Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 388)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 359)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 303)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.825
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 55  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1524-8380 - ISSN (Online) 1552-8324
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • The Use of Dance and Movement for the Embodied Healing of Interpersonal
           Trauma in Women and Girls: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Catherine X. Liang, Thema Bryant
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Interpersonal trauma is a pervasive issue with devastating consequences for women and girls of diverse identities. Research has shown that there are many potential physiological consequences for experiencing trauma, and as such, treatment for trauma should incorporate the body. Dance/Movement Therapy (DMT) has been emerging in the current literature as one body-oriented treatment approach effective in helping women and girls heal from interpersonal trauma. This review uses textual narrative evidence synthesis to examine how practitioners are currently using DMT for this population, what treatment outcomes have been observed, and what the racial/ethnic identities and international contexts are for survivors who have benefited from DMT. Inclusion criteria for the present review included peer-reviewed studies published in English between the years 2000 to 2022, reporting data on the use of dance or movement to help women and/or adolescent girls aged 12 and older heal from interpersonal trauma. Studies were identified through electronic databases, and 16 total studies met criteria. This review found that the characteristics and structure of DMT vary greatly between different practitioners, the participants of DMT are very diverse, and there are many commonly observed outcomes such as increased physical ability, increased emotional capacity, mind-body integration, safety, aid with trauma processing, empowerment, social support, and fun. This review also gives recommendations for practitioners who wish to utilize dance and movement in treatment: offer group interventions; use the body to create metaphor, imagery, and symbolism; give survivors choices in how they participate; use music purposefully; and don’t forget to cultivate joy.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-04-16T05:51:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241243399
       
  • The Uptake and Measurement of Alternative Approaches to Domestic Violence
           Intervention Programs: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Julia K. Campbell, Sydney Nicolla, Deborah M. Weissman, Kathryn E. Moracco
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This scoping review explores the breadth and depth to which Domestic Violence Intervention Programs (DVIPs) in the United States and globally: (a) incorporate components that address the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and social injustice, racism, economic inequality, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs); (b) use restorative (RJ)/transformative justice (TJ) practices, individualized case management, partnerships with social justice actors, and strengths-based parenting training in current programming; and (c) measure effectiveness. In 2021, we searched 12 academic databases using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings. In all, 27 articles that discussed at least one key concept relative to DVIP curricula were included in the final review. Findings suggest that very few DVIPs address ACEs and/or the relationship between structural violence, social inequality, and IPV perpetration. Even fewer programs use restorative practices including RJ or TJ. Furthermore, DVIPs use inconsistent methods and measures to evaluate effectiveness. To respond to IPV perpetration more effectively and create lasting change, DVIPs must adopt evidence-informed approaches that prioritize social and structural determinants of violence, trauma-informed care, and restoration.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-04-09T09:14:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241244398
       
  • Women’s Experiences of Gender-Based Interpersonal Violence in Sport: A
           Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

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      Authors: Kirsty Forsdike, Fiona Giles
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against women in sport is pervasive. Prevalence rates of interpersonal violence range from 26% to 74% across psychological, physical, and sexual violence. This review synthesizes adult women’s experiences of gender-based interpersonal violence in sport. A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted. Five databases were searched, including CINAHL, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. In total, 1,617 records were retrieved and screened. Twenty-five records representing 24 studies were eligible for inclusion. Following a meta-ethnographic approach, both authors synthesized first- (participants) and second-(researcher) order constructs to create a new interpretation (third-order construct) beyond the individual studies reviewed. A feminist socio-ecological lens was applied. Five themes were constructed: women’s safety work, the normalization of abusive behaviors in the sports context, sport family violence, organizational impotence and hostility, and women’s status in a patriarchal system. Women’s experiences of abuse are mapped within and across the individual, relational, organizational, and cultural levels of the socio-ecological model, with (lack of) power being a central factor within each level as well as flowing between the levels. A fifth socio-ecological level was developed pertaining to the unique context of sport—that of the sport family. This sits between the relational and organizational levels of the model and covers both intense familial relationships and patriarchal familial organizational structures in sport that facilitate and silence the abuse. Sporting bodies must co-design interventions encompassing all socio-ecological levels to address gender-based violence in sport.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-04-09T09:12:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241244397
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
           and Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Enoch Boafo Amponsah, Alhassan Abdullah, Bothaina Eltigani, Lucie D. Cluver
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has emerged as a critical child protection and public health concern in recent years. While the phenomenon is prevalent globally, its impact is compounded in sub-Saharan Africa owing to the cultural and socioeconomic challenges that leave many households in the region vulnerable. The present study synthesized existing evidence using the socioecological model as a guiding framework to assess the risk and protective factors associated with CSEC in sub-Saharan Africa. A protocol for the study was published in PROSPERO (CRD42022331832) with pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies were screened and extracted from eight databases: PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, PROQUEST (Social Science Premium), PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE via Ovid. After an initial screening of 4,377 papers, seven studies were found eligible for the final review. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guide for reporting systematic reviews. Included studies were appraised and rated using the Cambridge Quality Checklist and GRADE. Findings revealed risk factors, including adverse childhood experience and victimization, females aged 16 years and older, school dropouts, technology influence, child and parental alcohol use, and separation from caregivers. On the other hand, protective factors such as the number of female adolescents in a household, frequent health screening in schools, children being in school, and high parental monitoring were found to be associated with a lower risk of CSEC. Based on these findings, we recommend that interventions in sub-Saharan Africa adopt a holistic approach that addresses identified risk factors while harnessing protective factors to combat CSEC effectively.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-30T12:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241241021
       
  • The Long-Term Effect of Early-Life Uncertainty on Mental Health in
           Adolescence and Adulthood: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Lei Shao, Chengjia Zhao, Guoliang Yu
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Turbulent changes in early life are a hidden source of childhood trauma, increasing potential risks for mental illness. Many studies have identified the link between childhood uncertainty and mental health. However, research on the long-term effect of early-life uncertainty (EU) on mental health has not been systematically synthesized. This meta-analysis aims to provide a quantitative estimate of the association between EU and subsequent mental health outcomes. Eight electronic databases and gray literature were searched. Twenty-eight studies met our inclusion criteria: samples of non-clinical adolescents or adults and clear and valid assessments. Random-effect models were used to calculate the pooled effect sizes of EU on internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and well-being. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were used to explore potential moderators. Results indicated small to moderate associations involving EU and internalizing problem (r = .28; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.228, 0.326]) and externalizing problem (r = .16; 95% CI [0.102, 0.220]). EU was not significantly associated with well-being (r = −.41; 95% CI [−0.738, 0.071]). Furthermore, moderator analyses found that composite uncertain experiences in childhood had a stronger negative effect than single experiences. EU was a stronger predictor of mental health problems in adults than in adolescents. Cross-sectional studies would amplify the correlation between EU and mental illness compared to longitudinal studies. In the future, childhood uncertain and unpredictable risks should receive more attention. More research needs to focus on positive psychological indicators and samples from non-Western countries.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-29T10:46:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241241028
       
  • Leaking in Intimate Partner Homicide: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Tanita Rumpf, Stefanie Horn, Catharina Vogt, Kristin Göbel, Thomas Görgen, Kim Marie Zibulski, Vanessa Uttenweiler, Rebecca Bondü
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner homicides (IPH) are serious offenses by a heterogeneous group of offenders with diverse risk factors that are too unspecific for the successful prediction of an offense. Recent research suggested several warning signs that may precede IPH and enhance its prevention, but little is still known about “leaking.” Leaking comprises all offense-related statements, behaviors, or actions that express the perpetrator’s thoughts, fantasies, ideas, interests, feelings, intentions, plans, or positive evaluations of an own violent act or previous similar offenses prior to the own attack. This review aims to identify the forms, recipients, and media of leaking as well as potential subgroup differences in cases of IPH. We identified 47 relevant publications via a systematic search of eight databases and additional methods. We included publications that did not explicitly use the term, but described behaviors that could be interpreted as leaking. Up to now, leaking has not been systematically researched in cases of IPH. Nevertheless, publications described several behaviors that are in line with our definition of leaking and were categorized into five broader categories: (a) homicide announcements, (b) previous severe acts of violence, (c) suicidal behavior, (d) planning activities, and (e) interest in similar offenses/offenders. Information on recipients and media as well as subgroup differences was sparse. Leaking is relevant in IPH, but more systematic research is needed to understand its potential role in future risk analyses procedures and prevention of IPH.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-29T10:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241237213
       
  • A Rapid Evidence Assessment on The Effectiveness of Interventions for
           Autistic Adolescents with Harmful Sexual Behaviors

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      Authors: Sebastian Trew, Douglas Hugh Russell
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The management and treatment of harmful sexual behaviors (HSBs) in autistic adolescents is a complex area of research and clinical practice. Autistic adolescents face unique challenges in understanding social and sexual interactions, putting them at a higher risk of engaging in HSBs. Existing research on interventions for HSBs among autistic adults is growing, but evidence for adolescents is not well understood. Thus, understanding the effectiveness of interventions targeting HSBs in autistic adolescents is crucial. We conducted a rapid evidence assessment to review peer-reviewed research on the effectiveness of interventions for autistic adolescents at risk of or engaging in HSBs. In all, 12 studies met the criteria for review. Inclusion criteria required articles to be published in a peer-reviewed journal, be related to HSB prevention and intervention in adolescents aged 12 to 18 with autism spectrum disorder, be written in English, and include original data. Six databases were used, and we screened the titles and abstracts of 34 studies. The reviewed studies described cognitive-behavioral therapy, pharmacological interventions, family involvement, and multidisciplinary team approaches in addressing HSBs. However, the literature has significant limitations and we suggest that the literature is not robust enough to indicate a promising evidence-based approach for interventions for autistic adolescents who are at risk of or who display and engage in HSBs, and the findings are not transferable to practice. Additional research is required to better prepare healthcare professionals for addressing HSBs in autistic adolescents.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-29T09:50:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241241024
       
  • Understanding the Perspectives and Experiences of Male Perpetrators of
           Sexual Violence Against Women: A Scoping Review and Thematic Synthesis

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      Authors: Josefina Jiménez Aceves, Laura Tarzia
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Worldwide, sexual violence is a significant public health issue. Although any person can be victimized, the vast majority of sexual violence is perpetrated by men against women. Research has increasingly explored the experiences of victims, however, the perspectives of male perpetrators of sexual violence have largely been sidelined. This limits the ability to design effective public health and policy responses to sexual violence. Our aim was to synthesize the available peer-reviewed qualitative research exploring the perspectives of adult male perpetrators of sexual violence against women. Five databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and SocINDEX. We included qualitative, peer-reviewed English-language studies published in the past 40 years, focused on the perceptions and experiences of male perpetrators of sexual violence. Fourteen articles (describing 12 studies) were identified. Most (10) of the articles examined the perspectives of convicted male sex offenders serving a custodial sentence. Of the remaining four articles, two focused on anonymous users of the online forum, Reddit.com, and the remaining two focused on students on university campuses. These four articles were the most recent. We developed four major themes from our thematic analysis of the study findings that represent the experiences and perceptions of male perpetrators of sexual violence. These themes describe deflecting blame onto the victim, external circumstances as mitigating factors, or the perpetrator’s uncontrollable biological urges. One theme involved some expression of remorse or acceptance of responsibility. Although our findings may have implications for prevention and rehabilitation programs, further research is urgently needed in this area.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-29T06:59:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241241014
       
  • Scoping Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs for
           Undergraduate College Students

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      Authors: Soonok An, Chiquitia Welch-Brewer, Helen Tadese
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Recognizing that intimate partner violence (IPV) negatively affects college students’ health and well-being, colleges offer preventive interventions to address these effects. However, scholarly evidence on this effort has been limited, such that we know little about the risk factors addressed, theoretical approaches, target outcomes, and other essential intervention characteristics. To address this gap, this study reviewed evidence-based IPV preventive interventions conducted in U.S. colleges reported in 25 peer-reviewed articles and dissertations published between 2010 and 2020. Findings showed that IPV preventive interventions for college students were designed to address multilevel risk factors of IPV, typically via bystander interventions and emerging skill-building interventions. Most IPV preventive interventions were theoretically driven primary preventions or a combination of primary and secondary preventions. Most studies of program outcomes focus on awareness of IPV and bystander roles, but 44% of the included articles measured participants’ behavioral outcomes (e.g., actual bystander behavior, reaction to IPV disclosure, IPV screening behavior, social emotional skill use, or decreased rates of IPV perpetration) based on participants’ use of skill-building components (e.g., bystander strategies, healthy relationship skills, conflict resolution, communication skills, empathy, and self-regulation). Student participants in the included studies were predominantly white (>60%) and only two studies included any Latinx students or students at historically Black colleges and universities. This review indicates that future IPV prevention practice, policy, and research must further define and explore how multilevel IPV prevention approaches can address the various systems level of needs among diverse student subpopulations.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T10:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241237201
       
  • Digital-Based Interventions for Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A
           Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Meg Blackie, Kathleen De Boer, Liz Seabrook, Glen Bates, Maja Nedeljkovic
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Research has shown that complex post-traumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) differs from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on core symptoms relating to the individual’s sense of self, and this has driven the need for treatment approaches to address these specific features of cPTSD. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the increased use of digital-based interventions (DBIs) to treat mental illnesses, including trauma-related disorders. However, while evidence for the use of DBIs for PTSD has previously been synthesized, the current review is the first synthesis of research on the use of DBIs for cPTSD. A systematic search of Scopus, PsychINFO, and EBSCOhost was conducted, using search terms targeting “cPTSD” and “DBIs,” to identify research on the use of DBIs to treat cPTSD symptoms. Ten papers were identified, which provided preliminary evidence for the efficacy of DBIs to reduce cPTSD symptoms. Further, DBIs were reported as acceptable by individuals with a history of complex trauma. The paper also provides insight into the therapeutic approaches adopted, digital modalities utilized, safety measures included, and whether/to what degree support was provided. While DBIs show promise for treating cPTSD, there is substantial room for advancement of the empirical evidence base for these approaches. Both clinical and research-based recommendations are provided separately.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-27T10:19:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241238760
       
  • Systematic Review of Dispositional Mindfulness and Posttraumatic Stress
           Disorder Symptomology: A Targeted Examination of Avoidance

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      Authors: Allison M. Sylvia, Kristen Jastrowski Mano, Erica L. Birkley, Quintino R. Mano
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      High rates of nonresponse to evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have fueled the search for improved intervention. Evidence suggests that improvements in dispositional mindfulness (i.e., tendency to attend to the present with nonjudgment and nonreactivity) may help reduce PTSD symptoms. While some research suggests that transdiagnostic mindfulness-based interventions particularly target avoidance symptoms, the association between dispositional mindfulness and avoidance has yet to be systematically examined. To address this gap, we examined peer-reviewed studies that reported quantitative associations between avoidance and dispositional mindfulness among trauma-exposed adults, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 guidelines. Sixteen studies were identified for final review from PsycINFO and PubMed databases. Results suggest that mindfulness has a weak relationship with effortful avoidance. This weak relationship may be obscured in studies where effortful avoidance is measured among other symptoms (e.g., anhedonia). Mindfulness appeared to have stronger associations with symptoms of hyperarousal and negative alterations in cognition and mood. An important clinical implication is that high effortful avoidance may manifest among patients who report strong mindfulness skills. It may be helpful for clinicians to carefully assess how mindfulness is being used to cope.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-25T06:58:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231221278
       
  • The Relationship Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Postpartum
           Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Congrui Fu, Cong Li, Xin Wan, Yu Yang, Shuxin Zhang, Jie Hu
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although numerous factors have been found to influence postpartum depression (PPD), no previous meta-analysis have systematically explored whether it is affected by adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). This study aimed to explore the influence of ACEs and their subtypes on PPD. A systematic literature search was conducted using Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and literature was screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality assessment and data extraction were performed on the included studies. A random-effects model was used to pool the effects. In total, 24 studies were included, and 73 independent effects were extracted from them. The meta-analysis revealed that ACE was a risk factor for PPD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.04, 2.63]). The subgroup analysis results showed that emotional abuse was the ACE subtype most strongly related to the occurrence of PPD (OR = 2.95, 95% CI [2.08, 4.20]), followed by emotional neglect (OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.89, 4.36]) and sexual abuse (OR = 2.81, 95% CI [1.93, 4.09]). In addition, family member incarceration (OR = 2.62, 95% CI [1.51, 4.54]), physical abuse (OR = 2.31, 95% CI [1.67, 3.19]), and physical neglect (OR = 2.15, 95% CI [1.36, 3.39]) also have strong effects on PPD. ACE is a risk factor for PPD. Early screening of ACE plays an important role in the prevention and intervention of PPD.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-22T10:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241235639
       
  • Engaging Parents in Child-Focused Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education
           Strategies: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Douglas Hugh Russell, Sebastian Trew, Lottie Harris, Jessica Dickson, Kerryann Walsh, Daryl John Higgins, Rhiannon Smith
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Parents are their children’s first teachers and there are long-standing calls for their involvement in child sexual abuse prevention. In this rapid systematic review, we asked the following questions: what rationales are used to justify parental involvement in child-focused child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs' what approaches are used for parental engagement in child-focused CSA prevention programs' and what are the facilitators and barriers to parental involvement in child-focused CSA prevention programs' We searched CINAHL, Cochrane, ERIC, Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus, and SocINDEX in May 2021. A total of 57 papers met our inclusion criteria, comprised of 50 empirical studies, and 7 program descriptions. Rationales for parental involvement included monitoring and shaping parental attitudes toward CSA program delivery in schools; reinforcing children’s learning at home; promoting parent–child communication about CSA prevention; building parent capacity to respond to child disclosures; and supporting program delivery for preschoolers. Types of parental involvement included the following: communication, learning at home, volunteering, decision-making, and collaboration with the community. Barriers to parent involvement included ineffective program engagement modalities, and parental fears and misconceptions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-13T12:18:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241235895
       
  • Child Maltreatment, Adult Trauma, and Mental Health Symptoms Among Women
           Veterans: A Scoping Review of Published Quantitative Research

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      Authors: Candice Presseau, Jessica R. Carney, Nora K. Kline, Alyssa A. Grimshaw, Lauren DeMoss, Craig Gunderson, Galina A. Portnoy
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this scoping review was to describe and synthesize the measures, methods, and key findings of published quantitative research examining the influence of child maltreatment (i.e., abuse and/or neglect) and adult trauma exposure on mental health symptoms among women Veterans. A systematic search from database inception to June 2023 generated 18,861 unique articles retrieved and independently screened for eligibility. A total of 21 articles met pre-established inclusion criteria: (a) quantitative data and results within a sample or subsample of U.S. women veterans, (b) published in a peer-reviewed journal, and (c) examining variables of interest simultaneously (i.e., child maltreatment, adult trauma exposure, mental health symptom) in quantitative analyses. Reviewed literature showed a lack of uniformity in measurement and methodologies to evaluate women veterans’ lifetime trauma exposure in relation to mental health. Studies most frequently used self-report survey data to evaluate exposure to child maltreatment and/or adult trauma with convenience samples of women veterans (52.4%, n = 11) and examined depressive and/or posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Findings demonstrate the need for additional research attending to the interplay between child maltreatment and adult trauma exposures in relation to women veterans’ mental health using comprehensive assessment, longitudinal methods, and understudied as well as more representative samples.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-12T05:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241234345
       
  • Violence, Abuse and Neglect in Older Women in Rural and Remote Areas: A
           Scoping Review and Prevalence Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Adrián Jesús Ricoy-Cano, Carlos Vladimir Zambrano-Rodríguez, Yolanda María de la Fuente-Robles, Gabriela Estefanía Vásquez-Peña
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic review addressed the issue of the abuse and neglect of older women (age 60 and over) in rural and remote areas, examining these phenomena’s prevalence, risk and protective factors, consequences, and associated perceptions. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework, peer-reviewed articles published until September 2023 were identified in six electronic databases. Out of the manuscripts initially identified (n = 219), 28 articles met the selection criteria. The study’s quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The included studies provided a comprehensive overview of this phenomenon, encompassing data from 6,579 older rural women. Prevalence rates of abuse and neglect exhibited wide variability, with an average of 27.3%. Among the risk factors, financial dependence and incapacity stood out, while higher income and education levels were protective factors, among others. Emotional/psychological abuse emerged as the most common form, with significant impacts on older women’s physical and mental health. Cultural norms and gender expectations also influenced perceptions of abuse and victims’ coping mechanisms. In a context in which access to specialized resources and services is hampered by significant limitations, community awareness and education prove vital to address this issue, which positions social work as key to addressing these challenges. The prevalence of abuse against older rural women is significant. Emotional abuse stands out as a major issue, underscoring the need for comprehensive interventions accounting for cultural and gender factors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-03-04T05:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241234342
       
  • Association of Childhood Emotional Maltreatment with Adolescents’
           Psychopathology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Mohammad Hashim, Zainab Alimoradi, Amir Pakpour, Monique Pfaltz, Sameer Ansari, Resham Asif, Naved Iqbal
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Childhood Emotional Maltreatment (CEM) is a significant but under-studied risk factor for impaired mental health, with adolescents being particularly susceptible. This systematic review and meta-analysis, prospectively registered in PROSPERO as CRD42022383005, aims to synthesize the findings of studies investigating the association between CEM and adolescent psychopathology, making it the first attempt to the best of our knowledge. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines, a comprehensive search (PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Embase, and ProQuest) yielded 12,224 studies, from which 72 were included in the qualitative synthesis. The meta-analysis was conducted on 76 effect sizes (ranging from 0.01 to 0.57) extracted from 56 studies. The assessment of publication bias utilized funnel plots, Egger’s regression test, and the trim and fill method, if required. Additionally, a predictor analysis investigated the influence of study-level variables on the CEM-psychopathology association. Results revealed a significant positive correlation between CEM and adolescent psychopathology (Pooled association: 0.24–0.41) Furthermore, assessment of publication bias indicated no significant bias. The predictor analysis suggested minimal influence of study-level variables. The study underscores the urgent need to address CEM as a crucial risk factor for adolescent psychopathology. The significant positive correlation between CEM and psychopathological outcomes highlights the detrimental effects of CEM on adolescents. Awareness, prevention efforts, and targeted interventions are essential to mitigate these effects. Further studies with culturally diverse and larger sample sizes are required, with emphasis on methodological rigor, given that most of the identified studies showed a high risk of bias.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-28T09:17:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241233538
       
  • Associations Between Trauma and Health Behaviors and Outcomes Among Sexual
           Minoritized Adults: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Vanessa L. Parker, Janet M. Liechty, Nicole P. Cantoni
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual minoritized (SM) adults experience health disparities and report higher rates of trauma history compared to heterosexual adults. This scoping review synthesizes the extant literature that investigates associations between trauma and physical health among SM adults. It also describes research instruments utilized to assess trauma in relation to health outcomes among SM adults. We searched CINAHL, LGBT+ Life, PsycINFO, and PubMed to identify studies meeting inclusion criteria: peer-reviewed, English, assessed trauma as an independent variable, and assessed health behaviors or outcomes among SM adults. From 587 nonduplicate articles, 69 full texts were reviewed; 18 met criteria and were included in this review. To enhance rigor, we utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Scoping Reviews checklist. Most (n = 12) of the included studies were cross-sectional. Trauma was assessed 16 different ways, including 9 validated measures, in relation to 5 health behaviors and 17 health conditions. Trauma was operationalized by history of childhood sexual abuse, adverse childhood experiences, lifetime rape, current symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and lifetime victimization among SM adults. All but one study found associations between trauma and one or more unfavorable health behaviors or outcomes. Studies used widely heterogeneous instruments to assess trauma, health, and SM identity. Greater specification and standardization of measurement is needed, along with contextualized assessments of trauma and its impact on health such as sexual minority stress-related victimization and resilience, and post-traumatic growth and recovery processes.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-28T09:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241233270
       
  • Measuring Healing and Recovery After Gender-Based Violence: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: Laura Sinko, Claire Dubois, Karen Birna Thorvaldsdottir
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Healing after gender-based violence (GBV) is multidimensional, with varying instruments used in the scientific literature to capture this phenomenon quantitively in survivor populations. The purpose of this scoping review was to (a) describe quantitative measures used to evaluate recovery after GBV, (b) compare these findings with domains uncovered in a qualitative metasynthesis about survivors’ perspectives about healing after GBV, and (c) summarize recovery relationships found. We searched Pubmed, PsycInfo, and Violence/Criminology/Family Studies s. Studies were included for review if they (a) used quantitative methods, (b) evaluated healing or recovery in survivors of GBV, (c) were available in English, and (d) were empirical articles in peer-reviewed journals. Two thousand nine hundred thirty-five articles were reviewed by title and abstract, and 92 articles were reviewed by full text. Twenty-six articles were included in this review. Eight studies used an alleviation of adverse symptomology as a proxy for recovery, eight used growth-related outcomes, and ten used a combination of both types of measures. While the quantitative instruments synthesized in this review seemed to map onto some of the recovery domains identified through qualitative metasynthesis, no study synthesized measured all domains simultaneously. Studies synthesized identified that recovery-related outcomes may be influenced by social support, symptom burden, disclosure, and various therapeutic intervention programs tested in the literature to date. Synthesizing research on recovery after GBV is an essential step to understand gaps in measurement and understanding. Streamlining and using holistic recovery outcome measurement can aid in the development of evidence-based interventions to promote healing in survivor populations.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-26T10:56:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241229745
       
  • Protective Factors Affecting Trauma Recovery Among Female South Asian
           Immigrant Intimate Partner Violence Survivors: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Farida Bibi Mughal, Denise Saint Arnault
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pressing public health issue affecting women worldwide. Thirty percent of women experience some form of violence throughout their lifetime globally, and South Asian countries have a higher prevalence of IPV (33%–51%). Notably, IPV has detrimental psychological impacts not only on women but also on their children. Despite this, limited empirical attention has explored protective factors for IPV trauma recovery. This review examines protective factors aiding South Asian immigrant IPV survivors’ trauma recovery using Joanna Briggs Institute JBI methodology. The study draws on PubMed, Scopus, and PsychINFO data, resulting in 20 articles retrieved using Rayyan software. Protective factor’s themes and subthemes revealed in the literature operated at multiple levels, including personal, interpersonal, community, and professional factors. Personal factors were selfhood, collective self, and adaptation, as well as those that enabled the utilization of interpersonal, community, and professional factors; interpersonal factors were family and friends, children as motivators, and religion; and community and professional factors were resources and technology usage. Immigrant status and culture significantly impacted the protective factors, acting as barriers among some IPV survivors. Therefore, future research should focus on exploring the experiences and cultural values of South Asian immigrant women with other influencing factors that may hinder the development and impact of protective factors on IPV trauma recovery. These findings can help design culturally sensitive support services that incorporate the unique needs of female South Asian immigrant IPV survivors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-23T07:20:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241231602
       
  • What are the Experiences of and Interventions for Adult Survivors of
           Childhood Sexual Abuse in South Asia' A Systematic Review and Narrative
           Synthesis

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      Authors: Shivangi Talwar, Carlos Osorio, Rajesh Sagar, Rebecca Appleton, Jo Billings
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may experience emotional, social, and psychological difficulties, heightened due to the interpersonal nature of harm. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of trauma-focused treatments in the West, a culturally specific understanding of the needs of and treatments for survivors in South Asia is still in its infancy. The study aimed to systematically review research findings on the mental health impacts of CSA on adult survivors and current treatment approaches and their efficacy and acceptability in South Asia. Seven databases (Scopus, Ovid, CINAHL, ProQuest, EThOS, Google Scholar, and Dogpile) and five peer-reviewed South Asian journals were searched from inception until March 30, 2023. Searches included participants who were adult survivors of CSA of South Asian origin residing in South Asia. Studies on their mental health, different treatments, and the efficacy and acceptability of these treatments were included. Quality assessment tools were used to appraise the quality of included studies. The results were synthesized narratively. A total of 3,362 records were retrieved, and 24 articles were included in the final review. Twenty studies reported mental health impacts of CSA on adult survivors, four studies reported current treatments offered, and two studies were on recovery. However, no study focused on the efficacy or acceptability of the treatments being delivered. Even though the needs of adult CSA survivors in South Asia have been partly identified, there is very little research into the treatments for them.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-22T12:21:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241231603
       
  • Effectiveness of Mental Health and Wellbeing Interventions for Children
           and Young People in Foster, Kinship, and Residential Care: Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Rob Trubey, Rhiannon Evans, Sarah McDonald, Jane Noyes, Mike Robling, Simone Willis, Maria Boffey, Charlotte Wooders, Soo Vinnicombe, G. J. Melendez-Torres
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The mental health and wellbeing of children and young people who have been in care, primarily foster care, kinship care or residential care, remains a public health priority. The Care-experienced cHildren and young people’s Interventions to improve Mental health and wEll-being outcomes Systematic review (CHIMES) synthesized evidence for the effectiveness of interventions targeting: subjective wellbeing; mental, behavioral and neurodevelopmental disorders; and suicide-related outcomes. Searches were conducted in 16 bibliographic databases and 22 websites between 1990 and 2022. This was supplemented by citation tracking, screening of relevant systematic reviews, and expert recommendation. We identified 35 interventions, with 44 evaluations via randomized controlled trials. Through meta-analyses, we found that interventions have a small beneficial impact on a variety of mental health outcomes in the short term (0–6 months). Interventions improved total social, emotional, and behavioral problems (d = −0.15, 95% CI [−0.28, −0.02]), social-emotional functioning difficulties (d = −0.18, 95% CI [−0.31, −0.05]), externalizing problem behaviors (d = −0.30, 95% CI [−0.53, −0.08]), internalizing problem behaviors (d = −0.35, 95% CI [−0.61, −0.08]); and depression and anxiety (d = −0.26, 95% CI [−0.40, −0.13]). Interventions did not demonstrate any effectiveness for outcomes assessed in the longer term (>6 months). Certainty of effectiveness was limited by risk of bias and imprecision. There was limited available evidence for interventions targeting subjective wellbeing and suicide-related outcomes. Future intervention design and delivery must ensure that programs are sufficient to activate causal mechanisms and facilitate change. Evaluation research should use a robust methodology.PROSPERO Registration: CRD42020177478
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-16T10:09:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241227987
       
  • “All you Gain is Pain and Sorrow”: Facilitators and Barriers to the
           Prevention of Female Genital Mutilation in High-income Countries

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      Authors: Fatima Younas, Leslie Morrison Gutman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a harmful practice that has long-lasting negative impacts on the physical and psychological health of victims. Deemed a global concern, this practice persists in high-income countries (HIC) among certain migrant communities. Given the deleterious effects of the practice, we conducted an updated systematic review of the facilitators and barriers associated with the prevention of FGM in HIC.Method:A systematic review of published qualitative studies of FGM in HIC was conducted from 2012 to 2022. The search resulted in 276 studies. Of these, the majority were from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and excluded. A total of 14 studies were deemed fit for inclusion and none were excluded during quality appraisal. Relevant data were extracted from the studies and thematically analyzed to identify prevalent themes.Results:A total of 12 themes were identified and the majority reflected barriers to the prevention of FGM including beliefs about female virtue, beliefs about social sanctions, and the preservation of culture, among others. Facilitators to the prevention of FGM were fewer and included memory and trauma from experiencing FGM, knowledge and awareness of the female anatomy, and legislative protection from FGM due to migration. A few themes, such as religious beliefs, acted as both facilitators and barriers.Conclusion:Findings highlight the importance of shared cultural and social threads among FGM practicing communities in HIC. Interventions can use these findings to guide the development of sociocultural strategies centered on community-level prevention and reduction of FGM in HIC.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-16T09:59:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241229744
       
  • Health and Wellness Outcomes of Intimate Partner Violence Support Workers:
           A Narrative Review

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      Authors: Tara Lundy, Joanne Crawford
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Workers who support survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) witness some of the most traumatic acts of violence in their everyday work life. These experiences may cause distress that has implications for health and their ability to cope. This narrative literature review sought to explore what is known about the health, wellness, and coping strategies of IPV workers in diverse settings. A comprehensive academic literature search of five databases for peer-reviewed journal articles, available in English, published between January 2000 and October 2023 was conducted. A total of 34 articles on workers’ experiences in relation to health, wellness, and coping strategies were included in the review. Thematic analysis generated the following themes: (a) diversity of IPV workplace settings and roles; (b) meaningful aspects of IPV support work including purpose and fulfillment, compassion satisfaction, rewarding and valuable work; (c) adverse experiences such as psychological distress and physiological discomfort, interpersonal social challenges, environment and organizational challenges, burnout, compassion fatigue and secondary trauma; and (d) coping strategies that considered coping behaviors and self-care, workplace support and accommodation, and meaningful sacrifice and adaptation. While the review provided important insights regarding the meaningful aspects of IPV support work and coping strategies, the adverse experiences of supporting survivors significantly dominated the literature. Unfortunately, the majority of studies did not clarify the context of workplaces, and this represents a gap in understanding workers’ experiences. Future research is needed to understand context-related experiences of IPV support workers in relation to health and coping. The current review provides unique insights on diverse IPV support work settings and roles, work-related issues that may influence workers’ wellness, and rewarding aspects of IPV support work.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-15T06:43:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241231604
       
  • The Intersection of Human Trafficking and Natural Disasters: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: Katherine Hoogesteyn, Leanne McCallum Desselle, Kelle Barrick, Rebecca Pfeffer, Lauren Vollinger
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Natural disasters have increased in frequency and severity in recent years. Emerging research also suggests that natural disasters increase the risk of human trafficking. This confluence of phenomena makes it critically important to better prepare communities for preventing and responding to human trafficking during and after a natural disaster. Yet, there is no available synthesis of the extant research to inform these preparations. The present scoping review aims to fill this gap by outlining the existing literature on the nexus of disasters and human trafficking. The review follows the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis—Scoping Review guidelines. Sources were identified through manual reference checking and in four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, APA PsychINFO, and EBSCO Discovery Service. In total, 46 sources met the inclusion criteria, that is, they focused on the nexus between human trafficking and natural disasters, demonstrated scientific rigor, and were published after 2000 and in English. Overall, the reviewed literature provided initial evidence on the association between natural disasters occurrences and increases in national and transnational human trafficking activity, understanding of the compounding vulnerabilities conducive to trafficking following disasters, and recommendations for the prevention and response to human trafficking in the wake of disasters. Future studies should evaluate prevention initiatives, including awareness campaigns and interventions that mitigate trafficking vulnerabilities. In practice, it is crucial to integrate anti-trafficking efforts into disaster relief protocols, empower vulnerable populations, and advocate for enhanced legal protections for displaced and migrant individuals.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T08:12:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241227985
       
  • The Effect of Peer Victimization During Adolescence on Depression and
           Gender Differences: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Qianqian Song, Tongshuang Yuan, Yueyang Hu, Xiaoying Liu, Junsong Fei, Xixi Zhao, Ren Gao, Jingyi Yue, Songli Mei
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Peer victimization during adolescence has a detrimental impact on the mental health of victims throughout their lives. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are gender-specific. The present study conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of peer victimization on depression status, explore potential sources of heterogeneity, and investigate gender differences in these effects. We systematically searched four electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and CNKI) for relevant articles that published as far as July 2022. We then extracted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the association between peer victimization during adolescence and depression, and potential gender differences in the relation. Meta-analysis was performed, using fixed effects models and random effects models, to evaluate the association between each exposure and the outcome. A meta-analysis of 27 studies revealed that peer victimization during adolescence was significantly associated with higher risks of depression (OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.43, 3.21], p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-13T07:27:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241227538
       
  • Adolescents’ Experiences of Cyber-Dating Abuse and the Pattern of Abuse
           Through Technology, A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Rojan Afrouz, Sevi Vassos
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While the proliferation of online social platforms has become a significant part of virtual interactions between intimate partners, digital technology has also created the conditions for increased control and abuse, which is known as “cyber-dating abuse,” a technology-facilitated form of intimate partner violence. This paper reports a scoping review of qualitative studies to explore the patterns, nature, and consequences of cyber-dating abuse among young people and how digital technology influences dating abuse. Several databases were searched to find relevant papers, including EBSCOhost, Scopus, SocINDEX, ProQuest, Taylor and Francis Online, PubMed, and Google Scholar. All peer-reviewed papers that used qualitative and mixed methods exploring cyber-dating abuse since 2010 were scanned, and 23 papers were included in this scoping review. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Findings showed that online platforms and digital technology have potentially exacerbated the monitoring, control, and surveillance of young women, often by young men. This scoping review also found a mixed report of gender-based victimization in relation to cyber-dating abuse; however, girls were more likely to face severe and negative consequences compared to boys. Gender-based societal norms and associated behavioral and social factors may increase the risk of cyber-dating abuse among young women. The scoping review reinforces the importance and value of preventative and early identification strategies in young people’s school-based education, with a sharp focus on violence and abuse in the online space, respectful relationships, and informed consent in intimate relationships.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T10:27:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241227457
       
  • Group-Related Variables in Intervention Programs for Intimate Partner
           Violence Perpetrators: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Manuel Roldán-Pardo, Marisol Lila, Faraj A. Santirso, Enrique Gracia
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intervention programs for male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators mostly use the group intervention modality. Notwithstanding, the literature has neglected the study of group-related variables and their possible association with these interventions’ functioning and outcomes. This systematic review aimed to analyze group-related variables, their predictors, and their relation to the functioning and outcomes of intervention programs for IPV perpetrators. The systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following databases were searched from inception to November 2022: Web of Science, Scopus, PUBMED, and PsycINFO. Of the 5,941 identified studies, 13 were included in the review. The main predictors of group-related variables were: intervention stage, motivational strategies, and leadership (counseling approach). The group-related variables as predictors of intervention outcomes were: group management behaviors and support (facilitator behavior within the group); positive confrontation, protherapeutic behavior, active involvement, positive interaction with peers, and positive interaction with the facilitator (participant behavior within the group); and group cohesion and group climate (group dynamics). Group cohesion and participants’ protherapeutic behavior stood out for their association with positive treatment outcomes (i.e., greater participation and working alliance, lower rates of violent behavior during follow-up). The findings from this review suggest that group processes are key factors in intervention programs for IPV perpetrators, and a better understanding of how these group processes are shaped, and how they can contribute to positive program outcomes, provides a new approach and insights to improve their effectiveness.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T10:21:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241226655
       
  • Intervention Program Dropout Among Perpetrators of Intimate Partner
           Violence: A Meta-Analysis of Correlated Variables

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      Authors: Olga Cunha, Jéssica Pedrosa, Bárbara Silva Pereira, Sónia Caridade, Andreia de Castro Rodrigues, Teresa Braga
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Dropout in perpetrator intervention programs (PIPs) is extensively documented in the literature, yet findings across various studies exhibit global inconsistency. This meta-analysis aimed to identify dropout rates among individuals attending PIPs and examine sociodemographic, violence-related, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and external variables related to dropout. A search was conducted across six databases, encompassing studies published between 2010 and 2022 in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. Thirty manuscripts, comprising data from 31 independent samples, were included. Dropout rates varied from 9% to 67%. Bivariate analysis results indicated that younger age (OR = 0.69), non-White ethnicity (OR = 1.54), unemployment (OR = 1.78), offender typology other than family only (OR = 2.45), substance abuse (OR = 1.78), presenting a personality disorder (OR = 1.21), engaging in problematic leisure activities (OR = 1.28), possessing a greater criminal history (OR = 1.47), and experiencing more adversity in childhood (OR = 1.44) were significantly correlated with dropout. Additionally, the inclusion of motivational strategies in treatment (OR = 0.44) significantly decreased the likelihood of dropout. Results from multivariate analyses revealed that younger age (OR = 0.63), presenting a personality disorder (OR = 1.73), and experiencing more adversity in childhood (OR = 2.16) were significantly associated with dropout. Notably, intimate partner violence characteristics established a significant negative relation with dropout (OR = 0.59). Findings indicate that variables associated with dropout align with those related to general and intimate partner violence recidivism, suggesting that individuals requiring more intensive intervention are those who derive less benefit from it.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-07T10:14:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231224036
       
  • Operationalizing Street Harassment Using Survey Instruments: A Systematic
           Review of Measuring Harassment in Public Spaces Using Surveys

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      Authors: Chloe Keel, Rebecca Stewart, Jacques Mellberg
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Quantitative research has an omitted variable problem when it comes to measuring and modeling non-criminal threats in the urban environment. This systematic review identified questionnaires and surveys used to measure incidences of street harassment/harassment in public, to discuss how they operationalize street harassment/harassment in public, and to report the characteristics of those with the best evidence of reliability and validity. We searched five databases and included peer-reviewed articles published in English from 1994 to 2022 that measured street harassment using a survey instrument. Our search resulted in 54 included studies. Of these studies, 16 primarily focused on understanding street harassment. To design effective prevention strategies in response to street harassment, research must first effectively measure the prevalence of street harassment and the contexts in which street harassment occurs. Due to the inconsistencies in definition, our review identified prevalence rates were inconsistent. Incidents of street harassment provide a promising avenue for future research, although scholars must first seek to appropriately operationalize this concept in survey research. We provide suggestions for future research that seeks to use surveys to understand harassment in public places.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-02-06T06:10:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231219258
       
  • Effectiveness of Community-Based Programs on Aggressive Behavior Among
           Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Shan Jiang, Yinglin Chen, Lin Wang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Adolescent aggressive behavior has increasingly become a central issue affecting the safety of both school campuses and the broader society. Despite the existence of numerous community interventions targeting this issue, there has been a paucity of efforts to consolidate the findings on the effectiveness of community-based programs in preventing aggressive behavior. This meta-analysis sought to address this gap by reviewing and assessing the impact of community-based initiatives on reducing adolescent aggression. A thorough search was carried out on 12 electronic databases: EBSCO, ERIC, PubMed, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the China National Knowledge, Wanfang Databases, and China Science and Technology Journal Database. Sixteen studies were finalized, and meta-analyses were performed using a random effect model on RevMan v5.4 software developed by Cochrane. The analysis encompassed 16 published studies, involving a total of 2,585 participants. The key components of existing programs for aggression reduction included providing behavioral skills and training for adolescents, employing a problem-solving approach to address behavioral issues, offering psychological treatment, and emphasizing community supervision. The results indicate a significant positive effect of community-based interventions on aggression reduction (standardized mean difference = −0.26, 95% confidence intervals [−0.39, −0.13], Z = 3.84, p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-31T11:56:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241227986
       
  • A Systematic Review of Conceptualizations and Operationalizations of Youth
           Polyvictimization

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      Authors: Spenser R. Radtke, Christopher J. Wretman, Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Hannabeth Franchino-Olsen, Denise Yookong Williams, Wan-Ting Chen, Rebecca J. Macy
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against youth is a global issue impacting millions each year. Increasingly, research has focused on studying those impacted by multiple forms of violence, or polyvictims. Evidence strongly suggests that polyvictimized youth tend to have worse physical and mental health outcomes than those who have experienced single forms of violence. Moreover, minoritized youth (i.e., racial and/or sexual minority youth, youth with disabilities) are more likely to experience polyvictimization, making this a social justice and equity concern. To date, there is no universal consensus on what exactly constitutes polyvictimization. This systematic review aims to examine the ways in which polyvictimization is being studied to inform both research and practice. As such, relevant databases were searched to amass the extant literature related to youth polyvictimization internationally. Empirical studies published since 2006 that focused on youth (under age 18) polyvictimization were included. After the review process, 264 studies met eligibility criteria, however 55 studies employed person-centered/finite mixture analyses and were removed for a separate review, resulting in 209 featured in the current systematic review. Results demonstrate that researchers are defining and operationalizing polyvictimization in different ways: (a) using individual victimization event counts; (b) employing domain-based counts; and (c) taking a “highest-victimized” percentage of their sample. The most used measurement tool was the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, though other validated tools and researcher-constructed questions were frequently utilized. Research on polyvictimization is burgeoning worldwide; however, this research is being conducted in disparate ways, making it difficult to compare findings and further advance the field.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T08:44:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231224026
       
  • Domestic Violence Against Women in Nepal: A Systematic Review of Risk
           Factors

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      Authors: Bindu Devkota Sapkota, Padam Simkhada, Dillon Newton, Sara Parker
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A systematic review was conducted to examine the factors that put women at risk of domestic violence in Nepal. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched supplemented by searching of the reference list manually. Of the 143 studies identified 24 were included in the final review. Search strategy was developed, and studies were included if they considered female participants (age 15–49 years) in heterosexual relationship, with exposure of different factors and whose outcomes were the magnitude of any form of violence (physical, sexual, and emotional/psychological). The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to assess the quality of the studies included. The findings are categorized based on the four levels of the ecological framework. At the individual level, the alcohol consumption level of husband, education level of both women and men, women’s age at the time of marriage and childhood exposure to violence were found to be highly prevalent risk factors. At the relationship level, most prevalent risk factors were controlling husband and decision-making capacity of women. At the community level, belonging to underprivileged community or low caste system and living in Terai region were the risk factors. At the societal level, patriarchal belief and norms supporting violence were the risk factors. The complex nature of violence against women in Nepal requires culturally sensitive interventions along with organized efforts from the local and intra government to improve the status of Nepalese women at all levels of the ecological framework.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T08:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231222230
       
  • Effectiveness of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy for Maltreated
           Families: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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      Authors: Huiping Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Zihui Li
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) for maltreated families and examined potential moderators associated with the intervention. Seven English electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global) were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before January 20, 2023. Eleven studies involving 1,069 maltreated or high-risk families were included in the meta-analysis. Our results showed that PCIT significantly reduced child externalizing behaviors, improved parenting skills, and decreased parenting stress and child abuse potential in maltreated families. Additionally, families with confirmed maltreatment history reported larger effect sizes across all outcomes than those at high risk of maltreatment; parenting skills outcomes were more effective in adapted PCIT versions, using per-protocol analysis, and American caregivers, whereas none of the outcomes were related to the number of sessions. These findings provide encouraging evidence for the use of PCIT as an intervention for families with a history of maltreatment, although more high-quality RCTs are required to confirm its effects.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-30T08:32:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231222041
       
  • Mediators of Outcome in Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy with Youth: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Sonja Protić, Lutz Wittmann, Svenja Taubner, Sonia Conejo-Cerón, Yianna Ioannou, Erkki Heinonen, Andrea Saliba, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Jana Volkert, Rasa Barkauskiene, Stefanie Julia Schmidt, Margarida Isabel Rangel Santos Henriques, Catarina Pinheiro Mota, Célia M.D. Sales, Jan Ivar Røssberg, Asta Adler, Dina Di Giacomo, Filipa Mucha Vieira, Nikola Drndarević, Randi Ulberg, Tjasa Stepisnik Perdih, Jose M. Mestre
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This article aimed to provide a systematic narrative synthesis of existing studies on the mediators of change in psychotherapy with adolescents (10–19 years) and transition age youth (TAY) (20–29 years) who have experienced trauma-related symptoms or posttraumatic disorder. Additionally, we were interested in identifying psychotherapy-, trauma type-, and clients’ age- and gender-specific mediators of treatment outcome. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, a total of 3,723 studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO databases were screened against inclusion criteria, revealing 15 eligible studies. No studies with only TAY were found; therefore, all results were limited to therapy with adolescents. Cognitive mediators were tested in 66% of selected studies, followed by parents/family-related, mental-health-related, therapy-related, and behavioral mediators. Moderate evidence was found for posttraumatic cognitions, whereas therapeutic alliance seemed to be a promising candidate for future research. Striking absence of non-cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions, emotional and adolescent-specific mediators, as well as studies with males and in non-Western societies was evident. Future original studies would benefit from applying methodological rigor in respect to mediation testing.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T02:19:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231223264
       
  • The Effectiveness and Implementation of Psychological First Aid as a
           Therapeutic Intervention After Trauma: An Integrative Review

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      Authors: Ling Wang, Ian Norman, Victoria Edleston, Christopher Oyo, Mary Leamy
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Psychological First Aid (PFA) is known to be an initial early intervention following traumatic exposure, yet little is known about its optimal implementation and effectiveness. This review aims to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of PFA interventions and how PFA interventions have been designed, implemented, and experienced. MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, Embase, Web of Science, PILOTS, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (in Chinese) databases were searched. Twenty studies from 4,735 records were included and quality rated, followed by an integrative synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence. PFA intervention following trauma exposure shows a positive effect for reducing anxiety and facilitating adaptive functioning in the immediate and intermediate term, yet the evidence for reducing Post-traumatic stress disorder/depressive symptoms is less compelling. Furthermore, commonalities in the components and techniques across different PFA approaches identified tend to align with four of Hobfoll’s five essential elements: safety, calm, efficacy, and connectedness (as reflected among 7/11 PFA protocols), whereas the “hope” element was less developed. These commonalities include active listening, relaxation/stabilization, problem-solving/practical assistance, and social connection/referral. Intensive techniques such as cognitive reconstruction have also been incorporated, intensifying PFA delivery. The substantial variation observed in PFA format, timing, and duration, coupled with inadequate documentation of fidelity of implementation and adaptation, further constrains the ability to inform best practices for PFA. This is concerning for lay frontline providers, vital in early trauma response, who report implementation challenges despite valuing PFA as a time-sensitive, supportive, and practical approach.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T02:15:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231221492
       
  • Interprofessional Education in Child Protection for Preservice Health and
           Allied Health Professionals: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Lauren Elizabeth Lines, Tracy Alexis Kakyo, Helen McLaren, Megan Cooper, Nina Sivertsen, Alison Hutton, Lana Zannettino, Rebecca Starrs, Donna Hartz, Shannon Brown, Julian Grant
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Health and allied health professionals are uniquely positioned to collaborate in prevention, early intervention and responses to child maltreatment. Effective collaboration requires comprehensive interprofessional education (IPE), and inadequate collaboration across sectors and professions continually contributes to poor outcomes for children. Little is known about what interprofessional preparation health and allied health professionals receive before initial qualification (preservice) that equips them for interprofessional collaboration and provision of culturally safe care in child protection. This scoping review aimed to identify what is known internationally about IPE in child protection for preservice health and allied health professionals. Thirteen manuscripts reporting 12 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the synthesis. Key characteristics of the educational interventions are presented, including target disciplines, core content and their learning objectives and activities. Findings demonstrated primarily low-quality methodologies and educational interventions that had not been replicated beyond their initial context. Many educational interventions did not provide comprehensive content covering the spectrum of prevention, early intervention and responses for all types of child maltreatment, and/or did not clearly indicate how IPE was achieved. Key challenges to delivering comprehensive interprofessional child protection include lack of institutional support and competing priorities across disciplines who must meet requirements of separate regulatory bodies. Consequently, there is a need for further development and robust evaluation of educational interventions to explore how interprofessional collaborative skills for child protection can be developed and delivered in preservice health and allied health professional education.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-28T02:11:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231221279
       
  • Intimate Partner Violence Against Women Before, During, and After
           Pregnancy: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Xiao-Yan Chen, Camilla Kin Ming Lo, Qiqi Chen, Shuling Gao, Frederick K. Ho, Douglas Austin Brownridge, Wing Cheong Leung, Patrick Ip, Ko Ling Chan
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women negatively impacts women’s and infants’ health. Yet inconsistent results have been found regarding whether pregnancy increases or decreases the risk of IPV. To answer this question, we systematically searched for studies that provided data on IPV against women before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and after childbirth. Nineteen studies met our selection criteria. We meta-analyzed the nineteen studies for the pooled prevalence of IPV across the three periods and examined study characteristics that moderate the prevalence. Results showed the pooled prevalence estimates of IPV were 21.2% before pregnancy, 12.8% during pregnancy and 14.7% after childbirth. Although these findings suggest a reduction in IPV during pregnancy, our closer evaluation of the prevalence of IPV after childbirth revealed that the reduction does not appear to persist. The prevalence of IPV increased from 12.8% within the first year after childbirth to 24.0% beyond the first year. Taken together, we should not assume pregnancy protects women from IPV, as IPV tends to persist across a longer-term period. Future studies are needed to investigate if IPV transits into other less obvious types of violence during pregnancy. Moderator analyses showed the prevalence estimates significantly varied across countries by income levels and regions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-24T11:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241226631
       
  • Outcomes Associated with Adolescent Dating and Sexual Violence
           Victimization: A Systematic Review of School-Based Literature

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      Authors: Ashley B. Woolweaver, Nadin Abu Khalaf, Dorothy L. Espelage, Ziyi Zhou, Roslyn Reynoso Marmolejos, Mary Calnan, Rachel Mirsen
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Dating and sexual violence (DSV) is a common occurrence among school aged youth and has been associated with numerous harmful long-term outcomes. The goal of this article is to better understand the range of outcomes associated with DSV during youth and adolescence. This systematic review consists of 28 school-based studies from 20 journals discussing outcomes of youth experiences of DSV. Results demonstrate significant associations between DSV victimization and mental health symptoms, substance use, sexual health, academic, and social outcomes. To better understand this issue, this article recommends that schools offer additional training for staff on recognizing DSV. Additionally, improved research is needed in this area including surveys that are inclusive of diverse student identities and include more comprehensive measures of DSV, and additional research on DSV explicitly focused on minoritized groups.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-24T11:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241226618
       
  • When Institutions Harm Those Who Depend on Them: A Scoping Review of
           Institutional Betrayal

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      Authors: Maria-Ernestina Christl, Kim-Chi Tran Pham, Adi Rosenthal, Anne P. DePrince
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The term institutional betrayal (Smith and Freyd, 2014) builds on the conceptual framework of betrayal trauma theory (see Freyd, 1996) to describe the ways that institutions (e.g., universities, workplaces) fail to take appropriate steps to prevent and/or respond appropriately to interpersonal trauma. A nascent literature has begun to describe individual costs associated with institutional betrayal throughout the United States (U.S.), with implications for public policy and institutional practice. A scoping review was conducted to quantify existing study characteristics and key findings to guide research and practice going forward. Multiple academic databases were searched for keywords (i.e., “institutional betrayal” and “organizational betrayal”). Thirty-seven articles met inclusion criteria (i.e., peer-reviewed empirical studies of institutional betrayal) and were included in analyses. Results identified research approaches, populations and settings, and predictor and outcome variables frequently studied in relation to institutional betrayal. This scoping review describes a strong foundation of published studies and provides recommendations for future research, including longitudinal research with diverse individuals across diverse institutional settings. The growing evidence for action has broad implications for research-informed policy and institutional practice.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-23T06:42:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380241226627
       
  • Empowering Young People with Special Educational Needs to Recognize and
           Report Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse: A Mixed-Methods Review

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      Authors: Laura E. McMinn, Juliane A. Kloess, Zoe Stephenson
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Young people with special educational needs (SEN), such as intellectual disability and/or autism, are particularly vulnerable to child sexual exploitation and abuse (CSEA). This mixed-methods systematic literature review consolidates findings in respect to how young people with SEN are currently being taught about CSEA in the UK, incorporating empirical and practice-based findings to counteract publication bias. Key databases were searched, and relevant organizations were contacted regarding studies published between 2015 and 2022 (inclusive). Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 adopted a qualitative methodology, and three a mixed-methods approach. The thematic synthesis of the qualitative studies identified the following themes: (a) beliefs and stereotypes about CSEA, vulnerability. and risk have led to young people with SEN being misinformed and misunderstood, and (b) anxiety about the topic of sex and abuse creates polarized views regarding CSEA education in adult guardians of young people with SEN. Themes are discussed in the context of societal biases in respect to vulnerability and risk, and these biases are considered to have a negative effect on how young people with SEN are supported. The findings of this review encourage providers of CSEA awareness education to be mindful of not endorsing harmful stereotypes, and to involve parent–carers as much as possible. This review additionally encourages services and organizations to increase focus on practitioner reflexivity and regular training to counteract potential biases in respect to gender, vulnerability, and risk.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2024-01-02T10:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231217047
       
  • Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure: A Meta-Analysis of the
           Associations with Mental Health in Transgender and Gender Diverse
           Individuals

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      Authors: Laura C. Wilson, Amie R. Newins, Francesca Kassing, Tracy Casanova
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals are more likely to experience mental health difficulties than cisgender individuals due to unique stressors related to their stigmatized gender identity and/or expression. This meta-analysis examined the associations between gender minority stressors and resilience factors, as measured by the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience Measure (GMSR; Testa et al., 2015), and two types of mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety). A comprehensive literature search and study inclusion process following PRISMA guidelines identified 69 sources, representing 47 unique samples. Mean effect sizes revealed significant positive associations between all GMSR minority stress subscales and anxiety and depression symptoms (rs = .22 to .40) with larger correlations for proximal stressors compared to distal stressors. The GMSR resilience subscales were significantly negatively correlated with anxiety and depression symptoms (rs = −.07 to −.16). These findings highlight the robust relationship between gender minority stressors and mental health symptoms among TGD individuals and indicate a need for addressing these stressors both by reducing exposure to external stressors and by addressing the internalization of those stressors in clinical settings. The small effects for the resilience subscales suggest a need to examine additional resilience factors that may be more pertinent to mental health among TGD individuals.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-31T04:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231218288
       
  • Perinatal Homicide in the United States: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Brooke W. Jones, Lauren Quick-Graham, Sandra L. Martin
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This review focused on literature from the United States evaluating homicide during the perinatal period. It was completed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Seventeen studies met the criteria for inclusion, including: describing prevalence and risk factors related to homicide deaths of pregnant or postpartum birthing individuals; being conducted in the United States; and being published in English 2007 or later. This review found that homicide is an important contributor to maternal mortality and is a leading cause of death during pregnancy and the postpartum period, especially if an individual is Black and under the age of 30. Future efforts must be made to standardize data collection efforts and resolve nuanced terminology that results in interpretation challenges. The United States should examine maternal deaths through the entirety of the perinatal period and fully invest in violence prevention efforts.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-31T04:33:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231217044
       
  • Building A Comprehensive, Longitudinal Dataset to Advance Research on the
           Efficacy of State-Level Anti-bullying Legislation: 1999 to 2017

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      Authors: Marizen R. Ramirez, Andrew Ryan, Katherine Lymn, Scott Burris, Amy Cook, Lindsay K. Cloud, Mark L. Hatzenbuehler
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Bullying is one of the most common forms of youth violence and is associated with myriad adverse consequences over the life course. There has been increasing interest in examining whether anti-bullying legislation is effective in preventing bullying victimization and its negative effects. However, a lack of data structures that comprehensively and longitudinally assess anti-bullying legislation and its provisions has hampered this effort. We provide 18 years of data (1999–2017) on anti-bullying legislation and amendments across 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, which we are making publicly available at LawAtlas.org. This article describes how the legal content analysis was conducted, provides information on the reliability of the coding, and details provisions of the legislation that were coded, such as funding provisions and enumerated groups (a total of 122 individual codes are provided). Over 90% of states had at least one amendment to their legislation during this 18-year period (range: 0–22; Mean = 6.1), highlighting both the evolving content of anti-bullying statutes and the importance of tracking these changes with longitudinal data. Additionally, we offer illustrative examples of the kinds of research questions that might be pursued with these new data. For instance, using survival analyses, we show that a variety of state characteristics (e.g., political leaning of state legislatures) predict time to adoption of key provisions of anti-bullying legislation (e.g., the comprehensiveness of legal provisions). Finally, we end with a discussion of how the dataset might be used in future research on the efficacy of anti-bullying legislation.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T08:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231219256
       
  • What Measures are Effective in Trauma Screening for Young Males in
           Custody' A COSMIN Systematic Review

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      Authors: Rachel O’Rourke, Mike Marriott, Richard Trigg
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the available evidence identifying the high prevalence rates of potentially traumatic experiences in forensic populations, there is still a lack of evidence supporting the use of suitable assessment tools, especially for young males in custody. For services to identify, support, and offer trauma interventions to this cohort, practitioners require reliable and valid assessment tools. This systematic review (Open Science Framework registration: https://osf.io/r6hbk) identifies those tools able to provide valid, reliable, and comparable data for this cohort. Five electronic databases and gray literature were searched to identify relevant measures. Inclusion criteria: studies of tools to assess for trauma with males aged between 12 and 25 years-old in a custodial setting, any year of publication, and available in English. Exclusion criteria: studies that did not measure psychological trauma or include a standalone trauma scale, or report primary data. A three-step quality assessment method was used to evaluate the methodological quality and psychometric properties of the measures. Fourteen studies were selected for review (which included 12 measures). The studies sampled a total of approximately 1,768 male participants and an age range of 12 to 25 years. The studies reported on various types of psychometric evidence and due to the lack of homogeneity, a narrative synthesis was used to discuss, interpret, and evaluate each measure. The overall quality of the psychometric properties of the measures in this review showed that the currently available instruments for the assessment of trauma with young males in custody is limited but promising.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-30T08:33:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231219251
       
  • Trauma-Informed Practice in Physical Activity Programs for Young People: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Emily Berger, Katelyn O’Donohue, Ruth Jeanes, Laura Alfrey
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Physical activity, sport, and physical education share many similar qualities with trauma-informed practice, including promoting relationships, inclusion, and physical and mental well-being. There is growing research and programs that incorporate trauma-informed practices into physical activity programs for young people. The aim of this systematic review was to explore current evidence-based, Trauma-Informed Physical Activity programs for young people. Four databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. The search identified 19 studies that highlighted most Trauma-Informed Physical Activity programs reviewed resulted in positive social, emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes for children and adolescents. However, further research and randomized control trials are required to understand the longitudinal outcomes of Trauma-Informed Physical Activity programs for children and adolescents. Program facilitators reported on the benefits of support and professional development opportunities for trauma awareness to administer Trauma-Informed Physical Activity programs with children and young people. Implications from this study emphasize the importance of the continued design, delivery, and research of Trauma-Informed Physical Activity programs for young people exposed to trauma.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-28T12:38:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231218293
       
  • Scoping Review of the Definitions Used to Describe and Understand Harmful
           Sexual Behaviors in Children and Young People

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      Authors: Gabrielle R. Hunt, Daryl J. Higgins, Megan L. Willis, Lottie Harris
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is a growing body of evidence that adolescents, and other children, are responsible for a significant proportion of sexual abuse against children. However, there are substantial differences in how this phenomenon is defined and conceptualized between and within sectors. This scoping review explored the current definitions of harmful sexual behaviors (HSB), and other similar terms, used across a range of stakeholder groups. In all, 141 papers were reviewed from both empirical and gray literature sources, including key policy and practice documents. Included papers needed to list a clear definition for the behavior of interest. There was disagreement and inconsistency across the included papers in their conceptualization of harmful, abusive, or problematic sexual behavior (PSB) in children and adolescents. Although the term HSB has been adopted as an umbrella term or continuum in many policy, practice, and research settings, there is a large variance in behaviors, treatment needs, etiology, and harms present across different types of sexual behavior. Relying solely on one term to describe a wide range of sexual behaviors in children and young people may limit the understanding of this issue and imply similarities between groups that are not present. We suggest that clearly defined subsets of HSB, such as sexual abuse, technology-assisted HSB, and PSB, may give more context to the behavior of concern and may be helpful in informing further research, prevention, and best practice approaches.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-28T12:38:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231218294
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors for Firearm Assault Injuries Among Black Men:
           A Scoping Review of Research

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      Authors: Lea A. Marineau, Mudia Uzzi, Shani A. Buggs, Ngozi Ihenacho, Jacquelyn C. Campbell
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Black men are disproportionately affected by firearm assaults in the United States, and these disparities are rooted in structural and social inequities. The objective of this scoping review of research was to identify risk and protective factors for firearm assault injuries among Black men at all levels of the social-ecological framework. The search was conducted in 2021. The initial search generated 1,122 articles. Studies were eligible if they (a) included an analysis of modifiable risk or protective factors for firearm assaults among Black men; (b) reported an estimate of correlation, association, or effect between risk or protective factors and firearm assault injuries, firearm violence, and/or firearm homicides; and (c) were published peer-reviewed articles. In all, 19 articles were identified for review. Risk factors identified at each ecological level include the following: (1) Individual: firearm possession/weapon use and criminal legal system interaction; (2) Relationships: gang membership and exposure to other people who have experienced a firearm assault; (3) Community: indicators for socioeconomic status and racial residential segregation; and (4) Societal: historical racist policy. Individual-level substance use had mixed results. Few (26%) studies examined protective factors at any ecological level, but community-level factors like neighborhood tree cover were identified. Future research needs to examine risk and protective factors at the societal level and multiple ecological levels simultaneously leading to more effective multi-level interventions that will guide policy formation. A greater diversity of study designs, research methods, and theoretical frameworks is needed to better understand factors associated with firearm assault among Black men.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-28T10:50:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231217042
       
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Alexithymia: Do Emotions Matter' A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Sara Veggi, Agata Benfante, Marialaura Di Tella, Fausto Roveta, Lorys Castelli, Georgia Zara
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) encompasses physical, sexual, or psychological abuse. Recent evidence suggests that victims and perpetrators might share some common psychological characteristics. Particularly, high levels of alexithymia, a difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions, and an externally oriented thinking style were found in both victims and perpetrators when compared to the general population. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the levels of alexithymia in victims and perpetrators of IPV and compare these levels to controls. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, using the following strings: (“intimate partner violence” OR “IPV” OR “partner abuse”) AND (“alexithymia” OR “alexithymic”). The inclusion criteria were: adult perpetrators or victims of IPV; with or without a rehabilitation program; having or not a comparison group from the general population; alexithymia as outcome; all types of study design. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were meta-analyzed with random-effects models. Results showed comparable levels of alexithymia in victims and perpetrators of IPV (mean = 55.92 vs. 55.15, respectively). Furthermore, we found increased alexithymia in victims (Hedges’ g, 0.87 [95% CI 0.43, 1.31]) and perpetrators (Hedges’ g, 0.94 [95% CI 0.77, 1.12]) compared to controls. These results highlight that both perpetrators and victims exhibited high levels of alexithymia. A deeper understanding of this psychological dimension can help professionals to plan better-tailored interventions, in which all relevant factors associated with IPV are considered.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-22T12:25:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231217045
       
  • More Than Just a Scratch: A Scoping Review on Physical and Psychological
           Consequences of Violence Against Police

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      Authors: Isabo Goormans, Agnes Verbouw, Christophe Vandeviver
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against police is a reality for many officers. Despite growing concerns over the rise in violence against police and the serious individual and societal repercussions associated with it, a comprehensive overview of the psychological and physical consequences of verbal and physical violence against police remains elusive. By performing a scoping review (n = 21) of studies and reports identified via database searches (Web of Science and Google Scholar), reference mining, and purposive sampling, and published between 2010 and 2023, this article is the first of its kind to map psychological and physical consequences of violence against police, as well as the risk and protective factors that respectively increase and decrease adverse consequences. Results indicate that officers experience primary victimization by a range of different adverse consequences, but also deal with secondary victimization. The literature has come to a standstill due to lack of (recent) studies and a lack of diversity on how consequences of violence against police are studied. We argue that this lack of academic attention might be influenced by predominant societal perspectives and officers’ perceived victim status, and discuss the implications for police, policymakers, and research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-19T06:35:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231218290
       
  • Do Gender-Based Violence Interventions Consider the Impacts of Climate
           Change' A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Elizabeth M. Allen, Leso Munala, Jody Ward-Rannow
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Climate change and extreme weather events have been shown to increase incidences of gender-based violence (GBV). Numerous organizations have devoted significant time, resources, and effort to the design and implementation of interventions aimed at reducing GBV in Africa. Some interventions effectively reduce violence, but GBV persists and remains pervasive. The United Nations has called for GBV interventions that consider the impact of climate change on violence. This review aims to determine whether public health interventions intended to reduce GBV in Africa take into account the effects of climate change on the region and the population. PubMed, PsychArticles, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically in February 2023 for interventions conducted in Africa published between 2010 and 2023. There were a total of 86 articles in the final review that described 40 distinct interventions. The intervention designs included empowerment and participatory approaches (microfinance, microfinance plus, community education, and community engagement), changing social and cultural norms (community education, community engagement, and media), and school-based programs. None of the 40 interventions mentioned climate, weather, or climate change as a component of the intervention. There are several opportunities to improve existing, successful GBV interventions in order to increase their efficacy. GBV interventions could incorporate economic independence programs that do not rely on agriculture and include climate change education. These findings could facilitate the integration of two previously distinct research disciplines—climate change and GBV prevention—to inform future research and develop more effective and cost-efficient interventions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-16T06:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231214793
       
  • Strategies and Interventions Used to Prevent Violence Against Sex Workers
           in the United States: A Scoping Review Using the Social-Ecological Model

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      Authors: Cary Carr, Lindsey M King, Jennifer Maizel, Nichole M Scaglione, Nichole E Stetten, Julia R Varnes, Catherine Tomko
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Structural factors in the United States, such as criminalization, contribute to disproportionate rates of violence against sex workers and subsequent risk of adverse health outcomes. There is a clear need for systemic interventions and risk reduction strategies to reduce violence in this population. To inform next steps in prevention, this scoping review provides an overview of the literature on violence prevention efforts targeting sex workers in the United States, mapped out according to the social-ecological model (SEM). A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature across five databases with no limit on publication date yielded 2,372 documents. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they focused on the U.S. population of sex workers and had a clearly defined aim or purpose of exploring, describing, or evaluating sex work violence prevention interventions or risk reduction strategies. Twelve studies met all eligibility criteria and were selected. Only two of the studies evaluated sexual violence prevention interventions, while the remaining 10 explored strategies sex workers use to minimize the risk of violence. Most research focused on female sex workers, violence from paying clients, and prevention at the individual level of the SEM. Our findings suggest a need for additional violence prevention interventions tailored for diverse groups of sex workers and cognizant of the overlapping forms of violence they face. This scoping review contributes to the limited body of research on the prevention of violence against sex workers in the United States by providing future directions for research and program development that span across the SEM.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-06T12:29:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231214786
       
  • “Like A Mouse Pursued By the Snake”: A Qualitative Metasynthesis on
           the Experiences of Revictimization Among Women Survivors of Childhood
           Sexual Abuse and Partner Violence

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      Authors: Marianne Girard, Mylène Fernet, Natacha Godbout
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A metasynthesis was performed on 15 qualitative studies to document the experience of revictimization by an intimate partner among women, based on survivors’ perspectives on their sustained childhood sexual abuse and intimate partner violence victimization. Results identified two main conceptual categories: (a) Barriers to action: A belief system reflecting learned helplessness that hinders women’s abilities to protect themselves and prevent further abuses, and (b) Broken internal compass: Cognitive elements blurring women’s risk evaluation capacities and reference points limiting their ability to break the cycle of revictimization. These findings support the need to examine cognitive distortions and false beliefs in intervention practices and suggest valuable guidelines for practitioners. As the responsibility for violence always lies with the perpetrator, this study should not be interpreted as blaming women for their victimization, but instead, as a way to give women a voice about their experiences and give them a sense of power in the prevention of violence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-05T05:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231214783
       
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Autism: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Gemma Hartley, Fuschia Sirois, Jack Purrington, Yasmin Rabey
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence suggests that autistic children have a higher probability of experiencing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) compared to their non-autistic peers. This meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42022262635) aimed to quantify the association of autism and ACEs. Eight databases and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported dichotomous outcomes regarding the associations between ACEs and autistic individuals, compared to non-autistic individuals. A random-effects model was used to calculate the average Odds Ratio (OR) of the relationship between a diagnosis of autism and ACEs. A total of 40 studies with 5,619,584 participants were included, generating an overall average OR 2.11 (CI 1.61, 2.77). Significant differences in the magnitude of association were found across studies with regards to the type of ACEs studied, comparison groups, and population type. Overall, moderate certainty evidence (downgraded for bias) indicates that autistic individuals are at greater risk of experiencing ACEs, compared to non-autistic individuals. Appropriate support for autistic individuals and their families are required to prevent ACEs and treat the impact of ACEs.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-02T07:12:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231213314
       
  • Professional Quality of Life of Foster and Kinship Carers in Australia,
           United Kingdom, and the United States: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Helen McLaren, Emi Patmisari, Yunong Huang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Professional quality of life (ProQOL) refers to workers’ subjective feelings associated with work involved in helping others who have experienced trauma. It consists of positive and negative aspects, that is, subscales of compassion satisfaction, and burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Foster and kinship caring inherently involves risks associated with exposure to the trauma responses of children in their care. This exposure can lead to poor ProQOL, carer attrition, and placement instability. While limited studies specifically explore ProQOL of carers, many studies have examined factors and interventions related to ProQOL. However, there is a lack of synthesis of these studies. To fill such a research gap, we undertook a scoping review of 70 empirical studies from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, published from 2012 to 2022 reporting on ProQOL, and its related factors and concepts. We applied a multilevel ecosocial construct to examine complex interrelationships between private and governance settings to better understand factors related to ProQOL of carers and interventions aimed to improve it in these dynamic systems. In our review, some studies showed positive outcomes for carers, such as reduced stress or burnout associated with training. However, there was insufficient attention to factors associated with ProQOL at relational and sociopolitical levels. It is crucial to improve carers’ ProQOL or well-being to ensure their retention and placement stability. Long-term systemic improvements require interventions across different levels of the system.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-12-02T07:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231213322
       
  • Sociological Theories to Explain Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic
           Review and Narrative Synthesis

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      Authors: Sarah R. Meyer, Selina Hardt, Rebecca Brambilla, Shruti Shukla, Heidi Stöckl
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a highly prevalent public health challenge and human rights violation. Sociological theories address social structures to understand prevalence and dynamics of IPV against women. This systematic review aims (1) to identify, describe, categorize, and synthesize sociological theories that account for predictors of IPV against women, and (2) to compare and contrast sociological theories of predictors of IPV against women. Following a structured search of nine electronic databases, members of the review team screened title/abstract and full texts against inclusion and exclusion criteria, to identify studies that engaged with theory/ies of predictors of IPV. Review team members extracted data according to a data extraction template developed for the review. Results are presented using a narrative synthesis approach. Following review of 108 included articles, included articles were grouped into sub-theories. The sub-theories provide differing, yet overlapping, accounts of predictors of male perpetration of IPV and women’s experience of IPV. Sociological theories primarily engage with exo- and macro-system levels of the social-ecological framework, yet some also address structural influences on individual behaviors. This systematic review fills a gap in theoretical syntheses of sociological theories of predictors of male-perpetrated IPV against women and also provides critical analysis of how these theories overlap and intersect. While sociological theories may not be able to fully explain all aspects of dynamics of male-perpetrated IPV against women, this overview indicates that there are several compelling components of sociological theory that hold explanatory power for comprehending how, where, and why IPV occurs.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T11:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231210939
       
  • Worldwide Perinatal Intimate Partner Violence Prevalence and Risk Factors
           for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-analysis

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      Authors: Xiu Dai, Xiangyuan Chu, Guojia Qi, Ping Yuan, Yanna Zhou, Henry Xiang, Xiuquan Shi
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women who have experienced perinatal intimate partner violence (P-IPV) has gradually attracted the attention of psychologists, mental health, and health care professionals. However, a comprehensive understanding of its prevalence and associated risk factors is still lacking. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence and explore influencing factors for PTSD in women who have suffered P-IPV. Our study inclusion criteria were: women who experienced IPV in the year before conception, throughout pregnancy, during delivery, and up to 1 year after giving birth for which a quantitative assessment of PTSD was done using validated diagnostic or screening tools. This study searched nine English databases and four Chinese databases. The final analysis included 16 studies, involving 9,098 female subjects. Meta-analysis was performed on the extracted data using the Stata 16.0 software (Stata Corp. LP, College Station, TX, USA).Fixed or random effect models were selected to pool odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of PTSD after heterogeneity test. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of PTSD in women who suffered P-IPV was 30.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [22.0%, 37.0%]). Only nine studies described influencing factors for PTSD based on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The five identified influencing factors were: non-immigrants (OR = 2.56; 95% CI [1.29, 5.08]), non-cohabitation (OR = 2.45; [1.35, 4.42]), trauma history (OR = 1.80; [1.18, 2.76]), education below senior high school (OR = 1.32; [0.64, 2.75]), and age 18 to 29 years (OR = 1.06; [0.94, 1.19]). These findings provided a reference value of PTSD prevalence, risk factors, and potential association with P-IPV among women worldwide. However, the geographical coverage of the reviewed studies is limited and epidemiological investigations from more diverse areas are required in the future.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-25T05:47:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231211950
       
  • Expanding Our Understanding of Traffickers and Their Operations: A Review
           of the Literature and Path Forward

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      Authors: Kelle Barrick, Thomas C. Sharkey, Kayse Lee Maass, Yongjia Song, Lauren Martin
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Human trafficking is a serious crime and violation of human rights that results in numerous harms. Although the phenomenon is not new, scholarship on the issue has grown substantially since the first legal framework was passed in 2000. However, the existing literature has been criticized for its skewed focus on victims, among other things. The dearth of information on traffickers and their operations limits our ability to reduce or prevent perpetration. The current study presents a comprehensive and critical review of the existing literature focused on traffickers to synthesize what is already known and highlight the key gaps. Twenty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria of (1) focusing on traffickers and their operations and (2) relying on data either directly from traffickers or sources that contained detailed information about criminal cases against traffickers. We used an iterative process to identify relevant studies, which included collecting articles of which we were already familiar or were identified in existing reviews, searching their reference lists, and conducting cited-by searches until saturation was reached. Topics found in the extant literature included: characteristics of traffickers, relationships between traffickers and victims, organizational characteristics and networks, operations, connections with other crimes, motivations, perceptions of behavior, and risks associated with trafficking. It concludes with recommendations for future research and a discussion of how bridging gaps in the literature could support more rigorous mathematical modeling that is needed to identify and assess promising perpetration prevention and intervention strategies.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T06:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231210937
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence with
           Gay Men: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Viviane Amy Costa Domingos, Aline Nogueira de Lira
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon and may involve different risk and protective factors, as well as people of different sexual orientations, including gay men. Despite scientific evidence of the high prevalence of victimization and perpetration of this phenomenon, IPV in gay men is still largely invisible. The aim of this study was to map the risk and protective factors related to IPV among gay cis men based on a literature review. The Scopus, PsycNET, Pubmed, BVS-Psi, and SciELO databases were searched to retrieve articles published between 2018 and 2022. Thematic analysis was used to map the risk and protective factors of the 29 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Among the results, most studies investigated the risk factors for victimization of IPV, despite showing the high prevalence of bidirectionality in IPV among gay men. In addition, multiple risk and protective factors (individual, relational, and socio-community) have been shown to be associated with IPV among gay men. Mapping risk and protective factors for IPV at different ecological levels makes it possible to identify a more accurate profile of gay men’s vulnerabilities, in addition to enabling the construction of more systemic interventions, which are multisectoral with specific prevention strategies, for IPV among gay men.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T06:30:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231209738
       
  • Prenatal Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence and Child Developmental
           Outcomes: A Scoping Review Study

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      Authors: June-Yung Kim, Lixia Zhang, Anne Marie Gruber, Sun Kyung Kim, Megan R. Holmes, Amanda Brevda
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Pregnant women face an increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). In addition to the risk of violence faced by women, there is a dual concern for risk of harm to the fetus. Expanding knowledge on childbirth outcomes, other domains of children’s development have been examined in recent literature. Yet, there is limited comprehensive knowledge in the area. This scoping review study, informed by ecobiodevelopmental theory, mapped evidence associating prenatal IPV exposure and children’s development. We searched eight databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC. Thirty-one empirical studies published in English that associated prenatal IPV exposure and children’s development were eligible for our review. Included studies were published between 2006 and 2022, with 39% published in the most recent 5 years. Eighteen studies had sample sizes smaller than 500, and 21 were atheoretical; six failed to consider covariates. Reviewed studies showed adverse effects of prenatal IPV exposure on psychological, behavioral, physical health, and physiological outcomes, either directly or indirectly via mechanisms such as maternal behavioral health. Due to inconsistency in results and a lack of empirical evidence, however, social and cognitive outcomes were identified as needing further research to enhance our understanding of the global and domain-specific effects of prenatal IPV exposure. Prospective longitudinal studies, driven by theories of causal mechanisms, which adjust for empirically qualified confounders, will be critical to inform practice and policy to promote healthy development of prenatally IPV-exposed children. Incorporating strengths/asset-focused outcomes and examining contextual factors and sex/gender specific effects may advance the knowledge in this area.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T06:22:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231209434
       
  • Instruments for the Identification of Child Sexual Exploitation: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Beatriz Benavente, Paola Bully, Lluís Ballester
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      To perform a systematic search of instruments for the early identification of risk of sexual exploitation in children (CSE) and appraise their metric properties. Searches were conducted in four electronic databases to identify instruments that only evaluated child sexual exploitation with no restrictions of date or language. Two reviewers independently carried out the initial selection of titles and abstracts, appraisal of the methodological quality, compliance with the entry criteria in the analysis, and extraction of data necessary to systematize the information available. Twenty-three articles were found that used 15 CSE detection instruments. The instruments varied with regard to number of questions, ease of administration, sources of information, rating methods, and the training information provided. What they had in common is that most were designed and used in the English-speaking world, basically in the United States, with few instruments providing solid proof of their validity and reliability in the scores derived thereof. Although instruments were obtained with significant similarities in their conceptualization, differences in multiple characteristics made it difficult to draw clear conclusions regarding their greater or lesser suitability. What did become clear was the need to keep working on obtaining rigorous empirical psychometric evidence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-24T06:13:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207898
       
  • The Modern Slavery Core Outcome Set: A Survivor-Driven Consensus on
           Priority Outcomes for Recovery, Wellbeing, and Reintegration

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      Authors: Sohail Jannesari, Bee Damara, Rachel Witkin, Cornelius Katona, Queenie Sit, Minh Dang, Jeanet Joseph, Emma Howarth, Olivia Triantafillou, Claire Powell, Sabah Rafique, Anitta Sritharan, Nicola Wright, Sian Oram, Sharli Anne Paphitis
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is no consensus on the outcomes needed for the recovery and reintegration of survivors of modern slavery and human trafficking. We developed the Modern Slavery Core Outcome Set (MSCOS) to address this gap. We conducted three English-language reviews on the intervention outcomes sought or experienced by adult survivors: a qualitative systematic review (4 databases, 18 eligible papers, thematic analysis), a rapid review of quantitative intervention studies (four databases, eight eligible papers, content analysis) and a gray literature review (2 databases, 21 websites, a call for evidence, 13 eligible papers, content analysis). We further extracted outcomes from 36 pre-existing interview transcripts with survivors, and seven interviews with survivors from underrepresented groups. We narrowed down outcomes via a consensus process involving: a three-stage E-Delphi survey (191 respondents); and a final consensus workshop (46 participants). We generated 398 outcomes from our 3 reviews, and 843 outcomes from interviews. By removing conceptual and literal duplicates, we reduced this to a longlist of 72 outcomes spanning 10 different domains. The E-Delphi produced a 14-outcome shortlist for the consensus workshop, where 7 final outcomes were chosen. Final outcomes were: “long-term consistent support,” “secure and suitable housing,” “safety from any trafficker or other abuser,” “access to medical treatment,” “finding purpose in life and self-actualisation,” “access to education,” and “compassionate, trauma-informed services.” The MSCOS provides outcomes that are accepted by a wide range of stakeholders and that should be measured in intervention evaluation.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-22T11:15:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231211955
       
  • The Relationship Between Secondary Traumatic Stress and Compassion
           Satisfaction: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Ginny Sprang, Stephanie Gusler, Jessica Eslinger, Ruth Gottfried
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic literature review examines the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS) and compassion satisfaction (CS) to identify the state of the science and directions for future research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis framework was used to guide the identification and evaluation of studies. Eight academic databases were systematically searched between July and December of 2022 to identify articles and dissertations published in English or Hebrew between 2000 and 2022. Studies were considered for inclusion if they examined the relationship between STS and CS and met an established quality threshold. If studies used a mixed methods approach, only quantitative results were included in the review. The search strategy yielded 537 studies with 33 included in the final review. Findings of this review suggest experiences of high levels of STS can coexist with high levels of CS indicating that people can gain satisfaction from their work and experience STS. Most studies examined the relationship between STS and CS using bivariate analyses with variability found in the direction of the relationship. This variability was also found in multivariate studies included in this review. These findings suggest the need for interventions to address both STS and CS with attention paid to the potential negative impact of emotional contagion and the vulnerability of younger female practitioners. Future research should pay attention to the rigor of the analysis of STS and CS and the exploration of mediating or moderating mechanisms between these constructs.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T07:33:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231209438
       
  • The Association Between Child Abuse and Internet Addiction: A Three-Level
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Qiongzhi Zhang, Qi Zhang, Guangming Ran, Yishuang Liu
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child abuse is an important factor for Internet addiction. Despite numerous researches had observed there was a positive correlation between child abuse and Internet addiction, the strength of this association differed considerably in the previous studies. This study aims to obtain reliable estimates for effect sizes and investigate the potential moderator of the association between child abuse and Internet addiction. Thirty-one studies reported the association between child abuse and Internet addiction (273 effect sizes and 55,585 participants) through a systematic literature search. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis approach, a three-level model was employed to conduct a three-level meta-analysis. The current meta-analysis found that child abuse was significantly positively correlated with Internet addiction. Besides, the study found that the type of child abuse and publication year had significant moderating effects on the association between child abuse and Internet addiction. This study suggested child abuse was a risk factor for Internet addiction. Moreover, child abuse is an essential factor should be considered when strengthening interventions for individuals’ Internet addiction.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-20T07:31:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231209436
       
  • Parenting Interventions That Promote Child Protection and Development for
           Preschool-Age Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Global
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Zuyi Fang, Xinran Liu, Cheng Zhang, Jamie M. Lachman, Dongping Qiao
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Global guidelines emphasize the critical role of responsive caregiving in terms of reducing violence against children and promoting early childhood development. However, there is an absence of global evidence synthesis on the effects of early childhood parenting programs for children with developmental disabilities. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effectiveness of parenting interventions delivered for preschool-age children with developmental disabilities in reducing violence against children, altering violence-related factors, and promoting child development. We searched for randomized controlled trials with inactive control. Estimates were pooled using robust variance estimations. Meta-regressions were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity. In all, 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that parenting programs improved child behavior, parental mental health, parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, parent–child interaction, child language skills, and child social skills post-intervention. No studies provided data on the actual occurrence of violence against children. Effects might vary by diagnosis, delivery modality, and world region. The findings supported the delivery of parenting programs to alter factors associated with violence against children and promote child language and social skills for families of young children with developmental disabilities, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, intellectual disability, and language disorders. More research using rigorous methods, long-term follow-ups, and transparent reporting is needed, particularly within more low- and middle-income countries.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-18T08:31:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207965
       
  • The Mental Health and Social Implications of Nonconsensual Sharing of
           Intimate Images on Youth: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Felipa Schmidt, Filippo Varese, Amanda Larkin, Sandra Bucci
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In the past decade, the sending and sharing of sexual images among youth has become normalized. An associated risk of sharing sexual images is the images being nonconsensually shared among peers or uploaded online. This is the first review to systematically identify, summarize, and critically evaluate existing research on the mental health and social impact of nonconsensual sharing of sexual images (NCSSI) on youth. Database (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus) and manual searches were conducted to identify eligible studies. A narrative synthesis and a Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool were used for quality analysis. Of 4,013 articles retrieved, 13 met the eligibility criteria. The findings suggest that NCSSI is associated with negative mental health and social repercussions. Five quantitative studies found evidence suggestive of increased depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation in young people following NCSSI. The identified qualitative evidence highlighted a range of adverse impacts in the social lives of those affected, including associated bullying, harassment, and victim-blaming attitudes that many individuals face following an experience of NCSSI, which may contribute to a negative sense of self and exacerbate distress. Some of the identified studies used unvalidated tools to assess mental health outcomes, and mainly measured depression and anxiety. Most studies more broadly discussed the sharing of sexual images rather than NCSSI specifically. Future research should adopt a narrow focus on the impact of NCSSI and use validated tools to measure various mental health outcomes.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T12:46:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207896
       
  • The Role of Parent–Child Attachment, Hostile Attribution Bias in
           Aggression: A Meta-Analytic Review

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      Authors: Xizheng Xu, Yunpeng Wu, Yawen Xu, Miaomiao Ding, Senlin Zhou, Simin Long
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Parent–Child Attachment (PCA) and Hostile Attribution Bias (HAB) are closely related to aggression, but findings regarding their relationships are inconsistent. There is a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism between PCA and aggression. This review employed meta-analysis approaches to investigate the associations between PCA and aggression, as well as between HAB and aggression, and the mechanism for the PCA–aggression association. An article search was conducted in CNKI, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. Totally, 118 studies involving general populations and those at high risk for aggression were included. Results revealed negative associations between Parent–Child Attachment Security (PCAS) and aggression (ρ = −.267, p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T12:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231210920
       
  • Barriers to and Facilitators of Help-Seeking Among Men Who are Victims of
           Domestic Violence: A Mixed-Studies Systematic Review

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      Authors: Eurosia Yu Yuan Kim, LaRon E. Nelson, Travis Lanz-Brian Pereira, Shefaly Shorey
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Domestic violence against men poses a significant threat to men’s health and well-being and is increasingly being recognized as a public health issue. Unfortunately, men who are victims often struggle to disclose and report their abusive experiences. This review aims to examine and consolidate the evidence regarding the barriers to and facilitators of help-seeking behaviors of men who suffered from women-perpetrated domestic violence. A mixed-studies review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach. Nine electronic databases were searched from each database’s inception until January 2023. The 23 included studies were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, and their findings were synthesized using the Joanna Briggs Institute convergent qualitative synthesis method. An overarching theme, “Stuck in a loop and finding ways to move on,” which encapsulated the predicament of victimized men in abusive relationships, was identified along with three main themes. Overall, a gender-biased perspective of domestic violence, personal fears, and familial factors hindered victimized men from reporting violence and seeking help. A multi-faceted approach—consisting of public education campaigns, sensitizing, and training help professionals, engendering “safe” environments, developing men-specific assessments, and reforming social and legal-justice processes—is needed to effectively address the gender-specific challenges faced by men who are victims of domestic violence and break the cycle of abuse, and improve formal and informal help-seeking in men who are victims of domestic abuse.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T12:19:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231209435
       
  • Reducing Violence Against Women and Girls in the Arab League: A Systematic
           Review of Preventive Interventions

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      Authors: Janine Owens, Basil H. Aboul-Enein, Joshua Bernstein, Elizabeth Dodge, Patricia J. Kelly
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The UN’s Sustainable Development Goal #5 (Gender Equity) includes violence against women and girls (VAWG), considering it as a violation of the rights of women and girls. The variety of risk factors for VAWG in Arab countries suggests the need to identify effective interventions to guide practitioners and policy makers. A systematic review of preventive interventions across the Arab League examined the outcomes of VAWG.
      Authors registered the study on the prospective register of systematic reviews database.
      Authors conducted the search for evidence up to 2023. Database searching identified 1,502 studies and after application of the eligibility criteria, 17 studies remained for inclusion. Quality appraisal used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Evidence emerged from eight Arab countries. Interventions occurred at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. However, only two studies employed interventions using more than one level of prevention, which considered systems strengthening and the development of community solidarity networks. The evidence revealed a lack of clear evaluation and evidence for the effectiveness of interventions and prevention alongside reactive approaches, with no evidence as to how systems may reduce or prevent VAWG. One main issue is patriarchal dominance in Arab countries creating the lack of a collective female voice in any of the evidence. However, Arab countries can change with support. Achieving the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal #5 by 2030 means interventions and programs need to include more than one prevention level, consider systems and include the collective female voice.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-16T12:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207902
       
  • The Family Context in Cybervictimization: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Raquel Lozano-Blasco, Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo, Borja Romero-Gonzalez, Alberto Soto-Sanchez
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The use of Information and Communication Technologies is clearly widespread among adolescents from a young age. Although it poses a significant contribution at the academic, social, and emotional levels, it can also involve a set of important risks, including cyberbullying and, therefore, cybervictimization. Previous studies have pointed out the importance of family context since parental control and family communication emerge as contributors to this phenomenon. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of family communication on cybervictims and the moderating role of different sociodemographic variables (age, gender, nationality, and culture), as well as social, emotional, and personality variables. In this context, a meta-analysis was performed with a random effects model, using a total meta-sample of 29,093 adolescents (mean age: 14.50 years) distributed in k = 20 samples belonging to nine studies on cybervictimization published in English in Q1 journals between 2015 and 2020. The results showed that family offensive communication is related to cybervictimization. This could be because the affected individuals often use social media to compensate for the deficiencies they perceive within their families, as well as to obtain support, which increases their time spent on the Internet and their exposure to this phenomenon. These findings highlight the need for family and community interventions, not only school-based or individual interventions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-10T10:10:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207894
       
  • A Scoping Review of Parenting Programs for Preventing Violence Against
           Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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      Authors: Weiwei Wang, Huiping Zhang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Violence against children affects their well-being globally, with a greater burden in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). This scoping review aimed to summarize the available evidence on parenting programs for reducing violence against children in LMICs and identify knowledge gaps in this area. Six English databases and gray literature were systematically searched to identify studies in LMICs that examined the efficacy of parenting programs to prevent violence against children, before April 15, 2023. A total of 4,183 independent studies were identified, of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. The majority were conducted in Africa and Asia, delivered by trained local community/childcare workers and lay workers, and targeted younger children aged
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-10T10:07:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207887
       
  • Parent–Child Communication About Potentially Traumatic Events: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Mèlanie Sloover, Sabine E. M.J. Stoltz, Elisa van Ee
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Social support plays an important role in children’s well-being after experiencing a potentially traumatic event (PTE). One such source of support is the parent–child relationship, specifically by discussing the event. However, current literature provides no consensus on whether parents and children communicate about PTEs, in what way they might communicate and how this affects the child. Hence the goal of the current study is threefold, to explore: (a) whether parents and children communicate about PTEs, (b) what this communication looks like, and (c) how this affects children’s well-being. These questions are answered by means of a systematic literature review. Articles were eligible for inclusion if it was an empirical study on communication between parents and children about a PTE that the child (under 18 years) had experienced. Initial searches in electronic databases provided 31,233 articles, of which 26 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Results show that most parents and children have discussed PTEs, but that this may depend on cultural background. What the parent–child communication looks like depends on various factors such as, age of the child, tone, and child’s initiation of discussion. Parental post-traumatic stress symptoms seem to negatively impact communication. The results of the impact of communication are less clear-cut, but it seems to have a predominantly positive effect on the child’s well-being, depending on parental sensitivity. Clinicians should be watchful for parental symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and can focus on promoting parental sensitivity and responsiveness when discussing PTEs with their child or on creating a joint narrative within families.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-10T06:14:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207906
       
  • Factors Associated with Non-Fatal Strangulation Victimization in Intimate
           Relationships: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Chelsea M. Spencer, Brooke M. Keilholtz, Megan Palmer, Summer L. Vail
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health crisis across the globe, and one particular act of IPV, non-fatal strangulation, warrants serious attention. Non-fatal strangulation is a risk factor for intimate partner homicide (IPH) and can create long-term negative mental and physical health consequences. In this meta-analysis, we sought to examine factors associated with non-fatal strangulation victimization among women to help inform education and assessment efforts. Using database searches and Boolean search terms, a total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 16 factors that were found in at least two unique studies were examined. The strongest associated factors included physical IPV victimization, physical injury, IPH, and sexual IPV victimization. Other significant associated factors included lower education, anxiety symptoms, perceived risk of harm, post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, stalking victimization, and identifying as a Black woman. Experiencing childhood trauma, the length of the relationship, age, substance use, and identifying as Hispanic were not significantly related to strangulation victimization by an intimate partner. Education and assessment implications are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-09T06:52:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231207874
       
  • Interventions Targeting Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in
           United States Black Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Bernadine Y. Waller, Seung Ju Lee, Naomi C. Legros, Bernadette K. Ombayo, Jennifer J. Mootz, M. Claire Green, Sidney H. Hankerson, Shameika N. Williams, Janet E. Williams, Milton L. Wainberg
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is a dearth of evidence indicating the effectiveness of psychological interventions targeting depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for Black women in the United States (US) exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EBSCOhost, Social Sciences, Social Sciences Full Text, Social Work Abstracts, and Cochrane databases between September 2021 and October 2022, for original studies of randomized control trials (RCTs) reporting depression and/or PTSD interventions delivered to US Black women with histories of IPV. Of the 1,276 articles, 46 were eligible and 8 RCTs were ultimately included in the review; interventions for depression (four interventions, n = 1,518) and PTSD (four interventions, n = 477). Among Depression and PTSD interventions (one intervention, n = 208), Beck’s Depression Inventory II indicated M = 35.2, SD = 12.6 versus M = 29.5, SD = 13.1,
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-08T12:06:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231206113
       
  • A Systematic Review of the Quality of Perpetrator Programs’ Outcome
           Studies: Toward A New Model of Outcome Measurement

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      Authors: Berta Vall, Xavier López-i-Martín, Jaume Grané Morcillo, Marianne Hester
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic review assessed whether studies on the outcomes of perpetrator programs comply with the model recommendations for outcome evaluation. Three databases (PsycINFO, Medline, and Scopus) were used to identify perpetrator program outcome studies from 1988 to 2021. The inclusion criteria were as follows: empirical studies with no time restriction; published in English or Spanish; evaluated interventions aimed at male perpetrators of any type of abuse toward women; evaluated the effectiveness of the intervention in a follow-up post-intervention; and provided an indicator of recidivism. The search and selection process resulted in 46 original studies. The results showed that studies did not include a thorough description of the study sample. Many approaches to psychological intervention are used, with cognitive behavioral therapy being the most widely used. Most studies did not describe the program content. Dropout rates varied greatly from one study to another (from 0% to 64%) and only eight studies provided dropout rates specified by each type of perpetrator. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 9 years. The recidivism rates (ranging from 5% to 72.5%), and their assessments were also very different. Only 12 of the 46 studies (26.1%) used more than one source to obtain recidivism rates. In terms of outcomes, few studies considered (ex-) partner accounts. Some studies had other measures of outcome, whereas a few included a pretest–posttest. In summary, these studies do not follow the recommendations of the model.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-03T09:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231203718
       
  • Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Opioid Use-Related
           Behaviors: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Sanjaya Regmi, Satish K. Kedia, Nikhil A. Ahuja, Guijin Lee, Coree Entwistle, Patrick J. Dillon
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      As opioid use-related behaviors continue at epidemic proportions, identifying the root causes of these behaviors is critical. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are shown to be an important predictor of opioid initiation, opioid dependence, and lifetime opioid overdose. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the association between ACEs and opioid use-related behaviors later in life and to discuss implications for policy, practice, and research regarding ACEs and opioids. Five databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline, and Scopus) were used to identify studies investigating the association between ACEs and opioid use-related behaviors. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, 20 studies out of the initial 428 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Among the included 20 studies, 15 focused on the relationship between ACEs and lifetime opioid use-related behaviors, and five focused on current opioid use-related behaviors. All studies found statistical associations between ACEs and lifetime or current opioid use-related behaviors. Five studies found a significant gradient effect; that is, as the number of ACEs increased, the risk of opioid use-related behaviors also increased. A significant dose–response relationship exists between ACEs and opioid use-related behaviors. Hence, it is essential for clinicians to screen for ACEs before prescribing opioid medications, for opioid treatment to incorporate trauma-informed methods, and for messaging around opioid use interventions to include information about ACEs. The current review points to a critical need to implement standardized ACE screening instruments in clinical and research settings.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-11-03T09:03:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231205821
       
  • Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation, Suicide Plans, and Suicide Attempts Among
           Children and Adolescents Under 18 years of Age in Mainland China: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Qingsong Chang, Yu Shi, Shunyu Yao, Xingling Ban, Ziyi Cai
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Despite suicide in younger population having become a severe public health issue, information on the prevalence of suicidality among Chinese children and adolescents is still limited. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts in Chinese children and adolescents aged under 18 years. A meta-analysis was conducted based on English and Chinese publications from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2020 using random-effects models. Based on 132 eligible studies with a combined total of 1,103,309 Chinese children and adolescents below 18 years old, the pooled prevalence of the overall suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts were 15.4% (95% CI [14.3, 16.6]), 6.4% (95% CI [5.5, 7.4]) and 3.5% (95% CI [3.1, 4.1]), respectively. The subgroup analyses showed that there were significant variations of prevalence of suicidal risks across genders, school stages, and geographical areas in mainland China. It was the first systematic review and meta-analysis to show suicidality among younger population aged below 18 years is prevalent in mainland China. This study suggests that gender-age-region-specific prevention and intervention programs should be urgently needed to reduce suicidal risks among Chinese children and adolescents.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T02:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231205828
       
  • A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Bystander’s Barriers to
           Intervene in Gender-Based Violence and the Role of Failed Prior Attempts

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      Authors: Sihyun Park, Hyunji Woo, Sin-Hyang Kim
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Gender-based violence (GBV) is a pervasive public health issue that harms victims. Bystanders’ interventions are crucial in preventing the risks of GBV; however, numerous barriers impede their willingness and behaviors to intervene. As a part of efforts to thwart these barriers, this study used a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify such barriers and assess their impact on bystanders’ engagement to intervene. The researchers explored academic databases and included 38 studies in the analysis; we extracted and coded the identified barriers (e.g., lack of responsibility, rape myth) and allocated them to six domains: failure to notice, failure to perceive risk, failure to take responsibility for engaging, lack of bystander efficacy/competency, failure to take an action, and failure of previous intervention attempts. We calculated the overall and domain-specific effect sizes (ES) and performed moderator analysis. The overall ES of the barriers identified in the review were small but statistically significant. The most potent bystander intervention barrier domain was failed previous intervention attempts; the greatest specific barriers therein were negative emotions and feelings of uncertainty after engaging in bystander behaviors. University/college populations were more vulnerable to barriers to intervention than community members. Moreover, the barriers were more prohibitive in incidents of violence against women and sexual assaults than in intimate partner violence. Bystander-focused programs that address negative emotions and feelings arising from prior intervention experiences are needed to foster continued bystander engagement and assistance in GBV; moreover, tailored program content should also be provided for groups most vulnerable to intervention barriers.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T02:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231204887
       
  • The Process of Online Disclosures of Interpersonal Victimization: A
           Systematic Review

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      Authors: Keren Gueta, Carmit Klar-Chalamish, Sarah E. Ullman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Theory and research on disclosure of interpersonal victimization, including intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and child abuse, has produced rich scholarship promoting a greater understanding of the challenges and implications of disclosure for survivors. However, in the last decade, social media platforms have opened new online disclosure opportunities that diverge from and overlap with offline disclosure. This highlights the need for adaptation and elaboration of theorizing in this growing area of study. Thus, the study aimed to systematically review the studies published in scientific literature. The following databases were accessed Criminal Justice Abstracts, Medline PsychInfo, Social Work Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science database, and Google Scholar. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria of peer-reviewed status and focused on the disclosure process. A thematic analysis revealed that online disclosure of interpersonal victimization is a multi-phase (decision-making and disclosure aftermath) and multifactorial (individual, interpersonal, social, and technological) experience for survivors. Specifically, survivors’ motivation was related to therapeutic goals, social support, and a desire to advocate for social change. Survivors faced numerous facilitators (e.g., inspiration from other online disclosures) and barriers (e.g., fear of triggering other survivors) to disclosure. The impact of online disclosure was divided into benefits (e.g., empowerment) and risks (e.g., undermining survivors’ security). The conceptual and empirical limitations of the current research are discussed, including a need for quantitative methods with larger samples and longitudinal designs to better understand how survivors can best benefit from processes of online disclosure, while avoiding harm or re-traumatization.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-30T02:30:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231204886
       
  • Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Latin America:
           A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Aída M. Villagrán, Faraj A. Santirso, Marisol Lila, Enrique Gracia
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) are being increasingly recognized as a central issue for comprehensively understanding this complex phenomenon. While IPVAW remains widespread in Latin America, knowledge about it and research on attitudes toward IPVAW are limited. This systematic review synthesized quantitative peer-reviewed studies that address attitudes toward IPVAW in Latin America. The review was conducted between April 2020 and July 2022 in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations using the Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases. In total, 52 of the 149 eligible articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Four sets of attitudes toward IPVAW were identified: legitimacy, acceptability, attitudes toward the intervention, and perceived severity. Attitude correlates were the most common research topic in more than half of the studies but were generally focused on a single country. Among the few multi-country studies, the sample of Latin American countries was small. The remaining studies were divided into three research themes: attitude as a predictor, interventions for attitude change, and scale validation. Our study aims to motivate future research on the identified knowledge gaps and may be useful for the implementation of appropriate prevention policies and intervention programs to counter IPVAW on a regional scale.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-28T12:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231205825
       
  • Do Social Service Interventions for Human Trafficking Survivors Work' A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Elyssa Schroeder, Hui Yi, David Okech, Claire Bolton, Lydia Aletraris, Anna Cody
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Human trafficking leaves victims with long-term social, psychological, and health effects. Research in this area is still nascent, and there are limited studies that show the effectiveness of existing services for survivors. This study fills the gaps in knowledge of the effectiveness of existing programs through a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Inclusion and exclusion criteria retained 15 studies using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses method, containing 16 populations. Included studies examined programs and/or interventions providing direct services to human trafficking survivors using quantitative pre- and post-intervention measurements published from January 2010 to June 2022. Outcomes among survivors were grouped into five categories: (a) mental health, (b) physical health, (c) social support or social behavior, (d) personal development, and (e) other. Roughly half (n = 31, 51.66%) of the outcomes across the 15 studies were statistically significant. Most measured constructs showed a moderate effect size (E.S.; n = 31, 51.67%). In all, 21 constructs (27.91%) met high E.S. levels, and eight (13.33%) met the criteria for a low-level effect. Analyzing different intervention types, physical-based interventions represented the smallest subset and the largest mean effect size (n = 5, g = 1.632, 95% CI [0.608, 2.655]) followed by standardized therapy (n = 23, g = 1.111, 95% CI [0.624, 1.599]), wrap-around services (n = 14, g = 0.594, 95% CI [0.241, 0.947]), and peer and support group modalities (n = 18, g = 0.440, 95% CI [0.310, 0.571]). A meta-regression showed that non-U.S.-based interventions were significantly more effective than U.S.-based interventions (z = −2.25, p = 0.025). While only 15 studies contributed to this analysis, the current study ushered in new avenues regarding future research, policies, and practice in services for survivors of human trafficking.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-28T12:36:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231204885
       
  • Digital Violence and Abuse: A Scoping Review of Adverse Experiences Within
           Adolescent Intimate Partner Relationships

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      Authors: Stine Torp Løkkeberg, Camilla Ihlebæk, Gudrun Brottveit, Lilliana Del Busso
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      International research in the past 2 decades has suggested that intimate partner violence among adolescents is a significant public health concern. Both are commonly understood as a pattern of behavior that is intended to establish and maintain control over a partner. Recently, a plethora of digital applications and social networking sites have presented new opportunities for adolescents to initiate, develop, and conduct intimate partner relationships. However, research exploring adverse experiences related to digital interactions in the context of adolescents’ intimate partner relations is limited. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the nature and range of difficult experiences in the current published research relating to digital interactions between intimate adolescent partners, from digitalized violence to less severe adverse experiences. Systematic and manual searching resulted in the identification of 1,876 potential articles for inclusion in this review. A total of 18 articles were ultimately included based on the following predefined inclusion criteria. The article must: (a) be an empirical study that has used quantitative, qualitative, mixed, or review methods; (b) include young adolescents and adolescents of 18 years or younger as participants; (c) include accounts of young adolescents and young people’s experiences and/or consequences of digital interactions within intimate partner relationships; and (d) be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Examples of less severe experiences could be different kinds of digital harassment, such as electronic intrusiveness, excessive texting, insults, unpleasant messages, and the spreading of rumors. Other adverse experiences related to digital interactions included being controlled by a partner, verbal abuse, experiences of aggression, sexual pressure, and coercion. Common consequences of adverse experiences included emotional and mental health-related difficulties, self-restricting behaviors, relationship difficulties, and risk behaviors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T11:59:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231201816
       
  • Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Exploitation in Male and Female
           Youth From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Gabriëlle Mercera, Roel Kooijmans, Sophie Leijdesdorff, Evelyn Heynen, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Youth are at elevated risk of becoming victims of sexual exploitation, which has a detrimental impact on their physical and psychological well-being. Understanding factors associated with sexual exploitation is key for prevention efforts and adequate and timely treatment. This systematic review sheds more light on this by providing an overview of both risk and protective factors for sexual exploitation in male and female youth from a cross-cultural perspective. In all, 65 studies were selected meeting the inclusion criteria: qualitative or quantitative peer-reviewed studies in English, Dutch, or German with findings on risk and protective factors associated with sexual exploitation in youth aged up to 24 years. Results show that there are common risk factors in male and female youth worldwide (e.g., adverse childhood experiences, lack of a social network, substance use, and running away). Positive and supportive relationships are an important protective factor in mitigating the risk of sexual exploitation. Geographic differences were found. In non-Western continents, more environmental factors (e.g., economic vulnerabilities, residential instability) were cited. Research in countries outside the United States is limited and protective factors and males are underexamined. To fully understand vulnerabilities in youth, their interactions, and possible gender differences and to address the needs of diverse populations, more insight should be gained into the broader range of risk and protective factors worldwide. This systematic review has made a valuable contribution to this by providing practice, policy, and research guidance in the establishment of more targeted prevention efforts, adequate treatment, and areas to address in future research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-10-11T11:55:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231201815
       
  • A Scoping Review of Factors Associated With the Mental Health of Young
           People Who Have “Aged Out” of the Child Welfare System

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      Authors: Alice R. Phillips, Sarah L. Halligan, Iris Lavi, John A. A. Macleod, Susan Robinson, David Wilkins, Rachel M. Hiller
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Young people who grow up in care and then exit care around the age of 18 (care-leavers) are a particularly vulnerable group, at increased risk for mental health problems even relative to other care-experienced groups. Yet, little is understood about the factors underpinning this association. We used scoping review methods to synthesize the quantitative and qualitative literature on factors that are associated with mental health problems for care-leavers. Following rigorous methods, we systematically searched three scientific databases spanning psychology and social care and identified 23 peer-reviewed studies for inclusion. This review highlights the heterogeneity of this research, in terms of methodology and topics investigated. Topics included are as follows: pre-care maltreatment, care-related experiences, psychological factors (emotion regulation), social support, education, and adult functioning (e.g., housing, finances, employment). We found mixed and inconsistent findings across research studies. The strongest evidence-base is around the influence of social support upon the mental health of recent care-leavers, though methodological problems are discussed. The field benefits from several large-scale observational and longitudinal research studies. However, there is an over-reliance upon retrospective reporting, and the use of unvalidated measures is common. It is apparent that there are significant gaps in our current understanding of the mental health of care-leavers, in particular around modifiable factors. We discuss potential directions for future empirical research, both in terms of methodology and factors investigated.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T05:27:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231196107
       
  • Exploring the Relationships Between Rehabilitation and Survivors of
           Intimate Partner Violence: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Danielle Toccalino, Gifty Asare, Jenna Fleming, Joyce Yin, Amy Kieftenburg, Amy Moore, Halina (Lin) Haag, Vincy Chan, Jessica Babineau, Nneka MacGregor, Angela Colantonio
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health crisis affecting one in three women and one in ten men in their lifetimes. Rehabilitation professionals are highly likely to encounter survivors of IPV in their practice; yet, there exists no formal review assessing the relationship between IPV and rehabilitation. Our objective was to understand the types and contexts of rehabilitation care currently available for survivors of IPV, opportunities identified in the literature for rehabilitation care, and IPV awareness and education among rehabilitation providers. A search strategy related to IPV and four rehabilitation professionals of interest (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech-language pathology/therapy, and physiatry) was developed across 10 databases and complemented by a gray literature search. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for inclusion. In all, 44 articles met inclusion criteria, ranging from primary research articles (48%) to clinical newsletters. Included articles predominantly focused on opportunities for rehabilitation care (68%) and occupational therapists as a profession (68%). A minority of studies examined specific interventions for IPV survivors (18%) or assessed for knowledge and attitudes about IPV (16%) among rehabilitation professionals. To our knowledge, this is the first scoping review exploring the rehabilitation literature for IPV survivors. These findings show an awareness of IPV among rehabilitation professionals, the importance of identifying IPV in clients, and the ways in which rehabilitation professionals are uniquely situated to support survivors of IPV. There remains an opportunity to explore interventions designed specifically for IPV survivors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T02:13:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231196807
       
  • Exploring Lived Experience of Family and Domestic Violence Against Women
           With Disability: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Brontё Walter, Donna Chung, Rebecca Waters, Lynelle Watts
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This article reports on a scoping review exploring understandings of family and domestic violence (FDV) against women with disability (WWD) within the literature and constitutes the second article in a two-part series, the first critiquing the categorization and measurement of FDV and disability. We report findings from qualitative studies included in the review, predominantly interpretivist and critical in orientation. The scoping review included 43 articles, 15 of which are included here, as they draw upon data directly from the perspectives of WWD. Reflexive thematic analysis was conducted, utilizing both inductive and deductive coding, and consultation between the authors. The analysis highlighted experiences of disability-based abuse, the nexus of ableism and sexism within the everyday, and meanings of justice and resilience for WWD. Disability-based abuse was perpetrated primarily by intimate partners, including financial and physical disability-based abuse, and was used to exploit and perpetuate situations of isolation. Sexist and ableist expectations, assumptions, and attitudes converged in everyday encounters within the community, with workers and systems. However, WWD reported strategies of resistance, healing, coping, and moving on in the aftermath of FDV and indicated what can be done to promote justice, both personally and within systems. The findings were discussed drawing on Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition to highlight the mechanisms by which recognition and respect can be enhanced to enable full access to citizenship, in particular, for WWD to live free from violence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T02:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231201813
       
  • Parental Preconception Adversity and Offspring Mental Health in African
           Americans and Native Americans in the United States: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Adebisi A. Akinyemi, Adrianna Jones, Josiah A. Sweeting, E. Alison Holman
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This systematic review examines the impact of parental preconception adversity on offspring mental health among African Americans (AAs) and Native Americans (NAs), two populations that have experienced historical trauma and currently experience ethnic/racial mental health disparities in the United States. PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for studies that included at least two generations of AAs or NAs from the same family, measured parental preconception adversity and their offspring’s mental health, and examined the association between these variables. Over 3,200 articles were screened, and 18 articles representing 13 unique studies were included in this review. Among the studies with samples that included AAs (n = 12, 92%), 10 (83%) reported a significant association between parental preconception adversity and adverse offspring mental health. The only study with a sample of NAs (n = 1, 8%) also reported a significant association between these variables. Although the literature suggests that parental preconception adversity is associated with offspring mental health among AAs and NAs, it must be interpreted in the context of the small number of studies on this topic and the less-than-ideal samples utilized—just one study included a sample of NAs and several studies (n = 6, 46%) used multi-ethnic/racial samples without testing for ethnic/racial disparities in their results. A more rigorous body of literature on this topic is needed as it may help explain an important factor underlying ethnic/racial mental health disparities, with important implications for interventions and policy.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-30T02:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231200464
       
  • Prevention of Child Maltreatment: Integrative Review of Findings From an
           Evidence-Based Parenting Program

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      Authors: Elisa Rachel Pisani Altafim, Cátia Magalhães, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This integrative review of the ACT Raising Safe Kids (ACT)—child maltreatment prevention program for parents—focuses on the program’s theoretical framework, examines the ACT studies about the effects on caregivers, and discusses the ACT’s implications for the practice and public policy. A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Lilacs databases was performed, along with a search on the ACT Program website and contacting program researchers. Twenty-five studies evaluating the ACT Program were reviewed. The evaluation studies were conducted in the United States, Brazil, Portugal, and Peru. The program improved parenting practices in general and targeted populations such as incarcerated parents, mothers with a history of childhood violence, and mothers of preterm children. Additionally, the program was effective in decreasing child behavioral problems. Overall, the ACT Program effectively decreased hostile, aggressive, and coercive parenting and child behavior problems, which are key predictors of family violence.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-27T09:30:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231201811
       
  • Health-Related Maternal Decision-Making Among Perinatal Women in the
           Context of Intimate Partner Violence: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Kimberley T. Jackson, Cheryl Marshall, Julia Yates
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Globally, it is estimated that 245 million women and girls aged 15 and over have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past 12 months. Moreover, research has highlighted the disproportionately high prevalence of IPV victimization among pregnant women. IPV can have serious health implications for women and their infants, yet little is known about maternal health-related decision-making by mothers exposed to IPV. To this end, the purpose of this scoping review was to examine what is known regarding health-related maternal decision-making among perinatal women in the context of IPV. Using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, five electronic databases were searched, resulting in 630 articles. Eligible articles were primary studies written in English, included participants who experienced IPV at any time in their life, and reported results focused on maternal health-related decision-making in the context of IPV. Thirty-six articles were screened by the review team, resulting in seven included articles. Three main themes emerged regarding health-related maternal decision-making by mothers experiencing IPV, including suboptimal breastfeeding practices, under-utilization of maternal and child health services, and poor adherence to medical recommendations/regimens that impact health-related outcomes for mother and child. The well-established risk of poorer health outcomes among women experiencing IPV, alongside the findings of this scoping review, calls for further research specifically addressing health-related decision-making among perinatal women who experience IPV.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T10:36:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231198876
       
  • The Prevalence of Sexual Assault Among Higher Education Students: A
           Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

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      Authors: Bridget Steele, Mackenzie Martin, Alessandra Sciarra, G. J. Melendez-Torres, Michelle Degli Esposti, David K. Humphreys
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual assault among higher education students has detrimental impacts on the health and educational outcomes of survivors. This systematic review aims to describe and synthesize the available quantitative evidence on sexual assault prevalence among this population. We searched Medline, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHL for studies published in English, French, Italian, and Spanish from database inception to August 2020 (updated May 2022). We screened studies using prespecified inclusion criteria for the population and context (registered higher education students), condition (self-reported sexual assault), and study design (quantitative survey). The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to assess study quality. Prevalence estimates disaggregated by type of sexual assault, gender identity, and world region were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model and reported following PRISMA guidance. We identified 131 articles, from 21 different countries. The meta-analyzed prevalence of sexual assault was 17.5% for women, 7.8% for men, and 18.1% for transgender and gender diverse people. Four types of sexual assault were identified: rape, attempted rape, forced sexual touching, and coercive sex. Forced sexual touching was the most common act experienced. The African Region had the highest prevalence estimates for women’s sexual assault, and the Western Pacific region had the highest prevalence estimates for men’s sexual assault. Higher education institutions, especially those outside of the United States, should commit to the implementation of surveys to monitor sexual assault prevalence and dedicate increased resources to supporting student survivors of sexual assault.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-20T10:18:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231196119
       
  • The Prevalence and Severity of School Bullying among Left-Behind Children:
           A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Ying Tu, Zai-hua Qing, Chen-xi Lin, Chu-han Yan, Hua-zhan Yin, Isabella Gloria Ighaede-Edwards, Si-xiang Cheng, Xiao-qun Liu
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The involvement of left-behind children (LBC) in school bullying has raised concern in China. However, the susceptibility of LBC to engage in bullying is controversial, and comprehensive, representative studies covering the entire country are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of school bullying among LBC. The Chinese National Knowledge Network, WanFang, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and EBSCO databases were searched for literature on being left-behind and bullying before April 2022. The effect size was measured by odds ratio (ORs), standard mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence interval (CI). Random-effects or fixed-effects models were selected for meta-analysis, and subgroup analysis was used to explore the sources of heterogeneity. The meta-analysis included 25 studies of school bullying among LBC and non-LBC (NLBC). The prevalence of bullying perpetration and victimization among LBC were 18.58% (95% CI [3.72%, 33.44%], p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-14T11:58:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231195888
       
  • Narcissism and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Eliza Oliver, Alexander Coates, Joanne M. Bennett, Megan L. Willis
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This review aimed to examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and trait narcissism, and whether the strength of this relationship differs depending on narcissism type (grandiose or vulnerable), the type of violence perpetrated, or the perpetrator’s gender. Scopus, Medline, PsycInfo, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched on August 11, 2022. Studies were included if they were in English, measured IPV perpetration and trait narcissism, and examined the relationship between trait narcissism and IPV perpetration. Studies were excluded if they were review papers, conference extracts, book chapters, or if the data was not specific to trait narcissism. The AXIS tool was used to assess the quality and risk of bias of the studies. Twenty-two studies (N = 11,520 participants) were included in the random effects meta-analysis revealing a significant, weak, positive relationship between trait narcissism and IPV perpetration, r = .15. Subgroup analyses revealed physical IPV perpetration was not significantly related to trait narcissism while cyber and psychological IPV perpetration were significantly, positively, weakly related to trait narcissism. No significant difference in the strength of the relationship with IPV perpetration was found between males and females. The relationship between trait narcissism and IPV perpetration was significantly greater for vulnerable narcissism than grandiose narcissism. Overall, the quality of the included studies was high, and risk of bias was low. All measures were self-report and underreporting could be present given both narcissistic traits and IPV perpetration are considered socially undesirable. Future research examining these relationships should specify IPV and narcissism types.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T09:35:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231196115
       
  • How Does Denial, Minimization, Justifying, and Blaming Operate in Intimate
           Partner Abuse Committed by Men: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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      Authors: Madeline R. Smyth, Sebastian Teicher, David J. Wilde
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is widespread, and denial, minimization, justifying, and blaming (DMJB) are common among people who have committed IPA. Views on the function of DMJB in IPA are mixed, often based on the theoretical standpoint of the authors. This systematic review brings together the knowledge of how distorted accounts operate in IPA committed by men. A systematic review of primary research related to DMJB in heterosexual men who have committed to IPA was conducted. In all, 31 papers were found to meet the inclusion criteria (adult, male-to-female abuse, in western culture, peer reviewed and published in English) and were quality appraised. Data were extracted and analyzed using narrative synthesis. The findings indicate the way DMJB operates in this group is complex. It can represent facilitators of abusive behavior, a way to protect the individual’s identity and self-esteem, and a tool men use instrumentally to achieve goals. Themes were present within and between studies highlighting the complex function of DMJB. A model representing the hypothesized intertwined function of DMJB for IPA is proposed. The limitations of the review are discussed and implications and recommendations for policy, practice, and future research are proposed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-13T09:31:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231196108
       
  • Trauma-Informed Care Interventions Used in Pediatric Inpatient or
           Residential Treatment Mental Health Settings and Strategies to Implement
           Them: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Yehudis Stokes, Krystina B. Lewis, Andrea C. Tricco, Erin Hambrick, Jean Daniel Jacob, Melissa Demery Varin, Justine Gould, Dhiraj Aggarwal, Paula Cloutier, Catherine Landriault, Stephanie Greenham, Michelle Ward, Allison Kennedy, Jennifer Boggett, Roxanna Sheppard, David Murphy, Marjorie Robb, Hazen Gandy, Sonia Lavergne, Ian D. Graham
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Trauma-informed care (TIC) is an approach to care emerging in research and in practice that involves addressing the needs of individuals with histories of trauma. The aim of this scoping review was to examine the current literature relating to TIC interventions used in pediatric mental health inpatient and residential settings. We sought to answer the following two research questions: (a) What are the TIC interventions used in pediatric inpatient and residential treatment mental healthcare settings and what are their components' and (b) What are the implementation goals and strategies used with these TIC interventions' We conducted this scoping review according to JBI (formerly Joanna Briggs Institute) methodology for scoping reviews. We included any primary study describing a TIC intervention that was implemented at a specific site which identified and described implementation strategies used. Of 1,571 identified citations and 54 full-text articles located by handsearching, 49 met the eligibility criteria and were included, representing 21 distinct TIC interventions. We present the reported aim, ingredients, mechanism, and delivery (AIMD) of TIC interventions as well as the implementation goals and strategies used, which varied in detail, ranging from very little information to more detailed descriptions. In the context of these findings, we emphasize the complexity of TIC and of TIC interventions, and the importance of identifying and clearly reporting TIC intervention goals, intervention details, and implementation strategies. We suggest applying intervention frameworks or reporting guidelines to support clear and comprehensive reporting, which would better facilitate replication and synthesis of published TIC interventions.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-11T11:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231193444
       
  • Peritraumatic Pain in Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Literature Review

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      Authors: Noga Tsur, Ada Talmon, Nofar Shemesh
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Extensive research has been conducted on the link between trauma, child maltreatment (CM), and chronic pain. Although the risk of suffering from chronic pain among CM survivors has been established, much less is known about the experience of pain during CM incidents or whether such peritraumatic pain sensations are associated with later chronic pain. This scoping review was conducted to synthesize the existing literature on pain during and a short time following CM (i.e., peritraumatic pain). Utilizing the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines, the current review included 11 manuscripts, which met the following criteria: (a) refer to physical pain experienced during or a short time after CM, (b) were published in peer-reviewed journals, and (c) were written in English. The review demonstrated that most of the included studies were not intentionally focused on peritraumatic pain, the majority used qualitative research methods, and all were cross-sectional. Furthermore, although validated questionnaires are available, most of the studies did not utilize such measures. Those that intentionally reported pain demonstrated its high intensity and prevalence in CM incidents, indicating that pain is inherently embedded in the experience of maltreatment. The findings spotlight an underdeveloped research realm on a phenomenon that may hold significant empirical, clinical, and legal implications. Research endeavors should initiate interdisciplinary bodies of knowledge to establish well-validated research methodologies that properly quantify peritraumatic pain in trauma and CM.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-09-01T10:16:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231194069
       
  • Effectiveness of Violence Prevention Interventions: Umbrella Review of
           Research in the General Population

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      Authors: Seena Fazel, Matthias Burghart, Achim Wolf, Daniel Whiting, Rongqin Yu
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      To address the societal harms of violence, many violence prevention interventions have been developed, tested, and implemented in the general population. These have been reported in systematic reviews and meta-analyses, which have typically focused on one type of intervention or outcome. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of different psychosocial interventions in reducing all forms of violence toward others. We have conducted an umbrella review of previous meta-analyses using standard approaches and converted findings on effectiveness into odds ratios. We tested for the underlying quality of the meta-analytic evidence by examining heterogeneity, excess statistical significance, prediction intervals, and small study effects. We identified 16 meta-analyses, including nine investigating psychosocial interventions, and five legislative and policy changes. Most meta-analyses reported positive effects of tested interventions. The strongest effects were found for sports-based initiatives, and the weakest for general population programs aimed at early childhood, youth development, and reducing sexual assault perpetration by men. Legislative changes had varying effectiveness. We conclude that simple, scalable, and cost-efficient programs, such as sport-based initiatives, have the clearest empirical support as population-based approaches to violence prevention.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T11:46:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231195880
       
  • Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Irantzu Recalde-Esnoz, Pablo Prego-Meleiro, Gemma Montalvo, Héctor del Castillo
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Since the last two decades, the scientific community has made an effort to analyze drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). However, a lack of understanding remains about the DFSA problem, particularly concerning the opportunistic variant. Facing this situation, a systematic review of the term DFSA is carried out from its first appearance in the scientific databases consulted (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) to the current day. The search resulted in 773 publications, reduced to a final study sample composed of 19 articles. Eligible studies for this review had to meet certain inclusion criteria, in addition to providing information on DFSA prevalence, DFSA victim profile, DFSA offender profile, involved drugs, or contextual information about the assault. The results demonstrated that the assailants are men, who mostly know victims before the assault. The victims are young women under 30 years old. Alcohol is the drug involved in most DFSA cases, prevailing a voluntary use. Most assaults occur in private spaces, particularly the aggressors’ own homes. Furthermore, there is a detected need for a standard definition of DFSA to allow the different actors involved in dealing with sexual violence to work effectively together, and, at the same time, it is detected that the available studies overrepresent proactive DFSA and underestimate opportunism, the most common modus operandi involved in DFSA cases.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T11:32:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231195877
       
  • Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence and Abuse in Low and Middle-Income
           Countries: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Md Mamunur Rashid Sheikh, Michaela M. Rogers
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Technology-facilitated sexual violence and abuse (TFSVA) is a pervasive phenomenon and a global problem. TFSVA refers to any form of sexual violence, exploitation, or harassment enacted through the misuse of digital technologies. This includes, but is not limited to, image-based sexual abuse, online sexual exploitation and harassment, sextortion, and the non-consensual sharing of sexual images. It has significant and long-lasting psychological, social, financial, and health impacts. TFSVA is on the rise, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where there has been an explosion in digital technology overall. This scoping review aimed to identify studies on TFSVA in LMICs to examine its types, impacts, victim-survivor coping strategies, and help-seeking. To identify peer-reviewed literature, six databases were searched: Applied Social Sciences Index & Abstracts, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Star Plus-University of Sheffield library search, and Web of Science. The review included empirical studies published in English between 1996 and 2022, focusing on TFSVA among adults (aged 18+) in LMICs. A total of 14 peer-reviewed studies were included, highlighting that scant empirical research is available on TFSVA in LMICs. This review found several types of TFSVA and their wide-ranging impacts; traditional patriarchal societal norms and values largely shape TFSVA for women in LMICs. It also found more social impacts linked to sociocultural factors. Survivors adopted various coping mechanisms and help-seeking behaviors primarily through informal family support. Studies highlighted the need for effective legislation; pro-victim-survivor policing; strong family support; increasing victim-survivors’ knowledge about reporting; and more research.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T08:30:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231191189
       
  • Parental Production of Child Sexual Abuse Material: A Critical Review

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      Authors: Michael Salter, Tim Wong
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this review is to summarize the available empirical research on parental production and to explore the discursive positioning of parental perpetrators within scholarship on child sexual abuse material (CSAM). Academic databases were searched using a combination of relevant terms, and the review was expanded as new terms were identified. The review identified 66 scholarly articles, papers, or books that referred to parental production of CSAM published since 1970. To explore how parental offenders have been positioned within this literature over time, the review is presented according to a chronological summary, drawing out key themes and empirical insights. The review showed that parental CSAM production is common, more likely to involve pre-pubescent victims, more severe abuse, female as well as male perpetrators, and produces high-demand illegal content with serious long-term sequelae. However, the review found that the focus of child trafficking and sexual exploitation scholarship on “commercial” and profit-driven abuse has marginalized and obscured parental CSAM production as a serious policy challenge. These findings warrant a reorientation of research, policy, and practice approaches to technology-facilitated child sexual exploitation, as well as a reflection on the resistance of researchers and policymakers to acknowledging the problem of family-based sexual exploitation.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T08:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231195891
       
  • Bystander Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence: A Scoping Review of
           Experiences and Outcomes

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      Authors: Ella Kuskoff, Cameron Parsell
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Governments across the globe are increasingly implementing policies that encourage bystanders to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) by intervening in violent or potentially violent situations. While a wealth of research examines the most effective mechanisms for increasing potential bystanders’ feelings of self-efficacy and rates of intervention, there is significantly less evidence demonstrating how effective bystander intervention is at preventing or interrupting IPV. This article thus presents a scoping review of the literature examining the experiences and outcomes of bystander intervention in IPV. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines, six databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed studies published in English between 2001 and 2021. A total of 13 articles were ultimately included in the review. The review highlights that although current knowledge on the topic is highly limited, the combined findings of the studies indicate that immediate responses to bystander intervention are heavily context dependent: victims (and perpetrators) tend to react differently to bystander intervention depending on the type of intervention, the type of violence being used, and their relationship to the bystander. However, we have little to no understanding of the outcomes of bystander intervention, or how these outcomes might vary across different contexts. We argue that a more comprehensive understanding of the immediate and long-term implications of bystander intervention across different contexts is crucial if we are to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the potential for harm resulting from bystander interventions in IPV.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T08:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231195886
       
  • Training Informal Supporters to Improve Responses to Victim-Survivors of
           Domestic Violence and Abuse: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Karen Schucan Bird, Nicola Stokes, Carol Rivas, Martha Tomlinson, Mollin Delve, Lindsay Gordon, Alison Gregory, Kate Lawrence, Nicola O’Reilly
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Informal supporters (friends, family, colleagues, and community members) play a crucial role in societal-wide responses to victim-survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Familial and social networks, however, report a sense of helplessness and difficulties in knowing how to respond. This mixed method systematic review examines the effectiveness, and perceived effectiveness, of training informal supporters to improve their responses to victim-survivors. A novel conceptual framework was developed to underpin the review. A systematic search of four electronic databases, specialist repositories, and websites were used to identify empirical research (in academic or gray literature). Eleven included studies examined educational interventions that aimed to improve responses from informal supporters. Quality appraisal was undertaken, and studies were judged to be “good enough” for synthesis. The studies in the review indicated that informal supporters recognized the value of training for building understanding and equipping them with the skills to respond to victim-survivors. The synthesis identified statistically significant improvements in the knowledge and attitudes of informal supporters in the immediate and short-term following training. Using a behavior change model to frame the evidence, the review found that training/educational activities prime informal supporters to respond to victim-survivors, as well as enhancing their capacity and motivation to do so. This increases the likelihood that informal supporters will take action to support victim-survivors of abuse. We don’t know, however, what type of support they will provide and/or whether it would be judged to be helpful by victim-survivors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-31T07:00:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231189191
       
  • Child-Reported Family Violence: A Systematic Review of Available
           Instruments

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      Authors: Anna T. Booth, Zoe C. Guest, An Vuong, Henry Von Doussa, Claire Ralfs, Jennifer E. McIntosh
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The impact of family violence (FV) on children is a significant global public policy issue. Earliest identification of FV among children is critical for preventing escalating sequelae. While practitioners routinely ask adults about FV, there are relatively few measures that enable children to reliably self-report on their own safety. This review sought to systematically identify and appraise all available child self-report measures for screening and assessment of FV in both clinical and research settings. Database searching was conducted in January 2022. Articles were eligible for review if they included a validated child (5–18 years) self-report measure of FV (including victimization, perpetration, and/or exposure to inter-parental violence). Screening of an initial 4,714 records identified a total of 85 articles, representing 32 unique validated instruments. Results provide an up-to-date catalog of child self-report measures of FV, intended to benefit practitioners, services and researchers in selecting appropriate tools, and in understanding their suitability and limitations for different cohorts and practice goals. While just under half of the measures captured both exposure to inter-parental violence and direct victimization, none captured all three domains of exposure, victimization and perpetration together. Instruments with provision for input from multiple respondents (e.g., both child and parent report) and with assessment of contextual risk factors were few. Findings point to the need for developmentally appropriate, whole-of-family screening and assessment frameworks to support children in the early identification of family safety concerns.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-30T11:22:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231194062
       
  • Engagement Measures in Maltreatment Prevention Studies: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Deborah J. Moon, C. Bailey Nichols, Yiran Zhang, Amanda Cruce, Hanna Haran, Aimee Sgourakis, Hyunjin Lee, Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Prevention services can promote public health by building protective factors and reducing maltreatment risk. Yet, engaging caregivers in prevention services presents a unique set of challenges. Measurement studies are important first steps to increase the knowledge of caregiver engagement in prevention services. The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate how family engagement has been measured and operationalized in the studies of maltreatment prevention/positive parenting programs. The review examined quantitative and mixed methods studies conducted in the U.S., which measured multiple dimensions of client engagement, including behavioral, attitudinal, and relational domains. A total of 88 studies selected from PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Academic Search Premier, and Web of Science were included in this review. Results indicated that studies examine engagement constructs in all three domains of engagement with a primary focus on behavioral engagement. The attitudinal and relational engagement was mostly assessed through general satisfaction surveys, and a limited number of studies utilized validated measures to assess those constructs. While most studies reported acceptable internal reliabilities, only two studies reported other dimensions of psychometric qualities. Only one validated measure was found, which assessed client perceptions of provider cultural competence. More measurement studies are needed to further incorporate multiple dimensions of engagement into the studies of maltreatment prevention programs, which can inform the effort to develop tailored implementation strategies to fully engage various groups of parents in maltreatment prevention programs.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-26T04:50:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231188070
       
  • What Enables Child Sexual Abuse in Sport' A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Karl Dodd, Colin Solomon, Mitchell Naughton, Paul M. Salmon, Scott McLean
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sporting environments provide opportunities for perpetrators to commit child sexual abuse (CSA). While awareness of CSA in sport and preventative interventions are increasing, CSA in sport still occurs at alarming rates. A systematic review was conducted to identify and synthesize the extant literature on the enabling factors for CSA in sport. The 34 included articles were peer-reviewed and were primary sources; had full-text versions in English; included the individual, situational, environmental, or systemic antecedent factors and characteristics which enable CSA in organized sport (clubs, schools, universities, and representative teams); and focused on abuse in children (0–18 years old), and included retrospective incidents. The enabling factors from across the broader sports system were identified and mapped using a systems thinking-based approach, the Risk Management Framework (RMF) and the associated AcciMap method. The results indicated that enabling factors for CSA in sport were identified at multiple levels of the sporting system hierarchy. The results show that 24.1% (n = 46) of the enabling factors identified in the literature relate to the hierarchical level of the Athlete, teammates, opponents, and fans levels, and 52.9% (n = 101) of the enabling factors relate to the level of Direct supervisors, management, medical, and performance personnel level. However, only 13% (n = 25) of enabling factors to CSA in sport were identified at the combined top four hierarchical levels. Results indicate that the problem of CSA in sport is a systems issue, and future research is required to explore how these factors interact to enable CSA in sport.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-24T07:19:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231190666
       
  • Perpetrators’ Identity in Online Crimes Against Children: A
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Samantha Sutton, David Finkelhor
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Public and police concern about internet crimes against children has been primarily typified as a stranger danger problem. However, existing research suggests a variety of perpetrator ages and relationships to the victim. A more accurate estimate will help inform prevention efforts. This study provides a meta-analysis examining the identity of perpetrators in internet crimes against children. Databases were searched for published and unpublished studies using a detailed search strategy. In total, 32 studies met full inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria was the following: (1) the victim sample consisted of children under the age of 18 years or young adults (18–25) asked to respond retrospectively; (2) the study victims experienced abuse through the use of technology; (3) the study reported the identity of the perpetrator, either the relationship to the victim or the age of the perpetrator; (4) the study was available in English. The overall proportion of offenders under the age of 18 as a proportion of all identified offenders was 44% (95% CI: 0.28–0.60). The overall proportion of acquaintance and family offenders as a proportion of all identified offenders was 68% (95% CI: 0.62–0.75). Between study variability was explained by data source, with higher proportion of juvenile offenders in studies using survey data. This meta-analysis confirms that most perpetrators of online crimes against children are not strangers to their victims and a large portion of perpetrators are juveniles. Prevention education needs to focus more on inappropriate behavior from anyone in addition to the dangers about communicating with strangers.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-23T09:21:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231194072
       
  • Physical and Mental Health Outcomes of Black Emerging Adults with
           Community Violence Exposure: An Integrative Review

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      Authors: Danielle T. Walker, Kaycee L. Bills, Robert O. Motley
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Community violence exposure (CVE) and its health impact is a public health crisis. Violent crime has steadily increased over recent years and has disproportionately affected Black communities. Emerging adulthood (18–29 years old) is a vulnerable period of development and Black emerging adults may be at increased risk for negative physical and mental health consequences from CVE. This integrative review was conducted to evaluate available evidence on health outcomes in Black emerging adults exposed to CVE. This review appraised published studies (2012–2022) addressing physical and mental health outcomes of Black emerging adults with CVE. Articles were identified using structured search terms in several databases (CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science), a gray literature search, and citation mining. A total of 177 studies were identified for screening and 19 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The majority of studies found a significant positive association between CVE and adverse mental (n = 12) and physical (n = 7) health outcomes. CVE appears to have both mental and physical health consequences for Black emerging adults. Given that violent crime disproportionately increased in Black communities and Black people are more likely to develop chronic health conditions at younger ages, more work is needed to elucidate the relationship between CVE and health outcomes.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-23T09:18:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231194055
       
  • Bidirectional Violence in Intimate Relationships: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Andreia Machado, Catarina Sousa, Olga Cunha
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence is a public health problem with significant consequences at different levels. Over the years, the literature has shown that most violence is not unidirectional and perpetrated by men against women but rather bidirectional, in which both couple elements may be victims, perpetrators, or both. In this systematic literature review, we aimed to systematize the empirical knowledge to assess the prevalence of bidirectional violence, the most reported types of violence, and the influence of sex and sexual orientation on this phenomenon. The search for this systematic review was conducted in four databases, and we included studies that showed the prevalence of bidirectional violence in samples aged over 18 years, in articles written in English or Portuguese, and published between 2012 and 2022. In the qualitative synthesis, 42 empirical studies were included. The results showed that bidirectional violence is the most common pattern of violence, with psychological violence being the most reported type of bidirectional violence; men and women reported bidirectional violence at similar rates, and homosexual couples reported higher percentages of bidirectional violence than heterosexual couples. These results contradict the patriarchalist view of violence that assigns the exclusivity role of the victim to women and of the perpetrator to men, demonstrating that violence occurs regardless of sex or sexual orientation. The practical implications and future directions at the level of public policies to give visibility to the phenomenon will be duly discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-18T12:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231193440
       
  • A Scoping Review on Adverse Childhood Experiences Studies Using Latent
           Class Analysis: Strengths and Challenges

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      Authors: Xiafei Wang, Linghua Jiang, Lauren Barry, Xiaoyan Zhang, Sara A. Vasilenko, Ryan D. Heath
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) studies reveal the profound impacts of experiencing trauma and hardships in childhood. However, the cumulative risk approach of treating ACEs obscures the heterogeneity of ACEs and their consequences, making actionable interventions impossible. latent class analysis (LCA) has increasingly been used to address these concerns by identifying underlying subgroups of people who experience distinctive patterns of co-occurring ACEs. Though LCA has its strengths, the existing research produces few comparable findings because LCA results are dependent on ACEs measures and indicators, which vary widely by study. Therefore, a scoping review of ACEs studies using LCA that focuses on ACEs measures, indicators, and findings is needed to inform the field. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s five-stage scoping review methodological framework, we first identified 211 articles from databases of EBSCOhost, PubMed, and Scopus using “adverse childhood experiences” for title search and “latent class analysis” for abstract search. Based on the inclusion criteria of peer-reviewed articles written in English published from 2012 to 2022 and the exclusion criteria of nonempirical studies and the LCA not analyzing ACEs, we finally selected 58 articles in this scoping review. Results showed LCA has been increasingly endorsed in the ACEs research community to examine the associations between ACEs and human health and well-being across culturally diverse populations. LCA overcame the limitations of the traditional methods by revealing specific ACEs clusters that exert potent effects on certain outcomes. However, the arbitrary nature of selecting ACEs indicators, measures, and the limited use of theory impedes the field from moving forward.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-18T12:14:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231192922
       
  • The Reality of Tonic Immobility in Victims of Sexual Violence: “I was
           Paralyzed, I Couldn’t Move”

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      Authors: Jesús de la Torre Laso
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of temporary, involuntary motor inhibition that occurs in states of intense fear and has been studied among victims of sexual violence. Studies on TI are scarce and mainly focus on rape victims. The present study is a literature review of research that has examined TI in women victims of sexual violence. A database search was carried out using the Preferred data elements for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) method. In order to be included in the analysis, the manuscripts had to deal exclusively with research involving samples of subjects and the study analyzed TI in victims of sexual violence. In all, 11 manuscripts met the above criteria and were included in the review. Research describes that TI is characterized by two factors: fear and immobility. Quantitative research was conclusive in affirming the presence of a state of paralysis and fear in TI. The immobility factor is the determining factor in explaining the victim’s lack of defense or resistance and causes effects such as trembling, physical and mental paralysis, inability to vocalize, and eye closure. In addition, TI has been correlated with long-term negative clinical manifestations as victims are more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. These findings contribute to an understanding of TI in victims of sexual violence. Therefore, legal and care practitioners must be able to recognize TI to understand the victim’s behavior, differentiate it from consent, and to be able to assist in their recovery.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-09T08:08:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231191232
       
  • Approaches to Assessment and Intervention With Children and Young People
           Who Engage in Harmful Sexual Behavior: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Lynne McPherson, Meaghan Vosz, Kathomi Gatwiri, Clarissa Hitchcock, Joe Tucci, Janise Mitchell, Cyra Fernandes, Noel Macnamara
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      This paper reports the findings of a project that conducted a rapid review of evidence regarding assessment and intervention approaches responding to children and young people who engage in harmful sexual behaviors. A literature review was conducted using a systematic search of academic databases and consultation with subject matter experts. The process resulted in 27 scholarly publications being included and analyzed to explore what was known about effective approaches with children and young people who have engaged in harmful sexual behavior. The review found that the current state of knowledge was limited, with few of the included papers reporting research outcomes. In the absence of a sound evidence base, additional theoretical literature and expert commentary have been drawn upon to better understand issues in this complex practice area. A key finding of this review was that growing awareness that children and young people who engage in harmful sexual behaviors are, first and foremost, children. They should not be regarded as soon-to-be-adults who are engaging in adult offending. This shift in thinking informs contemporary assessment and intervention approaches, challenging those models that previously focused on measuring risk using forensic approaches to predict the likelihood of future offending. A critical failure to understand the needs of specific cohorts of children and young people was also evident.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-08-03T07:15:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231189293
       
  • The Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Food Insecurity: A Review
           of Quantitative and Qualitative Studies

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      Authors: Emily A. Waterman, McKennly McLain, Hafsa Zulfiqar, Taha Ahmar Qadeer, Sergiu-Mihai Ciavoi
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity are global health issues that affect millions of people worldwide. Numerous studies show that IPV and food insecurity are linked; however, there is a lack of synthesis of this research. Using a systematic search and review, we examined the international quantitative and qualitative research published on the link between IPV and food insecurity. We searched for peer-reviewed, English-language articles with participants above the age of 16 in 4 large online databases. Fifty-six studies were included from around the world that discussed the link between food insecurity and IPV perpetration and/or victimization. We found evidence in both qualitative and quantitative studies for a meaningful connection between these two global health isues. We also reviewed the literature on moderators and mediators (e.g., mental health). Our findings indicate the importance of implementing IPV prevention strategies which also address household food insecurity, and the potential for food insecurity resources to provide IPV resources. Future research should focus more frequently on IPV perpetration as opposed to victimization, and further examine the moderating and mediating mechanisms that inform the link between IPV and food insecurity.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-07-24T08:55:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231186152
       
  • The Impacts of Intimate Partner Violence on Postpartum Depression: An
           Updated Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Xinyi Wei, Weiwei Wang, Yik Wa Law, Huiping Zhang
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum depression (PPD) have been well established in previous reviews. However, none has explored potential differences between IPV subtypes or exposure times, which could help healthcare providers recognize the adverse impacts of various IPV subtypes and conduct comprehensive IPV screening. This study aimed to estimate the impacts of overall IPV and its subtypes (physical, psychological, and sexual) on PPD using an updated meta-analysis and to examine the potential role of IPV exposure time and regional income levels. Four English databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science) and two Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI] and Wanfang Database) were systematically searched. We included 76 studies with 388,966 samples. Random-effects models were used to pool the odds ratios (ORs) across studies. Overall, IPV and its subtypes had statistically significant impacts on PPD (overall: OR = 2.50, physical: OR = 2.31, psychological: OR = 2.22, sexual: OR = 1.75). A higher impact of IPV on PPD was observed in middle- and low-income regions (OR = 3.01) than in high-income regions (OR = 1.92). IPV during pregnancy (OR = 2.73) had a greater impact on PPD than lifetime IPV (OR = 2.24). This study provides updated evidence for the significant impact of IPV and its subtypes and exposure time on PPD. Women at risk of exposure to physical IPV, especially during pregnancy, are in urgent need of support to reduce the risk of PPD.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-07-22T11:53:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231188068
       
  • The Association Between the Nonmedical use of Anabolic–Androgenic
           Steroids and Interpersonal Violence: A Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Katinka van de Ven, John Malouff, Jim McVeigh
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The nonmedical use of anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and the general population is a public health concern. One particular concern relates to the link between AAS use and violence. Although there is a growing body of research on the association between AAS and violence, results as to what the relationship is seem to be mixed. The aim of this meta-analysis is to improve our understanding of what the current evidence base indicates regarding the relationship between the use of AAS and interpersonal violence. In total, 14 studies with a total of 16 samples met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total sample size of 137,055 participants. The findings show that there is a significant association between AAS use and interpersonal violence (r = .21 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.15, 0.27], p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-07-19T08:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231186150
       
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Gratitude: A Multilevel, Meta-Analytic Review

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      Authors: Ningzhe Zhu, Ying Ye, Chengcheng Li, Rixin Wang, Feng Kong
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      During the past decade, research on the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and gratitude has been accumulating, but there is a lack of systematic, quantitative evaluation of existing literature. The present systematic review aims to fill this gap by conducting a three-level meta-analysis. After a comprehensive search in five English and three Chinese databases, we retrieved 33 effect sizes from 16 studies with a total sample of 13,818 participants. The results showed that CM (aggregated across forms) was negatively and moderately linked to gratitude (r = −.311, 95% CI [−0.382, −0.235], p 
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-07-13T08:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231185305
       
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Sleep Disturbances Among Asian
           Indians: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Ateka A. Contractor, Isamar M. Almeida, Andrea Fentem, Elizabeth L. Griffith, Gurleen Kaur, Danica C. Slavish
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Substantial comorbidity exists between posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep disturbances/disorders. Such comorbidities are understudied in minority groups, including Asian Indians residing in countries outside India. Thus, we synthesized the existing literature specific to this group of Asian Indians to determine (a) prevalence estimates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances/disorders; and (b) PTSD-sleep comorbidity estimates. For this systematic review, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, PTSDpubs, Web of Science) using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Of 3,796 screened articles, 9 articles (10 studies) met inclusion criteria. Study sample sizes ranged from 11 to 2,112 Asian Indians; studies were conducted in Singapore or Malaysia. No reviewed study examined PTSD. All studies examined sleep disturbances/disorders among Asian Indians; prevalence estimates were: 8.3% to 70.4% for short sleep duration, 2.0% to 22.9% for long sleep duration, 25.9% to 56.3% for poor sleep quality, 3.4% to 67.5% for insomnia diagnosis or probable insomnia, 7.7% for excessive daytime sleepiness, 3.8% to 54.6% for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) diagnosis or high OSA risk, and 5.1% to 11.1% for sleep-disordered breathing. Specific to Asian Indians residing in countries outside India, this review advances PTSD-sleep literature by (a) suggesting substantial prevalence of sleep disturbances/disorders; (b) highlighting the need for culturally relevant sleep interventions; and (c) highlighting research gaps (e.g., no PTSD-focused research).
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-07-10T09:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231184207
       
  • Empowerment Self-Defense Intervention Outcomes: A Descriptive Review of
           Measures

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      Authors: Brieanne Beaujolais
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Global research about empowerment self-defense (ESD)—a sexual assault resistance intervention recommended as a component of a comprehensive sexual assault prevention strategy—continues to emerge, with studies reporting positive effects, including reduced risk of sexual assault victimization. Researchers have suggested ESD may produce additional positive public health outcomes beyond the prevention of sexual violence, but more research is needed to understand the benefits associated with ESD training. However, to conduct high-quality research, scholars have suggested a need for improved measurement tools. To better understand these measurement gaps, the purpose of this study was to identify and review measures used in ESD outcome studies; and in doing so, to determine the range of outcomes previously measured in quantitative studies. Within the 23 articles meeting study inclusion criteria, there were 57 unique scales that measured a range of variables. These 57 measures were grouped into nine construct categories: assault characteristics (n = 1); attitudes and beliefs (n = 6); behavior and behavioral intentions (n = 12); fear (n = 4); knowledge (n = 3); mental health (n = 8); any past unwanted sexual experiences (n = 7); perception of risk and vulnerability (n = 5); and self-efficacy (n = 11). Except for mental health, most scales were developed in the Global North using college student populations, so measures for diverse populations (e.g., diverse in age, culture, ethnicity, geographical origin) are critically needed. Future research should focus on identifying and/or developing standardized tools that measure the full constellation of targeted outcomes. Evaluation of the methodological quality of studies assessing psychometric performance of the tools should also be prioritized.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-27T01:09:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231179727
       
  • Victims of Technology-Assisted Child Sexual Abuse: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Katrin Chauviré-Geib, Jörg M. Fegert
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past two decades, technology-assisted child sexual abuse (TA-CSA) has become the focus of attention in politics, legislation, society, as well as research. However, the majority of literature and studies focus primarily on the offenders. This scoping review therefore aims to illustrate how victims of TA-CSA are represented in studies as primary participants. The databases Embase, PsychInfo, PSYNDEX, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science as well as reference lists were searched. Studies needed to be published between 2007 and 2021 and obtain data directly from and about victims to be included in this review. A total of 570 articles were identified from which 20 studies met inclusion criteria. The analysis showed that data can be obtained via different samples like adult and minor victims or other data such as legal documents or sexualized images. The studies researched different types of TA-CSA including exposure to pornographic material, online grooming leading to both online and offline sexual abuse, sexting and sexualized images, and the visual depiction of sexually explicit content. Consequences due to the abuse were of an emotional and psychological nature, medical or physical or impacted relationships, and the social environment. Even though the impact of the abuse on the victims appeared to be similar between different types of TA-CSA, much remains unknown. In order to gain further and more detailed insight into victims of TA-CSA, a universally accepted definition of TA-CSA as well as its different types and their distinctions needs to be established.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-14T09:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231178754
       
  • A Literature Review of Mental Health Symptom Outcomes in U.S. Veterans and
           Servicemembers Following Combat Exposure and Military Sexual Trauma

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      Authors: James R. Yancey, Chelsea N. Carson, Erin C. McGlade, Deborah A. Yurgelun-Todd
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Combat exposure (CE) and military sexual trauma (MST) are among the most common types of traumatic experiences faced by veterans and active duty servicemembers and, as such, have both garnered increased research focus over the past decades. However, there has not yet been a critical review of the literature to examine the distinct clinical presentations associated with different trauma types. This is particularly important, as understanding distinct clinical profiles could help researchers and clinicians refine treatment approaches based on trauma type. To address this question, we conducted a search of the available literature in PsycINFO and PubMed prior to October 2022. We identified 43 articles evaluating the distinct and overlapping clinical symptoms of CE and MST. Study findings were conceptually organized by psychiatric condition. In general, there was substantial variability in study methodology including sample size, composition, and operationalizations of CE and MST. Despite this variability, notable patterns emerged across studies. Specifically, MST and CE uniquely predicted posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, MST was more related to depressive symptoms and suicidality than CE, and CE appeared to be more related to alcohol use and other externalizing behaviors. Gender also played a significant role in the relationship between CE, MST, and clinical variables across studies. This review suggests that individuals with a history of MST and CE likely have distinct clinical presentations and more research into these presentations could better inform assessment and treatment. Important methodological gaps in the literature are also discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-14T08:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231178764
       
  • A Systematic Review of Public Stigmatization Toward Women Victims of
           Intimate Partner Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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      Authors: Lara Murvartian, Jose Antonio Matías-García, Francisco Javier Saavedra-Macías, Allison Crowe
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Public stigmatization of women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) has begun to be studied because of its negative impact on recovery from violence. This systematic review aimed to analyze such stigmatization in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) by identifying social norms and perceptions linked to public stigmatizing responses, such responses, negative consequences of those responses on victims, and other factors associated with public stigma. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, five databases were searched using “stigma” and multiple synonyms of IPV as keywords. Selected articles were empirical, written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, and reported findings on public stigma toward women victims of IPV that had occurred in LAMIC. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Patriarchal gender roles, normalization of IPV and the consideration of violence as a private matter were the most prevalent social norms among the studies. These led to blaming, isolating, and discriminating against the victim, making her feel ashamed, considering her less valuable than before suffering IPV, and dismissing or denying the abuse. Many negative consequences were identified. Anticipated public stigma, associated with not disclosing the abuse and not seeking help, was the most popular. Public stigmatization was stronger when other public stigmas intersected and in the case of disadvantaged social circumstances. Consequences were diminished by protective factors such as informal support and gender-based violence support services. This review provides a global vision for future research in each specific sociocultural context and is a first step in the design of anti-stigma programs in LAMIC.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-13T08:28:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231178756
       
  • Pornography Use and Violence: A Systematic Review of the Last
           20 Years

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      Authors: Gemma Mestre-Bach, Alejandro Villena-Moya, Carlos Chiclana-Actis
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Pornography use is one of the factors that has been proposed to be associated with violence. We aimed to explore the literature of the last 20 years, with the objective of understanding the possible association between pornography use and violence. Two electronic databases (PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES and PubMed/Medline) were used. We included members of the general population, of any sex, age, and sexual orientation, who were direct users of pornography or have a partner who uses pornography. Only studies with pornography use and violence assessments, and that specifically evaluated the association between both factors, were included. In all, 59 studies met the inclusion criteria. An association between pornography use and nonsexual violence seems to exist, although the causality of this association remains unclear. Heterogeneity of results exists regarding the association between pornography use and intimate partner sexual assault and coercion: some studies have failed to demonstrate this association, while others have observed it partially or significantly. Contradictory results have also been observed when examining the association between pornography use, rape myths, and other beliefs/attitudes. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the conceptualization of both constructs (pornography and violence). Multiple theoretical models, methodologies, and categorizations have been used in the studies, complicating the comparability of the findings. The association between different types of violence and pornography use requires further in-depth research to better understand the specific link between both constructs.CRD42021259874.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-13T08:25:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231173619
       
  • Sexual Abuse of Children With Disabilities: Key Lessons and Future
           Directions Based on a Scoping Review

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      Authors: Bella Klebanov, Gal Friedman-Hauser, Efrat Lusky-Weisrose, Carmit Katz
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years there has been a growing public and professional interest in situations of risk, abuse, and exploitation of children with disabilities (CWDs). Despite the increasing awareness of CWDs experiencing child sexual abuse (CSA) at high rates, research in this area is still in its infancy. The current study seeks to identify, map, and thoroughly analyze the existing knowledge to better inform future research, policy, and practice. A scoping review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, identifying 35 articles addressing CSA among CWDs based on self-report surveys, official report data, and qualitative interviews. The findings addressed the phenomenon’s epidemiology, disclosure, identification patterns, and consequences. Studies showed that CWDs experience CSA two to four times more often than children without disabilities and that they suffer longer and harsher abuse due to factors that complicate the identification of CSA of CWDs. This review highlights the diverse methodologies, producing a high variance in phenomenon rates, as well as unique methodological strategies for addressing challenges in CSA and disability research. Future research should focus on qualitative-retrospective studies of the perceptions of survivors and significant others in their lives (e.g., parents). Moreover, an intersectionality paradigm must be adopted in future studies to address the diverse contexts that construct the phenomenon (including sociocultural contexts). There is also a need to develop integrative interventions to allow higher accessibility of services, adaptive identification mechanisms, and more effective collaboration between professionals and CWDs.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-12T08:42:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231179122
       
  • Global Prevalence of Childhood Exposure to Physical Violence within
           Domestic and Family Relationships in the General Population: A Systematic
           Review and Proportional Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Tyson Whitten, Stacy Tzoumakis, Melissa J. Green, Kimberlie Dean
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Efforts to identify and prevent childhood exposure to physical violence within domestic and family relationships must be underpinned by reliable prevalence estimates to ensure the appropriate allocation of resources and benchmarks for assessing intervention efficacy. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the global prevalence of childhood exposure to physical domestic and family violence separately as a victim or witness. Searches were conducted in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed, published in English, had a representative sample, unweighted estimates, and were published between January 2010 and December 2022. One-hundred-and-sixteen studies comprising 56 independent samples were retained. Proportional meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled prevalence for each exposure. Pooled prevalence estimates were also stratified by region and sex. The global pooled prevalence of childhood exposure to physical domestic and family violence as a victim or witness was 17.3% and 16.5%, respectively. Prevalence estimates were highest in West Asia and Africa (victim = 42.8%; witness = 38.3%) and lowest for the Developed Asia Pacific region (victim = 3.7%; witness = 5.4%). Males were 25% more likely than females to be the victim of physical domestic and family violence during childhood, while both were equally likely to have witnessed it. These findings suggest that childhood exposure to domestic and family violence is relatively common, affecting around one-in-six people by 18 years of age globally. Regional variations in prevalence estimates may reflect underlying economic conditions, cultural norms, and service availability.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-10T07:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231179133
       
  • Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among
           Migrant Men: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Matin Ayubi, Lata Satyen
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most widespread form of violence against women and the most common perpetrators are male partners. Immigration can involve stressors and barriers that are linked to male IPV perpetration. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the factors associated with IPV perpetration among migrant men. Four electronic databases, MEDLINE Complete, Embase, PsycInfo, and SocINDEX with full text, were searched up to August 2021. Studies were selected that examined factors associated with IPV perpetration among first-generation migrants who identified as men/males and were aged 18 years or older. In all, 18 articles met the eligibility criteria for the review, representing a total of 12,321 male participants, including 4,389 migrant men. A wide range of factors associated with IPV perpetration were found at the individual, relationship, community, and societal levels. Unique risk factors for migrant men’s IPV perpetration were exposure to political violence, deportation experiences, and minimal legal sanctions for perpetration in some countries of origin. Societal factors explored among Latino immigrants were traditional gender roles such as machismo and norms of violence. All identified factors should be considered in the cultural contexts of the relevant samples and should not be generalized to all migrant men. The findings of modifiable and culture-specific factors have important implications for strategies aimed at reducing IPV perpetration. Future research should explore factors associated with IPV perpetration within specific cultures rather than across broad cultural groupings.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-10T07:07:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231178758
       
  • Significance Quest: A Meta-Analysis on the Association Between the
           Variables of the 3N Model and Violent Extremism

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      Authors: Caroline Da Silva, Dominique Trottier, Nicolas Amadio, Bruno Domingo, Rachel Sarg, Massil Benbouriche
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Given the pervasiveness of violent extremism all over the globe, understanding its psychological underpinnings is key in the fight against it. According to the Significance Quest Theory and its 3N model, violent extremism (i.e., violent and deviant behavior) is a function of three elements: need, narrative, and network. In the present meta-analysis, to put into test the theory and its model, we aimed to establish the strength of the association between these three elements, as well as the quest for significance itself, and violent extremism; and investigate if these associations are influenced by methodological decisions (i.e., sampling and measurements/manipulations). A literature search was performed through electronic platforms, a call for unpublished or in-press data, and backward snowballing. Seventeen reports, comprising 42 studies, met full inclusion criteria: quantitative studies based on primary data assessing for the association of at least one of the 3Ns, or quest for significance, and violent extremism, and providing sufficient data for effect size extraction. Findings are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses(PRISMA) guidelines. Random-effect meta-analyses rendered statistically significant pooled effect sizes in all the investigated associations. The association is strong for quest for significance, moderate for narrative and network, and low for need for significance. Subgroup analyses demonstrate that the detection of these associations is influenced by methodological decisions concerning the measurements and manipulations, but not by those concerning the sampling. We discuss these findings and suggest future research directions aiming to improve the predictive power of the theory and its model.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T09:07:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231176056
       
  • A Systematic Review of Interventions Addressing the Primary Prevention of
           Violence Against Women With Disability

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      Authors: Georgina Sutherland, Jen Hargrave, Lauren Krnjacki, Gwynnyth Llewellyn, Anne Kavanagh, Cathy Vaughan
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Women with disability experience significantly more violence and abuse than their nondisabled peers. Efforts to implement, evaluate, and scale-up strategies to prevent violence against women are rapidly expanding, but we know less about “what works” to prevent violence against women with disability. While secondary and tertiary prevention aim to identify violence early and prevent further occurrence, this review focuses on primary prevention. In the disability services sector, primary prevention is sometimes referred to as safeguarding and covers a range of activities that aim to address the underlying determinants of violence to prevent it from happening in the first place. The aim of this review is to identify and synthesize research on evaluated interventions addressing the primary prevention of violence against women with disability and explore evidence about their quality and effectiveness. A systematic search across the bibliographic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and PsychInfo for peer-reviewed literature published in English on or after January 1, 2010, yielded 483 papers of potential interest. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered for review. Data were extracted and the quality of the studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Most studies reported outcomes from pre- and post-test research designs and received a weak rating of quality. Although interventions targeting awareness, knowledge, and skill development showed evidence of effectiveness, there is a distinct lack of program development that draws on known risk factors for violence such as the intersection of ableism and gender inequality.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T09:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231175932
       
  • Male Survivors of Domestic Violence, Challenges in Cultural Response, and
           Impact on Identity and Help-Seeking Behaviors: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: David Axlyn McLeod, Burcu Ozturk, Renea L. Butler-King, Hayden Peek
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Male experiences of domestic and relational violence have been only marginally explored in the literature. In connection to this, attitudes in the community and among service providers and criminal justice system entities can vary dramatically. This variance in attitudes creates an instability which has a differential impact on the help-seeking behaviors of victims. Additionally, help-seeking behaviors are often influenced by internalized shame and confusion on the part of the survivors themselves when their social constructions of masculinity do not align with lived experience. More is needed to understand the nature of male survivorship in situations of relational violence. A systematic review was conducted to begin organizing the data on the topic. This review started with 15,547 peer-reviewed articles. Those were systematically narrowed to a total of 16 of the most recent pieces of empirical science on the topic. The final articles were thematically analyzed. Findings suggest (a) cultural stigma around constructions of masculinity, (b) fear of disclosure, and (c) negative experiences with criminal justice and support system responses, among the highest drivers for the disparate experience and hesitation to seek help.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T08:57:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231177318
       
  • Forensic Interview Techniques in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: Delfina Fernandes, João P. Gomes, Pedro B. Albuquerque, Marlene Matos
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Child sexual abuse (CSA) is widely recognized as a global public health problem with negative consequences for victims, their families, and society. The child’s testimony is essential to the case outcome, given the frequent absence of physical or biological evidence of the abusive acts. Thus, the child forensic interview plays a decisive role in criminal investigation. The present scoping review aims to identify and describe the judicial procedures for collecting CSA victims’ testimony using an evidence-based approach and a structured methodology. The review followed Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Scoping Review guidelines. Studies were identified through manual reference checking and in four electronic databases: PsycARTICLES, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. In all, 146 studies were identified according to the defined inclusion criteria, that is, empirical studies identifying judicial procedures to collect CSA victims’ testimony, published in English or Portuguese. In total, 30 different forensic interview procedures to collect the child victim’s testimony were found. The National Institute for Child Health and Human Development investigative interview protocol was the most frequently mentioned. Despite the variety of protocols, it was possible to conclude that they have a similar general structure. This review also identified gaps in interviewing practices with CSA victims. The scoping review corroborates the importance of forensic interviews with CSA victims, stating its implications for criminal investigation, the legal system, and the child’s recovery process.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T08:54:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231177317
       
  • Misogynistic Extremism: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Robin O’Hanlon, Frederick L. Altice, Roy Ka-Wei Lee, Jack LaViolette, Gloria Mark, Orestis Papakyriakopoulos, Koustuv Saha, Munmun De Choudhury, Navin Kumar
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, the concept of “misogynistic extremism” has emerged as a subject of interest among scholars, governments, law enforcement personnel, and the media. Yet a consistent understanding of how misogynistic extremism is defined and conceptualized has not yet emerged. Varying epistemological orientations may contribute to the current conceptual muddle of this topic, reflecting long-standing and on-going challenges with the conceptualization of its individual components. To address the potential impact of misogynistic extremism (i.e., violent attacks), a more precise understanding of what this phenomenon entails is needed. To summarize the existing knowledge base on the nature of misogynistic extremism, this scoping review analyzed publications within English-language peer-reviewed and gray literature sources. Seven electronic databases and citation indexes were systematically searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist and charted using the 2020 PRISMA flow diagram. Inclusion criteria included English peer-reviewed articles and relevant gray literature publications, which contained the term “misogynistic extremism” and other closely related terms. No date restrictions were imposed. The search strategy initially yielded 475 publications. After exclusion of ineligible articles, 40 publications remained for synthesis. We found that misogynistic extremism is most frequently conceptualized in the context of misogynistic incels, male supremacism, far-right extremism, terrorism, and the black pill ideology. Policy recommendations include increased education among law enforcement and Countering and Preventing Violent Extremism experts on male supremacist violence and encouraging legal and educational mechanisms to bolster gender equality. Violence stemming from misogynistic worldviews must be addressed by directly acknowledging and challenging socially embedded systems of oppression such as white supremacy and cisheteropatriarchy.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-06-05T08:51:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231176062
       
  • The Experiences of People From Arab Countries in Coping with Trauma
           Resulting From War and Conflict in the Middle East: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-synthesis of Qualitative Studies

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      Authors: Ayah Hamadeh, Farah El-Shamy, Jo Billings, Aisha Alyafei
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The Middle East region has been an area of war and political conflict for several decades. There is currently limited research on the experiences of war and conflict among the individuals from Arab countries in the Middle East. The aim of this review was to systematically review and meta-synthesize qualitative literature on the experiences of individuals from Arab countries in the Middle East of going through and coping with war and political conflict. We systematically searched for relevant literature through MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, EThOS, OpenGrey, and The Arab Journal of Psychiatry. Studies selected needed to have a qualitative design reporting on the war and conflict experiences of participants aged 18 years or older from Arab countries in the Middle East. The review protocol was preregistered with PROSPERO (Ref: CRD42022314108). We identified 27 studies to be included in the final review. Four overarching themes were included in the meta-synthesis: War and conflict as life-defining experiences, experiences of hardship, coping with war and conflict, and positives out of a painful experience. Participants in the included studies reported significant distress and losing their sense of self, as well as resilience and positive growth. This review and meta-synthesis revealed the particular culturally informed experiences of individuals from Arab countries in the Middle East in processing their conflict experiences. These experiences highlight the need for culturally sensitive interventions for a population that has been under significant war-related stressors.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-30T08:20:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231176061
       
  • Examining Cybersexism in Online Gaming Communities: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Pablo Vergel, Daniel La parra-Casado, Carmen Vives-Cases
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Cybersexism in the context of online gaming communities, as epitomized by the Gamergate incident back in 2014, has been an issue for a while for gamer women, yet it has not received proper attention. In this scoping review, we have aimed to assess its main characteristics, its consequences for gamer women, its triggers and predictors, and related prevention and mitigation policies provided by the existing research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines were applied to the design of the scoping review. Empirical studies were accessed via database searches. The following databases were prospected: Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ACM from March to May 2021. A total of 33 studies were included in the final analysis after database searching, filtering, and snowballing. Most of the selected studies (66%, n = 22) were focused on the manifestations of cybersexism in gaming communities, with gender-driven trash-talking being the main one. The main drivers and triggers behind cybersexist behaviors were also the research topic in 66% (n = 22) of the studies and the consequences and coping strategies were studied in 52% (n = 17) of the articles. Furthermore, 12% (n = 4) of the studies assessed policies and actions to prevent cybersexism. Cybersexism and its manifestations are a reality that conditions gamer women, provoking avoidance and ultimately withdrawal from gaming and, therefore, creating inequality, impairing full digital citizenship, and widening the digital gender gap.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-27T08:10:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231176059
       
  • “Hardly Able to Move, Much Less Open a Book”: A Systematic Review of
           the Impact of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Victimization on
           Educational Trajectories

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      Authors: Angela B. Geppert, Aarushi H. Shah, Jennifer S. Hirsch
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a highly prevalent issue, both in North America and globally, with well-recognized adverse impact on survivors’ physical, emotional, and economic well-being. The objective of this systematic review is to collect and synthesize empirical work on the effects of SGBV victimization on educational trajectories, goals, attainment, and outcomes. The review summarizes what is known about factors associated with victimization that affect survivors’ educational trajectories and highlights gaps in the literature pertaining to the effects of victimization on education. Five databases were searched for this review: Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, PubMed, APA PsycInfo, and ERIC. For inclusion, the articles must present research on the academic impact of any form of SGBV experienced in higher education and must have been conducted in the United States or Canada. The 68 studies that met these criteria presented research on six key areas of educational outcomes: impacts on academic performance and motivation; attendance, dropout, and avoidance; changes in major/field of study; academic disengagement; educational attitudes and satisfaction; and academic climate and institutional relationships. Research also revealed factors mediating the relationship between SGBV exposure and educational outcomes such as mental health, physical health, social support, socioeconomic status, and resiliency, which we summarize in a pathway model. The research reviewed had significant limitations, including weak study designs, limited generalizability, and diversity concerns. We offer recommendations for future research on this topic.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-26T01:01:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231173430
       
  • Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration in
           Adolescents and Young Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Savannah L. Johnson, Justin M. Rasmussen, Mahgul Mansoor, Hawo Ibrahim, Wilter Rono, Pari Goel, João R.N. Vissoci, Megan Von Isenburg, Eve S. Puffer
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health crisis with long-term adverse consequences for both victims and perpetrators. Patterns of violence often begin during adolescence, yet most interventions target adult relationships. A systematic review was conducted to identify correlates of IPV victimization and perpetration among adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Eligible studies included participants 10 to 24 years old, took place in SSA, and tested a statistical association between a correlate and an IPV outcome. Correlates were defined as any condition or characteristic associated with statistically significant increased or decreased risk of IPV victimization or perpetration. PsycInfo, PubMed, Embase, and African Index Medicus were searched and included studies published between January 1, 2000 and February 4, 2022. The search resulted in 3,384 original studies, of which 55 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Correlates were first qualitatively synthesized by developmental period (e.g., early adolescence, older adolescence, and young adulthood) and then organized in a conceptual framework by correlate type (e.g., socio-demographic; health, behavior, and attitudes; relational; or contextual). Over two decades of literature reveals variability in evidence by developmental period but also substantial overlap in the correlates of victimization and perpetration. This review identifies multiple points for intervention and results suggest the urgent need for earlier, developmentally appropriate prevention efforts among younger adolescents as well as combined approaches that target both victimization and perpetration of IPV.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T07:04:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231173428
       
  • Longitudinal Associations Between Adolescent Dating Violence Victimization
           and Adverse Outcomes: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Laura Campo-Tena, Simon R. Larmour, Noemí Pereda, Manuel P. Eisner
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Evidence on the outcomes of adolescent dating violence (ADV) victimization mainly derives from cross-sectional studies, which have limitations in suggesting causal relationships. Furthermore, the complexity of factors and overlapping dimensions in dating violence research, such as the forms of violence experienced, may have contributed to the variability of findings across the literature. To address these gaps and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of ADV, this study reviews findings from prospective cohort studies, with a focus on the type of violence experienced and the gender of the victim. A systematic search was conducted in nine electronic databases and additional relevant journals. Prospective longitudinal studies were included if dating violence victimization occurred during adolescence and chronologically preceded the outcomes. A quality assessment was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. A narrative approach was used to synthesize findings. After screening 1,838 records, 14 publications met the selection criteria and were included in this review. Our findings suggest that experiencing ADV is longitudinally associated with many adverse outcomes, including higher internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, poorer well-being, increased substance use, and increased revictimization. However, the associations are not consistently reported across studies when considering the type of ADV experienced and the gender of the victim. This review highlights the limited number of longitudinal studies examining the outcomes of ADV victimization, the unbalanced approach in investigating different forms of violence, and the lack of diverse samples examining this subject. Implications for research, policy, and practice are outlined.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T07:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231174504
       
  • Reducing the Methodological Heterogeneity (“Noise”) in the Literature
           Predicting In-Prison Interpersonal Harm in Male Populations

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      Authors: Nancy Wolff, Eva Aizpurua, Dan Peng
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Interpersonal harm is a preventable public health problem. A growing body of literature shows persistently elevated exposure rates to physical and sexual victimization during incarceration. Yet how to prevent interpersonal harm during incarceration has proven far more elusive. A public health approach to prevention offers promise. To develop effective prevention strategies, the public health approach begins with defining and measuring the problem, followed by identifying risk and protective factors for the problem. The dynamic literature on in-prison interpersonal harm includes both parts of the public health approach but theoretical and methodological “noise” in this literature limits its instrumental utility to build effective prevention strategies. Herein, we critically review this evidence base (15 peer-reviewed articles published since 2000 with samples of 1,000+) to isolate the noise and the substance. We, then, minimize the methodological noise by testing for risk factors using self-report data that is representative of an entire U.S. state prison system for men and best data collection practices. Multilevel logistic regression is used to predict four types of interpersonal harm using theoretically grounded individual and prison-level covariates that are supported by the empirical literature. We conclude with recommendations for building an evidence base from which to develop prevention strategies that would create and sustain custodial conditions for people to be safe and healthy while incarcerated.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-25T06:19:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231175918
       
  • Partner Effects of Childhood Maltreatment: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Marie-Pier Vaillancourt-Morel, Ève-Line Bussières, Marie-Chloé Nolin, Marie-Ève Daspe
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although several studies have shown that childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with a host of negative consequences including romantic relationship difficulties for victims in adulthood, most overlooked the potential effects on the romantic partner. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to comprehensively synthesize the literature on the association between a person’s CM and their partner’s individual and couple outcomes. We searched PubMed, PsycNET, Medline, CINAHL, and Eric using search strings related to CM and partner. We identified 3,238 articles after removal of duplicates; 28 studies met the inclusion criteria and relied on independent sample. The studies reported associations between a person’s CM and a wide breadth of partner’s negative couple outcomes (e.g., communication, sexuality) as well as intra-individual psychological difficulties (e.g., psychological distress, emotion, and stress reactivity). Meta-analytic results showed significant, but trivial to small associations between a person’s CM and their partner’s lower relationship satisfaction (r = −.09, 95% CI [−.14, −.04]), higher intimate partner violence (r = .08, [.05, .12]), and higher psychological distress (r = .11, [.06, .16]). These associations were similar for women and men and did not differ as a function of sample’s mean age, proportion of cultural diversity, and publication year. These findings suggest that a person’s CM is related to their partner’s outcomes including to the partner’s intra-individual outcomes. Prevention and intervention strategies should acknowledge that a person’s CM may also affect their romantic partner, considering the couple as a reciprocal system, and offer victims’ romantic partners specific services.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-20T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231173427
       
  • Public Perceptions Toward Community Management Policies for Individuals
           Convicted of Sexual Offenses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Olga Sánchez de Ribera, Larissa S. Christensen, Nicolás Trajtenberg, Kirsty Hudson
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Community management policies for individuals convicted of sexual offenses (ICSO) are controversial, mainly because the effectiveness of these policies in reducing recidivism is limited and appear to have some collateral effects. Despite this, the current meta-analysis found the public highly support these policies. Studies examining public perceptions regarding community management policies for ICSO to understand levels of support, misconceptions about the policies, and factors affecting the views of the public were reviewed. After searching 7 electronic databases, 43 studies, both quantitative and qualitative, were included in the systematic review and 31 in the meta-analysis. Studies could be longitudinal or cross-sectional, needed to include public attitudes, opinions, and perceptions about ICSO community management policies and could include standardized or non-standardized measures, indirect assessments of attitudes, along with interviews and focus groups. Results suggest that overall, policies were supported by 76% of the public, 61% believed in their effectiveness, and 63% felt safer because of the policies. However, only 36% accessed the registry, 38% took preventive actions, and 40% were aware/concerned about the collateral consequences. All analyses yielded high levels of heterogeneity. Misconceptions about policies and ICSO were moderate. Finally, 36 studies explored factors that affected the public’s attitudes and perceptions of policies with a variety of significant associations and predictors. The findings provide comprehensive evidence that while these policies are supported by the public, the public have less belief in the effectiveness of them in protecting children and reducing recidivism. Implications for public policy and future research are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T12:39:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231174695
       
  • Protective Factors for Sexual Violence Perpetration Among High School and
           College Students: A Systematic Review

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      Authors: Julia O’Connor, Lakaysia Smith, Jacqueline Woerner, Assad Khan
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      To prevent sexual violence (SV), it is important to understand both risk and protective factors for SV perpetration. Although considerable research has examined risk factors for perpetration of SV among high school and college students, less research is dedicated to investigating protective factors which might mitigate the risk of perpetration. This review summarizes existing research on protective factors for perpetration of SV among high school and college students. Thirteen articles were included in this study after reviewing 5,464 citations. Inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed scholarly journals, written in English, and published between 2010 and 2021. The included articles indicate that 11 factors were significantly related to less SV perpetration. Key protective factors identified in this study include empathy, impulse control, social support, parental factors, peers, church attendance/ religiosity, and school connections. In addition to protective factors, this review also examined study characteristics for the included articles and found that most participants were White and just over half of the studies were longitudinal. Overall, these findings indicate a lack of research focused on protective factors for SV perpetration, and a need for more research on the identified protective factors and to investigate additional protective factors. Such studies should include longitudinal designs and more diverse samples to understand the range of protective factors that can be bolstered through interventions to prevent SV among high school and college students.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T12:35:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231171189
       
  • The Professional Quality of Life of Domestic and Sexual Violence
           Advocates: A Systematic Review of Possible Risk and Protective Factors

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      Authors: Harriet Bromley, Sarah K. Davis, Blaire Morgan, Holly Taylor-Dunn
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Professionals employed within the field of domestic and sexual violence (DV/SV) are known to experience both positive and negative psychological impacts because of the nature of their work. This review aims to establish which factors influence the professional quality of life (ProQOL) of DV/SV advocates. This group is known to face challenges that are specific to their working practices including scarce resources and frequent exposure to traumatic material. The systematic review protocol was designed based upon Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidance. Following a mixed-methods convergent segregated approach, a systematic search for qualitative and quantitative research within PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Sage, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, and BASE was undertaken. Peer-reviewed empirical research and relevant gray literature, published in English, were considered for inclusion. Thirty articles were identified (16 quantitative, 13 qualitative, and 1 mixed-methods study), and assessed for methodological quality and risk of bias using established quality appraisal tools. An array of risk and protective factors emerged including communication competence, support from co-workers, office resources, and occupational stigma. A gap in the current evidence base was identified regarding the role that personal strengths may play in the well-being of those employed within the DV/SV sector. The ProQOL of DV/SV advocates is complex and dependent upon a variety of factors specific to their situation at the time. However, the findings of this review provide an important evidence base for future research avenues as well as policies and procedures for this workforce specifically.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-18T12:33:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231171187
       
  • A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies Measuring Training Effects on
           Biases Evidenced by Professionals toward Intimate Partner Violence

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      Authors: Michelle Sereno, Robyn Catagnus, Annette Griffith, Heidi Eilers
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      A professional’s response to a client’s disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) is shown to significantly impact client outcomes. The quality of a professional’s response is largely influenced by that professional’s beliefs or biases surrounding IPV. This systematic review examined empirical studies conducted in North America and published between 2000 and 2020 evaluating training effects on biases held by professional groups toward victim-survivors of IPV. Search and extraction were conducted in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses standards across seven electronic databases. A total of 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Participant groups included professionals from medical, academic, and social/community service disciplines. All included studies reported significant gains on at least one measure of bias. Upon visual inspection, we found no correlations between characteristics of training interventions and reported outcomes on measures of bias. We discuss results in terms of challenges to measuring bias and functional relationships between training interventions, measures of bias, and professional behavior. Variation presented across studies within and between disciplines in regards to training methodology and measurement of bias. Experts in the field of IPV call for a more cohesive approach. We propose the behavior analytic conceptualization of bias as a framework through which interdisciplinary efforts might be unified toward addressing IPV-related biases. Through this lens, we discuss environmental cues within professional settings that might be influencing problematic IPV-related bias. We offer preliminary recommendations for curricular enhancements. We advocate for revision of terms commonly used in IPV-related research and intervention to better reflect and honor diversity across persons experiencing IPV.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-13T10:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231171186
       
  • Does the COVID-19 Pandemic Increase or Decrease the Global Cyberbullying
           Behaviors' A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Ning Huang, Shan Zhang, Yakun Mu, Yebo Yu, Madelon M. E. Riem, Jing Guo
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Although cyberbullying is an emerging public health problem, it is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic affects cyberbullying. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on cyberbullying, to estimate the global cyberbullying prevalence and to explore factors related to cyberbullying during the COVID-19 pandemic. We searched the Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Eric, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Chinese CNKI, and EBSCO databases to identify relevant empirical studies published between 2019 and 2022. A total of 36 studies were included. Quality assessment, meta-analyses, and subgroup analyses were conducted. The pooled prevalences were 16% for overall cyberbullying, 18% for victimization and 11% for perpetration during the COVID-19 pandemic, which were lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pooled prevalence of postpandemic cyberbullying perpetration is lower in children than in adults. In addition, both virus- and lockdown-related stressors were the main factors contributing to cyberbullying. The COVID-19 crisis may reduce cyberbullying, and the pooled prevalence of cyberbullying during the pandemic in adults is higher than in children and adolescents. In addition, the transient-enduring factor model of postpandemic cyberbullying built in this review could help identify people at high risk of cyberbullying during public health emergencies.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-13T10:16:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231171185
       
  • Interventions to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Justice-Involved
           Young Women: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Melissa Willoughby, Emilia Janca, Sohee Kwon, Bianca Johnston, Tamlynn Collins, Stuart A. Kinner, Diana Johns, David Gallant, Clare Glover-Wright, Rohan Borschmann
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Young women who have had contact with the criminal justice system (justice-involved young women) have an increased risk of being a victim of violence. However, no reviews have synthesized the evidence on interventions to prevent or respond to violence against justice-involved young women. We conducted a scoping review to identify interventions designed to prevent or respond to violence against justice-involved young women. We searched Medline, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed and gray literature published in English from January 1, 2000 until March 23, 2021. Consistent with the public health approach to violence, we included primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. Excluding duplicates, our search returned 5,603 records, 14 of which met our inclusion criteria. We narratively synthesized the included studies, all of which were conducted in the United States. Most included studies examined a tertiary intervention (n = 10), and few examined a primary (n = 2) or secondary (n = 2) intervention. Across the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools, the percentage of items met ranged from 0% to 78%. There was some limited evidence that tertiary interventions that included cognitive behavioral therapy reduced the mental health impacts of violence victimization among justice-involved young women. There was little evidence on primary and secondary interventions. Effective and evidence-based interventions to prevent violence victimization and revictimization against justice-involved young women remains a critical gap in knowledge.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-12T08:41:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231171183
       
  • Exploring Categories of Family Violence Across the Lifespan: A Scoping
           Review

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      Authors: Amy Warren, Barbara Blundell, Donna Chung, Rebecca Waters
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Family violence may be experienced at any stage of the lifespan; however, these experiences are often understood differently based on the age of the victim and who perpetrates the abuse. The significance of age is evident in the three categories of child abuse, domestic and family violence (DFV), and elder abuse. Each of these categories has its own definition which determines who is considered a victim or a perpetrator, and the behaviors counted as violent and abusive. These definitions influence how practitioners view victim-survivors’ experiences of violence, and the subsequent available responses. This article reports the findings of a scoping review of international literature published between 2011 and 2021, which explored how family violence is categorized and defined. The review was conducted as part of a larger study exploring how violence against women in intimate and family contexts is conceptualized and experienced, as well as the available responses. Forty-eight articles were included in the final review, and five categories of violence in family and intimate contexts were identified. These were child abuse, DFV, elder abuse, adolescent-to-parent violence, and sibling abuse. Comparison of definitions across categories found similarities in terms of the relationship between victim and perpetrator, behavior, intention, and harm caused to the victim. Review findings suggest that definitions of various forms of family violence do not differ greatly. Further research is needed to determine whether responses to family violence across the lifespan can and should be streamlined.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-08T12:53:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231169486
       
  • Efficacy of Psychosocial Interventions for Survivors of Intimate Partner
           Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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      Authors: Hannah M. Micklitz, Carla M. Glass, Jürgen Bengel, Lasse B. Sander
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) face serious health-related, social and economic consequences. Prior meta-analyses indicate efficacy of psychosocial interventions for support of IPV survivors, but their results are affected by methodological limitations. Extensive subgroup analyses on the moderating effects of intervention and study characteristics are lacking. To address these limitations in an up-to-date and comprehensive meta-analytic review, four literature databases (PsycInfo, Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL, March 23, 2022) were searched for randomized-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychosocial interventions compared to control groups in improving safety-related, mental health, and psychosocial outcomes in IPV survivors. Weighted effects on IPV, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychosocial outcomes were calculated under random-effects assumption. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate moderating effects of predefined intervention and study characteristics. Study quality was rated. In all, 80 studies were included in qualitative synthesis, and 40 studies in meta-analyses. Psychosocial interventions significantly reduced symptoms of depression (SMD: −0.15 [95% confidence interval, CI [−0.25, −0.04]; p = .006], I2 = 54%) and PTSD (SMD: −0.15 [95% CI [−0.29, −0.01]; p = .04], I2 = 52%), but not IPV reexperience (SMD: −0.02 [95% CI [ −0.09, 0.06]; p = .70], I2 = 21%) compared to control conditions at post. High-intensive and integrative interventions, combining advocacy-based and psychological components, were favorable subgroups. Yielded effects were modest and not maintained long term. The quality of evidence was low and potential harms remain unclear. Future research should adopt higher standards of research conduct and reporting and must account for the complexity and diversity of IPV experiences.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-06T01:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231169481
       
  • Can This Provider Be Trusted' A Review of the Role of Trustworthiness in
           the Provision of Community-Based Services for Intimate Partner Violence
           Survivors

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      Authors: Angie C. Kennedy, Kristen A. Prock, Adrienne E. Adams, Angela Littwin, Elizabeth Meier, Jessica Saba, Lauren Vollinger
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      While there is a growing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors and service providers, it is limited by its largely atheoretical and descriptive nature, and its emphasis on individual-level survivors’ help-seeking. We seek to broaden our understanding by shifting the focus onto organizations and service systems and introducing the concept of these providers’ trustworthiness toward survivors. Provider trustworthiness in delivering services includes benevolence (locally available and caring), fairness (accessible to all and non-discriminatory), and competence (acceptable and effective in meeting survivors’ needs). Guided by this conceptualization, we conducted an integrative review drawing on four databases: PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Westlaw. We identified studies for inclusion that were published between January 2005 and March 2022, and we examined the trustworthiness of community-based providers serving adult IPV survivors in the United States, including domestic violence services, health and mental health care, the legal system, and economic support services (N = 114). Major findings include (1) many survivors live in communities with no shelter beds, mental health care, or affordable housing; (2) many services are inaccessible because they lack, for example, bilingual staff, sliding fees, or telehealth options; (3) too many providers are harmful or discriminatory toward survivors, especially those who are, for example, sexual or gender minorities, immigrants or non-English-speaking, poor, or Native, Black, or Latinx; (4) many providers appear to be incompetent, lack evidence-based training, and are ineffective in meeting survivors’ needs. We call on researchers, advocates, and providers to examine provider trustworthiness, and we offer an introduction to measuring it.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-03T11:57:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231168641
       
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression
           in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Systematic Review of
           Intervention Studies

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      Authors: Gary Byrne, Clare Cullen
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The onset of childhood disruptive behaviors is one of the most common presenting difficulties to clinics worldwide. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) has shown to be effective in the reduction of anger and aggression among adults, however to date there has been no systematic review that has examined the effectiveness of ACT in addressing anger and aggression among children, adolescents, and young adults. The current systematic review aimed to evaluate the methodological standing and effectiveness of the peer-reviewed literature of ACT on anger and aggression for this population. PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases were searched systematically in June 2022 to identify studies in English published on the use of ACT for anger and aggression in children, adolescents, and young adults. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria with a combined sample of 305 participants across the interventions. The most common outcome measures used were self-report ratings of anger among participants. Studies were characterized by poor methodological rigor and findings were mixed as regards the effectiveness of ACT in addressing anger and aggression in this population. Some evidence suggests that group ACT may be effective in reducing self-report measures of anger, but no firm conclusions can be drawn from the extant literature due to the heterogeneous nature of the studies, and limited information about ACT protocols and treatment delivery. Further higher-powered studies comparing ACT to treatment as usual or waitlist are needed to clarify what ACT may add as a treatment to anger and aggression in this population.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-05-02T10:05:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231167393
       
  • A Systematic Review of the Effect of PTSD and Trauma on Treatment Outcomes
           for Eating Disorders

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      Authors: Sinead Day, Phillipa Hay, Wadad. Kathy Tannous, Scott J. Fatt, Deborah Mitchison
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      There is growing evidence of prior experiences of trauma and trauma-related symptoms among people with eating disorders; however, there is little understanding as to how post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and exposure to traumatic events affect treatment outcomes. Without this knowledge, eating disorder clinicians are unable to tailor treatment to ensure good outcomes for the large percentage of this population that is affected by PTSD and trauma. This systematic review aimed to identify how PTSD and trauma exposure influence outcomes in eating disorder treatment. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases identified 16 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated a negative effect on rates of eating disorder treatment completion and eating disorder psychopathology posttreatment. These findings were evident across studies that investigated the impact of a history of traumatic events as well as studies that investigated the impact of the presence of trauma-related symptoms seen in PTSD. Several methodological limitations were identified in the literature. These include: heterogeneous and unstandardized measures of PTSD and trauma, high attrition rates with follow-up, and insufficient data to enable comparisons by treatment setting, diagnostic presentation, and type of trauma exposure. The findings of this review have implications for future research and clinical care, including the importance of considering PTSD and trauma in assessment, treatment planning, and provision of both trauma-informed care and trauma-focused treatments for individuals with eating disorders.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-26T11:17:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231167399
       
  • Theories, Models, Frameworks, Guidelines, and Recommendations for
           Trauma-Informed Oral Healthcare Services: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Emma Mahood, Mishel Shahid, Nicole Gavin, Ann Rahmann, Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla, Jeroen Kroon
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Traumatic life experiences (TLE) are common and can affect a person’s physical being and health-related behaviors, including those related to oral health. This scoping review aimed to identify evidence exploring the implementation and provision of trauma-informed care (TIC) in oral health services delivery.Methods:Arksey and O’Malley’s framework with enhancements proposed by Levac et al. and Peters et al. was used. Studies were selected based on a preset inclusion and exclusion criteria and the population/concept/context framework. Primary charting of descriptive data was conducted, followed by thematic analysis to identify ideas common within the included literature. Searches were conducted in Medline (via Ovid), APA PsycINFO (via Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), Scopus, CINAHL (via EBSCO), and Cochrane databases. Google Scholar and ProQuest were used to identify grey literature.Results:The search identified 251 records, with fifteen records meeting the inclusion criteria. Limited models, frameworks, and recommendations for trauma-informed practices in oral health services were identified. Recommendations for TIC practices were identified, and clinical practice adjustments for dental practitioners were described to improve service delivery for patients who may have experienced trauma. Avenues for future research were identified.Conclusions:Limited evidence exists to guide trauma-informed practice in oral health service delivery. This scoping review highlights the need for further research into approaches and practices of TIC for oral health services delivery to assess their efficacy and the need to develop evidence-based TIC frameworks to meet the unique needs of oral health service providers and populations.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-21T12:06:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231165699
       
  • Potential Sources of Moral Injury for Healthcare Workers in Forensic and
           Psychiatric Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-ethnography

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      Authors: Elanor Lucy Webb, Jane L. Ireland, Michael Lewis, Deborah Morris
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      The current research examines potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) faced by healthcare professionals working in forensic and psychiatric environments. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles reporting on sources of moral injury or similar concepts (e.g., moral distress) for healthcare workers in such settings. Thirty articles were included and analyzed using a meta-ethnographic approach. Synthesis yielded three third-order factors, each reflecting a moral dichotomy: (a) “between profession and system,” (b) “between relations with patients and relations with others,” and (c) “between principles and practices.” Findings illustrated the hierarchical relationships between dichotomies, with discordance between values of the healthcare profession and features of the healthcare system providing the conditions for PMIEs to occur. The review advances conceptual understandings of PMIEs in forensic and psychiatric settings, illustrating the multilayered dimensions within which morally injurious events are experienced. Theoretical and practical implications are offered that may support the early detection and prevention of moral injury in healthcare professionals.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-21T10:06:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231167390
       
  • Research on Abuse in Home Care: A Scoping Review

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      Authors: Kevin Balkaran, Janice Linton, Malcolm Doupe, Kerstin Roger, Christine Kelly
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Home care is the preferred care option for most people who need support; yet abuse exists in these settings toward both home care workers and clients. There are no existing reviews that assess the scope of current research on abuse in home care, and tangentially related reviews are dated. For these reasons, a scoping review is warranted to map the current state of research on abuse in home care and examine current interventions in this field. Databases selected for searching were Medline and EMBASE on OVID, Scopus, and the following databases in EBSCOhost: Academic Search Complete, AgeLine, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Records were included if: (a) they were written in English; (b) the participants were home care workers or clients age 18 years or older; (c) they were published in journals; (d) they undertook empirical research; and (e) they were published within the last 10-year period. Following Graham et al. (2006), the 52 included articles are categorized as either knowledge inquiry or as intervention studies. We find three themes among knowledge inquiry studies: (1) prevalence and types of abuse in home care, (2) abuse in the context of living with dementia, and (3) working conditions and abuse. Analysis from the intervention studies suggest that not all organizations have specific policies and practices to prevent abuse, and no existing interventions to protect the well-being of clients were identified. Findings from this review can inform up-to-date practice and policymaking to improve the health and well-being of home care clients and workers.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T12:14:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231165922
       
  • Outlining Individual and Contextual Factors Related to LGBTQ+ Bullying: A
           Systematic Review of Two Decades of Research

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      Authors: Esperanza Espino, Olga Jiménez-Díaz, Rosario Del Rey, Paz Elipe
      Abstract: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Ahead of Print.
      Scientific interest in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and any other sexual orientation, gender identity and/or expression (LGBTQ+) bullying in educational settings has grown exponentially in recent years. However, the varied ways of measuring its occurrence and associated factors have made it difficult to achieve a holistic understanding of this problem. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to provide an updated overview of individual and contextual factors related to LGBTQ+ bullying over the past two decades, based on the measurement approach to this phenomenon. Studies published from 2000 to 2020 were analyzed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses strategy. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a staggered process, and 111 articles met all the criteria. Studies focusing on LGBTQ+ bullying victimization or aggression were eligible for inclusion. Our analysis revealed LGBTQ+ bullying is usually examined by measures of general aggressions (47.8%) from the victims’ perspective (87.3%). The best-represented factors across studies were individual characteristics (63.1%; n = 70), especially participants’ sexual orientation and gender identity and expression (68.5%). Boys/males, from a binary gender perspective, and sexual and gender minority youth in general, were more at risk of being targeted for LGBTQ+ bullying. Although contextual factors were far less well-represented, the results revealed that gay-straight alliances, anti-homophobia policies, and social support act as protective factors. This review highlights the need to analyze LGBTQ+ bullying considering the full spectrum of sexual and gender diversity, to examine in more detail its contextual risk/protective factors, and to design public policies and psychoeducational programs in order to address the low effectiveness of generic interventions. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
      Citation: Trauma, Violence, & Abuse
      PubDate: 2023-04-20T11:57:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15248380231165724
       
 
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  Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
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Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 351)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 341)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 388)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 359)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 303)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 365)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 396)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 287)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 339)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 307)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

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