Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
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    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
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    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
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    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 366)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 409)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 354)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 323)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 364)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 313)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 294)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 373)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 300)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 302)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 333)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)


Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Crime Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.336
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 57  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2193-7680
Published by SpringerOpen Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Illegal waste fly-tipping in the Covid-19 pandemic: enhanced compliance,
           temporal displacement, and urban–rural variation

    • Abstract: Objective Illegal dumping of household and business waste, known as fly-tipping in the UK, is a significant environmental crime. News agencies reported major increases early in the COVID-19 pandemic when waste disposal services were closed or disrupted. This study examines the effect of lockdowns on illegal dumping in the UK. Method A freedom of information request was sent to all local authorities in the UK asking for records of reported incidents of fly-tipping for before and after the first national lockdown. ARIMA modelling and year-on-year comparison was used to compare observed and expected levels of fly-tipping. Urban and rural local authorities were compared. Results A statistically significant decline in fly-tipping during the first lockdown was followed by a similar increase when lockdown ended. The effects largely cancelled each other out. There was pronounced variation in urban–rural experience: urban areas, with higher rates generally, experienced most of the initial drop in fly-tipping while some rural authorities experienced an increase. Conclusion Waste services promote compliance with laws against illegal dumping. When those services were disrupted during lockdown it was expected that fly-tipping would increase but, counter-intuitively, it declined. This enhanced compliance effect was likely due to increased perceived risk in densely populated urban areas. However, as lockdown restrictions were eased, fly-tipping increased to clear the backlog, indicating temporal displacement.
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
  • Need to go further: using INLA to discover limits and chances of
           burglaries’ spatiotemporal prediction in heterogeneous environments

    • Abstract: Abstract Near-repeat victimization patterns have made predictive models for burglaries possible. While the models have been implemented in different countries, the results obtained have not always been in line with initial expectations; to the point where their real effectiveness has been called into question. The ability to predict crime to improve preventive policing strategies is still under study. This study aims to discover the limitations to and the success of the models that attempt to predict burglaries based on spatiotemporal patterns of the risk of break-ins spreading in geographic proximity to the initial break-ins. A spatiotemporal log-Gaussian Cox process is contemplated to model the generic near-repeat victimization scenario and adjusted using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methodology. This approach is highly suitable for studying and describing the near-repeat phenomenon. However, predictions obtained with INLA are quite monotonous, of low variability and do not reproduce well the local and short-term dynamics of burglaries for predictive purposes. The conclusion is that predictive models cannot be restricted exclusively to distance decay risk, but they must be designed to detect other types of spatiotemporal patterns which, among other possibilities, open up the possibility of correlating distant events and clusters. Although other studies have already highlighted this problem, the proposal here is to go one step further and clearly extend the near-repeat spatial patterns to achieve better prediction results.
      PubDate: 2022-09-10
  • Anti-social behaviour in the coronavirus pandemic

    • Abstract: Abstract Anti-social behaviour recorded by police more than doubled early in the coronavirus pandemic in England and Wales. This was a stark contrast to the steep falls in most types of recorded crime. Why was ASB so different' Was it changes in ‘traditional’ ASB such as noisy neighbours, or was it ASB records of breaches of COVID-19 regulations' Further, why did police-recorded ASB find much larger early-pandemic increases than the Telephone Crime Survey for England and Wales' This study uses two approaches to address the issues. The first is a survey of police forces, via Freedom of Information requests, to determine whether COVID-regulation breaches were recorded as ASB. The second is natural language processing (NLP) used to interrogate the text details of police ASB records. We find police recording practice varied greatly between areas. We conclude that the early-pandemic increases in recorded ASB were primarily due to breaches of COVID regulations but around half of these also involved traditional forms of ASB. We also suggest that the study offers proof of concept that NLP may have significant general potential to exploit untapped police text records in ways that inform policing and crime policy.
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
  • Say NOPE to social disorganization criminology: the importance of creators
           in neighborhood social control

    • Abstract: Abstract Despite decades of research into social disorganization theory, criminologists have made little progress developing community programs that reduce crime. The lack of progress is due in part to faulty assumptions in the theory: that neighborhoods are important; that residents are the primary source of control; and that informal social controls are emergent. In this paper we propose an alternative: the neighborhoods out of places explanation (NOPE). NOPE starts with property parcels (i.e., proprietary places), rather than neighborhoods. It focuses on the power and legal authority of people and institutions that own property, rather than on residents. It posits that control is intentional and goal driven, rather than emergent. We refer to those who own and control as creators. This small group of elites shape city areas and residents must adapt to the environments that suppress or facilitate crime. We discuss how shifting our focus to creators provides important new implications for theory, research, and policy in criminology.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
  • Different places, different problems: profiles of crime and disorder at
           residential parcels

    • Abstract: Abstract Certain places generate inordinate amounts of crime and disorder. We examine how places differ in their nature of crime and disorder, with three objectives: (1) identifying a typology of profiles of crime and disorder; (2) assessing whether different forms of crime and disorder co-locate at parcels; and (3) determining whether problematic parcels explain crime and disorder across neighborhoods. The study uses 911 and 311 records to quantify physical and social disorder and violent crime at residential parcels in Boston, MA (n = 81,673). K-means cluster analyses identified the typology of problematic parcels and how those types were distributed across census block groups. Cluster analysis identified five types of problematic parcels, four specializing in one form of crime or disorder and one that combined all issues. The second cluster analysis found that the distribution of problematic parcels described the spectrum from low- to high-crime neighborhoods, plus commercial districts with many parcels with public physical disorder. Problematic parcels modestly explained levels of crime across neighborhoods. The results suggest a need for diverse intervention strategies to support different types of problematic parcels; and that neighborhood dynamics pertaining to crime are greater than problematic properties alone.
      PubDate: 2022-06-19
  • Alone against the danger: a study of the routine precautions taken by
           voluntary sex workers to avoid victimisation

    • Abstract: Abstract This article explores the routine precautions taken by sex workers (SW) in Switzerland, a country in which sex work is a legal activity. It is based on approximately 1100 h of non-systematic participant observation spread over 18 months and 14 semi-structured interviews with indoor and outdoor SW. The findings show that SW use a series of routine precautions that overlap with the situational prevention techniques for increasing perpetrators’ efforts or their perception of the risk of offending, reducing the rewards of the crime, and decreasing the provocations and perpetrators’ excuses. Future tests of the efficacy of these routine precautions could help developing specific situational crime prevention techniques for deterring offences against SW.
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
  • Explaining offenders’ longitudinal product-specific target selection
           through changes in disposability, availability, and value: an open-source
           intelligence web-scraping approach

    • Abstract: Objective To address the gap in the literature and using a novel open-source intelligence web-scraping approach, this paper investigates the longitudinal relationships between availability, value, and disposability, and stealing counts of specific makes and models of gaming consoles. Methods Using data from Western Australia (2012–2019) and focusing on specific makes/models of gaming consoles, the relationships between product-specific stealing counts, availability, value, and disposability were examined using time series and cross-sectional analyses. Results Support was found for a positive relationship between the changing disposability of specific makes/models of gaming consoles over their lifecycle with corresponding stealing counts, above and beyond changes in availability and value. However, when these attributes were analysed statically, both disposability and value were important. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of measuring correlates of ‘hot products’ longitudinally to better understand offenders’ target selection preferences over time—with important implications for theft risk assessment and crime prevention policy and practice. These findings also provide support for the use of similar open-source intelligence web-scraping strategies as a suitable technique for capturing time-specific proxies for product-specific value and disposability.
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
  • Cryptocurrencies and future financial crime

    • Abstract: Background Cryptocurrency fraud has become a growing global concern, with various governments reporting an increase in the frequency of and losses from cryptocurrency scams. Despite increasing fraudulent activity involving cryptocurrencies, research on the potential of cryptocurrencies for fraud has not been examined in a systematic study. This review examines the current state of knowledge about what kinds of cryptocurrency fraud currently exist, or are expected to exist in the future, and provides comprehensive definitions of the frauds identified. Methods The study involved a scoping review of academic research and grey literature on cryptocurrency fraud and a 1.5-day expert consensus exercise. The review followed the PRISMA-ScR protocol, with eligibility criteria based on language, publication type, relevance to cryptocurrency fraud, and evidence provided. Researchers screened 391 academic records, 106 of which went on to the eligibility phase, and 63 of which were ultimately analysed. We screened 394 grey literature sources, 128 of which passed on to the eligibility phase, and 53 of which were included in our review. The expert consensus exercise was attended by high-profile participants from the private sector, government, and academia. It involved problem planning and analysis activities and discussion about the future of cryptocurrency crime. Results The academic literature identified 29 different types of cryptocurrency fraud; the grey literature discussed 32 types, 14 of which were not identified in the academic literature (i.e., 47 unique types in total). Ponzi schemes and (synonymous) high yield investment programmes were most discussed across all literature. Participants in the expert consensus exercise ranked pump-and-dump schemes and ransomware as the most profitable and feasible threats, though pump-and-dumps were, notably, perceived as the least harmful type of fraud. Conclusions The findings of this scoping review suggest cryptocurrency fraud research is rapidly developing in volume and breadth, though we remain at an early stage of thinking about future problems and scenarios involving cryptocurrencies. The findings of this work emphasise the need for better collaboration across sectors and consensus on definitions surrounding cryptocurrency fraud to address the problems identified.
      PubDate: 2022-01-05
  • More crime in cities' On the scaling laws of crime and the inadequacy
           of per capita rankings—a cross-country study

    • Abstract: Abstract Crime rates per capita are used virtually everywhere to rank and compare cities. However, their usage relies on a strong linear assumption that crime increases at the same pace as the number of people in a region. In this paper, we demonstrate that using per capita rates to rank cities can produce substantially different rankings from rankings adjusted for population size. We analyze the population–crime relationship in cities across 12 countries and assess the impact of per capita measurements on crime analyses, depending on the type of offense. In most countries, we find that theft increases superlinearly with population size, whereas burglary increases linearly. Our results reveal that per capita rankings can differ from population-adjusted rankings such that they disagree in approximately half of the top 10 most dangerous cities in the data analyzed here. Hence, we advise caution when using crime rates per capita to rank cities and recommend evaluating the linear plausibility before doing so.
      PubDate: 2021-12-01
  • Offline crime bounces back to pre-COVID levels, cyber stays high:
           interrupted time-series analysis in Northern Ireland

    • Abstract: Abstract Much research has shown that the first lockdowns imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with changes in routine activities and, therefore, changes in crime. While several types of violent and property crime decreased immediately after the first lockdown, online crime rates increased. Nevertheless, little research has explored the relationship between multiple lockdowns and crime in the mid-term. Furthermore, few studies have analysed potentially contrasting trends in offline and online crimes using the same dataset. To fill these gaps in research, the present article employs interrupted time-series analysis to examine the effects on offline and online crime of the three lockdown orders implemented in Northern Ireland. We analyse crime data recorded by the police between April 2015 and May 2021. Results show that many types of traditional offline crime decreased after the lockdowns but that they subsequently bounced back to pre-pandemic levels. In contrast, results appear to indicate that cyber-enabled fraud and cyber-dependent crime rose alongside lockdown-induced changes in online habits and remained higher than before COVID-19. It is likely that the pandemic accelerated the long-term upward trend in online crime. We also find that lockdowns with stay-at-home orders had a clearer impact on crime than those without. Our results contribute to understanding how responses to pandemics can influence crime trends in the mid-term as well as helping identify the potential long-term effects of the pandemic on crime, which can strengthen the evidence base for policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
  • Identifying seasonal spatial patterns of crime in a small northern city

    • Abstract: Objectives To explore spatial patterns of crime in a small northern city, and assess the degree of similarity in these patterns across seasons. Methods Calls for police service frequently associated with crime (theft, break and enter, domestic dispute, assault, and neighbor disputes) were acquired for a five year time span (2015–2019) for the city of North Bay, Ontario, Canada (population 50,396). Exploratory data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and a kernel density mapping technique. Andresen’s spatial point pattern test (SPPT) was then used to assess the degree of similarity between the seasonal patterns (spring, summer, autumn, winter) for each call type at two different spatial scales (dissemination area and census tract). Results Exploratory data analysis of crime concentration at street segments showed that calls are generally more dispersed through the city in the warmer seasons of spring and summer. Kernel density mapping also shows increases in the intensity of hotspots at these times, but little overall change in pattern. The SPPT does find some evidence for seasonal differences in crime pattern across the city as a whole, specifically for thefts and break and enters. These differences are focused on the downtown core, as well as the outlying rural areas of the city. Conclusions For the various crime types examined, preliminary analysis, kernel density mapping, and the SPPT found differences in crime pattern consistent with the routine activities theory.
      PubDate: 2021-10-26
  • The impact of the COVID-19, social distancing, and movement restrictions
           on crime in NSW, Australia

    • Abstract: Abstract The spread of COVID-19 has prompted Governments around the world to impose draconian restrictions on business activity, public transport, and public freedom of movement. The effect of these restrictions appears to vary from country to country and, in some cases, from one area to another within a country. This paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions imposed in New South Wales (NSW) by the State Government. We examine week-to-week changes in 13 categories of crime (and four aggregated categories) from 2 January 2017 to 28 June 2020. Rather than using the pre-intervention data to make a forecast and then comparing that with what is actually observed, we use a Box–Jenkins (ARIMA) approach to model the entire time series. Our results are broadly in accord with those of other studies, but we find no effect of the lockdown (upward or downward) on domestic assault.
      PubDate: 2021-10-24
  • The new normal of web camera theft on campus during COVID-19 and the
           impact of anti-theft signage

    • Abstract: Objective The opportunity for web camera theft increased globally as institutions of higher education transitioned to remote learning during COVID-19. Given the thousands of cameras currently installed in classrooms, many with little protection, the present study tests the effectiveness of anti-theft signage for preventing camera theft. Methods Examined web camera theft at a southern, public university located in the United States of America by randomly assigning N = 104 classrooms to receive either anti-theft signage or no signage. Camera theft was analyzed using Blaker’s exact test. Results Classrooms not receiving anti-theft signage (control) were 3.42 times more likely to exhibit web camera theft than classrooms receiving anti-theft signage (medium effect size). Conclusions Using classrooms as the unit of analysis presents new opportunities for not only future crime prevention experiments, but also improving campus safety and security. Also, preventing web camera theft on campus is both fiscally and socially responsible, saving money and ensuring inclusivity for remote learners.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20
  • The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health calls for police

    • Abstract: Abstract Drawing upon seven years of police calls for service data (2014–2020), this study examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on calls involving persons with perceived mental illness (PwPMI) using a Bayesian Structural Time Series. The findings revealed that PwPMI calls did not increase immediately after the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020. Instead, a sustained increase in PwPMI calls was identified in August 2020 that later became statistically significant in October 2020. Ultimately, the analysis revealed a 22% increase in PwPMI calls during the COVID-19 pandemic than would have been expected had the pandemic not taken place. The delayed effect of the pandemic on such calls points to a need for policymakers to prioritize widely accessible mental health care that can be deployed early during public health emergencies thus potentially mitigating or eliminating the need for increased police intervention, as was the case here.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
  • A victim-centred cost–benefit analysis of a stalking prevention

    • Abstract: Abstract Research suggests that stalking inflicts great psychological and financial costs on victims. Yet costs of victimisation are notoriously difficult to estimate and include as intangible costs in cost–benefit analysis. This study reports an innovative cost–benefit analysis that used focus groups with multi-agency teams to collect detailed data on operational resources used to manage stalking cases. This method is illustrated through the presentation of one case study. Best- and worst-case counterfactual scenarios were generated using the risk assessment scores and practitioner expertise. The findings suggest that intervening in high-risk stalking cases was cost-beneficial to the state in all the case studies we analysed (even if it incurs some institutional costs borne by the criminal justice system or health) and was often cost-beneficial to the victims too. We believe that this method might be useful in other fields where a victim- or client-centred approach is fundamental.
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
  • The impact of strict measures as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic on the
           spatial pattern of the demand for police: case study Antwerp (Belgium)

    • Abstract: Abstract COVID-19 impacts the daily lives of millions of people. This radical change in our daily activities affected many aspects of life, but acted as well as a natural experiment for research into the spatial distribution of 911 calls. We analyse the impact of the COVID-19 measures on the spatial pattern of police interventions. Crime is not uniformly distributed across street segments, but how does COVID-19 affect these spatial patterns' To this end, Gini coefficients are calculated and a proportion differences spatial point pattern test is applied to compare the similarity of the patterns of incidents before, during, and after the first lockdown in Antwerp, Belgium. With only essential mobility being allowed, the emergency call pattern has not significantly changed before, during or after this lockdown, however, a qualitative shift in police officer’s daily work may have had an effect on the daily operation of the Antwerp police force.
      PubDate: 2021-09-27
  • In the post-COVID-19 era, is the illegal wildlife trade the most serious
           form of trafficking'

    • Abstract: Abstract Despite the immense impact of wildlife trafficking, comparisons of the profits, costs, and seriousness of crime consistently rank wildlife trafficking lower relative to human trafficking, drug trafficking and weapons trafficking. Using the published literature and current events, we make the case, when properly viewed within the context of COVID-19 and other zoonotic diseases transmitted from wildlife, that wildlife trafficking is the most costly and perhaps the most serious form of trafficking. Our synthesis should raise awareness of the seriousness of wildlife trafficking for humans, thereby inducing strategic policy decisions that boost criminal justice initiatives and resources to combat wildlife trafficking.
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
  • The influence of changing reward of electronic consumer goods on burglary
           and theft offences in Western market-based countries in the years prior to
           and during the crime drop

    • Abstract: Abstract It is widely recognised that burglary and theft offence trends have broadly moved in parallel in ‘Western’ market-based countries since the 1950s. Most researchers have focussed on the trend from the early 1990s onwards, when burglary and theft offence rates plummeted. One major proposed explanation for this trend, relates to improved security. This paper draws on the longitudinal variations in reward of electronic consumer goods to propose a complementary account. This argument is supported by criminological theory, empirical evidence, and historical trends of specific property crime offences. The paper concludes by explaining that reward and security operate in partnership to influence the opportunity for crime, which provides an optimal account for burglary and theft offence trends over the last 40 years.
      PubDate: 2021-08-28
  • A note on the multiplicative fairness score in the NIJ recidivism
           forecasting challenge

    • Abstract: Background The 2021 NIJ recidivism forecasting challenge asks participants to construct predictive models of recidivism while balancing false positive rates across groups of Black and white individuals through a multiplicative fairness score. We investigate the performance of several models for forecasting 1-year recidivism and optimizing the NIJ multiplicative fairness metric. Methods We consider standard linear and logistic regression, a penalized regression that optimizes a convex surrogate loss (that we show has an analytical solution), two post-processing techniques, linear regression with re-balanced data, a black-box general purpose optimizer applied directly to the NIJ metric and a gradient boosting machine learning approach. Results For the set of models investigated, we find that a simple heuristic of truncating scores at the decision threshold (thus predicting no recidivism across the data) yields as good or better NIJ fairness scores on held out data compared to other, more sophisticated approaches. We also find that when the cutoff is further away from the base rate of recidivism, as is the case in the competition where the base rate is 0.29 and the cutoff is 0.5, then simply optimizing the mean square error gives nearly optimal NIJ fairness metric solutions. Conclusions The multiplicative metric in the 2021 NIJ recidivism forecasting competition encourages solutions that simply optimize MSE and/or use truncation, therefore yielding trivial solutions that forecast no one will recidivate.
      PubDate: 2021-08-06
  • Crime and COVID-19: effect of changes in routine activities in Mexico City

    • Abstract: Background This study aimed to determine whether crime patterns in Mexico City changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to test whether any changes observed were associated with the disruption of routine activities, as measured by changes in public transport passenger numbers. Method The first objective was assessed by comparing the observed incidence of crime after the COVID-19 pandemic was detected in the country with that expected based on ARIMA forecasts based on the pre-pandemic trends. The second objective was assessed by examining the association between crime incidence and the number of passengers on public transport using regressions with ARIMA errors. Results Results indicated that most crime categories decreased significantly after the pandemic was detected in the country or after a national lockdown was instituted. Furthermore, the study found that some of the declines observed were associated with the reductions seen in public transport passenger numbers. However, the findings suggested that the changes in mobility explain part of the declines observed, with important variations per crime type. Conclusion The findings contribute to the global evaluation of the effects of COVID-19 on crime and propose a robust method to explicitly test whether the changes observed are associated with changes in routine activities.
      PubDate: 2021-06-30
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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