussed.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T04:32:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221104980
       
  • Criminal History, Race, and Housing Type: An Experimental Audit of Housing
           Outcomes

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      Authors: Peter Leasure, R. Caleb Doyle, Hunter M. Boehme, Gary Zhang
      First page: 1536
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Although there are a number of experimental studies showing that private housing can be difficult to secure for those with criminal history, many issues in this area remain unexplored or underexplored. The goal of the current study was to address the following unexplored or underexplored issues: (a) the impact of various types of multiple conviction records on private housing outcomes, including one that possessed a certificate of relief; (b) racial differences in private housing outcomes; (c) the impact of housing type on private housing outcomes; and (d) the impact of a criminal record, race, and housing type interaction on private housing outcomes. This goal was achieved with the use of a field experiment (correspondence audit). Results showed several statistically and substantively significant differences among the criminal record, race, and housing type conditions. These results can be used to better inform individuals with criminal history who are seeking private housing options.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T01:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221082086
       
  • Well-Being in Frontline Correctional Officers: A Mixed-Method Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Olivia Miller, Dagmar Bruenig, Jane Shakespeare-Finch
      First page: 1559
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Correctional officers (COs) work in high-stress environments, frequently experience critical incidents and have shown high levels of burnout. The current review synthesizes and evaluates literature on determinants of CO well-being. The review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for mixed-method systematic reviews. Eligible studies measured subjective or psychological well-being in frontline COs. Studies of disorder absence or nonfrontline COs or associated professions were excluded. Searches of psychology and criminal justice databases including PsycINFO (EBSCOhost) and Criminal Justice (ProQuest) were completed in June 2021, and data were synthesized using a convergent segregated approach. A total of 29 studies were included and explored individual, interpersonal, and organizational determinants of well-being. Key themes identified by thematic synthesis of qualitative research included job satisfaction, personal growth, and coping. COs can experience well-being, however, further research into determinants of CO well-being is required.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-06-08T12:44:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221098976
       
  • The Role of Prison Climate and Work Climate in Understanding Subjective
           Safety Among Correctional Staff

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      Authors: Hanneke Palmen, Miranda Sentse, Esther F. J. C. Van Ginneken, Anouk Q. Bosma
      First page: 1580
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      To perform their work effectively, correctional officers should feel safe. Yet, research explaining officers’ subjective safety is scarce and overlooked the context in which these feelings arise. This study explores the impact of shared perceptions of prison climate and work climate. Survey and administrative data of incarcerated individuals and staff from the Dutch Life in Custody Study were used. Multilevel analyses on 1,427 correctional officers (135 prison units) showed that (a) almost 20% of the variance in officers’ subjective safety was clustered at the prison unit level; (b) both prison climate (satisfaction with activities and visits, relations with peers, and meaningful activities) and work climate factors (organizational satisfaction and workload) contributed to officers’ safety; (c) the relative importance of work climate was high in comparison to prison climate. These findings indicate that officers’ subjective safety is to a substantial extent a matter of climate rather than an individual trait.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-04-22T05:32:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221087180
       
  • The Development of Prison Officers’ Job Satisfaction and its Impact on
           Depersonalization of Incarcerated Persons: The Role of Organizational
           Dehumanization

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      Authors: Florence Stinglhamber, Nathan Nguyen, Maryse Josse, Stéphanie Demoulin
      First page: 1600
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to the literature on the antecedents and consequences of prison officers’ job satisfaction. First, we argue that organizational dehumanization (i.e., employees’ perceptions of being treated as tools by their organization) explains how work environment factors determine job satisfaction. Second, we propose that the role played by organizational dehumanization in the development of job satisfaction carries over depersonalization of incarcerated persons. The study (N = 357 Belgian prison officers) supports the mediating role of organizational dehumanization in the relationships between four work environment factors (organizational justice, appropriateness of material resources, quality of the physical environment, and perceived organizational support compared with that of the persons who are incarcerated) and job satisfaction. In addition, the findings indicate that prison officers’ perception of being dehumanized by their prison trickles down in the development of depersonalized relationships with incarcerated persons, and this effect is mediated by prison officers’ job satisfaction.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T12:37:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221087182
       
  • Workplace Safety: Perceived Dangerousness Versus Experienced Fear Among
           Community Corrections Personnel

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      Authors: Gayle Rhineberger, Kristin Y. Mack
      First page: 1618
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Little research has assessed community corrections staff members’ perceptions of the dangerousness of their job or experiences that make them fear for their safety. Although not the same as a prison environment, there are nonetheless dangerous aspects of working with probationers and parolees in community corrections. The purpose of this study is first to determine predictors of both perceived dangerousness and experienced fear among a sample of probation/parole officers and residential officers. Then we assess the differential impact of perceived dangerousness and experienced fear on the negative workplace outcomes of burnout (comprised of three components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), secondary trauma, job stress, and job satisfaction. The findings indicate both overlapping and distinct predictors of perceived dangerousness and experienced fear. Also, higher perceptions of job dangerousness were associated with lower job satisfaction, while more experienced fear was related to greater emotional exhaustion and secondary trauma.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105207
       
  • Breaking the Code of Silence: The Importance of Control Systems and
           Empathy Toward Outgroups

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      Authors: Amie M. Schuck, Cara E. Rabe-Hemp
      First page: 1637
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      This study used data from 654 new officers attending several training academies in the United States to examine changes in recruits’ attitudes toward the code of silence. The results of multivariate multilevel growth models showed that recruits’ experiences at the academies strengthened their adherence to the code. The results also showed that shifts in officers’ attitudes about the community, seriousness of the misconduct, expected discipline, and familiarity with agency policies were directly associated with changes in their adherence to the code, but changes in job satisfaction and perceptions of organizational justice were not. Female officers exhibited less adherence to the code in incidents of physical violence compared with male officers. The results confirm the need for reform in police training. Specifically, academy leaders should ensure that instructors and training materials present positive images of the community as well as strengthen social control systems which reinforce the importance of reporting coworker’s misconduct.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105219
       
  • Confidence in Their Craft: Assessing the Relationship Between Officer Work
           Experiences and Their Perceptions of Self-Efficacy

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      Authors: Logan J. Somers, William Terrill
      First page: 1656
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      The detailed study of officer experience has received relatively little attention within the policing literature despite it being integral to nearly every facet of their role. Drawing on survey data (N = 691 officers), the current study examines how the unique work experiences of officers (i.e., shifts, crime areas, duty assignments, in-service trainings) are related to their perceptions of confidence (i.e., self-efficacy) in the ability to perform different job-related tasks. Results revealed that more tenured officers, having worked a greater number of shifts, and those who completed increased in-service trainings had significantly higher confidence in performing both law enforcement and order-maintenance/service-oriented duties. Several other officer characteristics were also found to have varying levels of significance in relation to their confidence. Overall, the findings support the inclusion of more nuanced measures of officer experience, as well as the potential applicability of self-efficacy theory within policing research moving forward.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T06:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221105879
       
  • Conceptualizing and Measuring Public Stigma Toward People With Prison
           Records

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      Authors: Luzi Shi, Jason R. Silver, Audrey Hickert
      First page: 1676
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Public stigma toward people with prison records hinders re-entry initiatives. Although it is widely discussed in corrections, its measurement has been study specific. Based on existing literature, we develop and test a multidimensional public stigma scale. We examine the factor structure and dimensionality of the scale using a Qualtrics Panel sample of U.S. adults (N = 1,216) and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which show that 17 of the 20 proposed scale items produce a four-factor structure, including danger/distrust, dehumanization, dispositional crime attributions, and social/emotional distance. We assess construct validity by testing the relationship between public stigma and theoretical antecedents and expected support for policy outcomes. Results show that public stigma is positively related to belief in evil and racial resentment and negatively related to personal and vicarious arrest experiences. It is also positively related to support for disenfranchisement and punitive policies and negatively related to support for rehabilitative policies.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-15T12:00:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221108932
       
  • Discretionary Prosecutorial Decision-Making: Gender, Sexual Orientation,
           and Bias in Intimate Partner Violence

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      Authors: Jennifer Cox, Jane C. Daquin, Tess M. S. Neal
      First page: 1699
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.
      Prosecutors exercise substantial discretion within the criminal justice process, potentially allowing for discrepant treatment of criminal cases. The purpose of this research was to examine the association between prosecutorial implicit biases and victim gender and sexual orientation in an intimate partner violence (IPV) case. Participants, 201 prosecutors from across the United States, completed two Implicit Association Tests to measure implicit gender attitudes and implicit attitudes regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (opposite-sex couple/female victim, opposite-sex couple/male victim, same-sex couple/female victim, same-sex couple/male victim) and read a case file of an alleged IPV arrest. Consistent with our hypotheses, prosecutors were 65% more likely to prosecute under the severest criminal penalty when the victim was female or included an opposite-sex couple. However, we found no evidence that implicit biases related to prosecutorial decisions.
      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:39:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221106498
       
  • Book Review: Phrenology and Criminality

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      Authors: Andreas Kuersten
      First page: 1720
      Abstract: Criminal Justice and Behavior, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Criminal Justice and Behavior
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T07:21:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00938548221110452
       
 
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