Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 401)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 375)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 311)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 374)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 415)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 299)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 381)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Crime & Delinquency
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.553
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 83  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0011-1287 - ISSN (Online) 1552-387X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Youth Access to Stolen Handguns

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jamie L. Flexon, Stewart J. D’Alessio, Lisa Stolzenberg, Erik Cruz, Ryan C. Meldrum
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Youth with access to illicit handguns have an enhanced proclivity to engage in armed criminal violence and self-harm. While theft has been identified as a pathway for youth to gain access to handguns, little is known about whether and to what extent stolen guns represent a viable channel toward putting youth and others at risk. To evaluate this, several data sources and methods are used to evaluate whether handgun thefts occurring within proximity to a school predict self-reported ease of handgun acquisition among young people. Multilevel results fail to show any relationship between the availability of stolen handguns, measured in three different ways, and middle and high school youths’ self-reported access to handguns. Microlevel characteristics are predictive of gun access among youth.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-10-01T05:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221126077
       
  • Homicide Hot Spots in Chicago: Examining Spatiotemporal Patterns
           Longitudinally Across Police Beats

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      Authors: Christi L. Gullion, Benjamin P. Comer, Ryan Randa
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Prior research on crime hot spots has been mostly concerned with the analyses of cross-sectional data or short-term aggregations. Less research, however, has conducted longitudinal analyses on homicide hot spots and their dynamic behavior over time. The current study assessed 5 years of Chicago homicides (2016–2020) by police beats to explore how hot spots of homicides behave, with specific attention to durability. We find that Chicago homicides spatially and temporally cluster, with analysis suggesting the emergence of seasonal, short term, and long term “durable” hotspots in Chicago. Policy implications such as police interventions and community policing and problem-solving opportunities are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T08:17:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221125386
       
  • Can Community Policing Reduce the Chilling Effect of Immigration
           Enforcement on Latinx Crime Reporting' Evidence from Los Angeles

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      Authors: Ashley N. Muchow
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      While scholars have linked immigration enforcement with reductions in Latinx crime reporting, little research has examined the tools localities can use to counter reporting declines. This study assesses whether a community policing program adopted by the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) offset documented decreases in Latinx domestic violence reporting after President Trump assumed office. Using data on crimes reported to the LAPD between 2014 and 2019, this study finds that while domestic violence reports made by Latinx victims declined elsewhere after Trump took office, they increased in areas exposed to the community policing program. Results suggest that community policing may be a viable tool to encourage help-seeking behavior among residents vulnerable to deportation.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-28T08:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221125385
       
  • Unraveling the Black Box of Prison Visitation: Incarcerated Individuals’
           and Visitors’ Conversations and Feelings During Visitation Hour

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      Authors: Ellen W. A. de Jong, Hanneke Palmen, Anke A. T. Ramakers, Paul Nieuwbeerta
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The nature of prison visits is likely to explain differences in visitation effects, but has received little research attention. Unique survey data of the Dutch Prison Visitation Study enable us to provide a first systematic account of the nature of visits, by describing the topics of conversation and experienced feelings of both incarcerated individuals (n = 787) and visitors (n = 662). Results indicate much variation in feelings (positive and negative) and topics of conversation (emotional and problem-solving topics), a strong link between topics and feelings, and show that visitors have more negative visitation experiences than incarcerated individuals. These insights into the nature of visits help to uncover the black box of prison visitation and provide directions for future research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T07:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221125388
       
  • An Empirical Approach to a Standard Practice: Drug Testing

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      Authors: Lori Brusman Lovins, Marie Skubak Tillyer, Brian K. Lovins, Rob Tillyer, Teresa May
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Drug testing is a common practice for community supervision in the U.S., despite limited research on its effectiveness at deterring future drug use. The present study explores the purpose of drug testing by examining the relationship between drug test frequency and positive test results. The impact of the type of drug tested (any vs. serious) and the risk and need level of the individuals tested are also examined. Results indicate that after controlling for risk and substance abuse need, more frequent testing schedules are associated with an increased rate of positive drug tests, suggesting more frequent testing detects rather than deters drug use. Policy implications for community corrections’ purpose and use of drug testing are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T06:59:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221125389
       
  • Typology of Cybercrime Victimization in Europe: A Multilevel Latent Class
           Analysis

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      Authors: Claire Seungeun Lee, Yan Wang
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The present study reveals hidden patterns of group membership across cybercrime victims in European countries. We used a multilevel latent class analysis of data from the 2019 Eurobarometer, a regionally representative sample of 21,908 individuals from 28 countries, to identify such subgroups and patterns of cybercrime victimization. The findings suggest there are two overarching cybercrime victim profiles in Europe based on individuals’ levels of “online activity” and “cybersecurity guardianship”: the “at-risk class” (19%, higher risk) and the “cautious class” (81%, lower risk). Ten different types of cybercrime victimization were compared, and while individual-level predictors were primarily used to produce different groups of cybercrime victims, our findings suggest that researchers consider both individual- and country-level predictors to understand cybercrime victimization patterns in greater depth.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T12:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221118880
       
  • Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Substance Use: Using the Social
           Structure-Social Learning Model to Explore Drug Use in the LGBTQ+
           Community

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      Authors: John Stogner, Joseph Rukus, Wesley B. Webber, Robert J. Cramer, Bryan Lee Miller
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other gender and sexual minority (LGBTQ+) community are disproportionately affected by illicit substance use, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are largely omitted from criminology frameworks. LGBTQ+ identity is incorporated into Akers’ Social Structure-Social Learning (SSSL) model to suggest that existing disparate substance use patterns may be attributed to variation in substance-related definitions, peer models, and reinforcement. Data from 2,349 young adults were used to estimate structural equations models. LGBTQ+ respondents reported greater substance use than peers. Consistent with theoretical expectations, this relationship was fully mediated by social learning constructs. This study justifies incorporating sexual orientation and gender identity into the SSSL model and suggests peer-based substance use interventions are particularly influential within the LGBTQ+ community.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-21T11:18:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221122757
       
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Outcomes Among Justice-Involved
           Youth: Moderating Effects of Protective Factors

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      Authors: Becca K. Bergquist, Adam T. Schmidt, April G. Thomas
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Justice-involved youth experience significantly higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) compared to the general population, which lead to negative outcomes such as greater criminal involvement and mental health disorders. Such effects emphasize the need to examine the role of protective factors on the development of these negative outcomes. This study uses data from 519 youth referred to a probation department in Southeast Texas to examine the effects of ACEs and the direct and mitigating effects of protective factors on a youth’s criminal involvement and mental health symptoms. Results from hierarchical linear regression models emphasize the negative effects of ACEs on these outcomes, as well as the potential ceiling effect of protective factors based on ACE severity.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T08:56:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221122756
       
  • The Bully-Victim Overlap and Vaping Activity Among Adolescents

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      Authors: Cashen M. Boccio, Wanda E. Leal
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research links substance use with bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. Limited research, however, has explored how vaping, is related to bullying activities. What limited research has been conducted links vaping with bullying victimization in some samples. However, the relationship between vaping and the victim-offender overlap is extremely limited. This study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the associations between nicotine and marijuana vaping and bullying perpetration and victimization both in-person and online. In addition, we explore the relationship between vaping and holding bully-victim status. Our results suggest that marijuana vaping is associated with in-person bullying and nicotine vaping is associated with many facets of both in-person and cyber bullying experiences.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-08T08:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221122753
       
  • How Do Investigation Experiences Shape Views of the Police'
           Qualitatively Exploring Sexual Assault Survivors’ Interactions With
           Police Detectives and Subsequent Views of the Police

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      Authors: Katherine Lorenz
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Little attention has been paid to views of the police among sexual assault survivors. Understanding views of the police among a large population of crime victims who have historically been silenced and mistreated by our criminal-legal system can help inform recent and ongoing conversations about police funding and criminal justice reform. Qualitative interview data from a community sample of sexual assault survivors explored how police-detective interactions during sexual assault investigations shape views of the police. Negative interactions led to negative views of the police and for some were based on a culmination of positive and negative experiences. I share recommendations for responding to sexual assault that consider sexual assault survivors’ experiences with and views of the police.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:21:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221120186
       
  • Legalize It, Criticize It, or Something Else' Americans’ Attitudes
           Toward Federal Recreational Marijuana Legislation (RML)

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      Authors: Christina Mancini, Kristen M. Budd
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Recreational marijuana legislation (RML) has been enacted at the state-level but not federally. Given the link between public opinion and RML, we examine 2021 national poll (N = 995) data that assessed views about different types of proposed federal actions concerning cannabis. Less than half of Americans preferred full legalization, 21% approved of medical legalization only, 23% believed in states’ rights, and 11% supported the current prohibition. Using multinomial logistic regression modeling, respondents who associated legalized recreational marijuana with adverse/negative effects were less likely to favor full legalization. In contrast, respondents who associated legalized recreational marijuana with beneficial effects were most supportive of full legalization. Uncertainty surrounding cannabis shaped preferences but not as dramatically as having a clear opinion.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221118022
       
  • Punishing Neighborhood “Outsiders”: Neighborhood Punishment Rates and
           the Spatial Mis(match) Between Defendants’ Residence and Arrest
           Locations

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      Authors: Oshea D. Johnson, Nick Petersen, Brandon P. Martinez
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how “outsider” arrests (i.e., arrests that happen in neighborhoods where defendants do not reside) and other covariates impact community-level punishment outcomes. Using census tract-level data on drug, violent, and property crime arrests occurring in Miami- Dade County (Florida) between 2012 and 2015, we estimate negative binomial regression models across three key punishment stages (pretrial detention, conviction, incarceration). Our findings suggest neighborhoods with higher levels of “outsider” cases, concentrated disadvantage, and Black defendants experience significantly higher rates of pretrial detention, conviction, and incarceration, net of controls. These findings vary across crime types, implying that such factors may also shape court actors’ focal concerns regarding neighborhood outsiders and other demographic factors. We discuss implications and directions for future research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:17:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221117757
       
  • Is Legal Status a Marker for Recidivism' Examining the Reoffending
           Patterns of Previously Incarcerated Immigrants

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      Authors: Javier Ramos, Kayla Alaniz
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Research shows that immigrants are less criminally involved than their native-born peers when examining a host of justice-related outcomes. Yet, this knowledge tells us little about whether the immigration-crime relationship varies when disaggregating the foreign-born into more distinct groups such as legal status. Using data from the Florida Department of Corrections (FDC), we address this gap in the literature by examining whether documented and undocumented ex-inmates differ in their probability to recidivate. We also consider whether these immigrant groups reoffend at a lower, higher, or similar level when compared to the native-born. Our findings reveal that there are no differences in reoffending between documented and undocumented ex-inmates, while both groups display a significantly lower probability to recidivate relative to natives.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:16:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221111781
       
  • Mediating the Bullying-to-Delinquency Transition With Peer Delinquency and
           Cognitive Insensitivity

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      Authors: Glenn D. Walters, Lindsey Runell, Jonathan Kremser
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study sought to determine whether peer delinquency, cognitive insensitivity, and/or their interaction mediated the transition from bullying perpetration to delinquency. Data from 845 early adolescent youth (406 boys, 439 girls) organized into three waves were subjected to path analysis, with peer delinquency and cognitive insensitivity as parallel mediators. Results revealed that cognitive insensitivity successfully mediated the relationship between Wave 1 bullying perpetration and Wave 3 participant delinquency, whereas peer delinquency and the peer × insensitivity interaction did not. It would seem that involvement in bullying behavior may lead to a rise in antisocial thinking of the neutralization/moral disengagement type and that this thinking, referred to in this study as cognitive insensitivity, may then stimulate future involvement in delinquent behavior.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221118885
       
  • An Analysis of National Hockey League Playoff Games and City-Level Crime
           Counts

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      Authors: Kristina Block, Jacob Kaplan
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Past research indicates that when professional sports games are played, crime increases. Yet, little is known about how playoff games affect crime. As many criminal events associated with sports games, such as riots, occur during playoff games, this is an important gap in the literature. Using data from 15 National Hockey League (NHL) teams from 2013 through 2019, we examine how assault, disorder, and property crimes change when playoff games are played at home relative to when they are played away. We find that during home games there are 7% more disorder crimes and 4% more property crimes than during away games which suggests that city responses to playoff hockey games should prioritize crime reduction strategies to improve public safety.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T07:03:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221118879
       
  • Testing the Evidentiary Value of Police Body-Worn Cameras in Misdemeanor
           Court

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      Authors: Natalie Todak, Janne E. Gaub, Michael D. White
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      We test whether the presence of police body-worn camera (BWC) evidence impacts case filing, processing, and outcomes, using data from over 50,000 misdemeanor cases charged in the Tempe, Arizona municipal city court (2014–2017). BWCs did not affect case flow but did affect processing and outcomes for most cases. Traffic and drug/alcohol cases involving a BWC were processed more quickly, while traffic and person offense cases with a BWC were less likely to be adjudicated guilty. Defendant and officer demographics were correlated with case processing time and outcomes, but BWCs did not reduce racial/ethnic disparities for any outcomes. BWCs appear to affect case processing and outcomes for some case types, but effects are not straightforward and warrant further research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:48:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221120185
       
  • Risk Posed by Different Intimate Partner Violence Offender Types: Findings
           From a Representative Police Sample

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      Authors: José Luis González-Álvarez, Virginia Soldino, Jorge Santos-Hermoso, Enrique J. Carbonell-Vayá
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Spanish intimate partner violence against women offender types (i.e., high instability/high antisociality, HiHa; low instability/high antisociality, LiHa; high instability/low antisociality, HiLa; low instability/low antisociality, LiLa) were matched with their police recidivism outcomes in a longitudinal study of 9,672 cases. Our goal was to examine whether these subtypes differed in (1) their recidivism rates, (2) the severity of the new violent episodes, and (3) the evolution of their risk levels. Results showed that individuals with high antisociality features where associated with the highest recidivism rates (26.5% HiHa; 22.6% LiHa), and higher likelihood of new severe violent episodes. HiHa offenders showed the highest risk over time, although the risk posed by all subtypes decreased during follow-up. Implications for police work are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-24T05:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221120184
       
  • An Examination of Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Effect of Prison
           Visitation on Recidivism

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      Authors: Raven C. Dismuke, Jennifer E. Copp, Jennifer M. Brown
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past decade, a growing number of scholars have explored the effect of prison visitation on individuals’ post-release behavior. Findings from this work generally indicate a link between in-prison visits and reductions in recidivism. Yet whether the effect of visitation on recidivism operates similarly across race and ethnicity remains largely unexplored. In the current investigation, we draw on data from the Florida prison system, to examine associations between visitation and recidivism, including whether the effect of visitation is similar across race and ethnic groups. Our findings contribute to research and theorizing on prison visitation by further unpacking the visitation-recidivism link. We conclude by discussing the broader policy implications of our findings.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T06:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221118021
       
  • Shifting From Warriors to Guardians: Officer Reflections on Law
           Enforcement Training in Washington State

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      Authors: Beck M. Strah, Joycelyn M. Pollock, Laurie T. Becker
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary law enforcement methods are largely defined by crime control and militarization in the “warrior” policing model. In 2013, the Washington State Criminal Justice Training Commission (WSCJTC) adopted an alternative “guardian” training model for the Basic Law Enforcement Academy (BLEA) focused on procedural justice, community partnerships, de-escalation, and crisis intervention. The current study investigates BLEA graduates’ perceptions of guardian policing and training elements. Researchers interviewed new officers who completed BLEA training with the guardian curriculum (n = 17) and officers trained in a warrior-based curriculum (n = 11). Themes are analyzed from interview data, including officer perceptions of BLEA guardian training and related programs. The paper concludes with discussion of limitations, themes, and policy implications of the research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T06:30:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221117488
       
  • An Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform in Ohio: Impact on Youth
           Placement and Recidivism From 2008 to 2015

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      Authors: Insun Park, Christopher J. Sullivan, Bryan Holmes
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Juvenile justice systems across the U.S. have undergone transformations over the last 20 years. These efforts include deliberate attempts and policy decisions enacted to reduce the number of incarcerated youths. Ohio has implemented a series of initiatives in its juvenile justice system designed to reduce reliance on state custody of youth in favor of local alternatives. Using Ohio’s juvenile justice systems as a focal case, this study assessed reform initiatives on the reduction in youth incarceration and recidivism. Our analyses of 5,000 youths sampled from cases processed between 2008 and 2015 revealed a sustained trend in diverting youth from incarceration, most conspicuously among low risk youths. The diverted population, after adjusting for covariates through propensity score techniques, had lower rates of incarceration compared to the youths in state residential facilities. The outcome of the reform initiatives is discussed in terms of supporting redirection and reinvestment of finite resources and refining intervention strategies in implementing change in juvenile justice.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T06:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221117479
       
  • Pornography Use and Sexual Scripts Among Men Who Have Committed Sexual
           Offenses

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      Authors: Amanda Isabel Osuna, Karen Holt
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing from sexual scripting theory, the present study employed semi-structured interviews with 101 individuals incarcerated for sexual offenses in a Midwestern minimum-security prison to explore: (1) Do individuals who have committed sexual offenses report that porn scripts influenced or informed their sexual behavior' and (2) How do participants understand the norms and values inherent in porn' Through a qualitative analysis, several themes were identified which included living the porn, transforming sex, porn as grooming and offending, and porn as risk. For some individuals, porn serves as a salient factor in how they navigate their sexual behaviors and relationships, however, most did not report relying on these scripts in their offenses. We discuss treatment and supervision implications related to pornography use.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-09T06:26:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115647
       
  • Can Social Concern Theory Explain Quarantine-Related Misbehavior During
           the COVID-19 Pandemic' An Inquiry in the Urban Context of Iran

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      Authors: Saeed Kabiri, Seyyedeh Masoomeh (Shamila) Shadmanfaat, Lieven J. R. Pauwels, Christopher M. Donner, John K. Cochran, Wim Hardyns
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated quarantines in many urban settings, and rules have been enforced to ensure that citizens are complying with health-related mandates. However, anecdotal and empirical evidence confirm the prevalence of policy transgressions. Non-compliance with COVID-19 mandates can have severe consequences for individual health, societal fear, and the global economy. Thus, it is important to better understand the etiology of such misbehavior in the hopes of ensuring policy adherence. Using Agnew’s social concern theory as a conceptual framework, this study investigates quarantine-related misbehavior in the urban context of Rasht, Iran. Survey data of 393 university students indicate that social concern theory can explain quarantine-related misbehavior. Specific findings, implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T06:23:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221116293
       
  • Examining Interactive Effects of PTSD and Deviant Peer Association for
           Predicting Violent Offending Risk

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      Authors: Thomas Wojciechowski
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Post-traumatic stress disorder and deviant peer association have been identified as robust risk factors predicting violent offending. However, there is a dearth of research which has examined interactive effects of these constructs for predicting violence perpetration. The present study utilized data from the Pathways to Desistance study to test for effects. Logistic regression was utilized to examine relationships. Results indicated that there was a significant and positive interaction between post-traumatic stress disorder and deviant peer association for predicting violent offending. Further examination of this relationship indicated that the disorder was a “for better or worse” condition, with low violent offending risk at low levels of deviant peer association and high risk at high levels of deviant peer association.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T06:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115650
       
  • Theoretical Explanations of the Development of Youth Hacking

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      Authors: Jihoon Kim, Lindsay Leban, Yeungjeom Lee
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Hacking, particularly among youth, is a relatively new form of deviance and its etiology is not well understood. Moreover, there is a lack of developmental approaches to understanding youth hacking, and the majority of studies on predictors of hacking have been cross-sectional. In light of this, we draw on prospective longitudinal data on a sample of Korean youth to explore theoretical predictors of youth hacking through a developmental lens. Cross-lagged dynamic panel models are employed to examine time-variant and time-invariant theoretical predictors of hacking. Results show that well-known criminological predictors are significantly associated with youth hacking, which implies the applicability of traditional criminological theories in online deviance. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-03T06:20:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115639
       
  • Subway Station and Neighborhood Crime: An Egohood Analysis Using Subway
           Ridership and Crime Data in New York City

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      Authors: Nan Li, Young-An Kim
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      In the current study, we examine the effects of the number of subway stations as well as magnitude of subway ridership on crime in 1/4-mile egohoods in New York City, while accounting for structural characteristics and land uses. Longitudinal analyses are conducted using a set of negative binomial regression fixed effects models. We found that the number of subway stations have crime-enhancing effects for robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, and larceny, but crime-reducing for motor vehicle theft. We found mixed findings for subway ridership across different crime types. We also found that the effects of subway stations are moderated by the proportion of retail land use in place. The findings provide evidence that subway stations and ridership have important consequences for the spatial patterns of crime.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T06:52:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221114803
       
  • Individual and Organizational Correlates of Morale Among Workers in a
           Youth and Family Court Agency

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      Authors: Kimberly R. Kras, Kimberly S. Meyer, Jared R. Dmello, Danielle S. Rudes
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Morale is an important feature of organizational work life; however, few studies in criminal justice settings consider measuring morale in organizational surveys, nor how morale might link to other employee characteristics, like personal attitudes. The current study surveys 180 workers in a youth and family court setting to examine the relationship between morale and organizational- and individual-level factors. Survey results reveal positive feelings of morale overall; however, interaction effects suggest that type of staff and attitudes toward punishment impact morale, providing evidence that morale is a context dependent construct. By reconsidering dimensions of morale and situating it within a joint custodial and community supervision agency context, we contribute to the growing literature on organizational behavior in the youth justice setting.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T06:51:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115646
       
  • What Seems to be the Problem' Ex-Prisoners’ Reentry/Resettlement
           in the Czech Republic

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      Authors: Jiří Mertl
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The study is focused on the reentry/resettlement problems that are faced by ex-prisoners in the Czech Republic (CR). Findings are based on semi-structured interviews with 26 ex-prisoners and 30 social workers who provide social services in prisons and after the release. Based on the data, which were coded inductively employing qualitative content analysis, several post-prison issues emerged: (1) material deprivation and insecurity regarding housing, subsistence, and stable employment; (2) debts and enforcement proceedings; (3) prisonisation effect; (4) health issues; (5) relationships with family and significant others; (6) drug abuse; (7) meaningful leisure time. Particularly, more attention was given to housing, subsistence, stable employment, and debts and enforcement proceedings because, compared to other countries, these issues have their specifics in the CR. Findings, interpreted through the optics of intersectionality, suggest that the Czech social policies regarding ex-prisoners are focused on a one or selection of factors, instead on the complex interplay of them, as well as not properly targeted and delivered in the right time. To improve the situation, the better system of social services financing that would address the ex-prisoners’ complex needs must be implemented along with the housing first policy and more accessible personal bankruptcy.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T06:48:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115645
       
  • “I Am Actually Sitting With Fear”: Narratives of Fear of Crime and
           Actual Victimization in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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      Authors: Simone Martin-Howard
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      In the Western Cape Province of South Africa, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide direct services for residents of underserved areas where gang violence is rampant. The purpose of this qualitative study is to create a context specific understanding of fear of crime, explore experiences of actual victimization, and identify the strategies participants use to adapt to community challenges at an NGO in the province through in-depth semi-structured interviews with Black and Colored women. Actual victimization was experienced by more than half of the sample, fear of crime was the main barrier for almost half of all participants to effectively use the NGOs services, and 40% of women adapt to community challenges by remaining resilient or coping with violence through avoidance.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-08-01T06:45:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221115638
       
  • Bullies in Life and Love: A Longitudinal Analysis of Bullying and
           Adolescent Relationship Abuse

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      Authors: Caitlin A. Charles
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and bullying are specific brands of adolescent violence. Research for both draw upon similar theoretical frameworks and dictates that attributes of perpetrators of either behavior are similar enough to warrant thorough research to determine their level of association. The current study builds upon previous research by examining the association of bullying and ARA. This relationship is examined using the Bullying, Sexual, and Dating Violence Trajectories from Early to Late Adolescence survey. Random effects regression analyses were used to evaluate physical, verbal, sexual, and relational ARA. Results indicate that active bullying and active bullying victimization have strong associations across all four dependent variables, especially when controlling for race and gender in some models.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T10:15:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221114798
       
  • “Bangin” at the Crossroads’: A Study of Rural Gangs

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      Authors: Timothy C. Brown, Julie Marie Baldwin, Molly Buchanan, Marvin D. Krohn
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Previous research on rural gangs in America has found these groups not only to be relatively transitory in nature but also forming during periods of economic recovery. This qualitative study focuses on a community within the impoverished rural Mississippi Delta with an extended history of institutionalized Black gangs with ties to national gang nations. Through in-depth interviews with incarcerated members of the community, many of whom have/had gang ties, we seek to understand the unique conditions that fostered these non-traditional rural gangs. More specifically, we critically examine the relationship between social and structural factors that affected the origins, processes, and persistence of gangs in the area. Our findings highlight the social dislocations influenced by state-abandoned responsibilities and the corresponding adaptations by gangs and their members.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T12:31:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221113305
       
  • Wellness and Delinquency at the Intersection of Gender and Race

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      Authors: Katy Hancock
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Wellness and its influence on behavior is emerging as an important topic in research and policy. Moreover, it is becoming apparent that race and gender interact to create unique experiences. It is therefore essential to consider how the intersection of gender and race shapes perceptions of wellness and thereby influences behavior. Using the 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the impact of perceptions of wellness on delinquency was examined for various gender/race groups. Results indicated that, while some wellness dimensions predicted delinquency across groups, such as psychological or occupational wellness, some were more focused by gender/race group. Implications and future research are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:42:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221114806
       
  • Assessing the Institutional Barriers and Individual Motivational Factors
           to Participation in Prison-Based Programs

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      Authors: Kimberly A. Kaiser, Alex Piquero, Linda Keena, Caitlin Howley
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Prison-based programs have been shown to reduce recidivism and aid successful reentry. Participation in prison programs has also been linked to reduced misconduct within prisons. And yet, programs are not always readily available and, even when they are available, some inmates may not be motivated or interested in participating in them. Using data collected from a private Southern prison, this study examined barriers and motivational factors related to participation in prison programing among a sample of 212 male inmates. Our results indicate that two of the barriers assessed, lack of space in the programs and programs not offered often enough, limited participation. Higher perceptions of prison legitimacy, interest in programs, and higher self-esteem were associated with higher levels of participation.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-25T11:37:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221114804
       
  • The Importance of Proximity, Target Congruence, and Guardianship of Korean
           Youth Victims: Applying Latent Class Analysis to Identify Subtypes of
           Poly-Victimization

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      Authors: Sujung Cho, Claire Seungeun Lee
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Poly-victimization, or exposure to multiple types of victimization, is particularly common among children and adolescents. This study uses Lifestyle-Routine Activity Theory and Target Congruence Theory to examine distinct subgroups of Korean youth who have experienced poly-victimization through the estimation of a latent class analysis. This study uses a nationally representative sample—the 2018 National Survey on the Rights of Children and Youth (N = 9,060, Grades 4–12). Results found four distinct subgroups of Korean youth who have experienced violent victimization: low risk/non-victims (54.1%), poly-victims (4.1%), verbal bullying victims (10.5%), and victims of parental abuse (31.3%). Distal outcomes such as suicidality and dropout were also examined regarding victimization experiences. Policy implications such as detecting victimization and early intervention/prevention programs are also discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-22T11:11:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221111783
       
  • For Whom Do Unstructured Activities Matters' The Interaction Between
           Unstructured and Structured Activities in Delinquency and Cannabis Use: A
           National Self-Report Study

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      Authors: Robert Svensson, Kim Moeller, Björn Johnson, David Shannon
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether unstructured and structured activities interact in their association with delinquency and cannabis use. We hypothesize that unstructured activities are more strongly associated with delinquency and cannabis use for those who are less engaged in structured activities. Data are drawn from three nationally representative self-report studies conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Sweden, and include 19,644 adolescents. The results support the hypothesis that unstructured activities interact with structured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use. The association between unstructured activities and these outcomes is stronger for those with lower levels of structured activities. Sporting activities constitute the structured activity that most clearly interacts with unstructured activities in the association with delinquency and cannabis use.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221110448
       
  • Understanding the Fear of Crime and Perceived Risk Across Immigrant
           Generations: Does the Quality of Social Ties Matter'

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      Authors: Yue Yuan, Susan McNeeley, Chris Melde
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The current study examines the relationships between immigration, social ties, and perceptions of safety. We estimated immigrant generation by race/ethnicity interactions to uncover unique patterns across subpopulations of immigrants while controlling for important neighborhood contextual factors. Immigrant generation was negatively associated with feelings of fear. First-generation Asian immigrants reported the greatest level of fear in the sample. High-quality social ties were negatively associated with fear of crime, while the number of social ties was unrelated to fear. Results suggest first-generation immigrants are in a precarious position in society with respect to feeling safe in their neighborhoods. Local officials should seek ways to provide accurate messaging on the threat of victimization in immigrant communities.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:34:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221113306
       
  • Institutional Relational Maintenance Barriers and Perceptions of
           Relationship Quality Among Women With Incarcerated Partners

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      Authors: Katherine A. Durante, Jasmine Rene Phillips Meertins, Eman Tadros
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      High rates of incarceration in the United States has prompted researchers to study the impacts of imprisonment on romantic relationships and minor children. We examine the relationship between several prison facility barriers to relational maintenance and perceptions of relationship quality from the perspective of women whose male romantic, coparenting partners are incarcerated. Using data from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting and Partnering (MFS-IP) and binomial logistic regression, we find that the high costs of phone calls and difficulty of in-person visitation negatively impact how women perceive romantic relationship quality. These findings suggest that alleviating barriers to contact can help strengthen couples’ relationships.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T10:34:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221113304
       
  • Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs (HVIPs): Making a Case for
           Qualitative Evaluation Designs

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      Authors: Sheetal Ranjan, Christine H. Neudecker, Catherine Clare Strange, Michelle L. T. Wojcik, Aakash Shah, Ramon Solhkhah
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) are multidisciplinary programs that use a health/public health approach to violence intervention by intervening with victims of violence at the time of injury and leveraging hospital- and community-based resources to address the underlying risk factors for violence. Much of the evidence for the impacts of HVIPs comes from qualitative research, yet there are few reviews of the efficacy of these approaches, and none that focus specifically on the HVIP context. This paper fills this gap by reviewing the common qualitative elements of published HVIP evaluations, and discusses their strengths, challenges, and relative applicability for researchers and practitioners alike. It then sets forth a research agenda, making a case for further (and more varied) qualitative HVIP evaluation research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T11:55:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221110446
       
  • Examining the Connection Between Missing Persons and Victimization: An
           Application of Lifestyle Exposure Theory

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      Authors: Lorna Ferguson, Melissa Elliott, Sin Kim
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Victimization has been anecdotally connected to missing persons within several reviews, inquiries, and media stories, particularly in consequence of missing-turned-serial murder cases. However, this has been paid little attention within the scholarship. To remedy this gap, this study empirically explores the link between missing persons and victimization through the perspective of lifestyle exposure theory. A qualitative thematic analysis of 1,920 missing person files uncovers several demographic and lifestyle factors implicating victimization risk, as well as their ranked aggregated and disaggregated saliency. Examples include criminality, victimizing events, sex work, and gender identity. Also discovered is that the context and nature of victimization risk differ for specific people and groups. The implications of these findings and future research areas are herein discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T06:05:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221109768
       
  • Examining Disparities in Case Dispositions and Sentencing Outcomes for
           Domestic Violent Extremists in the United States

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      Authors: Jeff Gruenewald, Brent R. Klein, Brittany E. Hayes, William S. Parkin, Taylor June
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how strength of ideology, victim status, and other factors shape prosecutorial and sentencing decisions in cases of far-right extremist homicide. We draw from multiple conceptual frameworks to understand how assessments of defendants’ blameworthiness, crime seriousness, and other practical constraints influence the severity of legal outcomes. Our analysis of data from the United States Extremist Crime Database finds that while demographic attributes of homicide participants have little influence on legal outcomes, strong affiliations to domestic extremism and indicators of crime seriousness and risk significantly predict harsher treatment of defendants. We contextualize our findings within the broader criminological sentencing literature and discuss their implications for understanding how the American criminal justice system responds to domestic violent extremism.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T06:00:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221109769
       
  • The Bounty of Buffers: Spatial Measurement of Displacement and Diffusion
           of Benefits of Alarms on Burglary

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      Authors: Seungmug (Zech) Lee, Robert D. McCrie
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzes the extent to which alarm systems impact geographical displacement and/or diffusion of benefits on burglary, which regards as a substitute for the absence of capable guardians. A quasi-experimental design with three nested concentric zones—target, buffer, and control—are utilized by incorporating the WDQ conceptual approach with GIS and a parcel map. The datasets include burglary incidents and alarm permit records. Alarms produce a sizeable impact on burglary reduction. No indication of spatial displacement is observed from protected houses to nearby houses. Alarms create a short geographic ambit and a wider spatial range of diffusion of benefits. A burglar alarm can protect the house without displacing burglary to nearby houses and provides neighboring houses with protection as well.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:58:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221107576
       
  • Advantages and Challenges of Queer Scholars Doing Qualitative Queer
           Criminology and Criminal Justice Research

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      Authors: Sarah A. Rogers, Baker A. Rogers
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Qualitative researchers encounter obstacles related to publishing, acceptability, research self-disclosure, rapport development, feelings of guilt or vulnerability, and opportunity that quantitative scholars often do not. Here we discuss our experiences with these obstacles related to one queer qualitative study in hopes that it will provide knowledge to the next generation of queer qualitative scholars. We begin by discussing the state of the field in terms of qualitative scholarship and queer criminology, then we discuss our own experiences doing qualitative queer criminology. Our goal is to show why qualitative queer criminology matters, that it can be done despite its challenges, and to encourage the field of criminology and criminal justice to become more inclusive of qualitative methodologies.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221108702
       
  • Life Domains, Constraints, Motivations, and Intimate Partner Violence:
           Assessing the Generality of Agnew’s General Theory of Crime and
           Delinquency

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      Authors: Fawn T. Ngo, Taylor Fisher, Rebecca A. Ruiz
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Given the victim-offender overlap, it has been suggested that every theory about offenders implies a corresponding theory of victimization. We assess the above assertion concerning Agnew’s general theory of crime and delinquency within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Drawing data from the International Dating Violence Study, we examine the direct and indirect effects of the self, family, school/work, and peer domains on IPV perpetration and victimization. We found the four life domains significantly predicted both IPV perpetration and victimization and their effects on both outcome variables were mediated by the constraint and motivation factors. Our results indicate that the mechanisms that account for offending posited in Agnew’s perspective appear to be equally relevant and applicable for understanding victimization.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:34:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106951
       
  • The Benefits of Hindsight and Modern Risk Assessment Tools: An Evaluation
           of Minnesota’s COVID-19 Early Release Program

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      Authors: Valerie A. Clark
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Given the devastating effects of COVID-19 on congregate living settings, many correctional agencies have been forced to expedite the release of incarcerated persons beginning in 2020. This research evaluated the recidivism outcomes of 158 individuals released early from prison in response to the pandemic compared to a similar cohort of standard releases. Cox regression analyses revealed that individuals released early were no more or less likely to be re-arrested or returned to prison for a supervision violation compared to the control sample, but they were significantly less likely to be convicted of a new offense. This research demonstrated that carefully selected low-risk individuals can be released early from prison without compromising public safety.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T05:30:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106943
       
  • A Statutory Analysis of State-Level Sex Offender Residency, Loitering,
           Presence, and Entry Restrictions

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      Authors: John C. Navarro, Kate E. Knudsen, Christina L. Richardson
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Residency restrictions stipulate the living arrangements of sex offenders, but underdiscussed are geographic restrictions that limit spatial interactions relating to loitering, presence, and entry. Our statutory analysis of state-level geographic restrictions identifies 38, 18, 19, and 14 states which have implemented residency, loitering, presence, and entry restrictions. Geographic restrictions are widely adopted, particularly between 2006 and 2010, and are dispersed randomly by region and division, with some states being more comprehensive than others, particularly in West South Central. Residency restrictions were typically older and longer, with distance markers progressively less common for loitering, presence, and entry restrictions. Geographic restrictions were more often offense-specific than registration-specific and demonstrated heterogeneity in the number and types of prohibited venues that were commonly youth-centric.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T12:15:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221108707
       
  • Racialized Employment Outcomes During Reentry: A Test of Competing
           Explanations

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      Authors: Lin Liu
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Although much literature has examined the racial gap in employment, relatively fewer efforts have been devoted to examining racialized employment outcomes in the context of reentry. The factors associated with the racial gap in post-release employment are largely unknown. Even less is known whether a disadvantage factor exerts disparate effects on minority and White returning citizens. Using longitudinal data documenting returning citizens’ social capital, health, neighborhood conditions, parole supervision, and employment outcomes over 15 months after release, this study extends prior studies by testing three competing explanations of the racial gap in post-release employment. Findings suggest that structural disadvantages and criminal history cannot fully explain the lower employment rates of Black returning citizens. Furthermore, this study did not find a significant race-specific effect of social capital on employment outcomes.Implications for reentry programing and interventions are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-07-02T05:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221107575
       
  • The Variable Association Between Religiosity and Delinquency

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      Authors: Chase L. Montagnet
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Although religion and crime occupies a relatively small space in contemporary criminological research, religious beliefs, and practices are central to classical social theory. This study uses fixed effects models to analyze three waves of panel data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to examine the relationship between a multidimensional measure of religiosity and several forms of delinquency. The results indicate that the relationship between religiosity and delinquency is offense-specific. While religiosity is inversely related to substance use in the presence of social bonds and predictors of delinquency, its relationship with non-violent delinquency is mixed. Finally, religiosity is not associated with violent offending. The results suggest that renewed interest in religion among criminologists is warranted.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106959
       
  • Recreating Human Mobility Patterns Through the Lens of Social Media: Using
           Twitter to Model the Social Ecology of Crime

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      Authors: James C. Wo, Ethan M. Rogers, Mark T. Berg, Caglar Koylu
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of neighborhood crime are often limited in their ability to account for the dynamic nature of human mobility, a central tenet of prominent theoretical perspectives on the spatial distribution of crime. Yet, recent work indicates the utility of social media data for estimating the size and composition of such ambient population. In the present study, we assess whether four Twitter-derived measures are associated with crime counts across 2,348 block groups. Specifically, we focus on the density of Twitter users (and tweets), as well as the proportion of Twitter users (and tweets) that are “insiders.” We inferred Twitter users’ “insider” location from the block group in which they tweeted most frequently.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:44:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106946
       
  • Jailed Individuals’ Perceptions of Procedural Justice and Suicidal
           Ideation: An Empirical Examination

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      Authors: Frances P. Abderhalden, Lucas Alward
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide ideation (SI) represent a major public health concern, especially within incarcerated settings. Although prior research acknowledges the influence of individual characteristics, less research has examined how perceptions of procedural justice relate to individuals’ maladaptive behavior while incarcerated. Recently, scholarship has included self-injurious thoughts and behaviors as an outcome of perceived procedural justice for incarcerated individuals. This study expands on prior work, by exploring perceptions of procedural justice related to SI using a jail sample from the United States (n = 397). We found strong support that higher perceptions of procedural justice are related to reduced frequency of suicidal ideation in jail. We discuss these implications in relation to the critical impact on public health and safety of this vulnerable population.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106942
       
  • Tourism and Crime: An Exploratory Study of Burglary From Tourist
           Accommodation From the Criminal Opportunity Perspective

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      Authors: Zarina I. Vakhitova, Rob I. Mawby, Nicola Helps, Clair L. Alston-Knox
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely acknowledged that tourists are particularly likely to be victimized, especially with regard to property crimes like theft from tourist accommodation (burglary). Guided by the criminal opportunity perspective, we examine the extent to which environmental and routine activities-related factors explain burglary using the data from a sample of Australian tourists (N = 1,027). Bayesian variable selection with a stochastic search algorithm was used to analyze the data. Our findings demonstrate the utility of opportunity theories in explaining crime against tourists. We found that the location and type of accommodation together with the use of target hardening and guardianship strategies are helpful for understanding burglary from tourist accommodation. Practical implications for crime prevention are also discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:12:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106962
       
  • The Impact of Suspect Resistance, Informational Justice, and Interpersonal
           Justice on Time Until Police Use of Physical Force: A Survival Analysis

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      Authors: Eric L. Piza, Victoria A. Sytsma
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The current study applies Systematic Social observation (SSO) to body-worn camera (BWC) footage of use of physical force events in Newark, NJ. The analysis tests the effect of suspect resistance and police officer interpersonal and informational justice tactics on time until use of physical force in police-citizen encounters. The results indicate police officer actions have a greater effect on the time until physical force than does suspect resistance. Officer adherence to informational justice is negatively associated to the time until both first use of force and highest level of force. Suspect resistance did not achieve statistical significance in any model. This study has implications for research and police practice, and demonstrates the benefits of leveraging video footage in criminological research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106947
       
  • Doing Qualitative Research in a Controlled Site: Challenges, Lessons, and
           Strategies

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      Authors: Frank Darkwa Baffour, Abraham P. Francis, Mark David Chong, Nonie Harris
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reflects on the process of undertaking qualitative research with incarcerated individuals and prison staff in selected Ghana prisons. The challenges encountered during the planning, approval, and fieldwork stages, as well as measures adopted to address these challenges, have been discussed. The paper aims to serve as a guide to novel prison researchers in the sub-Saharan African context, given that the majority of studies on challenges and approaches to conducting prison research have come from jurisdictions outside the region. To this end, given the unique nature of the prison governance system in Ghana and other sub-Saharan African countries, this paper contributes to filling a knowledge gap in qualitative prison research.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T09:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221106944
       
  • “I Wouldn’t Change Who I’ve Become”: Released Juvenile Lifers on
           Joy, Shame, and the Journey to an Integrated Self

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      Authors: Laura S. Abrams, Kaylyn C. Canlione, Durrell M. Washington
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Using phenomenological methodology, the authors explore the core emotions involved in the transition from imprisonment to society for released juvenile lifers and how these emotions inform participants’ sense of self. Nine adult men, who had spent an average of 26 years imprisoned for homicide crimes committed as youth, participated in a series of in-depth interviews following their resentencing and release. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, we found that reintegration following a life sentence involves powerful emotions of joy and shame, and that these emotions can be reconciled to achieve an integrated sense of self—one that embodies self-acceptance and positive self-regard. The findings add to prior theory and research and offer new understandings of the reintegration process for released juvenile lifers.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-25T08:52:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221104045
       
  • “The Perfect Aryan Housewife”: Intersection of Extremist Violence and
           Violence Against Women

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      Authors: Maria N. Scaptura, Brittany E. Hayes, Jeff Gruenewald, William S. Parkin, Michelle E. Protas
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Despite rhetoric on the association between violence against women and extremist violence, little empirical work has examined the intersection of these forms of violence. Relying on open-source data from the Extremist Crime Database, we examine how these forms of violence intersect in terms of a strained dominant masculinity. Among the 54 extremist offenders with documented histories of violence against women, extremist offenders committed familicides (n = 23), or violence against women as a precursor to extremist violence (n = 25). For a small minority of offenders (n = 6), these forms of violence intersected in a form of settling scores against women and minoritized groups.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T12:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221103746
       
  • The Big Five Personality and Perception of the Career Barriers of Male
           Prisoners: Moderated Mediating Effect Models

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      Authors: Peng Wang, Xiaojie Wu, Jun Wang, Yu Sun, Shuqi Yang, Huimin Shi, Zixin He
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Prisoners’ employment has received widespread attention from society. In this study, based on career construction theory and social cognitive career theory, 300 male prisoners were selected as the research sample, and questionnaires were used for data collection. The results show that in the relationships between extroversion, openness, neuroticism, and perception of career barriers, and prisoners’ career adaptability plays a mediating role. When extroversion, openness, and neuroticism are predictor variables, the socioeconomic status of prisoners plays a moderating role in the predictive effect of career adaptability on the perception of career barriers. Specifically, compared with individuals with low and medium socioeconomic statuses, the negative effect of career adaptability on the perception of career barriers was stronger at high socioeconomic status levels.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T11:36:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221104742
       
  • Trusted Chief Executives in Convenient White-Collar Crime

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      Authors: Petter Gottschalk
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Convenience exists in the financial motive, the organizational opportunity, and the personal willingness for deviant behavior. These three themes can result in 14 convenience propositions as presented in this article. In cases where an offender is detected, the offense can be examined by identifying relevant convenience issues in the structural model of crime convenience. Not all of the 14 issues will be relevant to create a narrative of one specific incident. In cases where prevention of offenses is the issue, then vulnerability review is appropriate for all 14 propositions. For example, domination of greed or extensive differential association can signal strong motivation or strong willingness for wrongdoing, while lack of oversight and guardianship can signal an invitation for wrongdoing.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T11:34:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221104737
       
  • Got Assistance' Profit-Driven Criminal Careers and Assisted Desistance

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      Authors: Frédéric Ouellet, Marie-Ève Dubois
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Research on assisted desistance has not considered the influence of criminal-involvement factors on the receptivity to assistance. Although most crimes committed are motivated by the prospect of gain, current knowledge on desistance from lucrative offending is still rudimentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the assistance in the desistance process of 27 individuals having committed profit-driven crimes. First, based on life story narratives, the acknowledgment of assistance was explored. Then, how and when this assistance arose in participants’ lives was studied. Results demonstrate the value of the assisted desistance framework in understanding desistance. Other findings include the fact that assistance may take many forms and may arise at various phases in the process of desistance.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T11:31:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221104733
       
  • Private Versus Public Incarceration: Incarcerated Individuals’
           Experiences and Perceptions of Environmental Quality

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      Authors: Andrea N. Montes, Joshua C. Cochran, Claudia N. Anderson
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Propensity score matching and regression analyses of the National Inmate Survey are used to examine individuals’ experiences and perceptions of environmental quality in public versus private prisons across key domains of prison life, with an emphasis on needs, behaviors, victimization, and attitudes. No differences are identified for women. Males in private prisons are more likely than men in public prisons to perceive there to be inadequate staffing and are less likely to report maintaining ties with people outside of prison. Men in private prisons are also less likely to report crowding to be an issue. We discuss implications for evaluating a central tenet of privatization: that the quality of private prisons be comparable to, or better than, that of public prisons.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T11:23:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098583
       
  • Deviant Identity and Offending: A Longitudinal Study of South Korean
           Youths

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      Authors: SooHyun O, YongJei Lee, Pamela Wilcox, Francis T. Cullen
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines deviant identity in relation to youth offending by combining items tapping both self-appraisal and reflected appraisal. In particular, using survey data from 3,446 Korean youth across five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS), findings from group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) present four distinct offending groups—a high-rate chronic group, stable non-offending group, adolescence-limited group, and declining group. Then, findings from the multinomial logit model reveal that deviant identity is a robust predictor of offending for subgroups of adolescents involved in offending at any level in comparison to stable non-offenders. Accordingly, this study supports the idea that deviant identity should be considered as a prominent predictor of a variety of types of youth offending.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T09:54:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221102061
       
  • Testing the Effects of Deterrence Communications on Illegal Marijuana
           Dealing: An Experimental Study

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      Authors: Ha-Neul Yim, Jaeyong Choi, Lynne M. Vieraitis
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Recent experiments have shown that deterrence communication can lead individuals to update their sanction perceptions. However, there remains the question of whether different forms of deterrence communication influence sanction perception updating for illegal marijuana dealing. Using data from an experiment with a nationwide sample of 498 adults, we examined whether a message unpacking sanction risk leads to sanction perception updating and whether this updated risk perception influences drug dealing intentions. The findings revealed that the unpacking message did not influence perceived certainty and severity and intentions to offend, and the risk perceptions did not mediate the impact of the unpacking message on intentions to offend. The implications of the findings are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:06:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098585
       
  • Understanding Police Agencies’ Explanations for Racial and Ethnic
           Disproportionality in Vehicle Stops

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      Authors: Miltonette Olivia Craig, Kwan-Lamar Blount-Hill
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Extant literature on traffic stops indicates that disparate enforcement of traffic laws is pervasive, violative of individuals’ constitutional liberties, and can have a lasting impact on the psyches of those subjected to it. This issue takes center stage in Missouri, a state that has often been alleged to engage in racial profiling, because disproportionality has persisted despite legislation to address it. To this point, several quantitative investigations of Missouri traffic stop data have answered many important questions regarding the existence and prevalence of disparities. However, there is a dearth of qualitative research that focuses on police agencies’ reactions to the data outcomes. The current study addresses this gap by analyzing written responses from Missouri agencies submitted with stop statistics. Findings reveal that agencies use responses to provide several types of justifications, excuses, and mitigating circumstances to explain existing disparities.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T07:04:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221100953
       
  • Youth Decision-Making and Crime: Influences of Stressful Conditions,
           Adverse Mental and Physical States, and Conventional Activities

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      Authors: Anastasiia Timmer, Olena Antonaccio, Michael T. French, Ekaterina V. Botchkovar
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study focuses on sources of youth decision-making and examines paths through which these factors may affect delinquent behavior. Using longitudinal Add Health data, we explore the mediating mechanisms linking several antecedents of decision-making, thoughtfully reflective decision-making (TRDM), and crime. We find that various adverse factors (i.e., family and school stressful conditions, depression, sleep problems) reduce the ability of adolescents to be thoughtful and reflective, which leads to higher levels of criminal behavior. By contrast, involvement in conventional activities (i.e., hobbies, religious activities) is found to foster TRDM, which reduces delinquency. Our study calls for an integration of perspectives in criminology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience to better explain the relationship between decision-making and crime. Policy implications are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:54:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221102057
       
  • Exploring Risk Avoidance Practices Among On-Demand Cybercrime-as-Service
           Operations

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      Authors: Thomas J. Holt, Jin R. Lee, Olga Smirnova
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Criminologists have recently explored online cybercrime-as-service markets where offenders offer hacking tools and services for a fee. So-called “stresser” or “booter” markets offering distributed reflective denial of service (DRDoS) attacks have been a recent target of international law enforcement action. Few have explored the ways in which these operations continued to function under increased enforcement and sanction. This study attempted to address this gap through a qualitative analysis of online advertisements from 44 booter and stresser operators. The findings revealed operators changed their preferred communications and payment platforms, as well as increased the attack methods available to customers. The implications of this analysis for our understanding of illicit online markets, and the decision-making processes of cybercriminals are discussed in detail.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:51:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221103753
       
  • Photo Documentation While Brown: Fear and Data Collection in (white male)
           USA

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      Authors: Rita Shah
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      In late summer of 2018, I embarked on a project that involved analyzing probation and parole offices. The original purpose was to understand how architectural features of these offices keep them hidden from the public. As no such data set existed, I created my own by driving to offices and photographing them. This paper discusses the challenges of conducting this photo documentation project, paying special attention to how concerns of fear and safety impacted the data-generation process. I provide an embodied account of how my personhood relates to a social science research question and offer a methodological intervention on the risks of conducting visual criminological studies. I conclude by discussing the broader implications for qualitative criminological research and the field.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:50:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221104046
       
  • Contextualizing Adolescent Bullying: The Overlap Between Victimization and
           Perpetration

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      Authors: G. R. Paez, O. L. Richmond
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study used data from 2019 Minnesota Student Survey to explore patterns of traditional bullying perpetration. Using conjunctive analysis of case configurations (CACC), results from a sample of 166,351 students show that (1) incidents of traditional bullying perpetration cluster significantly among dominant situational profiles; (2) students most likely to be bullies experience victimization, but students least likely to bully their peers rarely experience bullying victimization; and (3) being a victim of traditional bullying can increase the chances of traditional bullying perpetration by as much as 100% in some situational contexts, but can have almost no influence on perpetration in other contexts. Current findings are discussed considering existing bullying scholarship and recommendations for policy and future areas of research are presented.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-06-10T06:49:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221103754
       
  • A Qualitative Examination of Correctional Programming Perceptions and
           Experiences Among Incarcerated Women

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      Authors: Kaitlyn M. Pederson, Wesley T. Smith, Kiarra Fortney, Janet L. Mullings, Ashley G. Blackburn
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The rate at which women experience incarceration has increased substantially over the last four decades. Justice-involved women are often the primary caretakers of children and suffer more often from mental health, substance use, and other issues at higher rates than justice-involved males. Previous research has noted the need for gender-responsive programming, but less research has explored women inmate perceptions of the programming within women correctional facilities. This qualitative study examined 545 incarcerated women across multiple institutions in a large Southern prison system. We asked incarcerated women about their perceptions of accessibility, needs, benefits, and problems in correctional programming. Findings indicate that women’s programming may still not adequately address gender-based needs. Additionally, women among the sample identified several programming-related issues.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:28:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098578
       
  • Examining the Geography of Illicit Massage Businesses Hosting Commercial
           Sex and Sex Trafficking in the United States: The Role of Census Tract and
           City-Level Factors

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      Authors: Ieke de Vries
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Despite extensive theory and research on the geography of crime, few studies have examined the geography of commercial sex and sex trafficking through a criminological lens. As such, this study explores how social disorganization and routine activities help explain the geography of commercial sex venues, specifically illicit massage businesses (IMBs) that host commercial sex. Because IMBs have also been linked to sex trafficking, understanding which environmental contexts are conducive to their presence may also help identify sex trafficking premises. Findings from hierarchical logistic regression models indicate that both theories point to significant correlates of IMB placement in census tracts and cities, yet neither theory provides a sufficient explanation alone. Implications for future research and policy will be discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:24:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221090952
       
  • Socioeconomic Strain, Bullying Perpetration, and Negative Emotions: A
           Re-specification of GST

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      Authors: Emily Strohacker, Stephen J. Watts, Lauren E. Wright
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional bullying and cyberbullying are common problems faced by today’s youth. Research seeking to explain bullying perpetration has often invoked Agnew’s general strain theory (GST). However, research to date has often explored within a given study only a single emotion at a time that can result from strain. Further, prior research has tended to take the causal ordering arguments of GST at face value. The current study seeks to focus on the correlation of strains related to socioeconomics with traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and negative emotions. Utilizing the Add Health data and path modeling in Mplus, results suggest that socioeconomic strain positively correlates with bullying perpetration and recent negative emotions. However, results suggest a potential causal chain that is the opposite of an expectation of GST, with bullying perpetration potentially affecting negative emotions, and not the other way around. Implications of the results for theory and policy are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:16:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221093326
       
  • The Joint Impact of Co-occupants and Co-defendants’ Criminal Behavior on
           Adolescents’ Criminal Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

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      Authors: Jacqueline A. M. Wientjes, Ron H. J. Scholte, Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Marc J. M. H. Delsing
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigated the joint impact of co-occupants and codefendants criminal behavior on adolescent criminal behavior using official Dutch police records. Co-occupant and co-defendant criminal behavior were used as proxies for family and peer criminal behavior, respectively. Data spanning 8 years (2010–2017) were analyzed from 56,802 adolescents, their co-occupants and co-defendants. Cross-lagged analyses were used to investigate prospective effects of co-occupant and co-defendant delinquency on adolescent delinquency. For males, prospective effects were found of co-defendant on adolescent delinquency violent offences, violent property offences, and nonviolent property offences. For females, prospective effects of co-defendants’ delinquency were found for nonviolent property offences. Our findings underscore that having co-defendants with delinquent behavior is an important risk factor for delinquent activities in adolescence.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:12:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221095412
       
  • Which Risk Factors Plays the Most Critical Role for Delinquent
           Behavior' Examining Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory

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      Authors: Sungil Han, Yeonjae Park
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Some developmental criminologists have focused on the influence of risk factors in an early stage of one’s life to explain criminal behavior and provide catered intervention. However, relatively less attention has been made to situational risk factors in developmental criminology. Recently, the Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential theory (ICAP) argued that both long-term antisocial potential and short-term situational factors influence one’s criminal behavior. This study formulated hypotheses derived from ICAP and tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The findings indicate that delinquent behavior and substance use of juveniles are related to both long-term risk factors (parent substance use or food insecurity) and situational factors (delinquent peer).
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:07:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221096339
       
  • Cyberstalking Victims’ Experiences With Fear Versus Other Emotional
           Responses to Repeated Online Pursuit: Revisiting the Fear Standard Among a
           National Sample of Young Adults

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      Authors: Erica R. Fissel, Bradford W. Reyns, Matt R. Nobles, Bonnie S. Fisher, Kathleen A. Fox
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study empirically examines situational and personal characteristics associated with victims’ responses to cyberstalking. In the context of these responses, there has been much debate regarding the “fear standard,” which requires victims or reasonable persons to feel fearful as a result of stalking. To examine victim responses to cyberstalking, survey data were collected from 880 young adults in the U.S. who were repeatedly pursued online (cyberstalked) within the previous year. Findings revealed that the majority (67.84%) of respondents did not feel fear in response to the repeated online pursuit. However, approximately half (50.23%) did experience a substantial (non-fear) emotional response. Multivariate findings identified situational and victim characteristics that impacted the reactions experienced, and these effects varied by type of reaction. The results indicate that definitions requiring fear underestimate the prevalence of cyberstalking.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T09:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221096374
       
  • Fear Among the Feared: Arab Americans’ Fear of Crime in an Ethnic
           Enclave Community

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      Authors: Amarat Zaatut, Shannon K. Jacobsen
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing on racial threat hypothesis and in-depth interviews with first- and second-generation Arab immigrants, this study explores Arab immigrants’ perceptions of risk and fear of crime in an ethnic enclave community. We find that Arab immigrants’ fear of crime is shaped by the unique context in which they live, with this particular population perceiving members of other minority groups as the greatest threat to their culture, community, and safety. This study extends the minority threat perspective, which typically highlights the majority group’s fear of immigrants and other minorities, by examining the inverse of this relationship. Specifically, what and who do immigrants fear at a time when they are perceived as one of the most threatening populations in the U.S.'
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T08:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098580
       
  • “Put it in Your Toolbox”: How Vocational Programs Support Formerly
           Incarcerated Persons through Reentry

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      Authors: Katelynn Towne, Michael Campagna, Ryan Spohn, Amber Richey
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study utilized life story interviews with 21 formerly incarcerated individuals to examine the role vocational reentry programming played in the desistance process. We begin with a review of theories of desistance and the state of reentry programs. A thematic analysis revealed that providers assisted individuals to understand their behavioral trajectories and to take steps toward desistance. Further, participants felt empowered by program provided social support, developed strategies to overcome employment barriers, and held resilient and optimistic attitudes in changing their identities and behavioral trajectories. We conclude with a discussion on how these findings can inform desistance theory and reentry policy.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T08:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098581
       
  • Protecting Stories: How Symbolic Boundaries Reduce Victimization and
           Harmful Drug Use

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      Authors: Heith Copes, Sveinung Sandberg, Jared Ragland
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Symbolic boundaries are used for establishing narrative identities and have critical impact on behavior and interpersonal interactions. Using data from a photo-ethnography of people who use methamphetamine in Alabama we show how women use stories and images to draw symbolic boundaries between themselves and others. These boundaries made sense of their meth use, but also guided behavior, controlled drug use, and aided in negotiating personal relationships. Maintaining boundaries through stories and images is important for people with drug problems, as such boundaries provide self-worth and serve as ideals to be lived up to. Symbolic boundaries can thus reduce harmful drug use and be an important means for exercising control and agency at the margins of society.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T07:28:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221100131
       
  • Estimating Targeted Group Threats in the Juvenile Justice System: An
           Examination of Disproportionate Minority Contact at Preadjudication
           Detention

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      Authors: Steven N. Zane
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether group threats in the surrounding social context positively moderate disproportionate minority contact at preadjudication detention in the juvenile justice system. To do so, the study utilizes a multijurisdictional sample of 96,619 juvenile court referrals across 139 counties (within four states) to examine a series of group threats—racial, ethnic, economic, and age threat. Due to the nested structure of the data, multilevel models are employed. To test the hypotheses, cross-level interactions between group threats and defendant race and ethnicity are estimated following current best practices for measuring interactions with nonlinear dependent variables. Findings indicate mixed and mostly limited support for the group threat hypotheses, consistent with prior mixed findings. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-28T07:24:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221098589
       
  • Evaluating Oregon’s Justice Reinvestment Act: An Interrupted Time-Series
           Regression of State-Level Outcomes

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      Authors: Christopher W. Dollar, Christopher M. Campbell, Ryan M. Labrecque
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Many jurisdictions across the U.S. have adopted justice reinvestment initiatives (JRIs) as a strategy for reducing the use of incarceration and mitigating large correctional budgets. In spite of this widespread adoption, little empirical research has explored the impacts of justice reinvestment policies. In response, this study employed quasiexperimental, interrupted time-series regression analyses using a decade of monthly court and corrections data to assess if JRI legislation in Oregon was effective. Results show decreased prison usage and recidivism, as well as reveal delayed and significant trend changes for felony jail admissions and community corrections populations as a result of the JRI legislations. A course for future research to further advance understanding of reinvestment and resource reallocation is outlined.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T06:01:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221096343
       
  • Risk Avoidance Behavior on Darknet Marketplaces

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      Authors: Christian Jordan Howell, David Maimon, Robert C. Perkins, George W. Burruss, Marie Ouellet, Yubao Wu
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The current study employs a quasi-experimental design to test the efficacy of situational crime prevention (SCP) in understanding risk avoidance behavior in a darknet environment. Specifically, we deployed a web scraper to extract data from a popular darknet market. We then used these data to assess change in vendors and customers’ behavior following the deliverance of a warning message from the market administrator regarding the former market administrator’s intention to scam market participants. In the one-month following the message, vendors posted fewer advertisements and customers spent less and made fewer transactions on the marketplace. These findings expand the scope of SCP and provide evidence for Hutchings and Holt’s notion that darknet markets can be disrupted by means of gossip.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T10:23:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221092713
       
  • From Family to Peer Systems: Mixed-Methods Study of Spillover Mechanisms
           on Juvenile Delinquency in China

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      Authors: Tzu-Hsuan Liu, Spencer De Li
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to the field of mixed methods by exemplifying the complementarities of two of the most widely used quantitative and qualitative analytic methods to explore the general pattern of the spillover effects on juvenile delinquency. It employed exploratory sequential and convergent mixed-methods. To ensure validity and reliability of the measurement items, the exploratory sequential mixed research design guided construction of the questionnaire and data collection. Structural equation modeling and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses corroborated the empirical findings. Results from the mixed-methods analyses showed the significance of marital conflict’s spillover effects on juvenile delinquency and recognized the multiple paths through which youth mental health problems and delinquent peer associations operate as key mechanisms connecting marital conflict to juvenile delinquency.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T10:21:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221090957
       
  • Exploring Homicide Diversity: Femicide Across Sociocultural Groups

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      Authors: Hava Dayan, Chen Kugel, Guy Enosh
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study followed the current scholarly interest in seeking possible links between social and cultural factors and homicide by offering comparative nation-based observations on femicide. To this end, the study analyzed femicide events across social groups in Israel (veteran Jews, Jewish immigrants from the former USSR, Ethiopian immigrant Jews, Arabs, Christians, Druze, Muslims, and Bedouin) and foreigners (asylum seekers and foreign workers) during a 6-year period (2010–2015). Data from 162 cases were collected and coded based on 25 sociodemographic and criminological variables. Empirical observations suggest sociocultural diversity in the femicide phenomenon across social groups. Femicide’s frequency and sociodemographic characteristics seem to be related to cultural dimensions pertaining to individualistic versus collectivistic cultures, with social factors such as level of education, socioeconomic status, and immigration possible overriding the effects of cultural dimensions on femicide. Highlighting sociocultural criminal diversity, the article’s observations may be of great relevance to societies facing the challenge of assimilating diverse sociocultural groups.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T10:19:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221086273
       
  • Convergence in Homicide Rates Across the European Union Countries: Toward
           an Effective and Genuine Security Union

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      Authors: Ezgi Adıyaman, Saadet Kasman
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates whether homicide rates among the European Union (EU) member countries tend to converge over the period 1990 to 2018. We use the concept of β-convergence proposed by Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1992) and employ the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, hereafter) methodology for 2-years span panel data of 26 EU member countries. The results provide strong evidence for both absolute and conditional convergence of homicide rates across EU countries. Moreover, speed of homicide convergence is increased by the control variables, namely GDP per capita and unemployment rate. Hence, we conclude that the economic integration contributes to the process of convergence in homicide rates in the EU.JEL classification: O47; C23; K42
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T02:08:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221092718
       
  • What’s in Your File Drawer' The Case of the Missing Null in
           Criminology and Criminal Justice

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      Authors: Matthew S. Crow, John Ortiz Smykla, Haydon O’Brien, Tori Cerna, Alexander Johnson, Sarah Pisaris, Mariana Suarez, Jordyn Wilder
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Analysis of scholarship in the physical, biological, and social sciences has discovered that peer-reviewed journals publish a much larger proportion of articles with statistically significant findings compared to articles with null results. Publication bias in criminology and criminal justice (CCJ) has received very little attention, however. The current study is an exploratory analysis of research in leading CCJ journals across 2 years to determine the current state of null findings in contemporary CCJ scholarship. Our findings are consistent with studies in other disciplines; null results are rare in leading CCJ journals. We explore the context of our findings, outline the importance of examining publication bias to improve CCJ research and better inform policy, and discuss the limitations of our approach.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:27:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221090959
       
  • Understanding Black-White Differences in Support for the Racial Invariance
           Thesis: Lessons Learned From Philadelphia Area Residents

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      Authors: Maisha N. Cooper, Carlene Barnaby, Alexander H. Updegrove, Shaun L. Gabbidon
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The racial invariance thesis contends causes of offending are similar across race/ethnicity. Black Criminology perceives some tension with this claim, suggesting instead that Black people share a unique worldview due to the racial oppression they face. This worldview may make Black people more receptive to criminological explanations identifying race-specific pathways to committing crime. In the post-Civil Rights era, many white people explain social phenomena like crime in colorblind ways. This study used a random sample of Philadelphia area residents to explore whether Black people were less likely than white people to support the racial invariance thesis. Logistic regression analyses revealed the odds of Black Philadelphians agreeing with the racial invariance thesis were 85% higher than the odds for white Philadelphians.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221090955
       
  • Churning Through the System: Implications of Fathers’ Reentry and
           Recidivism after Prison for Children’s Well-Being

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      Authors: Luke Muentner
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      One in fourteen children experience the incarceration of a parent only to be reunited upon release where risk for recidivism remains high—the implications of which for children’s well-being is not well understood. To fill this gap, the study uses data from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting and Partnering to follow 543 justice-involved fathers 18-months post-release. Results suggest that stable reentry trajectories are associated with children’s decreased behavior problems, particularly for those who are non-residential. Boys and older children may be more negatively influenced by frequency of recidivism whereas girls and younger children may benefit more from longer durations of community time. Findings inform strategies that ease reintegration processes and improve well-being for children in justice-involved families.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T10:16:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221087956
       
  • Delinquent by the Dozen: Youth From Larger Families Engage in More
           Delinquency—Fact or Myth'

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      Authors: Nicole L. Collier, Daniel P. Mears
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Studies suggest that there is a linear and positive relationship between family size and delinquency. However, questions exist about this assessment. Drawing on prior scholarship and analyses, we revisit and test the family size-delinquency relationship. We also test whether the effect varies by sibling relatedness. Results indicate no consistent or large criminogenic effect of larger families on delinquency and that the relationship is considerably more complicated than what prior work has identified. Some beneficial effects are identified for children in full biological households, some criminogenic effects are identified for children from non-full biological households, and the relationships are curvilinear. Findings underscore the need to revisit research on family size and delinquency and to take into account sibling relatedness.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:43:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221088036
       
  • How Safe Is Life on the Road' Criminal Victimization Among a Sample of
           U.S. Nomads and the #VanLife Community

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      Authors: Rachel Bridges Whaley, Jessica Abbott
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The current study provides the first estimates of criminal victimization prevalence among Nomads and members of the VanLife community. People who live and travel in manufactured recreational vehicles, retrofitted vans or buses, and cars are a heterogenous group who face an unknown risk of life on the road. Analyses reveal high victimization prevalence rates. Guided by lifestyle-routine activities theories, regression analyses reveal that gender, Latino ethnicity, income, and education affect risk of rape, aggravated assault, physical threats, property crime, aggravated property crime, and financial identity theft. Disaggregated analyses highlight those demographics that impact victimization risk for year-round Nomads versus part-timers. Questions about the lifestyles-routine activities of Nomads emerge from the analyses and directions for future research are offered.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221087957
       
  • County-level Correlates of Human Trafficking Arrest Levels in Ohio: Social
           Disorganization, Social Capital, and Physical Contexts

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      Authors: Hillary L. Benanzer, Valerie R. Anderson, Brittany E. Hayes
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The present study investigated county-level correlates of human trafficking arrest levels in Ohio. Study variables were comprised of measures derived from social disorganization, social capital, and physical contexts of Ohio counties (N = 88). A negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between county arrest counts and independent variables. Larger counts of human trafficking arrests were explained by higher levels of racial/ethnic heterogeneity, a social disorganization measure. Additionally, an increase in demand reduction strategy use was associated with a predicted increase in human trafficking arrest count. Further research on the influence of social variables and anti-human trafficking efforts on human trafficking arrest levels is needed to better understand how to effectively identify and combat human trafficking.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221084292
       
  • Crime Discounting of Violent Victimization: The Role of Crime Type and
           Incident-Level Correlates

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      Authors: Caitlyn N. Muniz, Ráchael A. Powers, Kacy Bleeker
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Many crime victims do not report their victimization and rates of reporting are disparate across crime types. While research has established victims are least likely to report sexual assault, less known is whether the crime discounting process affects reporting rates and whether this process differs by crime type. This paper thus examines reporting for robbery, sexual assault, and physical assault incidents, particularly exploring victims who indicated their incident was “not a crime.” Using the National Crime Victimization Survey (n = 15,012) and a series of logistic regressions, this study found that, holding a number of incident-level correlates constant, crime type was the most salient predictor of reporting to police and nonreporting because the incident was “not a crime.”
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T12:38:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077636
       
  • Revalidating the Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT) in a Major City:
           A Survival Analysis

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      Authors: Kyle Curtis Mueller, Marcus Tyler Carey, Keeyoon Noh
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The Positive Achievement Change Tool (PACT) is a popular risk-assessment tool used in juvenile justice systems across the country. This study is an effort at revalidating the PACT in the context of a large Southern city by utilizing days to recidivism in the context of survival analysis. The current research is concerned with whether the PACT’s risk classifications are effective in predicting recidivism. Findings indicate that the PACT effectively predicts recidivism better than chance and that recidivism is especially common early on in probation, with most incidents taking place within the first 200 days. However, the predictive validity of the PACT is not strong for the study population, and its implementation may benefit from context-specific reforms.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T11:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221087949
       
  • Presentence Investigation Reports and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in
           Sentencing

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      Authors: Rory Monaghan, Kaitlyn Konefal
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Racial/ethnic disparity in criminal sentencing is a major area of interest in criminal justice research. However, little research has examined the potential importance of the presentence investigation report (PSI) despite its wide-ranging use in criminal justice decision-making from sentencing onward. These reports are typically compiled by a probation officer post-conviction but before sentencing and provide relevant contextual information about offense and offender to aid the sentencing judge’s decision. Using data from the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing (PCS) (2006–2016), we examine the association between PSI completion and racial/ethnic disparities in sentencing. Results suggest that PSI completion is associated with more severe sentencing outcomes overall, but findings regarding racial/ethnic disparities are mixed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T06:10:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077632
       
  • The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Arrest in the Era of Cannabis
           Legalization

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      Authors: Mikala R. Meize, Mary K. Stohr, Dale W. Willits, Brittany Solensten, Monique M. Hampton, David A. Makin, Nicholas P. Lovrich, Craig Hemmens, Duane L. Stanton
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The War on Drugs resulted in increased arrest rates for women. Most of these arrests have been for low-level offenses, often involving cannabis. As states legalize cannabis, it is important to examine trends in arrests for women in a setting of early cannabis law reform. We examine National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) monthly cannabis arrest rates in Colorado, one of the first two states to legalize cannabis for recreational purposes, from January 2010 through December 2016 using an interrupted time series approach. The interruption is conceptualized as the legalization of recreational marijuana in December 2012. Our results document an immediate statistically significant and sizable drop in cannabis-related arrests for women following legalization. However, troublesome racial and ethnic disparities persist.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T12:42:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083892
       
  • An Examination of the Reciprocal Relations Between Treatment by Others,
           Anger, and Antisocial Behavior: A Partial Test of General Strain Theory

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      Authors: Allison G. Kondrat, Eric J. Connolly
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      General Strain Theory (GST) has received an impressive amount of empirical attention. However, much remains unknown about the role of sources of strain argued to be conducive to negative emotionality—such as perceived unjust treatment—on changes in anger and antisocial behavior over time. The current study aimed to begin to address this gap in the literature by assessing the relationship between changes in perceived unjust treatment, anger, and antisocial behavior across 8 years of the life course. Results from a series of auto-regressive cross-lagged models show support for GST, as well as offer evidence for new lines of empirical investigation. The reported findings offer some of the first evidence for a developmental cascade model of GST.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T10:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221087947
       
  • Mothers Inside and Out' Pseudo-Families and Motherhood in a
           Women’s Prison

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      Authors: Julia Dillavou, Derek A. Kreager, Theodore Greenfelder, Yiwen Zhang
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The pseudo-family is a longstanding carceral concept, but its existence and characteristics are uncertain in contemporary women’s prisons. This study explores pseudo-family membership and pseudo-motherhood among 132 women incarcerated in a maximum-security prison. Self-reported data reveal that the pseudo-family remains an active concept in the sampled prison, with over half of the surveyed women reporting prison family membership. Pseudo-mothers are perceived as maternal, supportive, and wise by their pseudo-children. Multivariate OLS and logistic regressions suggest that pseudo-mothers had similar relationship quality with, and visitation from, their biological children, compared to other imprisoned mothers. These findings contribute to our understanding of women’s adaptations to incarceration and have implications for family reunification policies.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T10:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083884
       
  • Occupational Attainment and Criminal Justice Contact: Does Type of Contact
           Matter'

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      Authors: Alexandra V. Nur, Rory Monaghan
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Contact with the justice system is associated with negative overall employment and wage outcomes. An understudied employment-based outcome of interest for justice-involved populations is occupational prestige attainment, or relative social status position based on occupation. This outcome is salient to justice-involved populations as embedment in low-quality, low-prestige work may have substantial impacts on later upward mobility. Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (n = 1,382), we assess whether arrest, probation, and jail are differentially related to occupational prestige attainment for young adults. Results indicate that justice involvement inhibits occupational prestige attainment, and that removal from the community in the form of jail may pose particular detriments to overall occupational prestige attainment compared to arrest or probation.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T10:10:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221086270
       
  • A Reconceptualization of Social Bond Theory to Predict Change Sequences in
           Offending

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      Authors: Daniel P. Mears, Mark C. Stafford
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      We argue that reconceptualizing social bond theory (SBT) through incorporation of dual agency and change can identify unique causal change sequences, improve its ability to explain offending, and generate new questions about it. The reconceptualization recognizes that individuals and those with whom they interact play an ongoing role in contributing to the bond. It shows that changes in the bond can contribute to changes in delinquency through three sequences, each with a unique over-time pattern that depends on how bond agents respond to delinquency. We identify implications for SBT—highlighting that theoretical arguments about static effects do not necessarily equate to straightforward predictions about change effects—and, more broadly, efforts to advance theories of offending.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T10:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221088000
       
  • The Interplay Between Virtual Socializing, Unstructured Socializing, and
           Delinquency

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      Authors: Wanda E. Leal, Cashen M. Boccio, Dylan B. Jackson
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescent socialization patterns have shifted toward less in-person socializing and more virtual socializing. Thus, it’s important to determine the association between virtual socializing and delinquency and whether virtual socializing represents a separate construct or a technological evolution of unstructured socializing. We explore this by using a modern virtual socializing scale on a nationally representative sample of eighth to 10th graders from the 2018 Monitoring the Future survey. Results indicate that virtual socializing is associated with delinquency, and unstructured socializing somewhat attenuates this relationship, but virtual socializing remains a significant predictor. Karlson-Holm-Breen method was used to assess the degree of attenuation produced by unstructured socializing, and demonstrates that unstructured socializing attenuates about 20% of the effect of virtual socializing on delinquency.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T04:23:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083898
       
  • Empirical Issues in the Homicide-Income Inequality Argument

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      Authors: Carlos Vilalta, Edel Cadena, Gustavo Fondevila, Carlos Garrocho
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The argument that income inequality increases homicide rates has provoked scholarly debate, with some studies not supporting this position and providing evidence to the contrary. We identify several empirical issues with the current body of evidence, as well as their underlying problems. We challenge these issues by using more robust techniques than those typical of this literature. Based on the case of Mexican municipalities, we provide evidence that in fact, homicide rates correlated negatively with income inequality between 1990 and 2015, and that this relationship was moderated by levels of socioeconomic marginality. Likewise, we show evidence of spatial dependence in the relationship, thus challenging the assumption that geospatial units of analysis are probabilistically independent of each other.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T04:21:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083885
       
  • Greed Restraint: Ambiguity Aversion, Reference Dependence, and
           Self-Centeredness as Sources of Self-Regulation in Instrumental Crime

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      Authors: Bruce A. Jacobs, Michael Cherbonneau, Justin T. Pickett
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Based on in-depth interviews with 29 active drug robbers (25 male, 4 female) from St. Louis, MO (USA), we explore restraint among people and in circumstances where there should be none. Focusing on greed restraint at the crime’s payoff point (i.e., not taking everything one could when rewards are seized), we identify the decision-making constructs and conceptual pathways by which this happens and discuss their implications for improved specification of the relationship between criminal propensity, self-regulation, and risk sensitivity. We contend that self-centeredness is the one dimension of criminal propensity that is sufficiently receptive to risk sensitivity to make self-regulation possible, and that individuals with low trait self-control can show state self-control when ambiguity aversion and reference point expectations align to sate anomic greed. This refinement offers novel pathways for future study of dual-influence models of crime, and suggests that offender decision-making is best conceptualized as a process that unfolds during crimes rather than a discrete event that precedes them.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-03T04:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221074968
       
  • A Cross-National Multilevel Analysis of Fear of Crime: Exploring the Roles
           of Institutional Confidence and Institutional Performance

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      Authors: Kai Lin
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Drawing upon Wave 7 of the World Value Survey, this study performed multilevel analysis on fear of crime among 47,996 residents from 36 diverse nations. Confidence in the government and perceived government performance were identified as significant predictors of crime fear. Further analysis showed the effect of confidence in the government stemmed primarily from between-country variation, whereas both within-country and between-country variation in perceived government performance shaped fear of crime. In addition, macroeconomic factors and the proportion of urban population, but not national-level homicide rate, were found to be salient country-level predictors. The findings contextualize the elevated fear of crime in some countries despite declining crime rates and inform the recommendation that institutional confidence and performance be prioritized in crime fear reduction efforts.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T08:38:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221074954
       
  • Post-Conviction Review on Trial: When do Appellate Courts Correct for
           Prosecutorial Misconduct'

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      Authors: Heather L. Scheuerman, Elizabeth Griffiths, Daniel S. Medwed
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Appellate courts sometimes provide relief in cases where prosecutors engage in certain actions, either free from scrutiny during investigation (backstage) or under judicial oversight during litigation (front-stage), that go beyond their authority and the law. Yet little is known about how the nature and types of prosecutorial misconduct recognized by appellate courts systematically affect their decisions to provide relief. Using data from the Center for Prosecutor Integrity, we analyze 150 appellate court cases between 2010 and 2015 in which prosecutorial misconduct is substantiated by the courts. We find that higher courts are more likely to correct for cases involving multiple types of misconduct and for cases in which the misconduct occurs “backstage,” outside of judicial oversight, rather than during litigation.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T01:24:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221084288
       
  • Assessing the Victim-Offender Overlap Among Adolescents in Rural China

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      Authors: Nicole W.T. Cheung, Hua Zhong
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Grounded in criminological theories (routine activity, social bonding, social disorganization, control balance, differential association, and general strain), this study extended the victim-offender overlap research by considering the specificity of rurality. We collected data from 2,839 adolescents in rural China and applied multilevel item response theory modeling. Both victim-offender overlap and differentiation were evident among rural adolescents. The victimization-offending overlap was associated with unstructured socializing, family and neighborhood control, moral beliefs, peer delinquency, and certain forms of social strain (loss of positively valued stimuli and exposure to negative stimuli). The differential tendency toward victimization over offending was a function of non-deviant solitary routines, failure to achieve positively valued goals, and strain-specific depression. The insignificance of control imbalance may need clarification of its conceptual relevance to rurality.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-30T01:22:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083888
       
  • The Legacy of Troubled Childhoods: Adverse Childhood Experiences, Sleep,
           and Delinquency

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      Authors: Tiffaney A. Tomlinson, Daniel P. Mears, Brian J. Stults, Ryan C. Meldrum, Jillian J. Turanovic, Jacob T. N. Young
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have called for greater understanding of the effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on later youth development, including research on sleep as a potential contributor to delinquency. This study seeks to extend that work by situating the focus on ACEs and sleep within a life-course perspective, one that examines life events and turning points, the disruptions that they create, and their longer-term consequences for youth. In particular, drawing on a large-scale survey of high school students, we examine whether ACEs influence delinquency and whether this effect is mediated by sleep. We find modest support for the central hypothesis that ACEs contribute to suboptimal sleep and in turn delinquency. Implications for research and policy are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T07:11:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083961
       
  • Introducing and Exploring the Extremist Cybercrime Database (ECCD)

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      Authors: Thomas J. Holt, Steven M. Chermak, Joshua D. Freilich, Noah Turner, Emily Greene-Colozzi
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study uses open source, public information to examine nation-state and non-nation-state ideologically motivated cyberattacks performed against US targets from 1998 to 2018. We created the Extremist Cyber Crime Database (ECCD) that includes scheme, offender and target codebooks to address gaps in existing research and better inform policymakers. We describe our open source collection procedures, the type of information uncovered, and how we assessed their quality and reliability. We highlight our findings, compare these extremist cyber-crimes to extremist real world violence, and discuss their conceptual and policy implications.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T07:06:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083899
       
  • Gender Differences in Cyberbullying Victimization From a Developmental
           Perspective: An Examination of Risk and Protective Factors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yeungjeom Lee, Michelle N. Harris, Jihoon Kim
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Although a growing number of studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying victimization, less is known about the gender differences in developmental nature of cyberbullying victimization. This study aims to examine (1) developmental pathways of cyberbullying victimization by gender, and (2) gender differences in the risk and protective factors. Relying on longitudinal data of Korean youth, we found three latent trajectories for girls and four subgroups for boys. In general, results found somewhat different developmental patterns of cyberbullying victimization by gender. Also, results showed both gender similarities and differences in predictors. Peer support was the only consistent factor across boys and girls and there were gendered predictors as well. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T07:04:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221081025
       
  • American Indians’ Attitudes Toward the Appropriateness of Use of
           Force by the Police

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      Authors: Erica Redner-Vera, Danielle Wallace
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Individuals’ perceptions of law enforcement officers and their actions are important for understanding personal criminality, police legitimacy, and legal cynicism. Race and ethnicity play a role in shaping these perceptions, however little work has been done to understand American Indian perceptions. We employ the General Social Survey to assess how American Indians compare to individuals of other races regarding their approval of police use of force. American Indians are less supportive of police use of force than whites. However, when compared to other people of color, American Indians are more supportive of use of force across five different police-citizen types of encounters. We conclude by examining the importance of considering different racial and ethnic views on legal authority.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-18T06:54:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221083897
       
  • The “Learning Disabilities-to-Prison” Pipeline: Evidence From the Add
           Health National Longitudinal Study

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      Authors: Christopher A. Mallett, Linda Quinn, Jinhee Yun, Miyuki Fukushima-Tedor
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Young people with learning disabilities, and in particular those of color, are significantly more at risk for having school difficulties, delinquency, and incarceration. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data were used to investigate how learning disabilities, school experiences, gender, and race impacted delinquency and criminal activity and incarceration—looking at a learning disabilities-to-prison link. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationship between measured variables and latent constructs, comparing those young people with learning disabilities and those without. It was found that these pathways are quite complicated to discern; reflecting the current knowledge of this “learning disabilities pipeline” hypothesis. For young people with learning disabilities compared to young people without learning disabilities, juvenile delinquency was more likely if the young person was male or Hispanic; criminal activities were more likely for Black children and for those delinquent or incarcerated as a juvenile; and females were less likely to be incarcerated as an adult, but school dropouts, Black children, and those incarcerated as a juvenile were more likely. Implications are set forth, as well as recommendations to stakeholders.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-10T10:29:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221081024
       
  • The Effect of Self-Defense Laws on Firearm Use Among Criminal Offenders

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      Authors: Stewart J. D’Alessio, Lisa Stolzenberg, Rob T. Guerette, Kristen M. Zgoba
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Criminal violence frequently increases within jurisdictions following the implementation of self-defense laws. One explanation for this finding is a firearm amplification effect, whereby criminal offenders increasingly use firearms as a direct response to the amplified threat engendered by citizens. Using longitudinal data drawn from the National Incident-Based Reporting System for 95 cities situated in 15 states, we investigate whether the passing of a stand your ground or castle doctrine law amplifies the likelihood of gun use by criminal offenders. Results from a panel analysis show a marked rise in gun use among criminal offenders following the imposition of both types of self-defense laws. These findings furnish empirical support for the firearm amplification thesis.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T07:18:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077629
       
  • The Role of Sex and Compulsory Heterosexuality Within the Rural
           Methamphetamine Market

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      Authors: Alessandra Milagros Early, Heidi Grundetjern
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of the connection between methamphetamine use and sex have tended to focus on white gay men or men who have sex with men. Drawing from semi-structured interviews with 40 predominantly white cisgender heterosexual women who used methamphetamine in rural Missouri, we investigate the multiple ways in which sex played into their market navigations. Our findings reveal the nuances of sexual agency within the methamphatamine market’s patriarchal structural constraints. Sexual violence of the methamphetamine market. We utilize and expand upon a queer criminological framework to interrogate the intersecting gendered and sexualized expectations that cisgender heterosexual men imposed on women. Our study shows how compulsory heterosexuality shapes behavior within the rural methamphetamine market.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T07:13:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077644
       
  • From Crime to Terrorism: Life-Circumstances and Criminal Careers of
           Terrorist Suspects

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      Authors: Elanie Rodermond, Fabienne Thijs
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      It is widely acknowledged that factors such as previous offending and unemployment increase the risk of offending, but it remains unclear to what extent this also holds true for terrorist suspects. Using register-data on individuals suspected of a terrorist offense in the Netherlands, the present study takes on a life-course criminological approach to study the background and criminal career of terrorist suspects. Moreover, we compare their background to that of general criminal suspects and members of the general population. Our findings support the idea of a “new” crime-terror nexus at the individual level and show similarities between terrorist suspects and regular suspects.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T07:12:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077645
       
  • Parenting Narratives Among Methamphetamine Using Mothers and Fathers

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      Authors: Blake Beaton, Heith Copes
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the narratives of parents and stepparents who used methamphetamine to uncover how they talk about parenting decisions relating to their children using drugs. We find that parents draw on themes of protecting children from harm to justify their decisions and to frame themselves as responsible parents. Whereas most said that they would not use with their children, those who did justified their choices by saying they were protecting their children. Regardless of whether they used with their children or not, parents narratively framed their decisions in ways that they believed reflected parenting beliefs common in their social setting. Our findings suggest that one’s ability to frame parenting decisions in culturally accepted practices can facilitate intergenerational drug use.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T07:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211073675
       
  • Police Training and Accountability: A Remedy or an Impediment for Reducing
           Unarmed Police Shootings'

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      Authors: Bradley J. O’Guinn
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The deaths of unarmed black citizens at the hands of police have led to dramatic calls for police reform. Some observers claim that officers are poorly trained and unaccountable for their actions. In this study, I test whether measures of organizational training and accountability reduce the likelihood of unarmed fatal officer-involved shootings (OIS). The results suggest external review of deadly force may decrease the likelihood of fatal OIS of unarmed black citizens. Other training and accountability mechanisms are unrelated to, or increase the likelihood of, fatal shootings. More research is needed to determine the causal links between the training and accountability mechanisms outlined in this study and fatal police shootings.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:35:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221074959
       
  • Improving Youths’ Perceptions of Law Enforcement: Results From an
           Experimental Design in Two Cities

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      Authors: Alyssa M. Sheeran, Tina L. Freiburger, Victoria A. Knoche
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study examined the effectiveness of Students Talking it Over with Police (STOP) to improve youth’s perceptions of the police, perceptions of procedural justice, willingness to cooperate with police, willingness to file a police report, and knowledge about how to file a police report. An experimental design was employed in Racine, WI and St. Louis, MO and found that STOP was effective in improving perceptions of the police, perceptions of procedural justice, and willingness to cooperate with police in both locations; limited evidence was found in youth’s willingness to file and knowledge about how to file a police report. Analyses in St. Louis found that race/ethnicity and grade level were associated with knowledge about how to file a police report.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221074943
       
  • Examination of Grasmick et al.’s Low Self-Control Scale and of a Short
           Version With Cross-Gender Measurement Invariance

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      Authors: Pedro Pechorro, Matt DeLisi, Catarina Pacheco, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves, João Maroco, Jorge Quintas
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Grasmick et al.’s Low Self-Control Scale (LSCS) is considered the gold-standard of self-control measures due to the frequency of its use in criminology. The aim of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the LSCS from a more modern psychometric perspective and develop a shorter version. Our sample consisted of young adults (N = 610, M = 21.33 years, SD = 3.09) from Portugal. The six-factor intercorrelated model of the LSCS showed an adequate fit, but models that would legitimate using a total score could not be confirmed. The subscales’ intercorrelations revealed some low non-significant correlations. The six subscales showed distinctive correlates with other measures, with three subscales presenting some problematic correlations. Confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently used to develop a three-factor shorter version with strong cross-gender measurement invariance and good reliability. Findings have implications for the validity of the general theory of crime specifically which components of self-control have the greatest empirical linkages to conduct problems and related deviance.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T10:27:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211073674
       
  • Changing Patterns in Violent Victimization: An Exploration of Causes and
           Correlates of the Narrowing Gender Gap (1973–2018)

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      Authors: David R. Lilley, Megan C. Stewart, Kasey A. Tucker-Gail
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Historically, violent male victimization has been substantially higher than females, but since the 1970s has declined toward near gender parity. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify causes or correlates for this unprecedented change. Victimization data (NCS/NCVS, 1973–2018) were combined with social, economic, behavioral, and criminal justice data from eight sources to examine longitudinal trends using time series (ARIMA) and panel data modeling. Results show that the narrowing of the gender victimization ratio was not a direct byproduct of changes in crime but was correlated with lower high school dropout rates, improved economic conditions, more women in the workforce, and increased numbers of police officers. Further research is needed to identify specific causal mechanisms related to these variables.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T12:57:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211072447
       
  • Examining Sex-Based Measurement Invariance in the Youth Level of
           Service/Case Management Inventory

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      Authors: Mary K. Kitzmiller, Kayla Hoskins, Caitlin Cavanagh
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Juvenile risk assessments are used to predict likelihood of reoffending in court-involved youths, and inform several decisions throughout court supervision. Accordingly, it is critical that the psychometric properties of juvenile risk assessment instruments are consistent for youths across demographic subgroups, particularly biological sex. This study tests the measurement invariance of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) by sex. Analyses draw from 2,384 youths who were adjudicated as delinquent in a county-level juvenile court. Results indicate that the factor configuration and structure of the YLS/CMI are consistent for youths across sex. However, boys and girls differ appreciably in risk profile. Findings validate the use of the YLS/CMI and highlight the importance of responsivity to sex-based variation in criminogenic risk.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-29T08:35:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211073677
       
  • Examining the Relationship Between Cognitive Ability and Arrest Using a
           Differential Offenses Hypothesis: Evidence of Inconsistent Mediation

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      Authors: Sultan Altikriti
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The current study assessed the role of differential offense category involvement in the link between cognitive ability and arrest. Using structural equation modeling, the current study relied on data from the Pathways (n = 1,354) and Add Health (n = 3,605) to address three research questions on the differential etiology of offending category (aggressive and property), the mediating effects of disaggregated offending on the relationship between IQ and arrest, and how those effects vary across samples. The results suggested the negative association between IQ and arrest masked more complex processes encompassing opposing indirect paths through aggressive (negative) and property (positive) offending, suggesting inconsistent mediation. As a result, the total indirect effect of IQ on arrest through offending was suppressed when an aggregated offending measure was used, highlighting the value of disaggregating offending categories.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T06:13:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211057862
       
  • The Influence of Gentrification and Murders by Youths

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      Authors: Jaime R. Argueta, Lin Liu, John E. Eck
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Research shows that gentrification influences crime. However, there are no quantitative studies on gentrification’s impact on juvenile offending. This paper begins to fill this gap by examining the impact of gentrification on homicides by juveniles. To do this, we use Block, Block, and Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority’s data on Chicago Homicides from 1965 through 1995. We couple these data with historical census data to create a dataset of victims killed by juveniles within gentrified and non-gentrified census tracts. We employ a pooled, longitudinal Poisson regression model. Our findings indicate that gentrification is moderately and negatively associated with people killed by juveniles.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:36:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211072448
       
  • A Person-Centered, Theoretically-Informed Analysis of Gender Differences
           in Aggression

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      Authors: Leana A. Bouffard, Lisa R. Muftić, Nicole Niebuhr, Jeff A. Bouffard
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The “gender gap” in offending is largest for violent crime types, and many theoretical perspectives have attempted to account for this gap. The current study provides unique insight into these issues by using a sample of men and women in prison to examine and explain intentions to be aggressive in response to a hypothetical scenario. Results show that similar factors (e.g., low self-control, prior aggression) predict aggressive responses to a hypothetical scenario for both men and women, but some evidence also emerged that different factors account for men’s and women’s behavior (e.g., education, family attachment).
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T11:04:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211072436
       
  • The Accuracy of Arrest Data in the National Incident-Based Reporting
           System (NIBRS)

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      Authors: Theodore P. Cross, Alex Wagner, Daniel Bibel
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This study compared NIBRS arrest data in a statewide sample with arrest and summons data on the same cases collected directly from law enforcement agencies (LEAs). NIBRS matched LEA data in 84.1% of cases. However, 5.8% of LEA arrests and 52.9% of LEA summons were false negatives, that is, they were incorrectly represented as not cleared by arrest in NIBRS. False negatives were more likely when more than 1 day elapsed between incident and arrest and when the crimes were sexual assault or intimidation. False negatives were less likely in small LEAs (for summons) Recommendations are presented for improving accuracy.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T08:02:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211067180
       
  • Digital Disclosure of Delinquency: Online Peers and the Sharing of Offline
           Crime

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      Authors: Timothy McCuddy
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Digital communication poses challenges for scholars interested in the link between peers and crime since youth are often less inhibited online and can more easily share their opinions and experiences with offline activities. Drawing on longitudinal data from middle and high school students, this study explores how online communication impacts the sharing of personal and peer delinquency. Criminogenic risk factors are largely unrelated to the digital disclosure of personal delinquency among those who offend; however, peer online disclosure is related to self-reported delinquency, independent of perceived peer delinquency. These findings suggest cyberspace may extend offline mechanisms of peer influence beyond providing a unique source of online influence.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T07:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211067179
       
  • Traveling Alone or Together' Neighborhood Context on Individual and
           Group Juvenile and Adult Burglary Decisions

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      Authors: Alyssa W. Chamberlain, Lyndsay N. Boggess, Taylor Fisher
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Neighborhood characteristics are important considerations when offenders make targeting decisions. Movement patterns among adults and juveniles vary widely, which impacts both the number of crime opportunities and the range of neighborhoods to which an offender is exposed. We test whether offending patterns among adult and juvenile burglars vary based on distances traveled, the types of neighborhoods targeted, and whether suspects acted alone or in a group. Using discrete choice modeling, we draw upon a unique sample of cleared burglaries in a representative city in the south over a 13-year period. Results show that adult burglars consistently travel further and are more sensitive to neighborhood conditions than their juvenile counterparts, but that group participation makes little difference in target decisions.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-07T07:55:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211067177
       
  • Visitation Enablers and Barriers: Evaluating the Influences of Practical,
           Relational, and Experiential Factors on Visitation in Dutch Prisons

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      Authors: Maria Berghuis, Hanneke Palmen, Joshua Cochran, Paul Nieuwbeerta
      First page: 2225
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to advance theory and knowledge about prison visitation by organizing prior studies within a framework of visitation enablers and barriers and examining how practical, relational, and experiential factors explain variation in prison visiting among 773 adult males across eight Dutch prisons. Findings suggest that all three domains play out at once to influence visitation. Whether visitors come to visit seems to depend on their relationship with the incarcerated individual, whereas traveling distance is more predictive of how often they visit. Policies that introduce practical barriers can differentially affect visits from specific relationships. Finally, results indicate that incarcerated individuals make decisions about visits based on their in-prison experiences. Policy and research implications are discussed.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T06:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211061721
       
  • “Not for the Weak”: The Lived Experience of Women in Romantic
           Relationships With Incarcerated Individuals

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      Authors: Eman Tadros, Sarah Presley, Eunice Gomez
      First page: 2274
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The impacts of incarceration extend to the entire family system. The relational impact of incarceration is compounded by the increasing stressors romantic partners experience during incarceration. Romantic relationships are multifaceted and necessitate honoring the voices at the center of experience that are often silenced. Individuals in a romantic relationship with an incarcerated individual were interviewed to understand their lived experience using a phenomenological approach. Five themes (stigma, mental health services, suggestions, impact of incarceration, and limitations) emerged from the eight interviews. Implications are discussed to advocate for this population through research and clinical work.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T07:23:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287221077657
       
  • Challenging Normal Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Jailed
           Individuals Self-Report of Lifetime and in-Jail Suicidal Ideations

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      Authors: Frances P. Abderhalden
      First page: 2298
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      Suicidal behaviors are of critical public health concern. These behaviors are even more pervasive in the justice system, in particular in the correctional sector. Yet, the field of criminology has historically shown limited interest in furthering the scientific inquiry behind these behaviors. Interdisciplinary work has routinely been used as a buzz word in academia. This study argues that the intersection of criminology, psychology, and sociology are a beginning step to challenge normal science and progress into a new paradigm of scholarship, in relation to suicidology. The current study details the importance of knowledge building, exchange of theories, measurement, variables, and collaboration. Using real data to illustrate how this approach could work, a test of lifetime suicidal ideations and in-jail suicidal ideation is conducted to demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of suicide within justice involved populations.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T11:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211072442
       
  • The Effect of Legal Status on Prison Misconduct

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      Authors: Sylwia J. Piatkowska, Jennifer M. Brown, Javier Ramos, William D. Bales
      First page: 2328
      Abstract: Crime & Delinquency, Ahead of Print.
      The present study examines the relationship between legal status and prisoner misconduct by comparing official disciplinary infraction reports between documented, undocumented, and native-born inmates. We also examine the extent to which such effects vary across different types (i.e., criminal and non-criminal) of reported infractions. Using data from the Florida Department of Corrections, the results reveal that undocumented foreigners have a higher likelihood and a higher frequency of any misconduct and criminal misconduct as well as a higher frequency of non-criminal misconduct than the other two groups, while no such differences are found between documented and native-born prisoners. Our research underscores the salient role of legal status in predicting the in-prison behaviors of foreign-born inmates.
      Citation: Crime & Delinquency
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T06:16:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00111287211067178
       
 
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