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Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.211
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1993-0399 - ISSN (Online) 1672-3597
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Effects of moxibustion on miRNA-133b, Pitx3/TH, and neurotransmitters in
           the midbrain of rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

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      Abstract: Objective To investigate the mechanism of moxibustion in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), by observing the effects of moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) on microRNA-133b (miRNA-133b), pituitary homeobox family factor 3 (Pitx3)/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and neurotransmitters in the brain tissue of IBS-D rats. Methods Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group, a moxibustion group, and a Western medicine group, with 12 rats in each group. Except for the normal group, the IBS-D rat model was established by mother-offspring separation and acetic acid enema combined with restraint stress stimulation in all the other groups. No intervention was performed in the normal and model groups. Mild moxibustion was applied to both Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) in the moxibustion group. Rifaximin was given by gavage in the Western medicine group. The physical status of rats in each group was observed at different periods. After the intervention, hematoxylineosin staining was performed to observe the histopathological morphology of rat colon; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in plasma, colon, and midbrain tissue of rats; the relative expression levels of miRNA-133b, Pitx3 mRNA, and TH mRNA in the midbrain tissue were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the relative expression levels of Pitx3 and TH proteins in the midbrain tissue were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Results The body weights of rats among groups and at different time points were statistically different (P<0.01). The body weight of the normal group was higher than that of the other groups over time (P<0.01). After modeling, the minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was significantly lower (P<0.01) and the loose stool rate was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the model, moxibustion, and Western medicine groups compared with the normal group; the miRNA-133b expression in the midbrain tissue was significantly lower (P<0.01), the expression levels of Pitx3 and TH in the midbrain tissue were significantly higher (P<0.01), and the levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in plasma, colon and midbrain tissue were significantly higher (P<0.01). After the intervention, the minimum volume threshold of AWR was significantly higher (P<0.01), the loose stool rate was significantly lower (P<0.01), the miRNA-133b expression was significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and the expression levels of Pitx3 and TH were significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the midbrain tissue, the levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in plasma, colon, and midbrain tissue were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the moxibustion and Western medicine groups compared with the model group; the levels of 5-HT in the colon and midbrain tissue of the moxibustion group were significantly lower than those in the Western medicine group (P<0.05), and there was no statistical difference compared with the remaining groups (P>0.05). Linear correlation analysis showed that miRNA-133b was negatively correlated with Pitx3 (r<0, P<0.01); Pitx3 with TH, TH with DA, and NE with 5-HT were positively correlated (r>0, P<0.01). Conclusion Moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37) improves diarrhea symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity in IBS-D rats. The mechanism may be related to up-regulating miRNA-133b, inhibiting Pitx3/TH, and reducing neurotransmitter expression levels in the midbrain tissue.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Clinical observation of acupuncture combined with sitting-position
           knee-adjustment manipulations for patellofemoral arthritis

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the efficacy of acupuncture combined with sitting-position knee-adjustment manipulations in treating patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Methods Ninety-two patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis were randomized into an observation group and a medication group, with 46 cases in each group. The observation group received acupuncture and sitting-position knee-adjustment manipulations, and the medication group received oral celecoxib capsules. After 8-week treatment, changes in the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Lysholm knee scoring scale (LKSS) scores were observed, and the clinical efficacy was compared. Results The total effective rate was 87.0% in the observation group and 63.0% in the control group; the between-group difference was statistically significant. Before treatment, there were no significant differences in the SF-MPQ score or LKSS score (P>0.05). After 8-week treatment, the SF-MPQ [including pain rating index (PRI), visual analog scale (VAS), and present pain intensity (PPI)] and LKSS scores showed notable changes in both groups (P<0.05); the SF-MPQ and LKSS scores in the observation group were significantly different from those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Combining acupuncture and sitting-position knee-adjustment manipulations can reduce pain and ameliorate joint function in patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis, producing more significant efficacy than oral celecoxib capsules.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Efficacy of electroacupuncture for patients with dry eye syndromes: a
           randomized controlled trial

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in treating dry eye syndromes (DES) and its regulatory effects on patient’s quality of life (QOL), anxiety, and depression. Methods By following a randomized controlled study design, eligible DES patients were allocated to an EA group (EAG) or an acupuncture group (AG). Patients in the AG were intervened by acupuncture alone, while in the EAG, electrical stimulation was applied to Cuanzhu (BL2) and Taiyang (EX-HN5) in addition to the same treatment in the AG. Changes in clinical manifestations, ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), tear-film break-up time (TF-BUT), cornea fluorescein staining (CFS), and corneal sensitivity (CS) were observed, as well as changes in the short-form 36-item health survey (SF-36) and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) scores. Results The scores of clinical symptoms, OSDI, and CFS decreased significantly in both EAG and AG when compared with the baseline values (P<0.05), respectively, while the TF-BUT and CS increased significantly (P<0.05), and the tear secretion of patients in the EAG increased (P<0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the scores of physical role functioning, general health perception, emotional role functioning, and mental health of patients in both EAG and AG showed significant increases after treatment (P<0.05), together with a marked decrease in the score of anxiety (P<0.05). Compared with the AG, the EAG obtained a more significant increase in STT-1 (P<0.05). Conclusion DES patients respond well to both EA and acupuncture treatments, manifested by prolonged TF-BUT and improvement of CS. Meanwhile, the two approaches can improve QOL and reduce anxiety. Furthermore, EA appears more effective in increasing tear secretion than acupuncture alone.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Clinical study of acupuncture combined with medication for the elderly
           with Alzheimer disease

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the impact of mind-regulating acupuncture plus donepezil on the cognitive ability, mean cerebral blood flow velocity, event-related potential P300, and activities of daily living (ADL) in the aged patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Sixty senile AD patients were divided into a treatment group and a control group following the envelope method for random allocation, with 30 cases in each group. Based on the conventional treatment of the internal medicine, the control group received oral donepezil, and the treatment group received oral donepezil plus mind-regulating acupuncture. After 4-week treatment, the two groups were evaluated by the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Alzheimer disease assessment scale-cognitive part (ADAS-Cog), and ADL; changes in P300 and the mean cerebral blood flow velocity were also observed. Results Before treatment, there were no significant differences in the scores of MMSE, ADAS-Cog, or ADL between the two groups (P>0.05). The MMSE score increased after treatment in both groups and was notably higher in the treatment group than in the control group, showing intra-group and inter-group statistical significance (P<0.05). After treatment, the ADAS-Cog and ADL scores dropped in both groups and were markedly lower in the treatment group than in the control group, also showing intra-group and inter-group statistical significance (P<0.05). Compared with the same group before treatment, the latency of P300 was shortened and the amplitude was extended in both groups, all with statistical significance (P<0.05); the latency was shorter and the amplitude was larger in the treatment group than in the control group after treatment, presenting significant between-group differences (P<0.05). The mean blood flow velocity accelerated after the intervention in both groups, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); the improvement in the treatment group was more notable than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Mind-regulating acupuncture plus donepezil can regulate the latency and amplitude of P300, increase cerebral blood flow, and improve the learning and memory abilities of AD patients.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Effects of Tuina on serum creatine kinase and skeletal muscle mitochondria
           in delayed onset muscle soreness model rats

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the effect of Tuina (Chinese therapeutic massage) on creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, and ultrastructure of skeletal muscle in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model rats. Methods A total of 130 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a blank group, an exercise control group, a pre-exercise Tuina group, and a post-exercise Tuina group. According to the time points for sample collection, the exercise control group was divided into a 0 h exercise control group, a 24 h exercise control group, a 48 h exercise control group, and a 72 h exercise control group; the pre-exercise Tuina group was further divided into a 0 h pre-exercise Tuina group, a 24 h pre-exercise Tuina group, a 48 h pre-exercise Tuina group, and a 72 h pre-exercise Tuina group; and the post-exercise Tuina group was divided into a 0 h post-exercise Tuina group, a 24 h post-exercise Tuina group, a 48 h post-exercise Tuina group, and a 72 h post-exercise Tuina group. Rats in all groups except for the blank group received DOMS modeling. Professionals performed Nie-Pinching manipulation and finger Nian-Twisting manipulation on the lower limbs of the rats. The samples were collected at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h after exhaustive exercise for each pre-exercise Tuina group. The samples were collected at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, or 72 h after Tuina for each post-exercise Tuina group. The changes in serum CK, skeletal muscle mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, and Ca2+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were determined. The ultrastructure changes of skeletal muscles in each group were observed by a transmission electron microscope. Results The electron microscope showed that compared with the exercise control group, the skeletal muscle structures of the pre-exercise Tuina group and the post-exercise Tuina group were significantly improved, and the overall performance of skeletal muscle in the pre-exercise Tuina group was more similar to that of the blank group. The level of serum CK in the pre-exercise Tuina group and the post-exercise Tuina group was significantly lower than that in the exercise control group (P<0.01). The Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle in the 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h pre-exercise Tuina groups was lower than that in the post-exercise Tuina group at the same time point (P<0.01). The Ca2+-ATPase concentration of skeletal muscle in the 24 h and 72 h pre-exercise Tuina groups was lower than that in the post-exercise Tuina group at the same time point (P<0.05). Conclusion Tuina effectively prevents muscle damage caused by heavy exercise and long-term exercise, which may be related to the increase of skeletal muscle Ca2+-ATPase activity and mitochondrial Ca2+ transport.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Clinical observation of Tiao Shen Tong Du Tuina in promoting
           neuropsychological development of premature infants

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the impact of Tiao Shen Tong Du (regulating the mind and unblocking the Governor Vessel) Tuina (Chinese therapeutic massage) on neuropsychological development of premature infants, discover effective early-stage intervention techniques, and improve the prognosis of premature infants. Methods A total of 115 eligible premature infants were recruited and divided into a control group of 59 cases and an observation group of 56 cases based on different interventions. The control group received three-month physical therapy (PT) and conventional early-stage intervention, and the observation group received additional Tiao Shen Tong Du Tuina treatment. Before and after treatment and at the one-year follow-up, the Gesell developmental schedule was adopted to evaluate neuropsychological development. Results After treatment, the gross motor development quotient (DQ) was higher in the observation group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05); there were no significant differences in the other four domains between the two groups (P>0.05). At the one-year follow-up, the observation group showed more notable improvements in all five domains’ DQs than the control group, and the between-group differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Based on conventional intervention, Tiao Shen Tong Du Tuina can significantly improve the gross motor function of premature infants in the short term, alongside valid long-term efficacy for gross motor function, fine motor function, adaptive behaviors, language, and personal-social behaviors.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Progress in the mechanism of acupuncture intervention on pain emotion and
           pain cognition mediated by limbic system

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      Abstract: Abstract Pain is a complex physiological and psychological activity, involving at least three dimensions, including pain sensation, pain emotion, and pain cognition. Acupuncture can clearly relieve the pain sensation of patients and improve pain emotion and pain cognition induced by pain; acupuncture participates in the multi-dimensional regulation of pain through brain regions of the limbic system such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala (AMY), and hippocampus. By analyzing relevant literature, it has been found that the regulation of acupuncture on pain emotion is mainly related to the activation of pertinent opioid receptors in the ACC, the decrease of the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and the promotion of the expression of glutamic acid (Glu) A1, metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 (mGluR1), and γ-aminobutyric acid aminobutyric acid (GABA) B2 protein in the AMY. The regulation of acupuncture on pain cognition is mainly related to the elevation of the expression of protein kinase A (PKA) and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (phospho-p38 MAPK) and the inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in the ACC.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Grain-sized moxibustion inhibits the progression of Alzheimer disease in
           5XFAD transgenic mice

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      Abstract: Objective To investigate whether grain-sized moxibustion at Xinshu (BL15) and Shenshu (BL23) can alleviate cognitive decline and other pathologic features in early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) using transgenic mice with 5 familial AD mutations (5XFAD). Methods The genotype of transgenic mice was detected by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 40 transgenic mice (1.5 months old) were randomly and equally allocated to an AD model group (5XFAD group) or a grain-sized moxibustion group (5XFAD + GM group), with 20 wild-type (WT) mice (C57BL/6J) serving as the normal control group (WT group). Mice in the 5XFAD + GM group were treated by grain-sized moxibustion at bilateral Xinshu (BL15) and Shenshu (BL23). Mice in the WT group and 5XFAD group received no treatment but were restrained to ensure exposure to a similar experimental condition. Cognitive function and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze and Y-maze tests. The amyloid β 40 (Aβ40) and amyloid β 42 (Aβ42) levels in the brain were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; amyloid plaque deposition in brain tissue sections was detected by thioflavin-S staining; the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cluster of differentiation 11b (CD11b), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results In the Morris water maze test, compared with the 5XFAD group, mice in the 5XFAD + GM group had a shorter escape latency and more target area crossings and spent more time in the target quadrant (P<0.05). In the Y-maze test, compared with the 5XFAD group, the number of training times of the 5XFAD + GM group was significantly decreased (P<0.05), together with more correct responses (P<0.05). Compared with the 5XFAD group, the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the brain tissue of the 5XFAD + GM group were significantly lower (P<0.05); in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, the total number of amyloid β plaque deposition were significantly lower (P<0.05); the expression levels of GFAP and CD11b were significantly reduced (P<0.05); and the expression levels of ChAT and BDNF were significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion Grain-sized moxibustion at Xinshu (BL15) and Shenshu (BL23) greatly improves learning and memory functions, decreases the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, inhibits amyloid β plaque deposition, decreases the expression of GFAP and CD11b, and increases the expression of ChAT and BDNF in AD mice to inhibit the progression of AD.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Clinical observation of acupuncture and moxibustion for functional
           dyspepsia due to Yang deficiency of the spleen and stomach

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion for functional dyspepsia (FD) due to Yang deficiency of the spleen and stomach. Methods A total of 90 patients meeting the inclusion criteria of FD due to Yang deficiency of the spleen and stomach were randomized into an acupuncture-moxibustion group, an electroacupuncture (EA) group, and a mosapride group by the random number table method, with 30 cases in each group. The mosapride group was treated with mosapride citrate dispersible tablets. The EA group was treated with EA treatment. The acupuncture-moxibustion group was treated with additional moxibustion therapy based on the treatment in the EA group. All three groups took 10 d as one treatment course and 2 courses in total, with a 2-day interval between two courses. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) symptoms score, functional digestive disorder quality of life questionnaire (FDDQL) score, oral-colon transit time (OCTT), and serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level was compared before and after treatment among the three groups. And the clinical efficacy was evaluated. Results The total effective rate in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was 96.7%, which was higher than 86.7% in the EA group and 73.3% in the mosapride group, and the total effective rate in the EA group was higher than that in the mosapride group; the inter-group differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the TCM symptom score in the three groups was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05), and the FDDQL score was higher than that before treatment (P<0.05). The change after treatment in the TCM symptom score in the acupuncture-moxibustion group and the EA group was more significant than that in the mosapride group, and the change in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was more significant than that in the EA group; the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The change after treatment in the FDDQL score in the acupuncture-moxibustion group and the EA group was greater than that in the mosapride group, and the change in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was larger than that in the EA group; the inter-group differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the OCTT in all three groups was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05), and the serum GLP-1 level was higher than that before treatment (P<0.05); the change after treatment in the OCTT in the acupuncture-moxibustion group and the EA group was more significant than that in the mosapride group, and the change in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was more significant than that in the EA group; the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The change after treatment in the serum GLP-1 level in the acupuncture-moxibustion group and the EA group was greater than that in the mosapride group, and the change in the acupuncture-moxibustion group was larger than that in the EA group; the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture and moxibustion can improve the clinical symptoms in patients with FD and enhance their quality of life, producing better effects than EA or mosapride alone. Shortening gastrointestinal movement time and increasing gastrointestinal hormone levels may be its mechanism.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Effects of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion on the expression of
           thyroid autophagy-related factors LC3B and Beclin-1 in rats with
           autoimmune thyroiditis

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the anti-inflammatory effect, as well as the effect on the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1 of herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion in rats with experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT). Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group and a modeling group. The EAT rat model was prepared by a combination of antigen immunization plus iodine agent induction. After the model was prepared, rats in the modeling group were randomly and equally divided into a model group and a herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion group. In the herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion group, moxibustion was alternately applied to two groups of points [Dazhui (GV14)-Mingmen (GV4) and Tiantu (CV22)-Guanyuan (CV4)], and the treatment continued for 30 d. Rats in the normal and model groups were only fixed identically without intervention. Histopathological manifestations of thyroid glands were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining; the concentrations of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of autophagy-related factors LC3B and Beclin-1 in thyroid tissue. Results There were massive follicular destruction, lymphocytic infiltration, and interstitial fibrous tissue hyperplasia of the thyroid glands in the model group. Some follicles of the thyroid glands were destroyed with few lymphocyte infiltrations and fibrous tissue hyperplasia in the moxibustion group. Compared with the normal group, the concentrations of serum TPOAb, TGAb, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased in the model rats (P<0.05); the mRNA and protein expression levels of LC3B and Beclin-1 in thyroid tissue were reduced in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the concentrations of serum TPOAb, TGAb, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were reduced in the herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion group (P<0.05); the mRNA and protein expression levels of LC3B and Beclin-1 in thyroid tissue were increased in the herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion group (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of LC3B and Beclin-1 in thyroid tissue was negatively correlated with the serum levels of TPOAb and TGAb. Conclusion Herbal cake-partitioned moxibustion reduces the inflammatory response in the thyroid glands of EAT rats and lowers the levels of serum TPOAb and TGAb. This may be related to the regulation of mRNA and protein expression of the autophagy-associated factors LC3B and Beclin-1 in rat thyroid tissue.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
       
  • Clinical observation on acupuncture for 80 patients with abdominal obesity
           in Germany: based on the theory of unblocking and regulating the Belt
           Vessel

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the efficacy of unblocking and regulating the Belt Vessel acupuncture method for patients with abdominal obesity in Germany and its influence on the body fat parameters and glycolipids metabolism. Methods A total of 82 cases of abdominal obesity in Germany were selected. There were two dropout cases in the treatment process. All of the patients received acupuncture at Daimai (GB26), Daheng (SP15), Tianshu (ST25), Zhongwan (CV12), Shuidao (ST28), Waiguan (TE5), and Zulinqi (GB41). The patients received acupuncture therapy once every 2–3 d, 3 times a week. The treatment duration lasted four weeks. Before and after treatment, the body mass (BM), waist circumference (WC), abdominal circumference (AC), hip circumference (HC), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (GLU) were measured respectively, and the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat rate (BFR) were calculated. Results After treatment, the total effective rate was 72.5%; the levels of BM, WC, AC, HC, BMI, WHR, WHtR, BFR, TC, LDL-C, and GLU declined significantly compared with those before treatment (P<0.01), while the TG and HDL-C slightly declined, but the differences were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The unblocking and regulating the Belt Vessel acupuncture method can significantly reduce body fat parameters such as BM, AC, and BFR, and correct the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with abdominal obesity in Germany.
      PubDate: 2022-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1333-5
       
  • Comparison of the efficacy of acupuncture at the TUNG’s extra points and
           the traditional Chinese medicine points for elderly patients with chronic
           low back pain in Thailand

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      Abstract: Objective To compare the efficacy of acupuncture at TUNG’s extra points and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) points for elderly patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Thailand. Methods A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 84 elderly volunteers with CLBP was designed. The patients were randomly assigned either to the group getting acupuncture at TUNG’s extra points or to the group getting acupuncture at TCM points. The treatment period was 30 min per session for seven consecutive days. Before and after treatment, the score of the numeric rating scale (NRS), the back range of motion (BROM), and the back strength were measured and compared. Results After treatment, both groups were found with decreased NRS scores and increased BROM (P<0.05), but with no statistical difference in their back strength in comparison with that before treatment in the same group (P>0.05). Regarding the between-group comparison, no significant differences were found in the NRS score or BROM in the direction of forward flexion and right lateral flexion or the back strength after treatment (P>0.05). However, statistical differences were found in the BROM in directions of back extension (P<0.01) and left lateral flexion (P<0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture at TUNG’s extra points can decrease the low back pain NRS score and increase the back strength and the BROM in directions of forward flexion and right lateral flexion, equivalent to acupuncture at TCM points. Acupuncture at TCM points has a better effect in increasing the BROM in directions of back extension and left lateral flexion; acupuncture at TUNG’s extra points is suitable for elderly CLBP patients, and it should be supported and promoted.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1331-7
       
  • Randomized controlled trials of acupuncture for the treatment of essential
           hypertension: a meta-analysis

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      Abstract: Objective To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for essential hypertension. Methods A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP Database (CQVIP), Wanfang Academic Journal Full-text Database (Wanfang), China Biology Medicine Disc (CBM), PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted to retrieve randomized controlled clinical trials on acupuncture as the main intervention for the treatment of essential hypertension published from the inception of the database to 30 January 2021. The risk-of-bias assessment was carried out for each included study according to the Cochrane Handbook. Data analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4.1 and Stata 15.0. Results After the screening, 46 randomized controlled trials involving a total of 3 859 subjects were included. Primary outcomes included changes in the diastolic blood pressure after intervention [eight studies showed that the acupuncture plus antihypertensive drug group was better than the antihypertensive drug monotherapy group [mean difference (MD)=1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.48, 2.43), P=0.004, fixed effects model; I2=39%] and changes in the systolic blood pressure after intervention {11 studies showed that the acupuncture plus antihypertensive drug group was better than the antihypertensive drug monotherapy group [MD=8.60, 95%CI (7.12, 10.07), P<0.00001, fixed effects model; I2=26%]}. The secondary outcome was antihypertensive efficacy, 12 studies of acupuncture monotherapy group [risk ratio (RR)=1.20, 95%CI (1.12, 1.28), P<0.00001, fixed effects model; I2=36%] and 15 studies of acupuncture combined with antihypertensive drug group [RR=1.27, 95%CI (1.20, 1.34), P<0.00001, fixed effects model; I2=6%] showed better results than the antihypertensive drug monotherapy group in antihypertensive efficacy. In terms of the adverse events, four studies showed that the acupuncture monotherapy group had fewer adverse events than the antihypertensive drug monotherapy group [RR=0.10, 95%CI (0.04, 0.25), P<0.00001, fixed effects model; I2=0%]. Conclusion Acupuncture combined with antihypertensive drugs is superior to antihypertensive drugs alone in reducing blood pressure, and acupuncture therapy is effective and safe for the treatment of essential hypertension with fewer side effects. However, there is still a lack of high-quality multicenter randomized double-blinded controlled trials in this field. Rigorous large-sample clinical trials are needed to validate these findings.
      PubDate: 2022-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1330-8
       
  • Effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on histamine and inflammatory
           factors in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) of rats with Crohn disease

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      Abstract: Objective To explore the potential mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion in treating Crohn disease (CD) by evaluating the changes in histamine and inflammatory factors in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) of rats. Methods Fifty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group (n=14) and a CD-modeling group (n=44). Rats in the CD-modeling group received enema with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid plus ethanol to establish CD models. The enema was repeated once every 7 d for a total of 4 times. After modeling, four modeled rats and four normal rats were randomly selected for model identification. After the CD model was successfully established, the remaining rats in the CD-modeling group were randomly divided into a model group, an acupuncture group, a moxibustion group, and a Western medication group, with ten rats in each group. The rats in the acupuncture and moxibustion groups were treated with acupuncture or moxibustion at Tianshu (ST25) and Shangjuxu (ST37); the rats in the Western medication group were treated with mesalazine enteric-coated tablets by gavage for continuous 7 d. After the intervention, the colon tissue of rats in each group was collected. After gross observation, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was performed to further observe the pathological changes. The expression of histamine in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, IL-10, and IL-6 in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal group, the colonic wall of rats in the model group showed cobblestone-like changes, local ulcers, and polyps in dark red and thickening and hardening. HE staining showed local loss of mucosal epithelial layer and formation of slit-like ulcers, destruction of mucosal glands, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in lamina propria and submucosa, and occasional formation of sarcoid-like granuloma. The levels of histamine and IL-6 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the levels of TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-10 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05) in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) of rats in the model group. Compared with the model group, the pathomorphological damage of the colon tissue of rats in the acupuncture group, moxibustion group, and Western medication group was significantly improved. The levels of histamine and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the level of IL-10 was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in the skin at Tianshu (ST25) of rats in the acupuncture group. The levels of histamine and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the levels of TNF-α, IL-18, and IL-10 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05) in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) of rats in the moxibustion group. The level of histamine was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01), and the levels of IL-18 and IL-10 were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the skin tissue of rats in the Western medication group. Compared with the acupuncture group, the level of IL-10 in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) of rats in the moxibustion group was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01). Conclusion The inflammatory responses in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) may be the external manifestation of CD. Significant differences in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the skin tissue at Tianshu (ST25) between acupuncture and moxibustion exist, which may be caused by the differences in the stimulation characteristics between acupuncture and moxibustion.
      PubDate: 2022-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1334-4
       
  • Efficacy of mild moxibustion combined with surgery for meniscal injury and
           its effect on TGF-β1 and PDGF levels in the fluid of knee joint

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the efficacy of mild moxibustion combined with arthroscopic meniscal repair in the treatment of meniscal injury and to explore its action mechanism. Methods Ninety-eight patients with meniscal injury were divided into a surgery group and a moxibustion plus surgery group by the random number table method, with 49 cases in each group. Both groups received arthroscopic meniscal repair, and the moxibustion plus surgery group was treated with add-on mild moxibustion. The Lysholm score, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and mobility of the affected knee were measured before and after treatment, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels were measured in the fluid of the affected knee joint. The healing of the meniscus was recorded at a follow-up visit 3 months after the surgery. Results After treatment, the Lysholm score increased, the VAS score decreased in both groups, and the intra-group differences in both groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The Lysholm score was higher in the moxibustion plus surgery group than in the surgery group, and the VAS score was lower in the moxibustion plus surgery group than in the surgery group. The differences between groups in both scores were statistically significant (P<0.05). The mobility of the affected knee joint increased in both groups (P<0.05), and it was greater in the moxibustion plus surgery group than in the surgery group (P<0.05). When compared with pretreatment, the levels of TGF-β1 and PDGF in the fluid of the knee joint increased in both groups (P<0.05), and the levels of TGF-β1 and PDGF in the fluid of the affected knee joint were higher in the moxibustion plus surgery group than in the surgery group (P<0.05). The healing of the meniscus in the moxibustion plus surgery group was significantly better than that in the surgery group at the follow-up visit 3 months after the surgery (P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of mild moxibustion combined with arthroscopic meniscal repair is better than the surgery alone in improving knee function, relieving pain, increasing mobility of the affected knee, and promoting meniscal healing, which may be related to the up-regulation of TGF-β1 and PDGF levels in the fluid of knee joint.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1340-6
       
  • Improvement effect of acupuncture on locomotor function in Parkinson
           disease via regulating gut microbiota and inhibiting inflammatory factor
           release

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the effect of acupuncture on the intestinal flora in Parkinson disease (PD) model mice and explore the mechanism of acupuncture in improving the locomotor function in PD. Methods Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into a control group, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) group, a MPTP + acupuncture group (MPTP+A), and a MPTP + madopar group (MPTP+M), with 8 mice in each group. Except for the control group, the other groups were intraperitoneally injected [25 mg/(kg·bw)] with MPTP to establish PD mouse models. After successful modeling, the MPTP group received no intervention, the MPTP+A received acupuncture at Tianshu (ST25), Guanyuan (CV4), and Zusanli (ST36), and the MPTP+M was given madopar [125 mg/(kg·bw)] by intragastric gavage. After consecutive 10-day interventions, the intestinal function and behaviors of the mice were detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was used to analyze the composition of fecal intestinal flora in each group. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the brain and serum. The expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and α-synuclein in the substantia nigra (SN) were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 (CD14) in the SN were determined by RT-qPCR. Myeloid differentiation factor (MyD) 88, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and Akt1 in the SN were detected by Western blotting. Results After the intervention, compared with the control group, the intestinal motility, fecal water content, and the expression of TH in the SN were significantly decreased in the MPTP group (P<0.05), along with an increased α-synuclein expression (P<0.05). Additionally, the results of the fecal microflora test showed that the alpha diversity of the MPTP decreased, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6] in the serum and SN, and the expression of NF-κB in the SN were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the MPTP group, acupuncture intervention significantly enhanced the autonomous horizontal movement and coordination ability of PD mice (P<0.05); acupuncture and madopar interventions significantly reduced the levels of α-synuclein, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, and IL-6) in the serum and SN, and the NF-κB expression in the SN, along with significantly increased alpha diversity richness index (P<0.05). In addition, the relative abundance of Bacteroides increased significantly in the MPTP+A (P<0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture intervention can improve locomotor function, reduce α-synuclein aggregation and inflammatory factors expression, and increase the Akt signaling pathway in PD mice. In addition, acupuncture intervention can benignly regulate the intestinal flora of PD mice. Therefore, it suggests that acupuncture intervention can protect PD model mice probably by regulating intestinal flora and activating Akt signaling pathway.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1297-5
       
  • Effects of Mo-Rubbing abdomen manipulation on glucose metabolism and
           inflammatory factors in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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      Abstract: Objective To observe the effect of Mo-Rubbing abdomen manipulation on glucose metabolism and inflammatory factors in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group (n=10) and a group for modeling (n=50) using the random number table method. Rats in the group for modeling were induced to form T2DM models by a high-sugar and high-fat diet combined with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Thirty successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into a model group, a Mo-Rubbing abdomen group, and a metformin group, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in the normal group and the model group received no intervention, those in the Mo-Rubbing abdomen group received Mo-Rubbing abdomen manipulation, and those in the metformin group received metformin by gavage. After 8-week intervention, fasting insulin (FINS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and area under the curve at the oral glucose tolerance test (AUC-OGTT), as well as serum inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected, and the morphological changes of the pancreas were also observed. Results After the 8-week intervention, the levels of FINS, FPG, HOMA-IR, and AUC-OGTT of rats in the Mo-Rubbing abdomen group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.05); the pancreatic injury degree in the Mo-Rubbing abdomen group and the metformin group was lower than that in the model group. Compared with the model group, the serum IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels of rats in the Mo-Rubbing abdomen group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels of the metformin group showed a downward trend; the serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the Mo-Rubbing abdomen group were significantly lower than those in the metformin group (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between FPG with IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the T2DM rats (P<0.01). Conclusion Mo-Rubbing abdomen manipulation reduces the inflammatory response and improves the morphological changes of the pancreas in T2DM rats, thereby achieving the effect of lowering blood glucose.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1336-2
       
  • Clinical study on tube moxibustion plus point-toward-point needling method
           in treating refractory facial paralysis

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      Abstract: Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of tube moxibustion plus point-toward-point needling method for refractory facial paralysis. Methods A total of 100 patients with refractory facial paralysis who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into an observation group and a control group, with 50 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with acupuncture by point-toward-point needling method, mainly in the affected eye, cheek and mouth areas. The observation group was given additional tube moxibustion after receiving the point-toward-point needling method, which inserted a tube moxibustion device into the external acoustic meatus 1 cm on the affected side for 20 min. Both groups were treated once a day, 6 times a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. The House-Brackmann scale was scored before and after treatment, and the facial nerve electromyogram data were collected. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 93.6%, which was higher than 64.6% of the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). The proportion of new-onset facial paralysis complications (facial synkinesis, facial spasm, facial paralysis perversion, and crocodile tears) in the observation group was 6.4%, which was lower than 35.4% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). In the observation group, the numbers of cases after treatment with the ratio of action potential amplitude between the affected side and the healthy side increased by 10%–30% and over 30% were more than those in the control group. And the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Tube moxibustion plus point-toward-point needling method has a better effect in improving symptoms of refractory facial paralysis, decreasing the incidence of sequelae, and increasing clinical efficacy than the point-toward-point needling method alone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1339-z
       
  • Research progress on the effect and mechanism of Tai Ji Quan in the
           treatment of post-stroke depression

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      Abstract: Abstract To explore the clinical efficacy and possible mechanism of Tai Ji Quan for post-stroke depression (PSD), literature related to Tai Ji Quan and PSD were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Academic Journal Full-text Database (Wanfang), Chongqing VIP Database (CQVIP), China Biology Medicine Disc (CBM), and PubMed, screened and then summarized. The results showed that Tai Ji Quan could effectively improve the depression and quality of life of stroke patients, and there were differences in the clinical efficacy among different training programs. Tai Ji Quan has the characteristics of “regulating mind”, “regulating breath”, and “regulating body”. It may achieve the effect of “combined physique-spirit treatment” by improving social psychology, increasing the level of neurotrophin, regulating neuroendocrine, reducing inflammatory factors, and regulating neural circuits.
      PubDate: 2022-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1341-5
       
  • Influence of buccal acupuncture on analgesic effect, immune indicators,
           and expression of Survivin and Livin proteins in patients with
           advanced-stage primary liver cancer

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      Abstract: Objective To investigate the effects of buccal acupuncture on analgesia, immune indicators, and expression levels of Survivin and Livin proteins in patients with advanced-stage primary liver cancer. Methods Eighty patients with advanced-stage primary liver cancer were selected and divided into control and treatment groups according to the difference in treatment modalities, with 40 patients in each group. The control group received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and the treatment group received buccal acupuncture in addition to TACE. The recent efficacy, analgesic effect, liver function, serum tumor markers, Survivin and Livin protein expression levels in liver cancer tissue, and immune indexes were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) of the treatment group were 37.5% and 77.5%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the control group (22.5% and 52.5%), and the recent efficacy of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group (P<0.05). The onset of analgesia in the treatment group was significantly faster than that in the control group (P<0.05), the duration of analgesia was significantly longer than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the numeric rating scale (NRS) score of pain after treatment was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). In the treatment group, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and albumin/globulin (A/G) were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and the expression levels of Survivin and Livin in liver cancer tissue were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05); CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and CD8+ was significantly lower than that in the control group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion Buccal acupuncture can reduce the degree of pain and liver function damage in patients with advanced-stage primary liver cancer and lower the serum tumor marker levels, and its mechanism of action may be related to the down-regulation of Survivin and Livin protein expression levels in liver cancer tissue and the regulation of the immune function.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s11726-022-1320-x
       
 
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