Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 281)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 312)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 410)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.825
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 58  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1524-8380 - ISSN (Online) 1552-8324
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Erratum to Links of adversity in childhood with mental and physical health
           outcomes: A systematic review of longitudinal mediating and moderating
           mechanisms

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-07-28T06:32:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221118173
       
  • Motivational Interview Techniques and the Effectiveness of Intervention
           Programs With Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic
           Review

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      Authors: Teresa Pinto e Silva, Olga Cunha, Sónia Caridade
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is widely recognized as a severe public health issue. Perpetrators’ Intervention Programs (PIPs) have been essential to prevent recidivism, and the incorporation of Motivational Interview Techniques (MIT) has shown to be an added value in this area. Objective: The present systematic review aims to analyze the incorporation of MIT (i.e., pre-treatment, isolated treatment, and conjoined with PIPs) in interventions with IPV perpetrators and its potential impact on their behavior and attitudes regarding motivation for change and treatment compliance. Method: The following research equation was used: “Intimate Partner Violence” AND (“Perpetrator” OR “Batterer” OR “Offender”) AND (“Motivation” OR “Motivational Interview”) AND (“Intervention” OR “Intervention Program” OR “Batterer Intervention Program”) AND (“Effectiveness OR “Program Effectiveness”); in four separate databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and EBSCO. Studies in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were included, and 15 were identified according to the defined inclusion criteria. Results: Studies demonstrated that MIT increases attendance rates, treatment adherence, motivation for change, and behavioral and attitudinal outcomes. More specifically, MIT showed greater effectiveness among participants with low readiness to change and in the early stages of change. Conclusion: This systematic review corroborates the importance of incorporating MIT in PIPs to improve intervention efficacy.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-07-06T08:07:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111472
       
  • Cognitive Outcomes of Children With Complex Trauma: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Studies

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      Authors: Alexandra Matte-Landry, Marie-Ève Grisé Bolduc, Laurence Tanguay-Garneau, Delphine Collin-Vézina, Isabelle Ouellet-Morin
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Longitudinal studies have shown that children with complex trauma (i.e., exposure to multiple or repeated traumatic events of an interpersonal nature) have poorer cognitive outcomes later in life than children without complex trauma. This association may be moderated by the timing of the trauma, which may explain, in part, some heterogeneity in the findings reported across previous investigations. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analyses was to compare the cognitive outcomes of children with complex trauma and controls and to explore whether the timing of trauma (i.e., its onset and recency) moderated this association. Electronic databases (APA PsycNET, Pubmed Central, ERIC, CINAHL, Embase) and gray literature were systematically searched. To be included, studies had to (1) have a longitudinal design, (2) comprise children with complex trauma and controls, and (3) include a cognitive assessment. Thirteen studies were identified. Meta-analyses were conducted to compare children with complex trauma and controls, while subgroup analyses and meta-regressions explored the impact of potential moderators. Children with complex trauma had poorer overall cognitive functioning than controls, and the timing of trauma (early onset and, to a greater extent, recency of trauma) moderated this association. Thus, findings suggest that children with complex trauma are at risk of cognitive difficulties quickly after trauma exposure. As such, systematic neuropsychological assessment and interventions supporting the optimal development of cognitive functioning among children with complex trauma should be investigated to determine whether prompt interventions lead to better cognitive functioning.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-07-04T08:02:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111484
       
  • A Meta-Regression of Racial Disparities in Wellbeing Outcomes During and
           After Foster Care

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      Authors: Reeve S. Kennedy, Marina H. Potter, Sarah A. Font
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Children in foster care face heightened risk of adverse psychosocial and economic outcomes compared with children in the general population. Yet, the effects of foster care as an intervention are heterogeneous. Heterogeneity outcomes by race and ethnicity are of particular interest, given that Black and Indigenous youth experience foster care at higher rates than other racial/ethnic groups and experience group differences in setting, duration, and exits to permanency. This meta-regression explores racial disparities in education, employment, mental health, and behavioral outcomes during and following foster care. A systematic search of PsycINFO, ERIC, and Academic Search Complete using a series of search terms for studies published between January 2000 and June 2021 found 70 articles and 392 effect sizes that provided outcomes of US-based foster care by race/ethnicity. Findings reveal that Black foster care impacted persons (FCIPs) have 20% lower odds (95% CI: .68–.93) of achieving employment or substantial financial earnings and have 18% lower odds (95% CI: .68–1.00) of mental health concerns compared to White FCIPs. Hispanic FCIPs have 10% lower odds (95% CI: .84–.97) of achieving stable housing compared to non-Hispanic FCIPs. Moderator analyses revealed certain study features (i.e. publication type, timing of the study, location of the study, and placement status of the participants) have a significant impact on the gap between Black and non-Black and Hispanic and non-Hispanic FCIPs. The findings provide important implications for racial disparities in foster care outcomes, as well as highlight important gaps and missing information from published studies.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-07-01T03:40:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111481
       
  • Strengthening Schools’ Responses to Students’ Harmful Sexual
           Behaviors: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Kenny Kor, Helen Simpson, Belinda Fabrianesi
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Research into harmful sexual behavior (HSB) by children and young people under the age of 18 has grown in recent years. A key concern emerging is the high prevalence of HSB in school settings. Although teachers are increasingly aware of HSB, their provision of effective responses has remained a major challenge. While progress has been made by providing teachers with best practice models and tools, little is known about what facilitates and hinders their application of these in practice. This scoping review sought to address the question: “What are the barriers and enablers for teachers in responding effectively to HSB'” Eight international databases and one search engine were employed to identify relevant academic and gray literature. The inclusion criteria comprised all study types, published in the past two decades, and focused on teachers’ knowledge, experiences, and responses to HSB. Twenty-five publications met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis identified that minimization of HSB, harmful social norms, and inadequate support from external agencies were major barriers. These barriers could be mitigated by adopting a whole-school approach and establishing proactive partnerships with parents and external agencise, along with offering alternative pathways to safety. The findings of this review highlighted the importance of addressing the full continuum of HSB through early, secondary, or tertiary interventions, and sharpening the focus of respectful relationships education to transform gender relations in classrooms and the workplace. Further research is needed to explore schools’ responses to specific populations, including those with disabilities and females.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T09:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111483
       
  • Providing a Supportive Environment for Disclosure of Sexual Violence and
           Abuse in a Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare Setting: A Realist Review

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      Authors: Rachel J. Caswell, Jonathan D. C. Ross, Ian Maidment, Caroline Bradbury-Jones
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Sexual and reproductive healthcare services (SRHS) are an environment where medical care relevant to sexual violence and abuse (SV) is available. However, barriers to disclosure need to be overcome to allow timely access to this care. There is limited research identifying and explaining how interventions remove barriers and create a safe and supportive environment for disclosure. The purpose of this review was to develop and refine theories that explain how, for whom and in what context SRHS facilitate disclosure. Methods: Following published realist standards we undertook a realist review. After focussing the review question and identifying key contextual barriers, articles pertaining to these were identified using a traditional systematic database search. This strategy was supplemented with iterative searches. Results: Searches yielded 3172 citations, and 28 articles with sufficient information were included to develop the emerging theories. Four evidence-informed theories were developed proposing ways in which a safe and supportive environment for the disclosure of SV is enabled in SRHS. The theories consider how interventions may overcome barriers surrounding SV disclosure at individual, service-delivery and societal levels. Conclusions: Benefits of SRHS engagement with health promotion and health activism activities to address societal level barriers like lack of service awareness and stereotypic views on SV are presented. Although trauma informed practice and person-centred care were central in creating a safe and supportive environment for disclosure the review found them to be poorly defined in this setting.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T11:39:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111466
       
  • Violence Against LGBTIQ+ People at Universities: The Need to Uncover a
           Silent Reality

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      Authors: Oriol Rios, Marta Font-Palomar, Ainhoa Flecha, Rosa Valls
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against LGBT community can manifest in different forms and exists in all spheres of society, including education. The main purpose of this article is to deepen the understanding of the state of the art about violence grounded in sexual orientation or gender identity in higher education in order to identify gaps for further research. The topic of this state-of-the-art literature review is the presence and magnitude of these forms of violence in the Spanish higher education system. For this reason, the inclusion criteria were empirical studies about the prevalence of violence against LGBTIQ+ individuals in the Spanish educational system. After analyzing the 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria, the main findings point that despite the existence of numerous international studies of the presence of violence against LGBTIQ+ people at colleges, little is known about this reality in Spain. The Spanish university system continues to remain hermetic, and violence against LGBTIQ+ people is silenced and hidden. Practice, policy and research implications of the findings are discussed in this article, highlighting the need of further research in this field. In this context, the research project Uni4Freedom, addresses this social and educational problem to contribute to the creation of safer universities for the LGBTIQ+ community and people who support them.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:58:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111471
       
  • The Experiences and Perceptions of Sexually Abused Children as
           Participants in the Legal Process: Key Conclusions From a Scoping
           Literature Review

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      Authors: Noa Field, Carmit Katz
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a phenomenon that receives attention from researchers and practitioners worldwide. An unknown percent of cases are disclosed bravely by children to authorities. One part of those children’s journey can involve the legal process, which aims to decide whether a crime happened and, if so, to sentence the offender. To do so, a considerable amount of evidence is required. Part of what makes CSA cases complex is that the child’s word is often the only evidence. There are growing discussions concerning the importance of children’s participation in the legal process, pointing to its contribution to practitioners’ decision-making as well as children’s wellbeing. The current scoping review aimed to examine the existing knowledge regarding how children experience and perceive participation in the legal process following CSA. Although this issue has been previously addressed, the current study was designed to systematically spotlight studies that pinpoint children’s perceptions and experiences. Using PRISMA guidelines, 17 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals over the last 11 years were identified. The analysis yielded a major theme of children’s need for validation, with four subthemes relating to the need to be protected, the need to be seen and heard, the need to be believed, and the need to be provided with support. The themes and how they relate to other aspects of sexually abused children’s lives are discussed as well as practical implications for future studies. The main conclusion relates to the necessity for a holistic approach with children throughout the legal process.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T07:57:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221111463
       
  • The Association of Military Sexual Harassment/Assault With Suicide
           Ideation, Plans, Attempts, and Mortality Among US Service
           Members/Veterans: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Whitney S. Livingston, Hallie S. Tannahill, Diana J. Meter, Jamison D. Fargo, Rebecca K. Blais
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Suicide rates continue to increase among service members/veterans. Military sexual harassment/assault (MSH/A) may increase risk of suicide, but little is known about the collective magnitude of associations between MSH/A and suicide outcomes, including ideation, plan, attempt, and mortality. The current meta-analysis addressed this literature gap while testing potential moderators of gender, marital status, discharge status, and military branch. PsycINFO, PubMed, Dissertations/Theses, relevant citation lists, and conference brochures were reviewed for papers that included quantitative analyses in English, U.S. military samples, and measures of MSH/A and suicide ideation/plan/attempt/mortality. The search resulted in 22 studies (N = 10,898,875) measuring the association of MSH/A with suicide ideation (k = 15), plans (k = 1), attempts (k = 14), and mortality (k = 2), with papers published from 2007–2021. MSH/A was associated with suicide ideation ([math] = .14) and attempts ([math] = .11, ps < .05). The association of MSH/A and suicide ideation and attempts was higher among women relative to men, those identifying as married versus not married, those actively serving compared to discharged, and those reporting service in the Air Force relative to all other branches. The association of MSH/A with suicide plans and mortality was not calculated due to the small number of studies reporting those effect sizes (ks = 1–2). The effect sizes observed suggest MSH/A is part of a larger network of risk factors for suicide. Moderators indicate that suicide risk is higher among specific groups, and prevention strategies would be most effective if they targeted these individuals. This research area would be strengthened by additional studies of plans and mortality.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T04:02:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221109790
       
  • Interparental Conflict and Young Adult Romantic Relationships: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Shrutkirti Singh, Elizabeth Thomas
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In the last two decades, researchers have been progressively investigating the impact of interparental conflict (IPC) on young adults romantic relationships. This systematic review aimed to synthesize literature on IPC and romantic relationship outcomes among young adults and highlight mechanisms found in this link. Following the PRISMA protocol, 3232 studies were identified using Boolean searches on ProQuest, PubMed, EBSCOhost, Jstor, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, and 17 met the eligibility criteria. To be included, in addition to having IPC and romantic relationship outcomes as variables, studies had to be quantitative in design, have a mean sample age of 18–25, include only participants in romantic relationships at the time of the study, and be published in English with full text available. The review found that IPC is associated with negative conflict management, both perpetration and victimization of aggression, worse communication, negative conflict behaviors, and poor relationship quality. Other outcomes like relationship satisfaction, commitment, as well as mediator variables in the link between IPC and young adult romantic relationship outcomes, such as attitudes towards marriage and conflict attributions, yielded varied results. Several shortcomings in the methodology of the reviewed articles, such as the research sample and measures, were discovered. To deal with the impact of IPC on offspring’s romantic relationships, preventive interventions should be designed and evaluated, and more research with different variables and study designs, with more men, other ethnicities, and more representative sample frames are needed to detect crucial mediators and obtain reliable and generalizable results.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T02:05:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221109787
       
  • A Systematic Review on Hate Speech among Children and Adolescents:
           Definitions, Prevalence, and Overlap with Related Phenomena

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      Authors: Julia Kansok-Dusche, Cindy Ballaschk, Norman Krause, Anke Zeißig, Lisanne Seemann-Herz, Sebastian Wachs, Ludwig Bilz
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Little is known about the current state of research on the involvement of young people in hate speech. Thus, this systematic review presents findings on a) the prevalence of hate speech among children and adolescents and on hate speech definitions that guide prevalence assessments for this population; and b) the theoretical and empirical overlap of hate speech with related concepts. This review was guided by the Cochrane approach. To be included, publications were required to deal with real-life experiences of hate speech, to provide empirical data on prevalence for samples aged 5 to 21 years and they had to be published in academic formats. Included publications were full-text coded using two raters (κ = .80) and their quality was assessed. The string-guided electronic search (ERIC, SocInfo, Psycinfo, Psyndex) yielded 1,850 publications. Eighteen publications based on 10 studies met the inclusion criteria and their findings were systematized. Twelve publications were of medium quality due to minor deficiencies in their theoretical or methodological foundations. All studies used samples of adolescents and none of younger children. Nine out of 10 studies applied quantitative methodologies. Eighteen publications based on 10 studies were included. Results showed that frequencies for hate speech exposure were higher than those related to victimization and perpetration. Definitions of hate speech and assessment instruments were heterogeneous. Empirical evidence for an often theorized overlap between hate speech and bullying was found. The paper concludes by presenting a definition of hate speech, including implications for practice, policy, and research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T02:39:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221108070
       
  • Stress and Susceptibility: A Systematic Review of Prenatal Epigenetic
           Risks for Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

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      Authors: Zachary P. Pierce, Jessica M. Black
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This review aims to systematically assess the current literature about prenatal epigenetic markers that lead to post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility across the lifespan. Studies included in this review met several research criteria: Studies included (1) participants with a PTSD diagnosis according to the DSM-5, (2) prenatal epigenetic marker data that could be analyzed, and (3) explicit references to postnatal PTSD susceptibility. Our study sample fit within a timeframe of 2002 (the earliest recorded studies of prenatal susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder in the databases used) and February 2021 when the literature search for this review was terminated. Studies for this review were collated from PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Boston College School of Social Work Library databases. A systematic search was conducted in these databases using basic keyword terms, such as “PSTD resilience” and “PTSD vulnerability,” and then adding clarifying terms to refine specific searches, such as “epigenetics,” “genetics,” “epigenetic markers,” “haplotypes,” and “mRNA methylation.” Based on these criteria and research methods, 33 studies remained for inclusion in the review sample. This review suggests that BDNF Val66-Met, a polymorphism of FKBP5, and an altered messenger ribonucleic acid methylation marker in NR3C1 present most often in cases of PTSD. These epigenetic markers might be implicated in central neurological processes related to post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-18T12:16:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221109792
       
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Child and Adolescent Cognitive Development:
           A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Priscilla Savopoulos, Christina Bryant, Alison Fogarty, Laura J. Conway, Kelly M. Fitzpatrick, Patrick Condron, Rebecca Giallo
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health and human rights issue, with millions of children affected worldwide. While several reviews have explored the emotional-behavioural functioning of children exposed to IPV, this review aimed to examine the relationship between children's exposure to IPV and their cognitive development, and to identify associated factors such as aspects of parenting. The databases MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, CINAHL, and ERIC were searched using key words related to IPV, such as domestic, family, partner, interparental, spousal, marital, violence, abuse, aggression, assault, combined with key words related to cognitive functioning, such as neuropsychological, executive, intelligence, learning, memory, and key words related to children and adolescents. A total of 38 studies met the criteria for review which included reporting an estimate of the relationship between IPV and cognition using direct assessments of cognitive functioning. Approximately 70% of studies found a relationship between IPV and poorer cognitive functioning, with general IQ the most frequently assessed domain of functioning, followed by verbal abilities and academic skills. Most studies assessed skills during early childhood, with fewer studies assessing children during middle childhood and adolescence. Results were consistent across cognitive domains and developmental stages. In terms of factors associated with IPV and cognition, a range of demographic, individual, and family factors were included, with several studies exploring mediating and moderating mechanisms. The findings suggest that IPV in childhood is associated with poorer cognitive skills across a range of domains. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-06-06T07:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082081
       
  • Measuring Grief in the Context of Traumatic Loss: A Systematic Review of
           Assessment Instruments

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      Authors: Naomi Ennis, Jamison Bottomley, Jessica Sawyer, Angela D. Moreland, Alyssa A. Rheingold
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Following traumatic loss, defined as the death of a loved one due to unexpected or violent circumstances, adults may experience a myriad of grief-related problems. Given the addition of Prolonged Grief Disorders into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition, Text-Revision and influx of unexpected deaths due to the global Coronavirus pandemic, there is heightened interest in the measurement of grief-related processes. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify measures of grief used in studies of adults who experienced traumatic loss. Searches yielded 164 studies that used 31 unique measures of grief-related constructs. The most commonly used instrument was the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised. Half of the measures assessed constructs beyond diagnosable pathological grief responses. Given the wide variation and adaptations of measures reviewed, we recommend greater testing and uniformity of measurement across the field. Future research is needed to adapt and/or design measures to evaluate new criteria for Prolonged Grief Disorder.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T12:41:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093694
       
  • Methodological and Ethical Implications of Using Remote Data Collection
           Tools to Measure Sexual and Reproductive Health and Gender-Based Violence
           Outcomes among Women and Girls in Humanitarian and Fragile Settings: A
           Mixed Methods Systematic Review of Peer-Reviewed Research

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      Authors: Luissa Vahedi, Najat Qushua, Ilana Seff, Michelle Doering, Carrie Stoll, Susan A. Bartels, Lindsay Stark
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Purpose: This systematic review investigates the methodological and ethical implications of using remote data collection tools to measure sexual/reproductive health (SRH) and gender-based violence (GBV) outcomes among women and girls in humanitarian and fragile settings. Methods: We included empirical studies of all design types that collected any self-reported primary data related to SRH/GBV using information and communication technology, in the absence of in-person interactions, from women and girls in humanitarian and fragile settings. The search was run in March 2021 without filters or limits in Ovid Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Scopus. Quality was assessed using an adapted version of the MMAT tool. Two reviewers independently determined whether each full text source met the eligibility criteria, and conflicts were resolved through consensus. A-priori extraction fields concerned methodological rigor and ethical considerations. Results: 21 total studies were included. The majority of studies were quantitative descriptive, aiming to ascertain prevalence. Telephone interviews, online surveys, and mobile applications, SMS surveys, and online discussion forums were used as remote data collection tools. Key methodological considerations included the overuse of non-probability samples, lack of a defined sampling frame, the introduction of bias by making eligibility contingent on owning/accessing technology, and the lack of qualitative probing. Ethical consideration pertained to including persons with low literacy, participant safety, use of referral services, and the gender digital divide. Conclusion: Findings are intended to guide SRH/GBV researchers and academics in critically assessing methodological and ethical implications of using remote data collection tools to measure SRH and GBV in humanitarian and fragile settings.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T07:36:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097439
       
  • The Timing Effect of Childhood Maltreatment in Depression: A Systematic
           Review and meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Muzi Li, Tingting Gao, Yingying Su, Yingzhe Zhang, Guang Yang, Carl D’Arcy, Xiangfei Meng
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although empirical evidence has confirmed the causal relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression, findings are inconsistent on the magnitude of the effect of age of exposure to childhood maltreatment on psychological development. This systematic review with meta-analysis aims to comprehensively synthesize the literature on the relationship between exposure age of maltreatment and depression and to quantitatively compare the magnitude of effect sizes across exposure age groups. Electronic databases and grey literature up to April 6th, 2022, were searched for English-language studies. Studies were included if they: 1) provided the information on exposure age; and 2) provided statistical indicators to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression. Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria and were included in meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on subtypes of maltreatment and measurements of depression. Any kind of maltreatment (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.15–0.18), physical abuse (r =0.13, 95% CI = 0.10–0.15), sexual abuse (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.15–0.21), emotional abuse (r = 0.17, 95% CI=0.11–0.23), and neglect (r = 0.08, 95% CI=0.06–0.11) were associated with an increased risk of depression. Significant differential effects of maltreatment in depression were found across age groups of exposure to maltreatment (Q = 34.81, p < 0.001). Age of exposure in middle childhood (6–13 years) had the highest risk of depression, followed by late childhood (12–19 years) and early childhood (0–6 years). Implications of the findings provide robust evidence to support targeting victimized children of all ages and paying closer attention to those in middle childhood to effectively reduce the risk of depression.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T02:21:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221102558
       
  • Toward a Global Definition and Understanding of Child Sexual Exploitation:
           The Development of a Conceptual Model

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      Authors: Jessica J. Laird, Bianca Klettke, Kate Hall, David Hallford
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a serious and persistent global issue affecting up to 5% of the child and youth population worldwide; yet there is no universally accepted definition. To develop a theoretically robust definition of CSE, this review systematically synthesized literature examining CSE definitions aiming to develop a conceptual model and typology. Electronic databases were searched to February 2021, yielding 384 nonduplicative records. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed and grey literature investigations of sexual exploitation, with a mean sample age of 18 years or younger, available in the English language. Literature review and data extraction followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Sixty-six studies met final inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and used an epistemological approach to thematically analyse meaning and patterns across CSE definitions. Key findings demonstrate that CSE nomenclature is widely inconsistent, and despite growing awareness of this severe form of abuse, language continues to perpetuate stigma and criminalisation, utilising terms such as ‘adolescent or child prostitute’. Our findings propose a scientifically and trauma-informed definition and conceptualisation of CSE, based on the following four-dimensional components: (1) A child/young person; (2) sexual acts; (3) abuse; and (4) exploitation (abuse + exchange). In this systematic review, a unified definition and conceptual model aims to advance knowledge and understanding of CSE, contributing to the progression of social norms which embrace nuances of trauma-informed practice and support for the identification and recovery of children, young people and families affected by sexual exploitation.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T01:15:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221090980
       
  • A Systematic Review on Evaluating Responsiveness of Parent- or
           Caregiver-Reported Child Maltreatment Measures for Interventions

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      Authors: Sangwon Yoon, Renée Speyer, Reinie Cordier, Pirjo Aunio, Airi Hakkarainen
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Aims: Child maltreatment (CM) is a global public health and social problem, resulting in serious long-term health and socioeconomic consequences. As parents are the most common perpetrators of CM, parenting interventions are appropriate strategies to prevent CM. However, research on parenting interventions on CM has been hampered by lack of consensus on what measures are most responsive to detect a reduction in parental maltreating behaviours after parenting intervention. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of all current parent- or caregiver-reported CM measures. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed and Sociological Abstracts. The quality of studies and responsiveness of the measures were evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines for systematic reviews of patient-reported outcome measures. Only measures developed and published in English were included. Studies reporting data on responsiveness of the included measures were selected. Results: Sixty-nine articles reported on responsiveness of 15 identified measures. The study quality was overall adequate. The responsiveness of the measures was overall insufficient or not reported; high-quality evidence on responsiveness was limited. Conclusions: Only the Physical Abuse subscale of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for use in Trials (ICAST-Trial) can be recommended as most responsive for use in parenting interventions, with high-quality evidence supporting sufficient responsiveness. All other overall scales or subscales of the 15 included measures were identified as promising based on current data on responsiveness. Additional psychometric evidence is required before they can be recommended.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-22T12:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093690
       
  • Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls in Canada: A Scoping Review of the
           Scholarly Literature

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      Authors: Evelyn Hodgins, Julie Mutis, Robin Mason, Janice Du Mont
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sex trafficking has been identified as a prominant health and human rights concern in Canada. However, there has been little empirical research on the topic and existing studies are largely found within the grey literature. This review sought to identify and summarize the current scholarly literature about sex trafficking of women and girls in Canada. We identified empirical studies using a keyword search in ProQuest, Web of Science, and Scopus. Eligible articles were published in English in 2000 or later, included a focus on women victim/survivors, and analyzed human/participant data. Only 14 studies met eligibility criteria. Most studies were qualitative, based on interviews or focus groups primarily with stakeholders, and set in the province of Ontario. Key findings highlighted challenges in conceptualizing sex trafficking centered largely around issues of coercion and consent. Pathways into trafficking (economic displacement, past abuse, and broken ties with family and community) and gaps and barriers in anti-trafficking responses (narrow or conflicting definitions, stigmatization and criminalization of sex work, and a lack of accessible or appropriate services) particularly impacted Indigenous, im/migrant, and other marginalized women and girls. There is a pausity of empirical studies on sex trafficking in Canada and this has implications for the development of data-driven policies and protocols. Further research should seek to highlight the voices of survivors and impacted communities and evaluate strengths and limitations of Canadian anti-trafficking interventions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T06:12:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221094316
       
  • Meta-Analysis of Cyber Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and
           Victimization: Different Types and their Associations with Face-to-Tace
           IPV among Men and Women

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      Authors: Ohad Gilbar, Ruby Charak, Oscar Trujillo, Jorge I. Cantu, Valeria Cavazos, Iris Lavi
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Cyber intimate partner violence (C-IPV) is a technology-mediated form of violence. It has been examined only in the last 10 years as a form of violence that can cause psychological damage to its victims. How this phenomenon connects to and differs from face-to-face IPV (F2F-IPV) has been, as yet, little studied. Research has not made clear whether sex differences may impact its use, particularly in light of the fact that no physical coercion is used in C-IPV. Thus, the current research aimed to investigate through a meta-analysis: differences between the average levels of different types of C-IPV victimization and perpetration; the association between C-IPV and F2F-IPV victimization and perpetration; and whether the answers to these questions were dependent on sex. The current meta-analysis drew on 46 studies, within 44 papers, with a total sample of 27,491 participants. Findings from 22 of these studies showed no significant sex differences between the average levels of different types of C-IPV victimization and between different types of C-IPV perpetration. These 22 studies showed positive large effect sizes for the correlation between C-IPV and F2F-IPV perpetration and victimization. Moreover, in both perpetration and victimization, sex did not impact the level of association. The findings suggested that C-IPV and F2F-IPV are highly correlated, and though not the same, they may share similar characteristics. Additionally, the results suggested that sex differences do not impact non-physical aggression, such as C-IPV. The implications for preventive strategies include that IPV interventions should also focus on alleviating instances of C-IPV.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:45:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082087
       
  • A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Correlates of Emotional Violence
           by Teachers

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      Authors: Florian Scharpf, Rukiye Kızıltepe, Anette Kirika, Tobias Hecker
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is increasing evidence for the deleterious impact of emotional violence on children`s well-being and development. This systematic review focused on a) the prevalence and (b) correlates of emotional violence by teachers. A literature search of quantitative and peer-reviewed studies published in English between 1980 and April 2021 was conducted. Eighty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies represented all geographical regions of the world, were predominantly cross-sectional and of moderate quality. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of their samples, conceptualization, and measurement of emotional violence. Results indicated that emotional violence by teachers is prevalent across cultural settings, although large variations within and between regions are noted. It is related to mental health, behavioral and academic problems of children above and beyond physical violence by teachers and victimization by peers and parents. Boys are at higher risk of experiencing emotional violence by teachers than girls. Family dysfunction, low socioeconomic status (of the family or the community), and violent school environments appear to increase risk as well. The observed patterns of co-occurrence of emotional violence with physical violence by teachers and victimization by peers as well as perpetration of violence against peers and teachers lend support to notions of poly-victimization and cycles of violence in the school settings. Future research should use representative surveys, examine antecedents, and consequences of emotional violence by teachers using longitudinal and experimental designs and evaluate interventions to prevent emotional violence by teachers.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T10:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221102559
       
  • Trauma Aware and Anti-Oppressive Arts-Health and Community Arts Practice:
           Guiding Principles for Facilitating Healing, Health and Wellbeing

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      Authors: Naomi Sunderland, Fiona Stevens, Kate Knudsen, Rae Cooper, Marianne Wobcke
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is a growing call for arts-health and community arts professionals to work in ‘trauma informed ways’ to prevent re-traumatisation and promote healing. This paper reports on a scoping review of existing literature that deal with trauma aware and informed practice and its applications in arts-health and community arts. Trauma informed practice does not seek to target or treat trauma but, rather, seeks to provide a safer and more informed space for people who experience post-traumatic stress conditions and symptoms to engage in facilitated arts activities. We particularly examine the extent to which existing literature acknowledges the presence of oppression-related collective trauma – such as racial trauma – and offers appropriate creative, anti-oppressive and trauma aware practice approaches. A total of 19 articles were included following librarian input and team checking. Included articles were written in English, published in peer reviewed academic journals, included a creative arts component, and adopted an intentional trauma informed or aware approach to practice. An additional three sources were included as part of descriptive synthesis to foreground leading First Nations resources for practice. Although no specific guidelines for trauma aware practice in arts-health or community arts were found, findings are consolidated at the end of the paper to offer interim principles, values and activities for trauma aware and informed practice in arts-health and community arts. Findings can also inform general trauma related research and therapy by highlighting the growing role of arts and creativity in responding to diverse experiences of trauma and its effects.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T01:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097442
       
  • Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Five of the Most Recurrently
           Validated Child Maltreatment Assessment Instruments from 2010 to 2020

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      Authors: Sylvia Georgieva, José M. Tomás, José J. Navarro-Pérez, Paula Samper-García
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Assessment of child maltreatment has been inconsistent across literature due to its complexity, multidimensionality, and the variety of conceptualizations of this construct. Five instruments have recurrently examined psychometric properties across the last years of research: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure, Child Abuse Potential Inventory, Identification of Parents at Risk for child Abuse and Neglect, and Psychosocial Screening Tool. This article aims to examine and wrap up the knowledge regarding the psychometric properties of these instruments. A systematic review was performed through three of the most relevant databases in order to identify the most validated instruments to assess child maltreatment from 2010 to 2020, and 19 research articles were identified. Results indicate that there is a lack of information regarding some psychometric properties and therefore, in the light of this information, it is not possible to clearly determine if there are instruments with stronger scientific evidence for their psychometric properties, although the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure Scale (MACE) obtained the strongest psychometric evidence. This systematic review provided a comprehensive review on the main psychometric properties of five child maltreatment instruments in order to facilitate researchers and child welfare professionals the selection of the most suitable instrument for their specific purpose. We recommend addressing these gaps of information by further examining the psychometric properties of these instruments, and developing valid and reliable instruments for early detection in child maltreatment.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097694
       
  • Revictimisation of Women in Non-Urban Areas: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Emily Corbett, Jacqui Theobald, Paulina Billett, Leesa Hooker, Lee Edmonds, Christopher Fisher
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Literature widely acknowledges that women who experience Child Sex Abuse (CSA) have a higher risk of experiencing sexual revictimisation later in life, yet less is known about experiences of revictimisation in non-urban areas. The aim of this review is to examine what is known internationally regarding revictimisation of non-urban women, and to provide future research, practice and policy recommendations. A total of 2414 articles were identified through a comprehensive search across five broad health sciences and humanities databases; 11 articles met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. This review found a general lack of qualitative revictimisation studies, and limited research focusing on non-urban women. While existing studies included non-urban research samples, few articles (n = 3) explored how non-urban location contextualises revictimisation experiences. Most peer-reviewed articles identified within this paper (n = 7) examined intimate partner violence (IPV) revictimisation, highlighting a significant lack of research on sexual revictimisation within non-urban settings. Findings from the review indicate that experiences of violence in childhood and adulthood are frequent among non-urban women, and that experiencing child abuse is associated with a heightened likelihood of poor mental health and IPV in adulthood. The review also found that non-urban women faced significant structural disadvantage including low levels of employment and income, limited-service sector resources, unsafe family environments and exposure to community violence. Additional qualitative research is needed to better understand the experiences and needs of non-urban revictimised women, particularly within an Australian context.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T12:49:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221094317
       
  • Risk Markers for Male Perpetration of Sexual Assault on College Campuses:
           A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Chelsea M. Spencer, Matthew Rivas-Koehl, Shelby Astle, Michelle L. Toews, Kristin M. Anders, Paige McAllister
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual assault (SA) on college campuses remains a prominent public health issue. This meta-analysis focuses on identifying all potential risk markers for college male SA perpetration. Using standard search procedures, a total of 25 studies yielding 89 unique effect sizes were included in the study. Significant risk markers were related to hegemonic masculinity (e.g., peer approval of SA, rape myth acceptance, sexist beliefs, hostility towards women), other forms of dating violence perpetration (e.g., physical and psychological dating violence perpetration), and the college party culture (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol and substance use, frequency of hook-ups). Psychological dating violence victimization, athletic team membership, race/ethnicity, relationship status, and religiosity were not significant risk markers for SA perpetration. Findings support potential benefits of SA prevention efforts prioritizing peer education/student leaders modeling SA disapproval, challenging hegemonic masculinity, healthy relationship and sexual education, as well as alcohol and substance use awareness.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T06:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097437
       
  • Domestic/Family Homicide: A Systematic Review of Empirical Evidence

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      Authors: Mandy Truong, Ladan Yeganeh, Anna Cartwright, Emma Ward, Joseph Ibrahim, Dominique Cuschieri, Myrna Dawson, Lyndal Bugeja
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Domestic/family homicide (D/FH) is a global social, economic and public health problem. To date, the research studies into risk factors associated with D/FH has largely focused on intimate partner homicide (IPH). A more contemporary approach recognizes that D/FH extends beyond the intimate partner relationship. This systematic review sought to identify and quantify the individual, relationship, community and societal factors in the empirical evidence literature on D/FH. Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to December 2020. Published journal articles on studies of D/FH were included if the study included victims and/or perpetrator of D/FH, reported risk and/or protective factors associated with D/FH, reported primary data and was published in English. Factors were descriptively synthesized by the categories of the social ecological model and D/FH sub-type. Results: Three hundred and forty published articles met the inclusion criteria. From 1999 to 2020 the number of articles on D/FH increased globally from 10 to 40 respectively, declining to 23 in 2020. Almost half of the articles examined populations located in the Americas (160, 47.1%), predominately the United States and the majority of articles used quantitative designs (277, 81.5%). The forms of homicide more commonly studied were intimate partner (171, 50.3%), and filicide (98, 28.8%). Approximately 90% of articles reported individual victim and perpetrator factors, 64.7% examined relationship factors, 17.9% examined community factors and 15.6% examined societal factors. Conclusion: To inform universal and targeted D/FH elimination and prevention strategies, more research across different regions and a greater emphasis on community and societal-level factors is needed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T07:32:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082084
       
  • What is Currently Understood About the Impact of Sexual Violence Activism
           for Higher Education Student Sexual Violence Survivors'

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      Authors: Helen Bovill, Tessa Podpadec
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Objective: This systematic literature review maps the landscape of higher education and student sexual violence survivors who become involved in sexual violence activism. It was undertaken to understand what drives student sexual violence survivors to become activists, the negative and positive impacts of this activism on the students, how higher education institutions might work with sexual violence activists to foster effective prevention and response, and how activism has been negotiated by and within practice, policy and research. Method: A qualitative evidence synthesis methodology was used to identify research which examines drivers to and consequences of sexual violence activism for student activists. Searches across seven databases were conducted using six keywords combined in various ways, with further inclusion criteria of published in English between 2010 and 2020. Searches of grey literature were also carried out. Results: 28 sources met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis, conducted in NVivo, resulted in identification of four themes: survival from harm, community, labour in the personal made public and power between activists and institutions. Conclusions/Recommendations/Limitations: Inadequate institutional response was a key driver of student sexual violence activism. Activism had positive and negative impacts on the activists. Recommendations are that activists, institutions, researchers and policy makers work as coalitions to bring about enduring cultural change. Review limitations were the small number of studies in this field; additionally, they were dominated by US and UK perspectives.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T07:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093691
       
  • Breaking the Cycle of Family Violence: A Critique of Family Violence
           Interventions

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      Authors: Michelle S. Livings, Victor Hsiao, Mellissa Withers
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      As the intergenerational transmission of family violence is associated with numerous negative outcomes, interventions are needed to interrupt this cycle. Our aim is to review the family violence intervention literature and to assess whether and how interventions interrupt the intergenerational transmission of family violence. Papers about interventions were identified through database searches (PubMed, JSTOR, CINAHL, PsycINFO), supplemented by review of references and relevant review papers. Eligibility criteria included: empirical studies detailing interventions to interrupt or prevent child abuse/maltreatment and/or intimate partner violence, published between January 2000 and August 2020, and written in English. Of the 14 papers included in this narrative review, only 3 explicitly stated that they aimed to break the cycle of family violence; 12 papers came from high-income countries, and 10 focused on individuals, with half focusing on mothers. We identify effective intervention approaches, including long-term one-on-one coaching and home visits to improve parenting. Results demonstrate a dose–response relationship, suggesting the lasting value of increased intervention frequency and duration. We highlight gaps in the literature, including the need for interventions in low-income countries, and those geared toward fathers and neighborhoods/communities. We also examine the many methodological challenges of this work, such as possible biases related to the use of retrospective data, lack of objective outcome measures, and absence of long-term follow-up. Our recommendations for future research include incorporating trauma-informed frameworks, developing standardized definitions and measures to facilitate the comparison of intervention results, and designing more interventions specifically for fathers/husbands and for the prevention of intimate partner violence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T03:27:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221098049
       
  • Unpacking School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Realist
           Review

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      Authors: Mengyao Lu, Jane Barlow, Franziska Meinck, Lakshmi Neelakantan
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Existing efforts to understand school-based child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs mainly focus on the effectiveness of these programs in increasing participants’ CSA knowledge and self-protective skills. There are currently no reviews addressing the underpinning pathways leading to these outcomes. In order to increase our understanding about the underpinning causal and contextual factors and inform the further development of school-based CSA prevention programs, a realist review was conducted to synthesize existing evidence from a broad range of data. Methods: An iterative search of electronic databases and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with citation tracking to locate relevant literature. For quantitative evidence, we considered evaluation studies that focused on students aged 5–18 years, who were enrolled in primary or secondary schools; for other types/formats of studies/documents, no population restrictions were applied. We included school-based CSA prevention programs that focused on improving knowledge of CSA or self-protective skills. Outcomes of interest included knowledge of CSA or self-protective skills. We did not apply methodological filters in terms of the types of studies to be included. Thematic content analysis was conducted to synthesize data. Results: Sixty-two studies were included. Five themes and five overarching Context-Strategy-Mechanism-Outcome configurations (CSMOs) that contributed to the success of school-based CSA interventions were identified, including tailoring programs to participants’ cognitive developmental levels, repeated exposure of key concepts and skills, utilization of interactive delivery methods and positive feedback, delivery of positive information and application of the ‘train-the-trainer’ model. Implications: Findings from this realist review provide insights into the underlying program theory of school-based CSA prevention programs, which can aid in the development and implementation of these programs in the future.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T03:16:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082153
       
  • Asian Indians in the United States and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
           Interventions: A Narrative Literature Review

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      Authors: Ateka A. Contractor, Hanan S. Rafiuddin, Kiran Kaur, Anu Asnaani
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Topic. Limited research has examined trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Asian Indians in the U.S. Thus, we (1) synthesize literature on trauma, PTSD, disparities in treatment for PTSD, the burden of untreated PTSD, and culturally-adapted (CA) PTSD interventions; and (2) discuss recommendations for clinicians/researchers working with this population.Method. We searched two databases using keywords related to Asian Indians, PTSD, and interventions. Of 238 identified articles, we used content from 26 articles to inform our review.Findings. Asian Indians report traumatic experiences before, during, or after immigration to the U.S. and consequential PTSD symptoms. Further, Asian Indians in the U.S. are disproportionately impacted by socio-cultural and economic determinants of poor mental health (e.g., shame/stigma associated with seeking mental health services, few culturally-responsive services), which may contribute to the under-reporting of PTSD and (interpersonal) traumas and less willingness to seek treatment. Additionally, CA PTSD interventions tailored to Asian Indians in the U.S. have not been developed. Socio-cultural considerations that can inform CA PTSD interventions for Asian Indians include: causal conditions (e.g., culturally-rooted beliefs about trauma/PTSD), intervening conditions/barriers (e.g., emotional inhibition), and mitigating/coping strategies (e.g., religious/spiritual practices, cultural idioms of distress). These considerations influence clinician/treatment preferences (e.g., solution-oriented and structured therapy, less emotional exposure). Lastly, we outline recommendations for clinicians/researchers: (1) need for national studies on trauma, PTSD, treatment utilization, and the burden of untreated PTSD; (2) consideration of immigration-related experiences influencing PTSD; (3) consideration of socio-cultural elements for CA PTSD interventions; and (4) need for culturally-valid PTSD assessments.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T02:20:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097435
       
  • Technology-Facilitated Abuse in Intimate Relationships: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Michaela M. Rogers, Colleen Fisher, Parveen Ali, Peter Allmark, Lisa Fontes
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Technology-facilitated abuse (TFA) is a significant, harmful phenomenon and emerging trend in intimate partner violence. TFA encompasses a range of behaviours and is facilitated in online spaces (on social media and networking platforms) and through the misuse of everyday technology (e.g. mobile phone misuse, surveillance apps, spyware, surveillance via video cameras and so on). The body of work on TFA in intimate relationships is emerging, and so this scoping review set out to establish what types of abuse, impacts and forms of resistance are reported in current studies. The scoping review examined studies between 2000 and 2020 that focused on TFA within intimate partnerships (adults aged 18+) within the setting of any of these countries: the UK and Ireland, USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and Scopus were searched in December 2020. A total of 22 studies were included in the review. The main findings were that TFA is diverse in its presentation and tactics, but can be typed according to the eight domains of the Duluth Power & Control Wheel. Impacts are not routinely reported across studies but broadly fall into the categories of social, mental health and financial impacts and omnipresence. Similarly, modes of resistance are infrequently reported in studies. In the few studies that described victim/survivor resistance, this was in the context of direct action, access to legal or professional support or in the identification of barriers to resistance.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T10:28:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221090218
       
  • Technology-Facilitated Abuse Against Women From Culturally and
           Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds: A Scoping Review of the Literature

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      Authors: Carolina Leyton Zamora, Jennifer Boddy, Patrick O'Leary, Jianqiang Liang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Women from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds are particularly vulnerable to domestic and family violence, including technology-facilitated abuse. Often CALD women depend on technology to connect with support networks in their home country. Technology-facilitated abuse can be devastating and isolating. There is limited comprehensive knowledge of how technology-facilitated abuse is experienced by CALD women. This scoping review addresses this gap by exploring and analysing the available literature on technology-facilitated abuse amongst CALD women in the context of domestic and family violence. Employing a scoping review methodology, a total of nine studies were identified from a database search and other sources (including snowball, web search, and search verification processes). Studies were included if they contained the following three elements: (1) a focus on technology-facilitated abuse, (2) the inclusion of CALD women’s experiences, and (3) a context of domestic and family violence (DFV). This review firstly maps the methodologies and characteristics of the studies. Second, the most common types of technology-facilitated abuse that disproportionally affect CALD women are identified together with culturally related help-seeking barriers. Areas for future research are discussed along with suggestions for improving practises and policies for prevention and intervention.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T07:54:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221098045
       
  • Global Prevalence and Factors Related to Intimate Partner Violence Amongst
           People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency
           Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression

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      Authors: Ling Jie Cheng, Jing Ying Cheng, Kai Yoong Yen, Siew Tiang Lau, Ying Lau
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Reviews of intimate partner violence (IPV) have primarily focused on women and same-sex relationships, but little is known about the global epidemiology of IPV among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This review employed meta-analytic approaches to determine the worldwide prevalence and factors related to different forms of IPV among PLWHA. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane review, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest, and registers, were systematically reviewed until November 5, 2021. The meta-analysis was conducted using the metafor package in R software. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool version 1 were used to assess the study quality and risk of bias, respectively. A total of 49 published articles and 42,280 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. Over their lifetime, four in ten PLWHA have experienced some type of IPV. Over a quarter have experienced physical, emotional, or psychological IPV. One in five PLWHA experienced at least one form of IPV during the recall period of last year, with emotional IPV being the most prevalent. Rates of physical and any types of IPV differed substantially between IPV measurements. IPV rates also varied significantly by the study design, with physical (29%) and sexual (18%) IPV rates being more prevalent in cross-sectional studies. Public health measures are critical for preventing and combating IPV among PLWHA. Additional cross-national research using robust sampling methods is required to obtain more representative samples and thus a more reliable prevalence estimate of IPV prevalence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T05:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097436
       
  • Centering Media Literacy and Cultural Tailoring: A Scoping Review of
           Interventions Used to Address Black Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

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      Authors: Lolita Moss, Lisa Fedina
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) among Black adolescents is a critical public health issue, as they report higher levels of IPV perpetration and victimization than their counterparts from other racial groups. Although practitioners frequently implement educational programs to reduce and prevent adolescent relationship violence among adolescents, the extent to which these interventions have been culturally tailored to Black youth is unclear. The purpose of this scoping review is to investigate the nature and effects of cultural tailoring in IPV interventions delivered to Black adolescent populations as well as any critical media literacy (CML) content therein. We conducted searches of three databases for peer-reviewed research published in the United States between 2000 and 2020 that evaluated an IPV-focused educational intervention with a predominantly Black adolescent sample. A total of eight original studies met our inclusion criteria. Findings showed that five of the articles mentioned some level of cultural tailoring for the participants. However, the level and nature of that tailoring ranged widely with regard to curriculum development, staffing, and other program elements. No studies included any elements of CML education. Overall results indicate positive effects of IPV interventions on adolescents and reduced acceptance of violence in romantic relationships. This scoping review highlights a lack of clarity on methods used for cultural tailoring of curriculum based IPV interventions, vague application of social learning theoretical frameworks, and the potential benefits of CML content.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T04:35:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221090493
       
  • Prevalence of Victimisation in Autistic Individuals: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Grace Trundle, Katy A. Jones, Danielle Ropar, Vincent Egan
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Autistic individuals are at an increased risk of experiencing victimisation. Previous reviews have focussed specific types of victimisation. Thus, a clearer picture considering the range of victimisation experiences autistic people face is required. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of victimisation in autistic individuals considering a variety of victimisation types (e.g., bulling, sexual victimisation, and crime) in both adults and children from clinical and community settings. Through systematic searches of relevant databases, 291 studies met the criteria for review. Of those, 34 studies met the inclusion criteria: a) quantitative studies, b) involving autistic individuals, c) reporting prevalence rates of victimisation. Meta-analysis found a pooled prevalence rate of victimisation of 44% in autistic individuals. Subgroup analysis examined moderating factors as high heterogeneity was present. This found the pooled prevalence rates for bullying to be 47%, 16% for child abuse, 40% for sexual victimisation, 13% for cyberbullying, and 84% for multiple forms of victimisation in autistic individuals, though heterogeneity remained. Correction for participants’ age, reporter used, and the population which the sample was recruited from did not reduce heterogeneity. Although heterogeneity impedes the definitive interpretation of the findings, this review illustrates the need for strategies and interventions to reduce the incidence of victimisation.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T03:35:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093689
       
  • Psychological Variables Associated With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in
           Firefighters: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Elena R. Serrano-Ibáñez, Tania Corrás, Mirtha del Prado, Javier Diz, Carmen Varela
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Firefighters are repeatedly exposed to work-related potential traumatic events and have an increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms implicated in this relationship are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk and protective factors related to the development of PTSD in firefighters. According to PRISMA, a systematic review of scientific literature was conducted in Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) was used as the methodological quality indicator of the selected articles (PROSPERO reference CRD42020213009). Prognostic studies involving active firefighters with presence of post-traumatic symptomatology, presenting original findings, and written in Spanish or English were included. A total of 1768 potentially eligible articles were identified. According to the inclusion criteria, 87 articles were selected to evaluate the full text. Finally, 19 articles were included, comprising 12,298 active firefighters. There is high heterogeneity in the variables evaluated in the different studies. Taking the data for which this review has found more evidence (moderate support), operational stress, job duration, burnout, expressive suppression and rumination could be risk factors of PTSD, and belongingness and dispositional mindfulness could be protective factors. Other variables with weak support (e.g. resilience) were analysed. This review analyses the available literature, highlighting its scarcity for future research on the subject. Due to repeated trauma exposure, it is important to continue investigations and bear these variables in mind for the prevention of PTSD in firefighters.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T12:27:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082944
       
  • Resilience After Trauma in Kosovo and Southeastern Europe: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: Kaltrina Kelmendi, Sherry Hamby
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Most people who experience trauma want to thrive and often find paths to well-being and healthy functioning. This scoping review explores the existing evidence on adversity and resilience in southeastern European countries, focusing on Kosovo. There is a lack of research on trauma and resilience in cultures outside the US and Western Europe. The paper provides a brief cultural and historical overview of this region and the collectivist cultures found there. We draw from a range of interdisciplinary literatures to identify key strengths that have the potential to improve health outcomes for trauma victims in this region. Overall, 42 papers from PsycInfo and PubMed were identified, using keywords such as “resilience” or “health” and “Kosovo,” “Balkans,” and “Southeastern Europe.” Findings from this scoping review show that different cultural values, norms, and societal ecologies impact resilience within these societies. Some strengths, such as social support and sense of purpose, echoed similar research in the US and Western Europe. There was also evidence that factors such as dignity, family solidarity, social activism, and nationwide meaning-making are strengths associated with resilience for these collectivist societies of southeastern Europe. We also consider the implications of the results for other post-conflict societies. Finally, findings from this review call for culturally sensitive strength-based perspectives in promoting health and well-being after the high dosages of trauma common in this region.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T12:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093693
       
  • Prevention of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence by Men and Boys in
           Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review of Primary Prevention
           Interventions

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      Authors: Allayna DeHond, Forrest Brady, Ameeta S. Kalokhe
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects the health of women across the globe, with the greatest burden encountered by women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This scoping review aims to summarize and critically examine primary prevention interventions addressing IPV perpetration by men and boys in LMICs and identify gaps in the evidence base. PubMed, EMbase, and PsychINFO were searched for articles published between January 2001 and October 2020 that examined the efficacy of primary prevention interventions to prevent IPV perpetration by men/boys in LMICs and reported on a quantitative outcome examining IPV perpetration. Data on study population, setting and design, intervention components, evaluation methods, and outcomes were extracted, and study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Of 8,392 articles, 16 intervention studies met inclusion criteria. All 16 were of moderate or weak quality. The majority were conducted in Africa, delivered by peers, theoretically grounded, and included content to challenge IPV acceptance and gender norms. Half demonstrated intervention efficacy in prevention of IPV perpetration; these studies tended to intervene at multiple levels of the Socio-Ecological Model, be delivered over a minimum of eight sessions, and utilize a validated IPV measure to assess intervention impact. In conclusion, the field of IPV perpetration prevention research in LMICs is rapidly evolving, with many interventions demonstrating promise. Future intervention studies should consider expanding to LMICs outside Africa, targeting school-age youth, exploring whether shorter intervention durations are effective, and addressing the methodological shortcomings noted in the quality assessment.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T04:40:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221097441
       
  • Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence in the Context of Disasters: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Yuliya Medzhitova, Betty S. Lai, Parker Killenberg, Alexa Riobueno-Naylor, Lisa A. Goodman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Women are at increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the context of disasters. However, the factors that increase this risk are not well understood. The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the literature on IPV in the context of disasters. The first aim was to identify risk factors predicting women’s exposure to IPV. The second aim was to identify disaster-specific risk factors for IPV. The third aim was to construct a social ecological framework of risk factors for IPV in disasters at the individual, relationship/household, community, and structural levels. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines (PRISMA; Moher et al., 2009). Articles were identified using keywords in seven ProQuest databases. Of the 67 articles identified for full-text review, 24 were eligible for inclusion. Studies were evaluated based on critical appraisal of methodology using an adapted version of the Mixed Methods Appraisals Tool (MMAT; Hong et al., 2018). Findings suggest that disasters give rise to unique risk factors across social ecologies which interact with pre-existing characteristics of social vulnerability to increase women’s risk of IPV. Findings inform violence prevention strategies within the context of disaster response and therefore have implications for research, policy, and practice.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T05:30:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093688
       
  • The Measurement of Intimate Partner Violence Using International
           Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Codes: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Rebecca Rebbe, Avanti Adhia, Andrea Lane Eastman, May Chen, Jade Winn
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is challenging to measure yet systematic surveillance of IPV is critical to informing public health prevention and response efforts. Administrative medical data provide opportunities for such surveillance, and often use the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The primary purpose of this systematic review was to document which ICD codes have been used in empirical literature to identify IPV, understand the justification used to select specific codes to develop IPV case definitions, and identify the data sources and types of research questions addressed by the existing literature. We searched 11 databases and of the initial 2182 results, 21 empirical studies from 2000 to 2020 met the study inclusion criteria including using ICD codes to measure IPV. The majority of these studies (90.5%) used either national samples of data or population-based administrative data from emergency departments (52.4%) or inpatient hospitalizations (38.1%). We found wide variation of ICD diagnostic codes to measure IPV and categorized the sets of codes used based on the number of codes. The most commonly used ICD-9 codes were E967.3, 995.81, 995.80, 995.85 and the most common ICD-10 codes were T74.1 and Z63.0. Few studies validated the ICD codes used to measure IPV. Most included studies (81.0%) answered epidemiological research questions. The current study provides suggestions for future research, including justifying the selection of ICD codes and providing a range of estimates based on narrow and broad sets of codes. Implications for policy and practice, including enhanced training for healthcare professionals in documenting IPV, are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-05-04T01:00:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221090977
       
  • Vicarious Post-traumatic Growth in Professionals Exposed to Traumatogenic
           Material: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Alexandra Tsirimokou, Juliane A. Kloess, Sonia K. Dhinse
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Repeated exposure to traumatogenic material as part of work with traumatised individuals can have detrimental effects on professionals’ well-being. Growing research has explored this phenomenon, known as ‘vicarious traumatisation’. Nevertheless, little research has focused on the positive effects of this work on professionals, namely, ‘vicarious post-traumatic growth’. This literature review aims to identify existing research demonstrating mental health professionals’ experiences of growth, along with environmental and personal factors that facilitate this growth. Eight qualitative and seven quantitative articles were identified following a systematic search of six electronic databases and assessed for their quality using standardised checklists. Qualitative studies were assessed using the Quality Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Studies (NICE, 2012), and quantitative studies were assessed using the Appraisal Tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (Downes et al., 2016). Professionals described changes in the way they view themselves, the value they place on their relationships and their appreciation for life. Important organisational factors and personal traits were identified as significant predictors for professionals’ growth. Our findings have the potential to inform practical recommendations and directions for future research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T03:10:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082079
       
  • The Co-Occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence and Violence Against
           Children: A Systematic Review on Associated Factors in Low- and
           Middle-Income Countries

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      Authors: Isabelle Pearson, Sabrina Page, Cathy Zimmerman, Franziska Meinck, Floriza Gennari, Alessandra Guedes, Heidi Stöckl
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) are public health issues of global concern. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a commonly occurring form of VAW and there is evidence to suggest that IPV and VAC frequently co-occur within the same families. This systematic literature review searched for studies published in any language between 1st January 2000 to 16th February 2021 and identified 33 studies that provided findings for co-occurring IPV and VAC in 24 low- and middle-income countries (PROSPERO: CRD42020180179). These studies were split into subgroups based on the types of co-occurring violence they present and meta-analyses were conducted to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) within these subgroups. Our results indicate a significant association between IPV and VAC, with all pooled ORs showing a significant positive association between the two. Almost half of the studies focused exclusively on co-occurrence between male-to-female IPV and female caregiver-to-child VAC; few authors reported on male caregiver-to-child violence. Only three studies identified risk factors for co-occurring IPV and VAC, and those that did suggested conflicting findings on the risks associated with maternal age, alcohol and drug use, and parental education level. We also found incongruity in the violence definitions and measurements used across studies. Future research should aim to develop more consistent definitions and measurements for co-occurrence and move beyond solely examining dyadic and unidirectional violence occurrence in families; this will allow us to better understand the interrelationships between these different forms of abuse.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T09:25:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082943
       
  • School-Based Interventions for Child and Adolescent Victims of
           Interpersonal Violence

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      Authors: Michelle L-Y Wichmann, Silke Pawils, Julia Richters, Franka Metzner
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Interpersonal violence against children and adolescents can affect their mental health and functioning in the long term. To reduce mental health problems in children and adolescents, school-based mental health interventions have been shown to be beneficial. A review of school-based interventions designed to mitigate posttraumatic symptoms after interpersonal violence is lacking to date. Methods: We searched for original studies published in English or German until November 2019 in 6 electronic databases. Supplementary search strategies to reduce publication bias were implemented. Peer-reviewed original studies assessing school-based interventions for children and adolescents under the age of 21 after interpersonal violence were included. Relevant data was extracted, synthesised and assessed qualitatively. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed. Results: Of 5,021 unduplicated publications, 15 studies met eligibility criteria. The included studies were almost exclusively conducted in the USA; over half utilised a randomised-controlled design. Studies mainly focussed on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or depression. In all studies, implemented interventions partially or fully mitigated posttraumatic symptoms. Nine school-based interventions, five of which were based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), were identified. School staff were often involved in intervention implementation besides mental health professionals. Conclusions: School-based interventions can be beneficial to reduce mental health problems in children and adolescents after interpersonal violence. Trained school staff aided by mental health professionals can implement trauma-informed practices at school. While school-based interventions may be a feasible way to provide children and adolescents with accessible mental health care, further research on school-based trauma interventions outside the USA is necessary.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T04:50:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221078892
       
  • Revictimization Risk Factors Following Childhood Maltreatment: A
           Literature Review

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      Authors: Hannah E. Walker, Rachel Wamser-Nanney
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Revictimization research, to date, has primarily focused on sexual revictimization (i.e., child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault), which has resulted in a lack of understanding of trauma revictimization more generally. Specifically, it is unclear what factors are placing individuals with a history of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing intimate partner violence [IPV]) at greater risk for subsequent adult victimization (i.e., sexual assault and IPV). Existing theoretical and empirical work on revictimization suggest that multiple risk factors are likely present within this framework (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], emotion dysregulation, and risk-taking behaviors). Prior research has suggested that PTSS are often linked with these other risk factors, and it is possible that the development of PTSS following child maltreatment may be related to the development or maintenance of additional factors that increase the likelihood of revictimization. The purpose of this review was to synthesize findings regarding risk factors that place maltreated individuals at greater risk for adult revictimization. Approximately 228 studies were identified following a thorough search of the peer-reviewed literature using multiple databases (PsycINFO, PILOTS, and Google Scholar). Each study was critically analyzed for relevance. The included studies were used in our review of prevalence, specific risk factors that have been identified, and unanswered questions in this literature. PTSS were noted to be particularly important in the revictimization framework, and thus, a novel model of revictimization was also proposed where PTSS are illustrated as being associated with the development and maintenance of other factors within the revictimization framework.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-27T06:34:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221093692
       
  • Therapeutic Dance for the Healing of Sexual Trauma: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Joyce Lee, Janeet Dhauna, Jennifer A. Silvers, Meredith H. Houston, Elizabeth S. Barnert
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Therapeutic dance has been increasingly used as a treatment modality for sexual trauma, yet its evidence-based efficacy has not yet been catalogued. We therefore conducted a systematic review to summarize the existing evidence for therapeutic dance as an intervention for healing after sexual trauma. We searched 5 major databases to identify intervention studies on the use of therapeutic dance for individuals with histories of sexual trauma. Studies were included based on the following criteria: 1) the study involves individuals who have been exposed to sexual trauma; 2) the study reports on any form of dance as a therapeutic intervention; and 3) the study reports on dance intervention outcomes. A total of 1,686 sources were identified. Of these, 11 articles met eligibility criteria and were assessed. Reported outcomes were extracted and organized into emergent domains. We found that therapeutic dance acts upon three broad domains—affect, self, and interpersonal relationships – and can be delivered in diverse settings. Across the studies, dance showed benefits on outcomes. However, a significant weakness of the current peer-reviewed literature is the lack of robust empirical intervention research on dance therapy. Overall, the emerging literature suggests that therapeutic dance is a potential intervention for those who have experienced sexual trauma. The review findings presented here can be used to inform practitioners and systems of care targeted for those who have been subject to sexual trauma.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-25T10:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221086898
       
  • Rape Crisis Victim Advocacy: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Annie Wegrzyn, Peggy Tull, Megan R. Greeson, Catherine Pierre-Louis, Emily Patton, Jessica Shaw
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While rape crisis center (RCC) advocacy is generally regarded as valuable, there are no prior systematic reviews of the advocacy literature. This review examined RCC advocacy service provision, perceptions and impact of advocacy, and challenges and facilitators to effective service provision. Databases related to health and social sciences were searched including Academic Search Complete, PsychINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, Science Direct, OAlster, WorldCat, and MEDLINE. Empirical articles written in English that examined RCC advocacy service provision and/or impact in the US were included. The researchers reviewed abstracts and titles, and then full texts. Forty-five articles met criteria, were summarized, and double checked. Findings demonstrate advocacy is multi-faceted, beneficial, and challenging. Advocates work directly with survivors and interact with other responders on behalf of survivors. Specifically, advocates provide emotional support, safety plan, support survivors in making decisions, and assist them in navigating other systems. While advocates are generally regarded positively by survivors and responders, some responders have concerns about advocates. In addition, advocates sometimes report victim-blaming and being ill-equipped to meet survivors’ needs. Finally, advocates face specific challenges in their work with survivors and responders. Future research using diverse methodological approaches is needed to understand advocacy utilization and reach; survivors’ perceptions of advocacy; marginalized survivors’ experiences; connections between specific services, implementation, and outcomes; and effective strategies for advocates’ interactions with other responders. Additional resources to help advocates serve all survivors effectively and equitably; to support evaluator-practitioner partnerships; and to share unpublished data on advocacy may help contribute to improvements in advocacy practice.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T11:17:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082089
       
  • The Psychological Impact of Restorative Justice Practices on Victims of
           Crimes—a Systematic Review

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      Authors: Ana M. Nascimento, Joana Andrade, Andreia de Castro Rodrigues
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Restorative justice emerges as a theoretical-practical approach to the criminal legal system, in which the reparation of damage of the victim is a central point. However, the growing empirical production referring to the effects of this approach on victims is sometimes shown to be weakened or dispersed, focusing mainly on their satisfaction. Objective: The present work intended to systematically evaluate the empirical production of the restorative justice field, to aggregate and examine information in the literature regarding the psychological impacts on victims who participated in restorative practices. Methods: A search was made using electronic databases to identify quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies, published between January 2000 and December 2020 that reported psychological impacts on real victims of crimes, who participated in mediations/conferences victim–offender. Results: 35 studies were identified as focusing on the psychological impacts on victims resulting from restorative practices. These studies have shown effects on post-traumatic symptomatology, on the emotions and emotional needs resulted from victimization, as well as on the victims’ perceptions of their offenders. Conclusions: The present research showed that restorative justice practices have a positive psychological impact on victims, who are frequently forgotten in conventional justice, and that some of these impacts persist over time.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-24T06:35:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082085
       
  • Sexual and Relationship Violence Among LGBTQ+ College Students: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: L.B. Klein, Hayden C. Dawes, Greeshma James, William J. Hall, Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Sharyn J. Potter, Sandra L. Martin, Rebecca J. Macy
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although there has been increased attention to campus sexual and relationship violence (SRV) because of Title IX and the #MeToo movement, much of that attention has focused on victimization of cisgender heterosexual women. This scoping review uncovers information from empirical studies on what is known about LGBTQ+ (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and nonbinary) students’ experiences of campus SRV. Using rigorous scoping review methods (i.e., searches of 15 databases, searches of expert websites, hand searching, reference harvesting, and forward citation chaining), we identified 60 documents published since 2000 that contained findings from empirical studies related to LGBTQ+ students and SRV on U.S. college and university campuses. Through content analysis, we summarized findings around five key themes: (1) extent and types of victimization, (2) negative outcomes, (3) knowledge of and attitudes about SRV, (4) perspectives on SRV services and prevention education programs, and (5) recommendations from study authors based on their findings. Implications for research, practice, and policy based on these findings are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T08:48:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221089981
       
  • Non-Partner Sexual Violence Among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and
           Pacific Islander Adults: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Sahnah Lim, Onyoo Park, Sadia Mohaimin, Christina Lee, Seunggun Lee, Dhruvi Chauhan, Timothy Roberts, Shahmir H. Ali, Chau Trinh-Shevrin
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) population is rapidly growing in the United States. Despite sexual violence being a persistent and significant public health issue, research on this topic among AANHPIs is lacking. The study objective is to conduct a systematic scoping review on the published literature on non-partner sexual violence among AANHPIs to identify gaps and priorities to inform actionable research. The systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA Protocol for Systematic Reviews. Database searches were conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central of Clinical Trials, along with and AgeLine and CINAHL for peer-reviewed articles describing non-partner sexual violence among AANHPIs. The search was limited to articles in English published after 1990. Each citation was reviewed by two trained independent reviewers, with a third researcher resolving any conflicts. Of the 998 articles screened and subsequently 496 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 38 articles were included in the final analysis. The majority of studies did not report disaggregated data for AANHPI subgroups, with most focusing on East Asian subgroups and little evidence on NHPI communities. Most studies were cross-sectional, quantitative, and employed non-probability sampling. There was a lack of studies on effectiveness of interventions and validity of sexual violence-related measures. Our review provides a first step in mapping the extant literature on non-partner sexual violence among this underserved and under-researched population and will serve as a guide for future research, policy, and intervention.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T07:26:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082088
       
  • Measuring Violence Against Children: A COSMIN Systematic Review of the
           Psychometric Properties of Child and Adolescent Self-Report Measures

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      Authors: Franziska Meinck, Lakshmi Neelakantan, Bridget Steele, Janina Jochim, Lynn M. Davies, Mark Boyes, Jane Barlow, Michael Dunne
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Research on violence against children (VAC) requires meaningful, valid, and reliable self-report by children. Many instruments have been used globally and decisions to select suitable measures are complex. This review identifies child and adolescent self-report measures that are most likely to yield valid, reliable, and comparable data in this field. A systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD4201706) was conducted using the 2018 Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instrument (COSMIN) criteria. Six electronic databases and gray literature were searched. Manuscripts published in English and describing the development and psychometric qualities of child/adolescent self-report instruments were included. Thirty-nine original instruments and 13 adaptations were identified in 124 studies. The quality of evidence ranged from “very low” to “high” depending on the measure and the psychometric properties assessed. Most measures were not widely used, and some have been applied in many settings despite limited evidence of their psychometric rigor. Few studies assessed content validity, particularly with children. The ACE, CTQ, CTS-PC, CECA, ICAST, and JVQ have the best psychometric properties. An overview of items measuring frequency, onset, duration, perpetrators, and locations is provided as well as an assessment of the practicalities for administration to help researchers select the instrument best suited for their research questions. This comprehensive review shows the strengths and weaknesses of VAC research instruments. Six measures that have sufficient psychometric properties are recommended for use in research, with the caveat that extensive piloting is carried out to ensure sufficient content validity for the local context and population.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:50:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082152
       
  • Effectiveness of Digital Health Interventions in Reducing Bullying and
           Cyberbullying: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Qiqi Chen, Ko Ling Chan, Shaolingyun Guo, Mengtong Chen, Camilla Kin-ming Lo, Patrick Ip
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Bullying and cyberbullying bring adverse physical and psychological impacts on individuals and an economic burden for society. Scholars have developed anti-bullying intervention programs to combat these problems. This meta-analysis aims to examine and compare the effectiveness of digital health interventions (DHIs) in reducing bullying and cyberbullying. A comprehensive search was conducted using databases (PsycINFO, Social Service Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, MEDLINE, ERIC, and EMBASE). Quasi-experimental and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before 31 January 2021 that reported the effects of DHIs in reducing bullying or cyberbullying were included. The 16 studies included in the synthesis reported overall random effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for bullying and cyberbullying reduction were 0.41 and 0.19, respectively. The results provide evidence on the effectiveness of DHIs, comparable to that of face-to-face interventions. The subgroup analysis revealed that the critical components of effective DHIs include training on bystander and bully–victim dual roles, coping skills, and interactive serious games. It highlights the promising effects of digital health approaches in bullying and cyberbullying interventions. Our review identifies avenues for future research on the development of more effective DHIs to reduce bullying and cyberbullying.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T04:16:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082090
       
  • A Systematic Review of Campus Characteristics Associated With Sexual
           Violence and Other Forms of Victimization

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      Authors: Yara Tashkandi, Jennifer S. Hirsch, Emily Kraus, Rachel Schwartz, Kate Walsh
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence researchers have highlighted a need to understand connections between campus characteristics and violent victimization among students. Responding to those calls, we systematically reviewed research examining the characteristics of secondary and post-secondary educational settings associated with sexual violence and related victimization experiences, including dating/intimate partner violence, stalking, bullying, hate crimes, and crime more broadly. We screened 1124 quantitative and qualitative records, 43 of which met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Evidence emerged for institution demographics, institution type, institution climate, institution financial characteristics, and educational characteristics being related to various forms of victimization; institution setting (urban vs. rural) was not associated with victimization. Additionally, evidence was observed for institution location and size/density. Some factors, including institution type and campus demographics, operated differently for different forms of victimization. We highlight limitations of existing data, including variability in the measurement of victimization outcomes, lack of power to detect differences at the campus level, and challenges of creating a database on victimization that contains campus identifiers. We also reinforce calls for more intersectional research, both in terms of the types of victimization experienced by students as well as in the disproportionate impact victimization may have on students with marginalized identities.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:23:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221078893
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Against Bisexual
           Victims: A Systematic Scoping Review

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      Authors: Julia Corey, Marian Duggan, Áine Travers
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Bisexual-identifying individuals appear to be at increased risk of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) compared to people of other sexualities. The purpose of this systematic scoping review was to examine risk and protective factors for the perpetration of IPV against bisexual victims and to provide a preliminary quality assessment of the included studies. A systematic search of academic and grey literature was conducted in February 2021. Inclusion criteria specified that study participants identified as bisexual, that the study examined risk or protective factors for IPV, and that findings were disaggregated by sexual identity. All potentially eligible references were independently screened by two reviewers, and conflicts settled by a third reviewer. Nine articles published between 2013 and 2021 met criteria for inclusion. Data extraction was completed for all included studies, and findings presented in a narrative synthesis. The review identified a number of risk factors, including bisexual identity, internalised homophobia, discrimination, partner gender, negative childhood experiences and non-monogamy. One study included consideration of a potentially protective factor. The majority of the included studies were cross-sectional in design. More longitudinal studies are needed to clarify temporality of the associations identified and better inform support and prevention efforts. Further implications for future research, policies and practise are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:05:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221084749
       
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials for
           Intimate Partner Violence: The Effects of the Programs Based on Their
           Purposes

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      Authors: Sihyun Park, Sin-Hyang Kim
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex global problem that has serious health consequences for victims. Many intervention programs have been introduced for IPV, with various target populations, purposes, designs, and outcomes. However, a consensus has not been reached regarding which type of program has the greatest impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of existing interventions on IPV risk and to compare the effects of the interventions based on their purposes and designs. Method: A systematic review and meta-analytic method were utilized in this study. Through a rigorous database search, 13 randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and included in the analysis. Results: The included interventions had a small effect size, which was statistically significant. The couple interventions aiming to reduce the risk of IPV perpetration and victimization simultaneously showed the greatest impact, compared to bystander interventions and interventions targeting either perpetrators or victims. The interventions aiming to reduce the risk of IPV perpetration showed a significant impact on changing gender equality-related knowledge and attitudes, and those aiming to reduce the risk of IPV victimization were effective in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes related to traditional norms, empowerment, and health conditions. The interventions targeting bystanders showed significant effects on increasing bystander-related attitudes and behaviors. Conclusion: Our findings provide strong evidence for future intervention programs for IPV. Long-term research to follow-up actual IPV reductions after interventions will be needed to confirm the findings of this study.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-15T10:00:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221084748
       
  • Upskirting: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Ruth Lewis, Sundari Anitha
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Upskirting’ – the non-consensual taking and/or dissemination of intimate images taken surreptitiously up a skirt – is a relatively new addition to the repertoire of men’s violence against women and girls. Recently, it has received considerable media and public attention in many countries and some academic scrutiny. This systematic review explicates how scholars construct upskirting as a matter for academic inquiry and a social problem that requires remedy. Four research sub-questions address how scholarship constructs: the problem of upskirting; perpetrators of upskirting; victims of upskirting, and remedies. Five bibliographical databases were searched, yielding 26 sources that met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies (16) and most of the earlier work are from the discipline of Law. Other studies come from a combination of Criminology, Media Studies, Cultural Studies, Psychology, Social Work, Sociology, and Computing. The predominance of legal scholarship has created a framing of upskirting which constructs it as an individual sexual act, for purposes of sexual gratification, as gender-neutral, as the act of aberrant individuals, and scrutinises the act of taking the photograph. By contrast, scholarship from other disciplines is more likely to locate upskirting as highly gendered behaviour in the context of gendered relations of power, and of violence against women and girls, and to consider both the act of taking the photograph and its dissemination online. We argue that future research ought to: approach upskirting as a form of violence against women and girls; be empirical and intersectional, and engage with victims and perpetrators.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T02:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082091
       
  • The Effectiveness of Psychological Treatment in Adult Male Convicted for
           Sexual Offenses Against Children: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Marta Sousa, Joana Andrade, Andreia de Castro-Rodrigues, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child sexual abuse is a public health problem of global magnitude with profound and negative consequences for the victims and society. Thus, psychological intervention with individuals who sexually offended against children is crucial for reducing recidivism. Numerous reviews and meta-analyses have shown the effectiveness of psychological interventions in individuals who sexually offended, but few reviews have been done on this subtype of offenders. This article reviews evaluation studies of intervention programs designed to treat individuals who sexually offended against children, providing a more detailed account of treatment procedures. Articles were identified from peer-reviewed databases, bibliographies, and experts. Following full-text review, 12 studies were selected for inclusion by meeting the following criteria: quantitative or qualitative research studies published in English from 2000 to 2020 with titles or abstracts that indicated a focus on treatment effectiveness, detailing the psychological treatment procedures on adult, male individuals convicted for child sexual abuse. Cognitive-behavioral therapy with a relapse prevention approach was the most frequent modality found in child sexual offending treatment. Besides, different criminogenic and non-criminogenic factors emerge as targets for intervention. Study design, study quality, and intervention procedures shortened the accumulation of evidence in treatment effectiveness.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T11:16:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082080
       
  • Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among Sexual and Gender Minorities: A
           Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Katie M. Edwards, Victoria A. Mauer, Merle Huff, Alexander Farquhar-Leicester, Tara E. Sutton, Sarah E. Ullman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual assault is common in sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals, but few studies have examined SGM victims’ disclosure experiences. This systematic review identified 13 studies through searches of research databases on SGM populations with sexual victimization. These studies showed wide variation in disclosure rates, various barriers to disclosure, and psychological impacts of social reactions to disclosure on SGM individuals. Bisexual women were more likely to disclose to formal (e.g., police, healthcare providers) and informal (e.g., friends, family members) sources than other women, and SGM victims disclose to mental health professionals at particularly high rates. Sexual and gender minority victims also reported numerous barriers to disclosure, including those unique to SGM individuals (e.g., fear of being outed). Impacts of negative social reactions appear to be more negative on psychological symptoms of SGM victims, whereas positive reactions are helpful to recovery. Future research is needed taking an intersectional perspective to studying disclosure and social reactions to SGM individuals from both college and community samples, by examining both sexual minority and racial/ethnic identities in the context of intersectional minority stress theory. Studies are needed of both correlates and consequences of disclosures to both informal and formal support sources to better understand SGM individuals’ reasons for telling and not telling various support sources and the impacts of their disclosure experiences on their recovery. Such data is also needed to inform interventions seeking to identify and intervene with support network members and professionals to reduce negative social reactions and their psychosocial impacts and to increase positive social reactions and general social support from informal support sources.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T02:06:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073842
       
  • Examining Cyberstalking Perpetration and Victimization: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Chanelle Wilson, Lorraine Sheridan, David Garratt-Reed
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years the body of literature on cyberstalking has expanded rapidly. The present work aimed to summarize the current state of the literature on cyberstalking perpetration and victimization in a scoping review. Forty-one quantitative and qualitative studies that examined variables relating to cyberstalking victimization and perpetration were collated. Following the methodology of Arksey and O’Malley (2005), an in-depth thematic analysis of the articles was undertaken. Prevalence of victimization and perpetration rates were compared and key themes synthesized. Despite examining similar young adult populations, the prevalence of victimization was found to range considerably from 0.7% (Reyns & Engelbrecht, 2010) to 85.2% (Strawhun et al., 2013) across studies. Themes were divided into two overarching classifications, factors relating to victimization and factors relating to perpetration. Deviant peer association, low self-control, previous harassment experiences and personality traits were some of the factors most frequently examined in relation to perpetration; whilst online exposure, online disclosure and guardianship were some of the factors most frequently examined in relation to victimization. Within these themes, deviant peer association and low self-control were found to consistently correlate with an increase in both cyberstalking victimization and perpetration. Guardianship and confidence online demonstrated inconsistent results. This review has summarized what is currently known and has been validated within cyberstalking research pertaining to victimization and perpetration, and has identified gaps and potential areas of future development.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T05:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082937
       
  • Involving a Significant Other in Treatment of Patients With PTSD Symptoms:
           A Systematic Review of Treatment Interventions

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      Authors: Eline Meuleman, Mèlanie Sloover, Elisa van Ee
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies have called for the inclusion of social support in the treatment of PTSD. The current review identifies interventions for adults with PTSD symptoms, which include a significant other as a source of social support. 11 articles focusing on eight interventions were found, including a total of 495 participants who had experienced trauma. These interventions were divided according to level of involvement of the significant other in treatment. Significant others were either passively or actively involved in the treatment. Preliminary results show that interventions actively involving a significant other in the treatment of the patient with posttraumatic stress symptoms were most effective in reducing PTSD symptoms. The current review provides recommendations for future research and suggests that significant others should be actively involved in the treatment of PTSD symptoms.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T02:56:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082939
       
  • Help-Seeking and Help-Related Experiences of Commercially Sexually
           Exploited Youth: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

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      Authors: Ayelet Prior, Guy Shilo, Einat Peled
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This interpretive qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) aims to systematically review what we know about the help-seeking and help-related experiences of commercially sexually exploited youth (CSEY). A comprehensive search of the relevant databases was conducted to identify published qualitative peer-reviewed papers and research reports about the experiences and perceptions of CSEY. A corpus of 34 qualitative studies was compiled and synthesized, using the conceptual framework of help-seeking and QMS guidelines. The QMS reveals that although help-seeking of CSEY are rarely the focus of the inquiry, the reviewed studies include meaningful information about help-related experiences of CSEY. Thus, the synthesis of the available data yields novel insights about how CSEY perceive their involvement in CSE, define the problems they deal with, decide to seek help, choose the proper help, and engage in helping relations. Particularly, the QMS underscores that CSEY do not always perceive their involvement in CSE as problematic, nor do they identify themselves as victims of exploitation. The findings highlight the significance of developing social services that specialize in helping CSEY, the importance of actively identifying CSEY and reaching out to them, and the need to enable CSEY to be involved in decisions about the extent and type of support they are provided.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-04-05T06:26:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221074333
       
  • Childhood Victimization and Adult Incarceration: A Review of the
           Literature

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      Authors: Hannah R. White, Nicole E. Frisch-Scott
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A growing body of work estimates the prevalence of childhood victimization among incarcerated people. The present study seeks to descriptively and quantitatively summarize this abundant literature by reviewing studies that report childhood victimization prevalence among people incarcerated in the United States. The review includes any study of childhood victimization that uses a sample of incarcerated adults (age eighteen or older) and that reports the proportion of the sample that experienced child abuse and/or neglect. Sixty-seven studies met these criteria and were analyzed, encompassing 1,187,044 incarcerated individuals. The studies vary in sample characteristics, methodological features, and employ an exceedingly wide range of victimization measures. Meta-analyses for pooled prevalence rates revealed that the inter-study heterogeneity was too great to draw conclusive summary estimates of childhood victimization from this literature, even when disaggregating by victimization type. Exploratory t-tests and correlation analyses suggest that a study’s sample size, racial, ethnic, and gender composition, and variation in victimization measurement can influence reported child abuse and neglect, but more research is needed to fully assess how study characteristics influence reported victimization prevalence. Understanding the extensiveness of childhood victimization histories among incarcerated people emphasizes the need for robust screening and treatment for people within correctional facilities, as well as improved community prevention and intervention efforts.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-31T08:59:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073841
       
  • Examining the Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Feasibility of Virtually
           Delivered Trauma-Focused Domestic Violence and Sexual Violence
           Interventions: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

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      Authors: Winta Ghidei, Stephanie Montesanti, Karlee Tomkow, Peter H. Silverstone, Lana Wells, Sandra Campbell
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has forced a rapid shift to virtual delivery of treatment and care to individuals affected by domestic violence and sexual violence. A rapid evidence assessment (REA) was undertaken to examine the effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of trauma-focused virtual interventions for persons affected by domestic violence and sexual violence. The findings from this review will provide guidance for service providers and organizational leaders with the implementation of virtual domestic violence and sexual violence-focused interventions. The REA included comprehensive search strategies and systematic screening of and relevant articles. Papers were included into this review (1) if they included trauma-focused interventions; (2) if the intervention was delivered virtually; and (3) if the article was published in the English-language. Twenty-one papers met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Findings from the rapid review demonstrate that virtual interventions that incorporate trauma-focused treatment are scarce. Online interventions that incorporate trauma-focused treatment for this at-risk group are limited in scope, and effectiveness data are preliminary in nature. Additionally, there is limited evidence of acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of virtual interventions for ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse populations experiencing domestic violence and sexual violence. Accessing virtual interventions was also highlighted as a barrier to among participants in studies included in the review. Despite the potential of virtual interventions to respond to the needs of individuals affected by domestic violence and/or sexual violence, the acceptability and effectiveness of virtual trauma-focused care for a diverse range of populations at risk of violence are significantly understudied.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T05:45:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211069059
       
  • An Umbrella Review of the Literature on Perinatal Domestic Violence:
           Prevalence, Risk Factors, Possible Outcomes and Interventions

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      Authors: Siu-Ching Wong, Phuc Huyen Do, Manuel Eisner, Claire Hughes, Sara Valdebenito, Aja Louise Murray
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Perinatal domestic violence (P-DV) is a common form of violence experienced by women and is associated with adverse impacts on their own physical and mental health and that of their offspring. Illuminating the risk factors for, potential effects of, and promising interventions to reduce P-DV is essential for informing policies to tackle P-DV and mitigate its negative impacts. This umbrella review of recent high-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of worldwide research on P-DV provides a systematic synthesis of current knowledge relating to the prevalence, risk factors for, possible outcomes of and interventions to reduce and prevent P-DV. 13 reviews identified through systematic searches of computerised databases, manual search and expert consultation met our inclusion criteria (i.e. English systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses that were from recent 10 years, focused on women exposed to P-DV, assessed risk factors, possible outcomes and/or interventions, and were of fair to high methodological quality). Our results suggest that while there is a growing understanding of risk factors and possible outcomes of P-DV, this knowledge has thus far not been translated well into effective interventions. P-DV intervention programmes that have been subject to rigorous evaluation are mostly relatively narrow in scope and could benefit from targeting a wider range of maternal and child wellbeing outcomes, and perpetrator, relationship and community risk factors. The overall quality of the evidence syntheses in this field is reasonable; however, future studies should involve multiple reviewers at all key stages of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to help enhance reliability.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T09:20:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221080455
       
  • A Systematic Review Exploring Variables Related to Bystander Intervention
           in Sexual Violence Contexts

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      Authors: Chelsea Mainwaring, Fiona Gabbert, Adrian J. Scott
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a systematic review of the available literature which has investigated the role of key variables in facilitating or inhibiting bystander intervention (including direct intervention, tertiary and secondary prevention) in sexual violence (SV) contexts. Studies exploring the role of individual, situational and contextual variables were grouped to provide a narrative overview of bystanders’ personal characteristics as well as the immediate and wider contexts which may be influencing their bystander behaviour. A systematic search of published literature from four electronic databases identified 2526 articles that were screened, of which 85 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies focused upon the role of individual variables, in particular gender of bystander. This body of work finds females are more likely to intervene than males; however, not all studies report these differences and in some cases, this is influenced by the type of intervention behaviour being considered. Regarding situational variables, the most commonly researched variable was the presence of other bystanders, although the role of this variable as inhibiting or facilitating was not clear. Finally, the most commonly researched contextual variable was social norms towards intervention, which has consistently shown greater bystander intervention when there is a belief that peers support such behaviour. Very few studies considered the interaction between these variables. Therefore, it is important for future research to consider this gap in the literature so that we can obtain a more well-rounded understanding of variables that can inhibit and facilitate bystander intervention in SV contexts.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T05:04:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221079660
       
  • Indigenous Women’s Experiences of Lateral Violence: A Systematic
           Literature Review

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      Authors: Lindsey Jaber, Cynthia Stirbys, Jesse Scott, Emma Foong
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to methodically integrate peer-reviewed findings regarding lateral violence within Indigenous communities, with particular attention to the experiences of Indigenous women. Lateral violence describes aggression within systemically exploited groups. Interpretations from eligible articles were informed by intersectionality theory and post-colonial theory. Eligibility criteria included quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed articles on lateral violence within Indigenous communities. Only articles that were primary sources, available to download in English, and published between 2000 and 2021 were included. Samples did not need to consist of Indigenous women exclusively, but Indigenous women had to be included. First, advanced searches were conducted in five databases (Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, Indigenous Peoples: North America, ProQuest: Sociology Collection, and ERIC). Second, a multidisciplinary index (Google Scholar) was searched. Third, 23 peer-reviewed journals specializing in Indigenous topics were systematically searched. Lastly, forward and backward snowballing techniques were implemented. Articles were appraised following PRISMA-P guidelines. Ten articles passed the eligibility criteria. Findings suggest that lateral violence within Indigenous communities is a complex social concern, with participants disclosing both survivorship and contribution to lateral violence. Within Australian and Canadian contexts, lateral violence experiences are prevalent and persistent occurrences. Lateral violence is a controversial and taboo topic and is often silenced or normalized within Indigenous communities. For this reason, further research is warranted to raise awareness of lateral violence to disrupt the cycle of internalized oppression.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T02:28:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221077316
       
  • Participatory Design Application in Youth Sexual Violence and Abuse
           Prevention: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

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      Authors: Taylor Jade Willmott, Alieena Mathew, Pamela Saleme, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Youth sexual violence and abuse (SVA) are leading public health and human rights issues around the world. Prevention is key to reducing SVA rates and minimising resultant harms. Despite advocacy for more collaborative approaches, knowledge of how to effectively engage young people and key stakeholders in the design, implementation, and evaluation of SVA prevention programs is limited. This mixed-methods systematic review aimed to synthesise available evidence on participatory design (PD) application in primary and secondary SVA prevention targeting young people. A systematic search was executed across seven electronic databases. Eligible studies were peer-reviewed, published in English, reported primary or secondary SVA prevention, described application of PD or a related approach, and targeted young people aged 12–25 years. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Overall, 20 articles reporting 15 studies were included. Most (55%; n = 11) employed a qualitative design. Descriptions, methods, and scope of PD application varied across included studies. A lack of empirical evaluations prevented conclusions regarding the utility of PD application in terms of measured outcomes. The methodology, agent of change, training, and engagement (MATE) taxonomy was subsequently developed to describe and classify PD application. As illustrated in the MATE taxonomy, PD methods promoting agency, encouraging input, and facilitating empowerment are likely to facilitate more meaningful engagement of participants. Integration of participant and expert views, community consultation, and appropriate socio-cultural adaption appear to be critical determinants of program acceptability and feasibility. Empirical evaluations are needed to assess the relative utility of PD methods in line with SVA prevention objectives.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-16T11:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221078891
       
  • Sexual Victimization Outcomes and Adjustment Among Bisexual Women: A
           Review of the Quantitative Literature

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      Authors: Selime R. Salim, A. Alex McConnell, Terri Messman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Bisexual women experience worse mental health outcomes than lesbian and heterosexual women, which may be explained by greater rates of sexual violence among bisexual women. The current comprehensive literature review aimed to synthesize research on mental health and substance use outcomes related to lifetime sexual violence among bisexual women. A comprehensive literature search was conducted within the PsycINFO and Medline databases (final search conducted in August, 2021). Inclusion criteria required articles to examine a mental health or substance use correlate/outcome of lifetime sexual victimization experiences among bisexual women. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Results indicate that there are significant gaps in this literature, including limited research on psychological distress outcomes. Most notably, there is a limited focus on the experiences of bisexual women specifically and the role of bisexual minority stress. Findings indicate that lifetime sexual victimization experiences are linked with increased posttraumatic stress, depression, and alcohol (and other substance) use and consequences. It appears that bisexual women are vulnerable to cumulative victimization, which may further exacerbate outcomes. Clinicians working with bisexual women should provide bisexual-affirmative care, help bisexual women access positive social supports, and build more effective coping strategies for managing post-trauma distress. Future research on outcomes of violence among bisexual women would benefit from contextualizing adjustment following sexual assault within a bisexual minority stress-informed approach for a more comprehensive understanding of this process.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-11T04:28:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073837
       
  • Ecological System Levels of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide
           Perpetration and Victimization: A Three-Level Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Bitna Kim
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to identify, through an advanced three-level meta-analytic approach, the predictive validity of the different ecological systems for IPH perpetration and victimization relative to IPV, other homicides, IPH followed by suicide, and non-abused control groups. Twenty-nine studies were included, with 473 effect sizes in a unique population of 16,237. Each factor was classified into one of three ecological systems: ontogenetic, microsystem, and exosystem. The results revealed that the impact of each ecological system on the likelihood of IPH varies depending on the offender/victim gender and the comparison groups. Specifically, the largest odds ratios for intimate partner femicide (IPF) perpetration/victimization versus IPV were found at the microsystem level as well as IPF victimization versus non-abused group at the ontogenetic level of risk factors. Moderator analyses showed that the difference between male IPH and IPV perpetrators in the effect of the microsystem level of risk factors is explained in part by a set of cultural values and beliefs toward equality. We then discuss the present results’ implications for risk assessment and the prevention/treatment of IPH perpetration and victimization, as well as future research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T09:06:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221082154
       
  • Adverse Impact of Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women
           During Pregnancy and Post-Partum: Results From a Meta-Analysis of
           Observational Studies

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      Authors: Dan Lin, Chunyang Zhang, Huijing Shi
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have been previously studied. However, data on the impact of IPV on HIV-positive pregnant women have not been systematically synthesized. We performed a meta-analysis to explore this issue and provide evidence regarding IPV prevention and HIV infection control. Method: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were systematically searched. Studies that quantitatively assessed the association between IPV and its adverse impact on HIV-positive women during pregnancy and post-partum were eligible for inclusion. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Findings: Eight studies were identified to meet our eligibility criteria. The adverse impacts of IPV against HIV-positive pregnant women mainly included nonadherence to maternal antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy, nondisclosure of HIV-positive status to male partners, nonadherence to infant antiretroviral prophylaxis, and antenatal depression. IPV caused a 180% and 145% increase in the odds of antenatal depression and nonadherence to infant antiretroviral prophylaxis, respectively, among HIV-positive women, compared to the odds of their IPV-free counterparts [OR = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–4.74; OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.40–4.27]. Conclusion: Limited evidence has suggested that IPV against HIV-positive pregnant women caused maternal depression during pregnancy and led to the possible failure of HIV prophylaxis adherence in infants. Interventions to address IPV may ultimately reduce the risk of depression-related adverse birth outcomes and vertical transmission in infants exposed to maternal HIV. Prevention and control against IPV should be developed for HIV-positive pregnant women.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T02:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073845
       
  • Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Culturally Responsive
           Domestic Violence Measures

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      Authors: Kristen E. Ravi, Abha Rai, Savannah Lindsey
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Domestic violence (DV) is a pervasive public health issue due to its high prevalence and the adverse effects it can have on individuals. Standardized measures can fail to account for within-group differences that are salient among diverse populations. The current review aims to systematically review and organize the psychometric studies of culturally responsive DV measures. The goal of the review is to inform researchers and practitioners about the validity and reliability of the existing measures to facilitate measure selection. Studies were included if they were validation studies of a DV measure, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, demonstrated cultural responsivity, and provided evidence of validity or reliability. A total of seven studies were identified. Findings from this review showed that most participants were from South Asia or were South Asian immigrants. Some culturally specific tactics included being treated like a servant, eating last, being burned, and in-laws abuse. Most measures included in this review demonstrated compelling evidence of validity and reliability. More research is needed to develop and validate culturally responsive measures with distinctly diverse populations. Valid and reliable culturally responsive measures can be helpful for DV and non-DV service providers to precisely assess DV and provide appropriate services while documenting accurate DV prevalence rates.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T11:52:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073844
       
  • Parental Preconception Adversity and Offspring Health in African
           Americans: A Systematic Review of Intergenerational Studies

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      Authors: Josiah A. Sweeting, Adebisi A. Akinyemi, Ellen Alison Holman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: This systematic review explores the empirical literature addressing the association between parental preconception adversity and offspring physical health in African-American families. Method: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus through June 2021. Articles were included if they: reported data about at least two generations of African-American participants from the same family; measured parental preconception adversity at the individual level; measured at least one offspring physical health outcome; and examined associations between parental adversity and child health. Results: We identified 701 unique articles; thirty-eight articles representing 30 independent studies met inclusion criteria. Twenty-five studies (83%) reported that parental preconception adversity was associated with child health; six studies (20%) reported that parental preconception adversity was not associated with at least one offspring outcome; several studies reported both. Only six studies (20%) reported an association specific to African Americans. Conclusion: Empirical evidence linking parental preconception adversity with offspring physical health in African Americans is limited and mixed. In the current literature, very few studies report evidence addressing intergenerational associations between parental preconception adversity and offspring physical health in the African-American population, specifically, and even fewer investigate forms of parental preconception adversity that have been shown to disproportionately affect African Americans (e.g., racism). To better understand root causes of racial health disparities, more rigorous systematic research is needed to address how intergenerational transmission of historical and ongoing race-based trauma may impact offspring health among African Americans.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T08:43:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221074320
       
  • Do Meta-Analyses of Intervention/Prevention Programs in the Field of
           Criminology Meet the Tests of Transparency and Reproducibility'

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      Authors: Jennifer S. Wong, Jessica Bouchard
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While assessments of transparent reporting practices in meta-analyses are not uncommon in the field of health sciences interventions, they are limited in the social sciences and to our knowledge are non-existent in criminology. Modified PRISMA 2020 checklists were used to assess transparency and reproducibility of reporting for a sample of 33 meta-analyses of intervention/prevention evaluations published in scholarly journals between 2016 and 2021. Results indicate that the average rate of transparent reporting practices was 63%; adherence varied considerably across studies and subscales, with low rates of adherence for some core checklist items. Overwhelmingly, studies were not reproducible in their entirety; article word count was significantly correlated with reproducibility (r = 0.4028, p < .03). These findings suggest that substantial changes to reporting practices are necessary to meet traditional meta-analytic claims of transparency and reproducibility. Study limitations include sample size, coding instruments, and coding subjectivity.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T07:11:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073839
       
  • Domestic Violence in Cross-Border Marriages: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Muhamad Helmi Bin Md Said, Grace Emmanuel Kaka
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Cross-border marriages have been found to be associated with domestic violence due to the migration experiences of the couples concerned and the stress experienced before, during, and after migration, despite local and international legislation on domestic violence. A systematic review using the PRISMA Statement was conducted to examine the relationship between domestic violence and cross-border marriages among cross-border wives from Asian countries. Six databases—Taylor & Francis Online, Wiley Online, Scopus, Web of Science, Sage Journals, and Springer Online library, were used in the research which found 179 articles for eligibility and 58 articles were finally used in the review. To be included, studies must have addressed domestic violence and cross-border marriage among Asians, report qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, addressed the RQs, been published in polished English between 2010 and 2020 and published in a reputable journal with high impact factor. The systematic review found that immigration status, citizenship, culture, language barrier, diversity/intersectionality, age, and economic dependence are the risk factors for domestic violence, which leads effects such as divorce or separation, racism, loneliness, loss of identity & inheritance, stigma, abandonment, and discrimination. Yet these cross-border wives resorted to NGOs, social & religious groups, and traditional beliefs as coping strategies. The review suggests that legislations on domestic violence should be amended to include a definition of the rights of immigrant women, and the plight of cross-border wives, which should be protected. It is also imperative to propose favorable laws and policies regarding immigration status and citizenship for these cross-border couples.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T07:59:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221074321
       
  • A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Childhood Maltreatment on Elderly
           Depression

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      Authors: Yang Wang, Xiaoxuan Chen, Ke Zhou, Huiping Zhang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: The present study aimed to synthesize the effects of five types of child maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) on late-life depression.Method: Four English-language databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) and three Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and Weipu Database) were systematically reviewed, and data related to the association between child maltreatment and late-life depression were extracted. Ten studies involving 30,308 older adults were included, and the effect sizes were pooled using random-effect models.Findings: Except for sexual abuse, four types of child maltreatment were found to be positively associated with late-life depression. Physical abuse, emotional abuse and physical neglect were associated with elderly depression (PA: OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.55–1.95, p < .001; EA: OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.73–2.12, p < .001; PN: OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.15–3.67, p < .01) at a small level, and emotional neglect was associated with elderly depression (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.43–7.39, p < .001) at an approximately moderate level. Gender moderated the relationship between physical neglect, emotional neglect, and late-life depression.Conclusion: Our findings highlight the significance of child maltreatment in the development of late-life depression, and underscore the need for future research and practice to explore potential ways to address late-life depression among older adults who suffered child maltreatment.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T06:17:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073838
       
  • Links of Adversity in Childhood With Mental and Physical Health Outcomes:
           A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Mediating and Moderating Mechanisms

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      Authors: George K. Hales, Zeliha E. Saribaz, Agata Debowska, Richard Rowe
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T08:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221075087
       
  • Childhood Polyvictimization and Associated Health Outcomes: A Systematic
           Scoping Review

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      Authors: NaeHyung Lee, Terri Deocampo Pigott, Ashley Watson, Katherine Reuben, Kathryn O’Hara, Greta Massetti, Xiangming Fang, Shannon Self-Brown
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Polyvictimization, the experience of multiple types of victimization, are associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite extensive research on the health consequences of polyvictimization, one challenge in understanding this literature lies in the varied operationalized definitions of polyvictimization and health outcomes. This scoping review provides the volume of the current literature on this topic, documents the varied constructs of polyvictimization and associated health outcomes, identifies knowledge gaps, and guides future research directions. Method: A systematic search of English-language original articles that presented quantitative associations of childhood polyvictimization and health outcomes was performed through six-database searches, a gray literature search, and citation mining from June 2020 to January 2021. The varied constructs of polyvictimization, health outcomes, and other study characteristics were extracted. Results: A total of 96 studies were included. Two ways of creating continuous variables (30.21%) and four ways of constructing categorical variables (72.92%) were identified for operationalizing polyvictimization. The majority of health outcomes were mental, behavioral, or social (96.88%), while slightly more than 10% of studies examined physical health (11.46%) or general health conditions (10.42%), respectively. More than half of studies used U.S. samples (56.25%). Conclusions: The varied constructs of polyvictimization suggests that there is a need to establish a valid polyvictimization construct that is consistently agreed upon in the research community. Findings summarize the specific health outcomes that can be targeted for further investigation and prevention efforts. Findings also suggest that the study of resilience and coping education for childhood polyvictims is sorely needed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-26T12:22:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073847
       
  • Psychological Effects of Professional Exposure to Trauma and Human
           Suffering: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Judith Velasco, Francisco J. Sanmartín, Mario Gálvez-Lara, Fátima Cuadrado, Juan A. Moriana
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past decades, a growing interest has emerged toward understanding the impact that the exposure to human suffering produces in mental health professionals, leading to the identification of three constructs: vicarious traumatization (VT), compassion fatigue (CF), and secondary trauma (ST). However, little is known about how these conditions affect psychologists. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted to examine the evidence about the effects of occupational exposure to trauma and suffering in studies that included psychologists among their samples. Fifty-two studies were included comprising 10,233 participants. Overall, the results showed that most professionals did not experience relevant distress due to their work, yet some of them developed clinically significant symptoms (i.e., PTSD). However, solid conclusions could not be drawn due to the numerous methodological difficulties found in this research field (i.e., group heterogeneity, lack of comparison groups, and conceptual overlap). Thus, it is necessary to further investigate this topic with scientific rigor to understand these stressors and develop evidence-based interventions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-24T10:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380221074314
       
  • Examining the Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and
           Juvenile Recidivism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Alexis Yohros
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While the impact of trauma on delinquency and offending has been studied in great depth, less is known about the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences and how these experiences impact recidivism or reoffending outcomes of youth who already have justice system involvement. The main aim of this paper is to report on the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences and juvenile recidivism. Of particular interest, the paper examines to what extent, if any, ACEs can be used to predict youth reoffending outcomes, as well as investigates the nature of this relationship. The study utilizes quantitative metanalytical techniques to estimate the overall impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on youth reoffending. Sixteen studies were selected after a comprehensive search of electronic databases covering the fields of social science, criminology, psychology, or related fields. Key findings demonstrate that Adverse Childhood Experiences increase the risk of youth recidivism, with effects varying amongst sample sizes. Narrative synthesis also shows key gender, racial, and ethnic differences as well as potential mechanisms in the cumulative trauma-reoffending relationship. These findings can further guide research and policy in the areas of trauma, juvenile justice, and crime prevention.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T02:45:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211073846
       
  • Preventing Youth Suicide: A Review of School-Based Practices and How
           Social–Emotional Learning Fits Into Comprehensive Efforts

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      Authors: Jordan Posamentier, Katherine Seibel, Nell DyTang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Schools in the United States increasingly incorporate social–emotional learning (SEL) as a part of comprehensive youth suicide prevention programs in schools. We reviewed the literature to investigate the inclusion of SEL in youth suicide prevention efforts. We identified several known risk factors to youth suicide, namely, hopelessness, anxiety, substance use, and child sexual abuse, then cross-walked that review to SEL competencies shown to mitigate each of those known risk factors. We found all SEL competencies, to some extent, across all the evidence-based, school-based youth suicide prevention programs we identified. Further, we found that all five SEL competencies are shown directly to address and mitigate the major, known risk factors for youth suicide. These findings suggest that SEL can play a productive role in upstream youth suicide prevention. State-level policy makers and school administrators should consider the inclusion of evidence-based SEL in efforts to address youth suicide prevention.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T09:12:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211039475
       
  • Meaning Making Mechanisms in Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A
           Scoping Review

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      Authors: Monique van der Westhuizen, Hayley J. Walker-Williams, Ansie Fouché
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a complex and prevalent problem with devastating long-term consequences for survivors. Despite these consequences, some survivors seem to find a source of meaning and fulfillment throughout their recovery process, which may facilitate resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little is known from the literature about the specific meaning making mechanisms that CSA survivors experience. A scoping review was conducted by searching relevant journals and several online databases such as EbscoHost, Scopus, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Studies published in English and that discussed meaning making as a topic of recovery from CSA in the context of women survivors’ experiences were included, where a total of 57 articles were selected including qualitative (n = 32), quantitative (n = 9), mixed method (n = 9), and review (n = 7) articles. Using thematic analysis, the results of the scoping review found four mechanisms of meaning making and seven sources of meaning describing the meaning making processes of women survivors of CSA. The mechanisms were identified as being benevolent; restoring and empowering the inner self; mobilizing external and social resources; and lastly actively integrating the trauma narrative. This study contributes toward the global knowledge base on meaning making mechanisms of women survivors of CSA by providing the first known summary of studies to date. Future research is recommended to further confirm these findings to inform treatment interventions for women survivors of CSA.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T01:33:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211066100
       
  • Examining Technology-Facilitated Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic
           Review of Journal Articles

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      Authors: Chunrye Kim, Riccardo Ferraresso
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      As intimate partner violence in a cyber world is increasing, scholars have started to pay attention to this phenomenon. This study aims to provide a systematic review of empirical studies in the technology-facilitated intimate partner violence (TFIPV) field. We analyzed 31 studies that examined direct TFIPV perpetration and/or victimization experiences identified from four of the largest databases (i.e., Web of Science, PsyInfo, PubMed, and SCOPUS). We found that most studies recruited adolescents or young adults (i.e., college students) and used a very diverse range of terminologies that describe similar phenomena but are not based on validated instruments. We discuss the implications of our findings and suggestions that can enhance the field’s rigor and guide future research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T08:01:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211061402
       
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Barriers to Help-Seeking Among Black, Asian,
           Minority Ethnic and Immigrant Women: A Qualitative Metasynthesis of Global
           Research

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      Authors: Joanne Hulley, Louis Bailey, Gill Kirkman, Graham R. Gibbs, Tim Gomersall, Amrana Latif, Adele Jones
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      It is well known that victims of intimate partner violence experience numerous barriers to leaving abusive relationships. For ethnic minority and immigrant women these barriers are significantly exacerbated. This metasynthesis explored barriers to help-seeking as experienced by Black, Asian, minority ethnic and immigrant women with experience of intimate partner violence. A review of worldwide literature published in English in peer-reviewed journals on this topic from 2000 to July 2020 produced 2597 relevant articles. After removing duplicates and applying the exclusion criteria, a total of 47 articles were selected for inclusion in the review. The synthesis found that these women faced additional barriers as a result of institutional racism, immigration laws, culture and religion, and issues of cultural competence, and lack of diversity within frontline services. Such barriers, from a range of formal and informal resources, services and other mechanisms of support, served to exacerbate feelings of fear, threat, isolation and powerlessness. The barriers were also further weaponised by perpetrators in order to extend their reign of terror and control. As a result, women were caught in a double-bind – stay in an abusive relationship or face further threats and consequences if they attempted to leave. Whilst our search criteria focused on barriers to help-seeking, many of the papers included in our synthesis also explored facilitators to help-seeking, which are included in our findings and overwhelmingly relate to informal support from females.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T01:51:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211050590
       
  • What About the Men' A Critical Review of Men’s Experiences of
           Intimate Partner Violence

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      Authors: Kelly Scott-Storey, Sue O’Donnell, Marilyn Ford-Gilboe, Colleen Varcoe, Nadine Wathen, Jeannie Malcolm, Charlene Vincent
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a health problem affecting people of all genders and other social locations. While IPV victimization of cis-gendered women has been widely researched, how men conceptualized or experience IPV victimization, and the variations in their experiences of IPV, has not been thoroughly examined. In this critical review of men’s experiences of IPV, an extensive search of peer reviewed literature was conducted using multiple database (Cochrane database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycgINFO, and Google Scholar) as well as the gray literature. We critically reviewed examining the conceptual foundations of IPV victimization among men. The influence or gender roles and societal expectation on men’s experiences and perceptions of IPV victimization and their help-seeking behavior are explored. Current knowledge about types, tactics, and patterns of IPV against men and the health and social consequences of IPV are addresses. Additionally, the conceptual and empirical limitations of current research are discussed, including the tendency to compare only the prevalence rates of discrete incidents of abuse among women versus men; the use of IPV measures not designed to capture men’s conceptualizations of IPV; and the lack of attention given to sex and gender identity of both the victim and perpetrator. Future research priorities that address these limitations and seek to strengthen and deepen knowledge about IPV among men are identified.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-30T09:53:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211043827
       
  • What Can We Learn About the Others Present During Incidents of Child
           Abuse': Key Lessons and Future Directions Based on a Scoping Review

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      Authors: Bella Klebanov, Dafna Tener, Carmit Katz
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child abuse (CA) is a global problem that has received attention from policymakers, researchers, and practitioners. The majority of studies have focused on the phenomenon’s epidemiology and consequences, alongside groundbreaking writing on victims and perpetrators. The concept of others who are present during the abuse is understudied and underdeveloped, despite its vital importance in better understanding children’s experiences as well as their disclosure. The current study was designed to spotlight the phenomenon of others' presence, beyond the victims and perpetrators, during child abuse incidents. The current literature review was guided by a scoping review strategy. The results revealed scant empirical data, with only 15 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of the study. The articles that met the inclusion criteria addressed other people’s presence during CA incidents, were published in peer-reviewed journals, and were written in the English language. These articles’ analyses addressed the relations of the survivors with these others, pointing mainly to two identities: accidental bystanders who are not familiar with the child and family members of the child. The results provided a glance into the process that accidental bystanders go through during the abuse and the meaning of their presence for those who are family members. The perceptions and experiences of the children themselves with respect to the presence of the others during the abuse are noticeably lacking. The key conclusion from the current scoping review pinpoints the urgent need to advance the empirical knowledge on the presence of others during incidents of child abuse, especially others who are familiar to the children and are a significant part of their lives. The conceptualization of this phenomenon has the potential to better adapt prevention and intervention efforts in the field of child abuse.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-22T09:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211050584
       
  • A Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Gender-Based Violence Among
           Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

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      Authors: Thi Keith, Fran Hyslop, Robyn Richmond
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is disproportionately affected by gender-based violence (GBV). We systematically reviewed English language, peer-reviewed, quantitative evaluations of interventions to reduce violence against women and girls (VAWG) in SSA that involved a comparison group and reported GBV incidence, or GBV-related attitudes, norms and symptoms as an outcome. We identified 53 studies published between January 2000 and April 2020 and classified these programmes from an empowerment perspective using the following categories: social, economic, combined social and economic and psychological empowerment interventions. Our review found social empowerment interventions effective for transforming gender attitudes and norms and reducing GBV, and psychological empowerment interventions effective for managing GBV-related symptoms. The evidence for economic empowerment interventions was equivocal. Key elements of successful interventions included participatory group learning, engaging male partners, engaging the community, longer duration and utilising existing platforms. Promising approaches for further research included gender specific programmes, psychological empowerment interventions delivered by lay workers and psychological empowerment interventions focused on GBV reduction.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T03:10:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211068136
       
  • Child Sexual Abuse Studies in Arab Societies: A Systematic Review and
           Directions for Future Research

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      Authors: Afnan Attrash-Najjar, Carmit Katz
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is acknowledged as a worldwide social phenomenon, less is known about CSA within Arab societies. The current systematic literature review was designed to highlight the empirical knowledge on CSA in Arab societies. Guided by PRISMA principles, key databases were searched, with no time limit, for studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Fifty-seven studies were identified. The majority focused on the prevalence of CSA in various Arab societies around the world, with a wide range of rates reported. It is important to stress two main barriers addressed by the included studies. The first relates to the issue of taboo and the forbidden discussion of sexual content. The second is ethical, in which the researchers expressed their fear of creating emotional distress for their participants. A small group of studies examined parents’ perceptions of CSA and the need for parents’ involvement in the protection of their children. Another small group of studies focused on professionals’ perceptions and experiences in contending with CSA, as well as their distress, conflict, and urgent need for support and guidance. The conclusions from the systematic literature review emphasized the enormous challenge of conducting studies on CSA in Arab societies and the urgent need to advance this research while also including children and adult survivors, whose perceptions and experiences are currently understudied. Moreover, the discussion stresses the need to adopt an intersectionality paradigm in future studies to advance the improvement of CSA policy and practice.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T07:12:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211061773
       
  • Health Care Providers Views on Identifying and Responding to South Asian
           Women Experiencing Family Violence: A Qualitative Meta Synthesis

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      Authors: Surriya Baloch, Mohajer Hameed, Kelsey Hegarty
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Family violence (FV) is a universal public health problem in South Asia with negative-health outcomes for South Asian women. Health care providers (HCPs) play a pivotal role in identifying and supporting women experiencing FV, but little is known about their experiences with South Asian women. A systematic review was conducted to explore and address health care providers’ views on identification and response to South Asian women experiencing FV. Nine online databases, reference lists were searched, and a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied independently by two reviewers. A meta-synthesis approach was utilized to integrate findings from qualitative studies. Eight studies involving 250 participants met the inclusion criteria. Studies were published between 2007 and 2020 within South Asian countries (Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka) and one study from the USA and UK. The meta-synthesis identified three themes: Context of societal norms and attitudes towards women in South Asia; Influence of family honor, Privacy and shame; and Concern about health care provider’s personal safety. Findings revealed that FV is often perceived as a normal routine issue and is considered a “private issue” in South Asian society. Family honor and values play a pivotal role in silencing women experiencing FV as disclosure is considered shameful and disgrace to family honor. Furthermore, health care providers avoid intervening in FV cases due to risk for their personal safety. Finally, this review provides the evidence to support a specific framework for FV interventions among south Asian women for policy makers and practitioners.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T06:34:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211043829
       
  • Adolescents’ Experiences of Participating in Sensitive Research: A
           Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies

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      Authors: Lakshmi Neelakantan, Deborah Fry, Lani Florian, Franziska Meinck
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Despite an increasing emphasis on adolescents’ participation rights, there are concerns about their participation in research on sensitive topics, such as trauma and violence. This review reports findings of a scoping review that examined the nature and extent of qualitative studies conducted with adolescents about their experiences of participating in research on sensitive topics. Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and grey literature and reported on qualitative and mixed-methods studies eliciting adolescents’ experiences of participating in research on sensitive topics. Seventeen (17) studies were included after screening 4426 records. The scoping review revealed significant adolescent benefits from participation, relating to positive emotions, skill acquisition and enhanced self-efficacy and interpersonal relationships. To a lesser extent, participants also experienced burdens relating to negative emotions, concerns about confidentiality and privacy and inconvenience of participation, which were mitigated by careful attention to research design and researcher engagement and training. Participants shared insights into their motivation to participate, and factors that impacted their experiences of research, such as ethical considerations, including consent procedures, safety and connection in research, study procedures and documentation and researcher characteristics. There were tangible benefits and some burdens involved in adolescents’ participation in sensitive research. This review considers implications for research and practice, such as the need to regularly publish findings of consultations, assessing caregiver consent requirements, obtaining adolescent views on study documents and measures and building on existing research, differentiated by age, gender and dis/ability status, especially in diverse and under-represented regions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T05:47:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211069072
       
  • A Systematic Review of Specialty Courts in the United States for
           Adolescents Impacted by Commercial Sexual Exploitation

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      Authors: Sarah M. Godoy, Georgia E. Perris, Mikiko Thelwell, Antonia Osuna-Garcia, Elizabeth Barnert, Amy Bacharach, Eraka P. Bath
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Nationwide efforts to enhance services for adolescents experiencing commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) in the judicial system have led to the emergence of specialty courts, including human trafficking and girls’ courts. Given that prior research has documented competing stances on the effectiveness of specialty courts for CSE-impacted populations, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify key characteristics of programming, profiles of adolescents served, and effectiveness of these courts. To identify relevant research and information, we systematically searched scholarly databases and information sources, conducted reference harvesting, and forwarded citation chaining. Articles presenting primary data with quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methodologies or programmatic descriptions of specialty courts serving adolescents at risk or with confirmed histories of CSE that were published after 2004 were included. We identified 39 articles on 21 specialty courts serving adolescents at risk or with confirmed histories of CSE, including seven specialty courts with evaluation or outcome data. Across specialty courts, adolescents benefited from an increase in linkage to specialized services, improved residential placement stability, and reduction in recidivism—measured by new criminal charges. Specialty court participation was also associated with improved educational outcomes and decreased instances of running away. A lack of empirical data, specifically of evaluation studies, emerged as a weakness in the literature. Still, findings support that specialty courts can be an integral judicial system response to CSE. Multidisciplinary collaboration can help target and respond to the multifaceted needs of adolescents, encourage healthy behaviors, and promote their overall wellness.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-08T11:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211061403
       
  • Healthcare Professionals’ Own Experiences of Domestic Violence and
           Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Prevalence and Systematic Review of Risk Markers
           and Consequences

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      Authors: Sandi Dheensa, Elizabeth McLindon, Chelsea Spencer, Stephanie Pereira, Satya Shresta, Elizabeth Emsley, Alison Gregory
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background: Globally, healthcare professionals (HCPs) are increasingly asked to identify and respond to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) among patients. However, their own experiences of DVA have been largely ignored.Aim: To determine the prevalence of current and lifetime DVA victimisation among HCPs globally, and identify risk markers, consequences and support-seeking for DVA.Method: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL ASSIA and ProQuest were searched. Studies about HCPs’ personal experience of any type of DVA from any health service/country were included. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis were adopted.Results: Fifty-one reports were included. Pooled lifetime prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI [24.7%, 38.7%] p < .001)) and past-year prevalence was 10.4% (95% CI [5.8%, 17.9%] p
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2022-01-03T02:57:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380211061771
       
 
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