Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1397 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (30 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (65 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (161 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (843 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (11 journals)

CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (161 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 160 of 160 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Criminologica : Southern African Journal of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription  
Advances in Cement Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Safety Promotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Security Review     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 360)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Annual Review of Criminology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 348)
Biometric Technology Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Boletín Criminológico     Open Access  
Brill Research Perspectives in Transnational Crime     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 398)
Campbell Systematic Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Graduate Journal of Sociology and Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice / La Revue canadienne de criminologie et de justice pénale     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Champ pénal/Penal field     Open Access  
Computer Fraud & Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 281)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary Challenges : The Global Crime, Justice and Security Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Justice Review: Issues in Criminal, Social, and Restorative Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Corrections : Policy, Practice and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Crime & Delinquency     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Crime and Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Crime Prevention and Community Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Crime Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Crime Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Crime, Histoire & Sociétés     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Crime, Security and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice and Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Criminal Justice Matters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Criminal Justice Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Criminal Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Criminal Law Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Criminocorpus, revue hypermédia     Open Access  
Criminological Studies     Open Access  
Criminologie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminology and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Crítica Penal y Poder     Open Access  
Critical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cryptologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Datenschutz und Datensicherheit - DuD     Hybrid Journal  
Delito y Sociedad : Revista de Ciencias Sociales     Open Access  
Derecho Penal y Criminología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
EDPACS: The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter     Hybrid Journal  
Estudios Penales y Criminológicos     Open Access  
EURASIP Journal on Information Security     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 269)
European Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
European Journal of Probation     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Polygraph     Open Access  
European Review of Organised Crime     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Feminist Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Forensic Science International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Forensic Science International : Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Forensic Science International: Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Forensic Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Global Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 282)
Health & Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Homicide Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Incarceration     Full-text available via subscription  
Information Security Journal : A Global Perspective     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Annals of Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
International Criminal Justice Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Criminal Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Cryptography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Criminology and Sociology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Information and Coding Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Police Science and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 312)
International Journal of Prisoner Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Punishment and Sentencing, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Review of Victimology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Adult Protection, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Computer Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computer Virology and Hacking Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Correctional Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Journal of Criminal Justice Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Criminal Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Journal of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Criminology and Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Journal of Forensic Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Journal of Forensic Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Journal of Gender-Based Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Illicit Economies and Development     Open Access  
Journal of International Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Learning Disabilities and Offending Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Penal Law & Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Perpetrator Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 410)
Journal of Quantitative Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Strategic Security     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Justice Evaluation Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Justice Research and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
Juvenile and Family Court Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Kriminologia ikasten : Irakaskuntzarako aldizkaria     Open Access  
Kriminologisches Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Law, Innovation and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Nordic Journal of Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Occasional Series in Criminal Justice and International Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Police Journal : Theory, Practice and Principles     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 317)
Police Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 297)
Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 324)
Policy & Internet     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Política Criminal     Open Access  
Psychology of Violence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Psychology, Crime & Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Punishment & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Research and Reports in Forensic Medical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Criminalística     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos y Criminológicos     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de la Maestría en Ciencias Penales     Open Access  
Rivista di Studi e Ricerche sulla criminalità organizzata     Open Access  
Science & Global Security: The Technical Basis for Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation Initiatives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Security and Defence Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Security Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Theory and Practice of Forensic Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Trauma, Violence, & Abuse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Trends in Organized Crime     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 372)
URVIO - Revista Latinoamericana de Estudios de Seguridad     Open Access  
Women & Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Women Against Violence : An Australian Feminist Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.738
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 324  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 1 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1363-951X - ISSN (Online) 1758-695X
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • A reexamination of the code of silence and disciplinary fairness in South
           Korea over 11 years

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wook Kang , Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovich , Jeyong Jung
      Abstract: This paper aims to provide an in-depth exploration of the code of silence in Korean policing and its relationship to perceptions of disciplinary fairness. The authors separately surveyed 370 Korean police officers in 2008 and 356 Korean police officers in 2019. The respondents were asked to evaluate seven hypothetical scenarios measuring different types of police misconduct from police corruption to the use of excessive force. The results demonstrated that the strength of the code of silence decreased over a decade. The code of silence seems to protect less serious examples of police misconduct more strongly than more serious examples of police misconduct. Furthermore, the extent of the code of silence and perceptions of discipline severity are closely related in situations in which the expected discipline is evaluated by officers as too harsh. When police officers evaluated the expected discipline as fair, they were less likely to adhere to the code of silence than when they evaluated the expected discipline as too harsh, providing support for the simple justice model. On the other hand, the results are mixed for comparisons of the code of silence among respondents who evaluated discipline as fair and those who evaluated discipline as too lenient. This is one of few studies focusing on the potential changes in the code of silence over time and on its relationship with the perception of disciplinary fairness. South Korea has conducted a reform of the police (the Grand Reform) in the late 1990s and more recently enacted the new laws regulating police misconduct. This study relies on two independent surveys of the same population of police officersto empirically assesses potential changes resulting from these societal and organizational transformations.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0021
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Does racial discrimination matter: explaining perceived police bias across
           four racial/ethnic groups

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yue Yuan , Yuning Wu , Chris Melde
      Abstract: This study uses a diverse sample of residents living in Northern California to study factors that are associated with public perceptions of police bias. The authors also investigate whether perceptions of racial discrimination mediate the relationships between race/ethnicity and perceptions of police bias. The sampling frame of the study was constructed through two stages. First, the frame included 212 census tracts in the study setting that comprise the study population. The authors stratified the census tracts by using demographic information from the most recent American Community Survey. The authors also used a multi-mode address-based design in which a household adult was invited through mail to participate in a web-based survey. The authors found that racial/ethnic minorities (i.e. Latino, African American and Asian respondents) were more likely to experience racism and report police as biased than White residents. Racial and ethnic disparities in assessments of police bias, however, disappeared when controlling for direct and indirect experiences of racism, suggesting that experiences with racism are key factors explaining variations in perception of police bias across racial/ethnic groups. The generalizability of the findings is unclear. Future research should focus on multiple cities to advance the understanding of perceptions of police bias. Second, the measures of direct and indirect experiences with racism do not identify the source of the problematic encounters, and thus the authors are unaware of the experiences respondents had with police officers. This paper includes the implications for the perceptions of police bias and how to improve police-citizen interactions. This paper will facilitate ongoing debate on police-citizens interactions. Specifically, how experiences of racism can improve the understanding of bias toward the police. This paper fulfills an research need to study perceptions of police bias among diverse immigrant populations.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0020
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Police internal affairs units: results from a national survey

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christopher Harris , Sean Perry
      Abstract: This study aims to obtain information regarding the personnel, policies and practices of Internal Affairs (IA) units in large, municipal, US police departments. The authors administered an 85-question survey to 436 departments that employed 100 or more full-time sworn officers in 2019 to inquire about their IA units, and 198 (45.4%) responded. The authors find considerable variation in terms of the organization and management of IA units, frame policy findings in terms of IA’s best practices specified by the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and find variation in adherence to these practices as well; some policies and practices are almost universally adopted, while others are much less frequently followed or even go against best practices. There has only been a single study conducted of IA units and that is over three decades old. This study provides a much-needed expansion and update regarding the form and function of IA units in the US.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2022-0040
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • A study on the mediating effects of anxiety and happiness for workplace
           loneliness and behavioral outcomes of Korean police officers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang Woon Chung , Xue Tong Dong , Jeong Kwon Yun
      Abstract: Workplace loneliness has become a concern in diverse work settings. However, workplace loneliness research is in its early stages of development and not much is known about the effects of it on organizations and its members, especially in police organizations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between workplace loneliness, anxiety, happiness, task performance, and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Data from police officers in Korea were used to test these relationships. Using a three-wave time-lagged procedure, the study sample consisted of 227 police officers in South Korea from one regional police headquarters (Yongin Dongbu Police Station) and four substations in the Yongin region. The study tested parallel mediation of anxiety and happiness in the relationships between workplace loneliness and workplace outcomes using the PROCESS macro (Model 4) for SPSS 26. The regression analyses with bootstrapping results indicated that police officers' anxiety and happiness served as mediating mechanisms linking workplace loneliness with task performance and OCB. The police force is a very significant facet within society. However, research has not yet investigated loneliness in the police context. Thus, the study investigated the proximal and distal effects of workplace loneliness by associating workplace loneliness with task performance and OCB via anxiety and happiness.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-19
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2022-0041
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Predictors of public support for police accreditation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gordon Abner
      Abstract: This study aims to identify the predictors of public support for police accreditation under four different scenarios that vary based upon whether or not accreditation requires a property tax increase and whether or not local police support accreditation. This study draws upon survey data from 998 US adults. Four binary logistic models are employed to assess support for accreditation under four different scenarios. Individual-level factors, including age, education, race, region, generalized trust, political ideology, and volunteer experience, are important predictors of support for police accreditation depending on the scenario presented. Community-level factors including perceptions of police performance and perceptions of property taxes are also important predictors of support for police accreditation depending on the scenario presented. Support for police accreditation is highest when police accreditation does not require a property tax increase and when local police support accreditation. Sixty-six percent of respondents support police accreditation under this scenario. This article represents the first published study on the predictors of support for police accreditation. The findings from this study have important implications for implementing police reform given recent calls by activists to both reform the police and to defund them.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Canine/handler relationships: a descriptive mixed-methods analysis of
           handlers' well-being and stress

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sarah Abraham , Frances P. Abderhalden , Matthew C. Matusiak
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the relationships between handlers and (canine) K9. Understanding the influence of well-being and stress (general, occupational and home) is a first step in understanding the performance of K9 units in law enforcement. A mixed-methods approach employing semi-structured interviews and quantitative surveys. This approach assessed the relationship between handlers and K9s, while capturing context and the nuanced nature of these partnerships. Handlers agree that K9 can detect handlers' general stress, which potentially impacts K9 performance. Occupational stress influences handler/K9 abilities, however, handlers did not agree on all individual behaviors contributing to this stress. Finally, handlers stressed the importance of K9 units training together and suggested supervisors do not always appreciate the importance of joint training sessions. As specialized units, K9s are often overlooked in policing scholarship, but serve a substantial large role in the missions of safety and security. Little is known about the dynamics of handler/K9 relationships.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2022-0049
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Police resource distribution in China: spatial decision making based on
           PGIS-MCDA method

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ning Zhang , Xu Haoran , Feng Jiang , Dawei Wang , Peng Chen , Qing Zhang
      Abstract: Based on the theoretical viewpoints of criminal geography and environmental criminology, this research uses spatial multi-criteria decision-making methods. In the process of spatial decision-making and optimization of police resources, researchers fully consider the dynamic application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and the effects of spatial prevention and control. Researchers use an integrated method combining Policing Geographic Information System (PGIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). On the one hand, police GIS has an excellent visual data analysis platform and integrated decision support system in data management, spatial analysis, data exploration and regression analysis. On the other hand, through the design of the indicator system, the quantification of indicators, the determination of weights, comprehensive evaluation and sensitivity analysis, MCDA can select the best plan from a large number of alternatives. When joining MCDA, the spatial dimension will bring the research results closer to the real world. The study finds that the crime of burglary is affected to a certain extent by the distribution of police forces, the location of police units. Another important finding of this research is the correlation between more precise preventive measures and the crime of burglary. From a practical point of view, this research would help advance the role of police units and law enforcement agencies in preventing burglary crimes and provide experience for the allocation of regional police resources.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2022-0042
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Evidence-based policing and police receptivity to research: evidence
           from Taiwan

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kenghui Lin , Aiden Sidebottom , Richard Wortley
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate how evidence-based policing (EBP) is understood by police officers and citizens in Taiwan and the influence of police education on police recruit's receptivity to research evidence in policing. The study uses a cross-sectional design that includes Taiwanese police officers (n = 671) and a control group of Taiwanese criminology undergraduate students (n = 85). A research instrument covering five themes is developed, and after a pilot test the final scale remains 14 items. The analysis suggests that police officers in Taiwan generally hold a positive view towards the role of research and researchers in policing, more so than is often observed in similar studies conducted in Western countries. Receptivity to research was found to be significantly higher among the non-police sample compared to the police sample. Moreover, time spent in police education was significantly associated with lower levels of receptivity to research. The paper makes two original contributions to the literature on police officer receptivity to research. It is the first paper to (1) empirically examine police officers' openness to, and use of research in an Asian setting and (2) to compare police officers' receptivity to research with those of a relevant non-police group.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2022-0050
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Factors associated with job commitment among Chinese police cadets: a
           longitudinal study

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xinting Wang , Jihong Zhao , Jia Qu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore factors correlated with police cadets' perceived commitment to the police profession – whether or not personal attitudes and demographic characteristics can make a difference. The study used two-year longitudinal data collected from a population of 207 Chinese police cadets. Survey research based on pre-designed instruments was employed to collect the data. The results from panel data analysis found that personal interest in adolescence and attitudes toward styles of policing were significant predictors. Specifically, attitudes toward community policing were positively related to the cadets' commitment to the police profession. Police occupational commitment is essential since the commitment is closely linked to voluntary retention and organizational effectiveness. However, limited empirical research has been available regarding the factors associated with officers' identification and commitment to the occupation. This study provides insight into police officer training and recruitment and offers suggestions for future research.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2022-0051
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Instrumental and normative pathways to police legitimacy: why do people
           cooperate with the police'

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sung Uook Lee , Joseph Hamm , Yoon Ho Lee
      Abstract: The majority of legitimacy research has been conducted in low-power distance societies such as America, England, Australia, etc. We test the relative impact of normative and instrumental judgments on police legitimacy in a high-power distance society. It is hypothesized that in this context, individuals in high-power distance societies, such as South Korea, will put a larger emphasis on the instrumental model of legitimacy and less on the relational model of legitimacy. This study examines the pathways to police legitimacy and cooperation. Using a convenience sample of Korean college students, the impact of instrumental and normative pathways on the perception of police legitimacy is examined. Based on Hofstede's (2001) power-distance theory, we hypothesize that South Koreans, with relatively high-power distance, should emphasize the instrumental pathway of police legitimacy more compared to the normative pathway of police legitimacy. The results indicated that opposite to what we have hypothesized, South Korean college students still emphasized the normative pathways to police legitimacy more importantly. While procedural justice significantly predicted both trustworthiness and obligation to obey the police, police effectiveness only significantly predicted trustworthiness and failed to predict obligation to obey. The majority of police legitimacy research has been conducted in the Western context. A small amount of research focusing on non-Western settings has been conducted, but still requires more attention. The current research adds to the body of police legitimacy literature in the Korean context. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-30
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-03-2022-0037
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Policing the largest drug market on the eastern seaboard: officer
           perspectives on enforcement and community safety

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jerry H. Ratcliffe , Hayley Wight
      Abstract: The Kensington transit corridor runs between Huntingdon and Allegheny stations in the Kensington area of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and is one of the largest illicit drug areas in the country. The authors report qualitative findings from ride-alongs with transit police officers assigned to a vehicle patrol dedicated to reducing the response time to opioid overdoses in and around the transit system (trains and buses) in this large open-air drug market. This study's focus was on management and mitigation of the criminogenic harms associated with the illicit drug environment. For ten months, transit officers patrolled the Kensington transit corridor in a dedicated vehicle (callsign “Oscar One”). Oscar One operated during either an early (8 a.m. to 4 p.m.) or late (4 p.m. to midnight) shift, between September 2020 and June 2021. 269 shifts were randomly selected for Oscar One from 574 possible shifts. Researchers accompanied Oscar One for 51 observations (19%), 45 of which were completed by the authors. Semi-structured interviews occurred during these shifts, as well as ethnographic field observations. Four main themes emerged from the study. These centered on the role of law enforcement in a large drug market, the politics of enforcement within the city of Philadelphia, the policing world around risk and proactive engagement post–George Floyd, and the sense of police being overwhelmed on the front-line of community safety. Police officers have a community safety as well as a law enforcement mandate, and this study explores the community safety and harm mitigation role from their perspective. The article draws on their words, based on approximately 400 h of field observation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-09
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2021-0172
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The relationship between family cohesion, family-work conflict, enrichment
           and psychological health of Indian police

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Monika Agrawal , Ritika Mahajan
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the influence of family cohesion on family-to-work conflict (FWC), family-to-work enrichment (FWE) and psychological health. The study also aims to investigate the impact of FWC and FEW on psychological health. The study uses conservation of resources theory as a theoretical base. Data came from frontline officers of Rajasthan police in India using a purposive sampling technique. The study utilizes Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling to test the proposed research model. The findings reveal that family cohesion is a critical family resource that diminishes FWC and boosts FWE. The findings further demonstrate that FWE improves psychological health. Lastly, the study displays that FWE fully mediates the link between family cohesion and psychological health. The male-dominated sample prevents evaluating gender differences in the proposed relationships. Generalizations to other cultures and contexts are limited. The findings of the study suggest that police administrators need to understand the family characteristics of officers and plan interventions to facilitate a cohesive family environment in the police. Little is known about the family direction relationships (FWC and FWE) in work-family research. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to test a model of family cohesion, FWC, FWE and psychological health.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0028
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Suicide clusters in law enforcement: a descriptive analysis

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John M. Violanti
      Abstract: This study examined the national prevalence of cluster suicides among law enforcement personnel at the county level, the influence on future suicides and risk factors associated with clusters. Law enforcement suicide data were obtained from The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) and categorized into: (1) cluster and (2) non-cluster suicides. Chi-square was used to compare differences between the two groups. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of suicide risk factors in the groups. 2,465 law enforcement suicides were listed in NVDRS between 2003–2018. 80 (9.4%) US counties had clusters, with 640 officers (25.7%) of officers as part of those clusters. Odds ratios for risk factors associated with the suicide cluster group were: mental health crisis (OR = 2.6, p = 0.026), age (OR = 1.01, p = 0.003), married (OR = 1.729, p=
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2022-0006
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Assessing the correlates of CALEA accreditation: a state-of-the-art review

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gordon Abner , Sarah Rush
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to synthesize empirical research on the correlates of Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) accreditation. The authors performed keyword searches across 132 criminal justice, policing, and public administration journals to identify peer-reviewed articles that examine the relationship between CALEA accreditation and any output or outcome. Two keyword searches were utilized “commission on accreditation for law enforcement agencies” and “commission on accreditation of law enforcement agencies” in the event that authors misnamed the accrediting body. Only quantitative articles that utilized inferential statistics were included in the sample given that the authors aimed to assess the relationship between CALEA law enforcement accreditation and outputs and outcomes. Overall, there is a paucity of research on the relationship between CALEA accreditation and outputs and outcomes. Only nineteen, peer-reviewed, studies that utilize inferential statistics have been published on the topic as of the end of 2021. The largest number of studies explore the relationship between CALEA accreditation and community-oriented policing and gender representation. Given the dearth of quantitative studies on CALEA accreditation, and the lack of studies using experimental or quasi-experimental designs, current findings on the topic should not be viewed as proof of cause and effect relationships but as correlations. This article represents the first systematic review of the correlates of CALEA accreditation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-25
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0032
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Proportionate mortality and national rate of death from COVID-19 among US
           law enforcement officers: 2020

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John M. Violanti , Desta Fekedulegn , Erin McCanlies , Michael E. Andrew
      Abstract: The goal of the present study is to determine the proportionate mortality and national rate of duty-related deaths from COVID-19 among US law enforcement officers during the year 2020. Data for the current study were obtained from the National Law Enforcement Officer Memorial Fund (NLEOMF) database for the year 2020. The database contains deaths designated as caused by incidents that occurred while in the line of duty. The chi-square test and two-sample t-test were used to compare characteristics of officers who died of COVID-19 versus other causes of death. Both the proportionate mortality and rates of death were calculated. To compute the rate of death, the authors obtained data on the total number of law enforcement officers employed in the United States (and therefore at risk) for the year 2020 from Bureau of Labor Statistics. COVID-19 deaths (n = 182) accounted for 62% of all duty-related law enforcement officer deaths during 2020. The national rate of death due to COVID-19 (12.8/100,000 per year) for law enforcement officers was higher compared to all other causes of death combined (8.0/100,000 per year). A limitation of the study is the uncertainty of a definitive assessment that the viral infection was acquired through work (versus at home or other non-work-related community settings). Although highly unlikely, deaths designated as duty related entail financial benefits for the survivors and may be a potential source of bias. Given the complexity of personal exposures, the percentage of COVID-19 deaths attributed to duty may represent an over or under estimation of the actual value. Therefore, the data should be interpreted cautiously. These findings provide police organizations with information needed to understand the risk of death among officers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to make informed decisions about future preparedness strategies. There are presently no published scientific studies that examine both the proportionate mortality and national rate of death from COVID-19 among law enforcement officers for the year 2020.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-02-2022-0022
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Cold case homicides and assigning priority for investigation: a review of
           available literature

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Katrina Nurthen , Luke van der Laan
      Abstract: The purpose of this scoping literature review was to identify and consolidate all available theories and methods for cold case homicide evaluation, solvability and priority ranking that would serve to guide a broader exploratory study and future research. The paper presents the findings of a scoping literature review. The review forms part of a broader exploratory study. The scoping literature review sought to identify reported evidence from the extant literature in identifying and defining key concepts relevant to cold prioritisation. It also sought to identify any knowledge gaps relevant to the scoping review question. The review suggested that internationally, there is a wide variance and inconsistency in the processes, methods and criteria used by policing agencies to evaluate and prioritise cold cases for investigation. Despite this, there were four themes that could be regarded as [parameters for future cold case research: cold case evaluation and review, prioritisation methods, solvability and prioritisation systems and tools. The review revealed several gaps in the literature. No papers could be found discussing the allocation of individual priority rankings based on any kind of weighted criteria system or model. Further, no information could be found in the available literature on any automated systems, online tools, algorithms, or applications utilised when evaluating or prioritising cases. The research results are limited in that it is possible that relevant extant literature exists that was not discoverable using the scoping review search strategy. The paper is a part of a broader exploratory study that seeks to develop a framework for cold case prioritisation that, in a time where public scrutiny has increased, has increased transparency with clearly articulated criteria for evaluation and process. This paper assimilates the extant literature associated with cold case evaluation and prioritisation and presents a summary of themes and gaps in knowledge that informs future research.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2021-0170
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Self-legitimacy of police officers in Slovenia
         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rok Hacin , Gorazd Meško
      Abstract: In recent years, several studies on self-legitimacy of police officers were conducted; however, few have tested the unstable nature of legitimacy in different time periods. This paper aims to focus on the self-legitimacy of police officers and its impact on pro-organizational behavior in 2013 and 2016. The study took place in eight regional police directorates in Slovenia. The number of participants amounted to 529 police officers in 2013 and 478 police officers in 2016 that have completed a paper and pencil survey that was pretested using a convenience sample of police officers studying as part-time undergraduate students. Overall findings revealed organizational commitment as the strongest predictor of self-legitimacy of police officers in Slovenia. The invariance of the “core variables” and their influence on the self-legitimacy of police officers in different time periods was confirmed. Their perception of individual legitimacy, organizational commitment, education and years of service influenced pro-organizational behaviors of police officers. Limitations of the study can be seen in the sincerity of participating police officers and the nature of self-legitimacy, which operates differently in different societies. The results could be used for the improvement of policing in a young democratic country. Legitimacy, procedural justice and other components of policing in a democratic society need to be tested globally, especially in young democracies. This study is an example of an ongoing, follow-up endeavor of researchers and the national police to reflect upon the development of policing. The paper has confirmed the invariance of relations with colleagues, supervisors' procedural justice and audience legitimacy on the self-legitimacy in different time periods and societies.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-03
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-01-2021-0013
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Staffing composition in large, US police departments: benchmarking
           workforce diversity

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jeremy M. Wilson , Clifford A. Grammich
      Abstract: Policymakers have long suggested diversifying US police forces, which typically have white male majorities among officers. This article explores to what extent police diversity has changed over time in large agencies, as well as whether different diversity benchmarks may matter for agencies. The authors draw data from the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (LEMAS) survey for 358 agencies that had at least 100 full-time sworn officers in 1997 and 2016 and that reported officer demographic data to the LEMAS in both years. For a selection of 12 communities – three randomly chosen in each of the four US Census regions – the authors compare officer diversity to Census data on population diversity for different benchmarks. There has been some increase in diversity but policing largely remains a white male profession. The authors find only limited variation in diversity by type of benchmark – e.g. total population, working population or recruiting-age population – a community considers. This suggests communities may wish to choose a benchmark they can best measure and seek to increase diversity by it, and research on workforce representation may not be sensitive to benchmark choice. The authors also suggest communities and their police organizations consider other ways to assess diversity, including those that illustrate a broader range of attributes and representation throughout the organization, and that they research and test alternative forms of measurement to gauge whether these findings hold for different modeling approaches. Our analysis is limited to the largest police agencies and to overall staffing level diversity metrics pertaining to sex, race and Hispanic origin. Still, we find many police agencies have room for greater diversity, which could draw more qualified workers and lead to better policing. While there has been much attention to police diversity in recent decades, there have been few efforts to compare alternative measurement approaches. This research provides guidance to some initial measures, as well as further considerations communities may wish to make.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-12-2021-0175
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Guest editorial: Policing in the aftermath of the 2020 protests: Lessons
           learned and evolving strategies for reform

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...
      Guest editorial: Policing in the aftermath of the 2020 protests: Lessons learned and evolving strategies for reform
      Richard C. Helfers, Delores Jones-Brown, Lorenzo M. Boyd
      Policing: An International Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp.541-555 Policing: An International Journal 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2022-200
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Officer-involved deaths and the duty to intervene: assessing the impact of
           DTI policy in New York City, 2000–2019

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Akiv J. Dawson , Kwan-Lamar Blount-Hill , Guy Hodge II
      Abstract: In the current study, the authors explore changes in multiple police officer-involved deaths (MOIDs) and on changes in the racial makeup of MOID victims in different stages of implementation of a duty-to-intervene (DTI) policy by the New York City Police Department (NYPD). The authors use fatal encounters to analyze data on MOIDs involving NYPD officers from 2000 to 2019, including three time periods: pre-DTI, initial DTI, and revised DTI. The authors use non-equivalent dependent variables design and t-tests to determine the significance of differences in MOID occurrence and civilian race between these periods. The greatest reduction in MOIDs was observed during the initial DTI period, followed by an uptick in MOIDs during the revised DTI period. We also observed that MOIDs are racialized events that disproportionately impact Black New Yorkers. This remained the case even after the implementation of DTI. The authors find mixed support for DTI as an administrative control for preventing MOIDs and reducing racial disparities in MOIDs. DTI implementation period, the significant reductions in MOIDs in the initial DTI period, but not the second also lends support for the notion that community pressure (i.e. resurgence of Black Lives Matter) also impacts officer behavior. This suggests that along with strong administrative controls, the behavior of the public may also be an important factor in controlling officer behavior. This article contributes to the growing literature on duty to intervene and offers an early investigation into DTI as an administrative control for MOIDs using the NYPD as a case study. The authors examine changes in MOIDs and the racial makeup of civilians who were killed in MOIDs in three DTI periods. To the authors’ knowledge, no other study has done this.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2021-0119
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • The plurality of police oversight: a method for building upon lessons
           learned for understanding an evolving strategy

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin G. Karpiak , Sameena Mulla , Ramona L. Pérez
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative research methods framework designed to address some of the persistent challenges to a social scientific understanding of civilian-led police oversight commissions. The project design begins by acknowledging that oversight commissions take multiple and varied forms, which are contingent on local histories, institutional dynamics and discursive strategies for indexing racial inequality. The authors find such variation not to be an impediment to insightful research design. Rather, the methodological frame makes use of multi-sited ethnographic methods, organized at the county level across three research clusters (in this example, Milwaukee Co, WI; San Diego Co., CA; and Washtenaw Co, MI), to draw attention to the effects of such multiplicity to complicate, localize and render visible the specific practices of policing and its critique through civilian oversight. Amongst an increasing national concern with the racialized nature of police violence, one evolving strategy for police reform among municipalities is to establish civilian oversight boards that can monitor, make recommendations for, and potentially direct police policy. However, there is very little research on such commissions, leaving many unanswered questions for proponents of evidence-based criminal justice policy. One reason for this lack is that the tremendous variability of such commissions has led some researchers to abandon hope for a comparative analysis which might offer generalizable conclusions beyond individual case studies. Lessons learned from previous reform efforts suggest that without a solid evidentiary basis, such reform efforts can easily succumb to institutional inertia or even failure. This danger is especially present when policy and practice recommendations are not based on research designs particularly attuned to making audible the experiences and concerns of the most marginalized targets of police attention. The value of this method rests in its ability to provide comparative insights into the ways in which oversight commissions operate within a broader pluralized security landscape that both makes possible and constrains democratic participation along racial lines. The method contextualizes and renders audible ways of understanding, evaluating, and practicing democratic community as it is articulated through the issue of police and its oversight.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2021-0117
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Finding good cops: the foundations of a screen-in (not out) hiring process
           for police

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Brice Terpstra , Michael D. White , Henry F. Fradella
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to outline components of a proposed screen-in (not out) hiring process for police. This study uses survey data collected from police officers of all ranks (n = 166) in one Arizona police department, exploring officer perceptions of the most important qualities necessary to be an exceptional police officer, as well as the optimal processes for finding people with those traits. Results build on prior studies that have begun to identify sought-after traits including honesty, integrity, ethics, compassion, empathy, as well as communication and listening skills. Findings also suggest preliminary steps for finding good cops through expansion of existing screen-out processes to also screen-in desirable prospects, application of some academy training processes to the hiring pool, and more proactive recruitment efforts. This study adds value to the extant literature on the characteristics of good policing and on identifying the qualities by which to “screen-in” officers during the hiring and recruitment process. Further, the authors expand this understanding by capturing perceptions of the best processes to identify individuals with desirable qualities during the hiring and recruitment process. The implications of these findings are used to initiate a discussion of foundational components of a screening-in hiring process for police, informed by both empirical research and community perspectives.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2021-0116
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Accountability in the aftermath of police related deaths in the US and
           England and Wales: processes and outcomes

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David Baker
      Abstract: The article examines the apparent absence of accountability in the aftermath of police related deaths (PRDs) in the US and England and Wales. It considers regulatory mechanisms such as investigations by independent regulators and internal affairs departments; and legal mechanisms such as cases heard in criminal, civil and coroners' courts. The processes used by these approaches, and outcomes produced are examined in terms of their perceived effectiveness in holding police to account. The article considers qualitative research based on interviews undertaken with the relatives of 59 people who died as a result of police contact in both countries. The research examined how families attempted to pursue justice and accountability in the aftermath of the death of a relative. Whilst the mechanisms of legal and regulatory accountability employed in each country are somewhat different, the outcomes they produce are remarkably similar: few officers are sanctioned in the aftermath of such deaths in either country. The article argues these mechanisms can provide a façade of accountability in terms of process, but not in terms of outcome. They enable systemic issues that produce police related deaths to go more or less unchanged. As the research project is highly original, there are necessarily limitations in terms of the generalisability of its findings because it represents the subjective views of participants affected by PRDs. The article suggests that further research be conducted to extend our understanding of issues related to PRDs. The article argues that the investigation and regulation of PRDs in both countries is essentially flawed. Consequently, there needs to be a fundamental rethink of how such deaths are investigated, and how police could be better held to account for PRDs. Without significant change to the processes and outcomes that occur in the aftermath of PRDs, it is argued that the legitimacy of police and the criminal justice system will continue to be questioned. There is no known empirical academic research into PRDs that considers the views of family members in both the US and England and Wales. As such, the article produces unique insights from the perspectives of relatives of those who have died following contact with the police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2021-0115
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Race, police stops, and perceptions of anti-Black police discrimination in
           Toronto, Canada over a quarter century

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Scot Wortley , Akwasi Owusu-Bempah
      Abstract: Black Canadians have a historically tenuous relationship with the police. Negative perceptions of the police held by Black people have traditionally resulted from high levels of police contact and perceived negative treatment during these encounters. Well-publicized instances of police violence involving Black civilians have also fostered hostility and mistrust of the police, often resulting in social unrest. Recently, in the wake of George Floyd's death at the hands of American police, people across Canada rallied in support of the Black Lives Matter social movement and calls to defund the police entered mainstream political consciousness. At the same time, police leaders have vehemently argued that racial bias within Canadian policing has been greatly reduced as the result of various reform efforts. This paper explores the police racism debate in Canada through an analysis of three waves of survey data collected between 1994 and 2019. Despite well-publicized reform efforts, the authors' findings demonstrate that little has changed over the past 25 years. Black people still report much higher rates of police stop and search activity than people from other racial backgrounds. Furthermore, racial disparities in negative police contact remain strongly significant after controlling for other theoretically relevant factors, including self-reported deviance and community crime levels. Finally, reflecting their negative experiences, most Black people still perceive Canadian law enforcement as racially biased. Nonetheless, the data do reveal one significant change: the proportion of white people who perceive police discrimination against Black people has increased dramatically over this same time period. The paper concludes by discussing the prospects of meaningful reform in light of the current findings. This paper contributes to the literature on race and policing through an examination of 25 years of survey data across three waves of collection.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-11-2021-0157
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • But did they get it “right”' Deadly force, body-worn camera
           footage, and hindsight bias

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sean Patrick Roche , Danielle M. Fenimore , Paul Taylor
      Abstract: American police agencies' swift adoption of body-worn camera (BWC) technology, coupled with the ubiquity of smartphones and social media, has led to a “new visibility” of policing. Video recordings are often touted as objective evidentiary accounts of police-civilian interactions. Yet even these recordings are rarely seen in a vacuum, but instead accompanied by headlines and accounts. Using a diverse sample of young American adults (N = 943) and an experimental design incorporating a short poorly recorded BWC video embedded within a survey, this study investigates perceptions of the appropriateness of police behavior in an ambiguous situation where officers used deadly force on a Black civilian. All respondents viewed the same video, but were randomly assigned to one of four ultimate outcomes. Respondents overwhelmingly reported the BWC video was personally important and significant for a subsequent investigation and public opinion. The experimental manipulation, along with background factors, exerted a substantial effect on perceptions of the officers' actions. Respondents found the officers' actions more appropriate when told the civilian held a weapon. Americans are divided on the role of police in a democratic society. Objective accounts like video recordings may be used to build consensus, but our results, derived from a novel method and dataset, suggest deeper cognitive biases must also be overcome.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2021-0126
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Progressive or problematic' A comparative analysis of media
           depictions of demands to defund the police

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Miltonette Olivia Craig , Jonathan C. Reid
      Abstract: The current study examines the media's depiction of demands to defund the police. Although this call to action has been a part of the public discourse for decades, the call has reached mainstream attention following the police-involved death of George Floyd in May 2020. Black Lives Matter, the American Civil Liberties Union, Color of Change, and other prominent organizations have endorsed this call. However, there is a lack of agreement on the “correct” meaning of this socio-political movement. The authors performed an inductive content analysis of the news articles using MaxQDA, a qualitative data analysis program. The authors focus on the text and its themes and patterns in the descriptions of #DefundThePolice, both implicit (e.g. tone) and explicit (e.g. defining the movement as problematic). The codes were further refined following open coding to fully develop the existing patterns. The results are organized by the themes within the articles. The findings also include direct quotes to reinforce the themes. In the authors' content analysis of news reports, the authors find that the US and UK news outlets report definitions that parallel the M4BL's description of the movement. In this respect, media coverage reflected the basic tenets of the movement accurately as opposed to using definitions that misrepresent the group's primary objective. Although these sampled news articles generally adhered to the basic description of the defund movement, the authors found that the overall substance and tone of coverage varied across outlets. This divergence yielded five overarching themes that included: the involvement of corporate America in the defunding debate, the frequent use of opinion pieces, mentions of history for informing the debate, the inclusion of the police perspective, and reporting that seemed to tie the defund movement to increases in violent crime. This article explores how the mass media reports and defines the #DefundThePolice movement. Although much debate surrounds this issue, there is limited understanding of the mainstream news media's depiction of the movement. The current study addresses this research gap and informs the defunding debate by examining whether media descriptions of the movement coincide with the Movement for Black Lives benchmark delineation.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2021-0124
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Investigating the prevalence and utility of police body-worn cameras in
           the George Floyd protests

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Janne E. Gaub , Michael White , Aili Malm , Seth Watts , Katharine Leigh Brown
      Abstract: Unlike protests against police brutality in the past (2014 and earlier), police officers responding to First Amendment-protected demonstrations in summer 2020 likely were wearing body-worn cameras(BWCs). This study seeks to understand police perceptions of the effects of BWCs when used in the George Floyd protests. The authors use survey data from 100 agencies with federally-funded BWCs to assess the prevalence of BWC deployment to George Floyd protests and perceived benefits and limitations of the technology within this unique context. About three-quarters of agencies encountered some level of demonstration/protest related to the killing of George Floyd, and the majority of those deployed BWCs during these demonstrations. Respondents indicated evidentiary value of footage was a key reason for doing so, and at least three preconditions for a civilizing effect were present. Research has documented numerous benefits associated with BWCs, from reductions in use of force and citizen complaints to evidentiary value. However, the extent to which BWC benefits extend to public protests is unclear. The George Floyd protests represent an opportunity to understand the prevalence and usefulness of BWCs in policing public protests.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-10-2021-0151
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Criticism does not constrain: testing for evidence of de-policing
           following the murder of George Floyd

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wendy M. Koslicki
      Abstract: Following the shooting of Michael Brown, much scholarly attention has been paid to the so-called “Ferguson effect” resulting from rhetoric that public scrutiny of the police will lead to de-policing. The present study tests this effect due to similar rhetoric that has re-emerged in public and media dialogue in response to Black Lives Matter protests following the killing of George Floyd in May 2020. Using Open Minneapolis' Police Use of Force dataset, the study employs interrupted time series analysis models of weekly use of force events against all citizens, as well as use of force against Black citizens specifically. Two models for each population are conducted due to data concerns: a set from January 2019 to June 2021, and a set from January 2019 to September 2020, with the week of George Floyd's death as the interruption point. Both models using September 2020 as the cutoff show no statistically significant variance in police use of force against subjects overall or against Black citizens following the immediate aftermath of protests. However, both models using June 2021 as the cutoff demonstrate a statistically significant rise in use of force against both populations following the interruption point. This study is among the first to examine de-policing following the George Floyd protests, and among the first to examine use of force rates beyond fatal force. Implications for research and practice are discussed, such as data availability and quality, as well as diverse perspectives surrounding de-policing and their implications for police practice.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2021-0114
      Issue No: Vol. 45 , No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Policing: An International Journal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 44.200.175.255
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-