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Advances in Traditional Medicine
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2662-4052 - ISSN (Online) 2662-4060
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2468 journals]
  • Correction to: Ethnomedicinal review of plants utilized by the Abagusii
           people of Western Kenya

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      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Biological evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile: a
           systematic review

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      Abstract: Abstract Acacia nilotica is a popular medicinal plant that grows all throughout Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. This is because the plant, from its roots to its leaves, contains a wide variety of compounds that have been utilized for ages in traditional medicine. To glean useful information, online databases like Science Direct, PubMed, Wiley, Springer, Sage, Google Scholar, and Hindawi combed through actual scientific research papers. requisites for inclusion We used terms like "A. nilotica," "A. nilotica antioxidant," "conventional medicine," "antidiabetic," "antibacterial," "medicine," "toxicity," "antiviral," and "antimicrobial," as well as any other relevant terms as our search criteria. Exclusion standards: No information from dubious online sources was used in our investigation. Thesis papers, review articles, and articles written in languages other than English were also not included. Unquestionably, the results of this study will be helpful in evaluating the efficacy of the crude extracts of A. nilotica components as potential sources of natural antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiparasites, antidiabetic, and anticancer agents. However, more study is needed to identify the precise chemical responsible for the biological activity and advance to clinical trials before application in the pharmaceutical industry. Despite all promising research that has been done so far, there is still a lack of data, particularly from clinical investigations, that supports the adjunct use of A. nilotica. This promotes more preclinical and clinical investigations into A. nilotica.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Effectiveness of hyper and hypothermic application revulsively on range of
           motion, symptom score and quality of life in patients with cervical
           spondylosis: a randomized controlled trial

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      Abstract: Abstract Cervical spondylosis (CS) is a degenerative age-related disorder affecting the cervical region of the spinal cord which manifests mainly with radiating pain in the neck, numbness in fingers, and headache. To control the symptoms and manage the disease progression, a combination of Complementary and Alternative Medicine with conventional management is necessary. Hence this study is aimed to evaluate the effect of Revulsive Compress (RC) along with the Integrated Naturopathy and Yoga (INY) approach in patients with CS. Out of 210 subjects screened, 60 subjects between the ages of 40 to 85 years were selected for the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, Group 1 (n = 30) Case group taking RC with INY and Group 2 (n = 30) control group taking only INY protocol for 10 days. Pain, Symptom score, Range of Motion (ROM), and Quality of life (QOL) were assessed before and after the intervention on the 11th day. The result of this study shows that with 10 days of RC and INY intervention, there was a significant reduction in the pain [Visual analog scale (VAS): p = 0.001] and symptom score [Neck disability index: p = 0.001] when compared to the control group. There was a significant improvement in QOL and ROM. The results of this study show that RC intervention with INY is having a substantial effect on patients with CS. Pain and Symptom score have been reduced significantly with marked improvement in QOL and ROM. Hence, this intervention can be used in the management of patients with CS, either as an individual or accompanied by management.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Gastro-protective effects and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of the
           aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem-back of Nauclea pobeguinii
           (Rubiaceae)

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      Abstract: Abstract Nauclea pobeguinii (N. pobeguinii) is a plant used in African medicine to treat many gastroduodenal diseases. In this study, we determined the gastro-protective mechanisms and anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) properties of N. pobeguinii extracts. Wound healing activity (acetic acid test), anti-secretory properties (pyloric ligation, pyloric ligation/acetylcholine and pyloric ligation/histamine tests) and cytoprotective effects (ethanol test) were assessed in female rat, the anti-Helicobacter pylori (agar well diffusion method) was also evaluated. At doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, the extracts reduce (p < 0.001) the various ulceration parameters. In the acetic acid test, the extracts (200 mg/kg) reduced ulcerated areas by 99.23% (aqueous) and by 98.47% (methanol), levels of monocytes, lymphocytes, nitrogen, malondialdehyde and increased (p < 0.001) superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Histological analysis showed repair of the mucosal epithelium at all doses of both extracts. Aqueous and methanol extracts inhibited ulceration indices by 99.68 and 99.33% (pyloric ligation), 83.81% and 61.07% (pyloric ligation/acetylcholine), 97.49% and 98.50% (pylorus ligation/histamine); they increased (p < 0.001) the mucus mass and uterine mass. In vitro, the different H. pylori isolates were sensitive to both extracts; the aqueous extract showed strong anti-urease activity, a large diameter of the inhibitory zone and a better minimum inhibitory concentration. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of N. pobeguinii healed ulcers through their estrogen-modulating anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-secretory and cytoprotective properties. The aqueous extract of N. pobeguinii could be a good solution for the treatment of this infection.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Combining Chinese and Persian medicine techniques of cupping in
           hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a single-blind, randomized, controlled
           trial

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      Abstract: Abstract COVID-19 pneumonia and long COVID is commonly associated with cough, dyspnea and declined oxygen saturation (SpO2). Cupping has been used as an adjuvant therapy to improve SpO2 and respiratory symptoms. This research was conducted as an assessor- and analyst-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 72 hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) cupping (CUPP); and (2) control (CTRL), all receiving conventional treatment. In CUPP, warm cupping was performed for 3–7 days (three times, daily). The primary clinical outcomes were SpO2 and respiratory rate (RR). COVID-19-related hospitalization duration, intensive care unit admission and duration, need for intubation, and mortality (all up to day 28) were evaluated as secondary efficacy endpoints. Furthermore, severity of cough, dyspnea, chest tightness, and oxygen demand were considered as secondary outcomes. Thirty-four patients in CUPP and 33 patients in CTRL completed the study. After 3 days, RR decreased in CUPP significantly (p < 0.001), unlike CTRL (p > 0.05). After 7 days of intervention, SpO2 improved up to 13% in CUPP versus 0.07% in CTRL (p < 0.001). Compared with CTRL, patients in CUPP were discharged sooner (mean: 12.1 vs. 3.9, respectively) and faced no serious adverse events (p < 0.001). Moreover, after 28 days of follow-up, all CUPP patients were discharged from the hospital. In contrast, eight patients from the CTRL expired. Within 3 days, respiratory symptoms improved significantly in CUPP compared with CTRL (p < 0.05). Adjuvant cupping therapy accelerates alleviation of respiratory symptoms and prevents morbidities and mortalities in COVID-19 patients.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Spondias mombin: biosafety and GC–MS analysis of anti-viral
           compounds from crude leaf extracts

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      Abstract: Abstract Essential oils are combinations of naturally occurring phytochemicals that, alone or in synergy with other compounds, can therapeutically attenuate disease-causing viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. This study aimed to investigate the biosafety of and identification of antiviral phytochemicals of Spondias mombin (Linn) leaf crude extracts by GC–MS analysis. GC–MS analysis showed that the compound concentrations were dependent on the polarity of extracting solvent SMH (34), SMDCM (36), SMEA (12), SME (50) and SMM (36). Toluene (15.13%) and di-isooctyl phthalate (14.21%) were identified as the basic constituents of SMH. In SMDCM, n-nonadecanol-1 (19.64%) and eicosane (13.93%) were the main compounds, while in SMEA it was ethanol, 2-butoxy-(83.29%). Both SME and SMM showed the presence of Tetradecyl trifluoroacetate (15.43%). Pentadecanoic acid (12.18%), Propane, 2,2-diethoxy- (33.83%) and o-Xylene (15.87%). The identified antiviral compounds in the crude extracts, were d-Limonene (1.33%), p-Cymene (1.31%), Thymol (0.50%) and Carvacrol (0.87%) in SMM and SMH extracts, with Phytol, acetate being a common constituent in all the essential oils, except SMEA. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of crude S. mombin leaf extracts were performed using the MTT method in three cell lines: MCF-7, A-549 and HEK-293, with IC50 values between 15.91 and 178.5 μg/mL. Therefore, the results indicated that crude extracts from S. mombin leafs had low toxicity and could be used safely. Compared with hexane extracts (1), methanol extracts have more compounds with antiviral properties (3) and can be used as reusable therapeutic candidates, natural dietary supplements or in the fight against SARS-CoV-2, Ebola and Marburg viruses. This can be valuable in pharmaceutical preparations of drug candidates for the treatment of these viruses.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Therapeutic approaches using natural substances on the
           streptozotocin-induced animal model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease: a
           systematic review

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      Abstract: Abstract With the worldwide increase in life expectancy, cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have also risen. Although new disease-modifying treatments are now available, novel drugs for the pharmacological modulation of AD are still needed. To that end, animal models are widely employed, and one of the used models of AD is the intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-induced (STZ) animal model of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. STZ triggers neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, besides increasing Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein expression, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration and impairments in cognitive function. Regarding drug development, natural substances, such as plant extracts and their isolated bioactive compounds, have shown a myriad of relevant pharmacological properties for AD, such as neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities. Considering that, previous studies have investigated the effects of compounds obtained from plants on the STZ model, and the aim of this systematic review was to collect and discuss the published results. Searching in four different databases, we selected and included seventy studies in this review, and their characteristics, methods, and results were extracted and discussed. The main results showed that natural substances obtained from plants can reverse STZ damage through the modulation of antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory pathways, improving cognitive function, especially memory. In conclusion, natural substances are potential candidates for novel drug development for the treatment of AD-related symptoms.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Unveiling the polypharmacology mechanistic role of steroidal scaffolds
           from Spondia mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) on EGFR, VEGF, and mTOR: validation
           of usage in colorectal cancer management in Southwestern Nigeria

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      Abstract: Abstract Natural products in conjunction with computer-aided drug design have made a significant impact in the development of novel therapeutics in a fast manner in modern-day drug discovery. Spondia mombin has been reported among locals to be effective in the management of colon cancer. Hence, this study was conducted to experimentally justify the anti-tumor properties of Spondia mombin amongst locals using the combination of benchtop cytotoxicity [Ranicep ranninus (RR) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC)] and human HCT 116 colon cancer cell line (Sulfordiamine B assay) as well as computational chemistry models. The crude extract (CSM) and an aqueous fraction of S. mombin (ASM) at 20–100 µg/mL showed 80–100% mortality of RR, while 7.81–250 µg/mL of CSM and ASM also exhibited 70–95% cytotoxic effect of SC. A 2.02% increase in cytotoxic effect on colorectal cancer cell line (human HCT 116) was observed in ASM (IC50—22.23 ± 2.56 µg/mL) relative to 21.78 ± 2.98 µg/mL observed in CSM. Gramisterol, campesterol, chalinasterol, obtusifoliol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and betulin isolated from CSM (from literature) were shown to possess steroidal scaffold, they were observed to show promising anti-colon cancer properties via antagonistic influence on epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and mammalian target of rapamycin colon receptors through van der Waal, alkyl, carbon-hydrogen, conventional hydrogen, and pi-alkyl interactions with the amino acid residues in the binding sites of the receptors. Findings from this research experimentally justify the ethnopharmacological claim of S. mombin in the treatment of colon cancer via antagonist polypharmacological action of the steroidal compounds on different receptors implicated in colon cancer carcinogenesis.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Ethnopharmacological survey of aromatic medicinal plants used in the
           treatment of the most recurrent diseases in the locality of Oyem, Gabon

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      Abstract: Abstract Aromatic medicinal plants are a great source of active principles that can be used to treat several diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the aromatic plants used in traditional medicine to treat the most recurrent diseases in the locality of Oyem. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among traditional healers in Oyem. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the ethnopharmacological survey data and various quantitative indices, including informant consensus factor, use value, relative citation frequency, and level of fidelity. The data collected identified 72 plant species belonging to 23 families. Decoction, infusion and maceration were the three most commonly used methods of preparation. The most commonly used plant parts were leaves and barks. Cough-associated diseases had the highest RCF (0.630). The RCF was highest for Desmodium salicifolium DC (0.0713), The use values (UV) ranged from 0.11 to 0.93. These results provide a good data base for studies on fragrant plants.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Ethnomedicinal review of plants utilized by the Abagusii people of Western
           Kenya

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      Abstract: Abstract The Abagusii people of Western Kenya have rich traditional medicine practices which have remained scantly documented. The current study sort to review relevant ethnomedicinal information which was extracted from relevantbooks, journals and theses that were published before March 2021. Also, online electronic databases accessed between April 2020 to March 2021 were used. After identifying potential literature sources, an inventory of medicinal plants used by the Abagusii community was created using Excel Spreadsheet (Microsoft 365) and analyzed qualitatively. Informant Consensus Factor values were computed as a measure of homogeneity. Two hundred and fifteen plant species, mostly belonging to Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, and Solanaceae families, were identified and 870 use reports were documented. Further, our findings revealed that most plants were used to treat intestinal/gastric diseases, skin infections, disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and syndromes. Plant parts and forms used commonly were the leaves and herbs, respectively. The Abagusii people mostly prepare plant medicines as decoctions, often for drinking orally to treat diseases. It was noted that there was substantial sharing of ethnomedicinal information on various diseases among the people of Kisii and Nyamira Counties, except for anthrax, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and evil eyes conditions, which lacked homogeneity. Our study revealed the integral role of medicinal plants in promoting health among the Abagusii community of Kenya in managing various diseases. Our study lays a framework for empirical studies towards validating medical plants of the Abagusii people managing various ailments and potential development of alternative, efficacious, affordable, accessible, and safe therapeutic remedies.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Artificial intelligence approach in identification of differentially
           expressed genes of methyl glycoside against myocardial infarction

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      Abstract: Abstract To predict the targets of small molecules from traditional plants using an artificial intelligence (AI) approach for myocardial infarction. In this study, we used different web servers and software to predict the targets of small molecule from plant of interest. The methanolic extract of Aganosma dichotoma was screened and the presence of small molecules was confirmed by GC–MS analysis. In this study, Methyl beta d-xylopyranoside is a Methyl glycoside, which was identified as a small molecule (164.16 gms/mol). Pharmacokinetic and toxicity prediction of methyl glycoside showed good bioavailability, accepting the five rules of Lipinki and LD50 ≥ 5000 mg/kg. Differentially expressed genes were identified from the datasets and overlapping genes were assessed for gene enrichment analysis pathways with p < 0.05. A PPI network was constructed and hub genes were identified. Anti-oxidant potency of small molecule is validated through in-vitro anti-oxidant activity through DPPH and ABTS analysis where, small molecule DPPH, ABTS activity was reported to have an IC50 value of 51.09%, 80.67% and 48.41%, 90.19% at 0.1 μM/ml, 0.5 μM/ml concentrations respectively. The small molecule methyl beta d-xylopyranoside is a robust antioxidant that may act against myocardial infarction caused by ischemia and free radical generation, but needs to be validated through further in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Synergistic effect of Punica granatum derived antifungals on strains with
           clinical failure to terbinafine and azoles drugs

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      Abstract: Abstract Dermatomycosis is a commonly occurring widespread superficial fungal infection. The infection is mostly caused by the dermatophytes (e.g., Trichophyton spp.), and yeasts (e.g., Candida spp.). Due to their persistent, recalcitrant nature and treatment failure it has become a worldwide concern. In our study, we have used multidrug-resistant Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale clinical isolates for evaluation of the synergistic effect of the plant-based extract with existing drugs. Here, Punica granatum peel (PGP) extracts alone and their combination with existing antifungal drugs (e.g., Ciclopirox olamine, Zinc pyrithione, Ketoconazole, and Fluconazole) were evaluated as an alternative synergistic combination against Trichophyton and Candida species. Synergy had been determined for PGP extract with other antifungals against Candida and Trichophyton species by checkerboard, ZOI (zone of inhibition), and E-test methods respectively. The isolates exhibited resistance towards some azoles and allylamines. PGP extract alone and in combination with other antifungals had shown, FIC Index from 0.133 to 0.2 against C. albicans strains, 0.2 to 0.5, FIC against T. rubrum strains respectively. E-test also showed 512±0.0 and 341.3±0.0-fold decrease of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration), against azole-resistant C. albicans MTCC 227 respectively. The study reveals that PGP extract alone and in combination with other antifungals is a promising source of alternative antifungal therapy to minimize the resistance profile.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral diseases

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      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, theoretical chemistry has experienced a great advance in the search for drugs for the treatment of various human and animal pathologies. Although it is expected that medicinal plants constitute a great source for the research of compounds, the present study has been carried out to provide a list of important plants that can be explored in the research of antiviral compounds. The main objective is to search for medicinal plant(s) that can be used to treat various viral pathologies; in other words, the search for broad spectrum antiviral plants. Thus, several articles of synthesis, original research, systematic review on antiviral plants from different countries are consulted in this study. A total of 694 species of medicinal plants from 152 families were extracted from the literature against 17 virus families including Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Arteriviridae, Birnaviridae, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Nimaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Poxviridae, Reoviridae, Retroviridae, Togaviridae. The most cited families of plants are Fabaceae (11.38%), Lamiaceae (5.90%), Asteraceae (5.61%), Rubiaceae (3.45%) and Euphorbiaceae (3.02%). The three (3) most cited species that can treat several viral diseases are Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica and Zingiber officinale. These plants can be a starting point for antiviral drug research and the compounds already isolated from these plants can be subject to molecular docking in order to explore their antiviral potential.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Anti-tumoral activity of Allium roseum compounds on breast cancer cells
           MCF7 and MDA-MB231

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      Abstract: Abstract Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and a main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Two main challenges to the prevention and treatment of breast cancer are first, the high mortality due to limited accesses to the medicines with the low budgets for health; second, the erratic and drug-resistance resulting in adverse reactions to conventional therapies medicines. Alternatively, there is an expansion of medicinal plant-based production to develop anti-cancer drug, which is processed from a medicinal plant grown locally. Tunisian Allium roseum (AR) have received considerable attention and harbours active flavonoid and phenolic compounds, which are known for owning a large variety of biological activities. In this regard this current study was designated to explore the anti-cancer potential of AR ingredient. The AR ingredient was found cytotoxic on human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 (IC50 = 3.936 10–4 g/ml) and MDA-MB231 (IC50 = 3.052 10–4 g/ml). Interestingly, AR abolished the cell migration and reduced the invasion of the breast cancer cell lines. However, the proliferation was strongly delayed for MCF7 than MDA-MB231 with cell index values of 0.12 and 1.32, respectively. The AR functional ingredient is harbouring seven major flavonoid and phenolic components, which were used to test their anti-tumoral potential. These results bring additional evidence that AR, as herbal bioresources have strong antitumor potential agent against breast carcinogenesis. Hence, discoveries related to personalized herbal medicine beneficiates the precision medicine.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Long-term oral administration of curcumin is effective in preventing
           short-term memory deterioration and prolonging lifespan in a mouse model
           of Alzheimer’s disease

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      Abstract: Abstract Curcumin (Curc) has been shown to have the potential to ameliorate or prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most of them are in vitro and in vivo short-term studies. This study was conducted to investigate whether long-term, low-dose dietary Curc intake in mouse of AD might suppress short-term memory retention, amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and tau phosphorylation, delaying the onset of AD and prolonging the lifespan of the animals. Short-term memory was examined by the Y-maze method after 6 months old. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed at 10 months old to determine changes in Aβ deposition, tau phosphorylation, and glial cell number in brain tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the survival rate for 12 months old and evaluated the AD prevention effect. The alternation rates of short-time memory in the wild type and AD mice were 56.2% and 25.9%, respectively. These rates in the experimental groups (0.02% and 0.5% Curc) were in the range of 44.4–45.7%. The area of Aβ42 deposition in AD mice was approximately 25,000 µm2, while the experimental groups had a significantly reduced area of 5000–10,000 µm2. Survival rate was 34% in the AD control group, 100% in the 0.02% Curc, and 83% in the 0.5% Curc group, significantly longer in the Curc groups than the AD control group. This study demonstrates that long-term intake of low concentrations of Curc may act on the tau- phosphorylation, suppress brain inflammation, delay the onset of AD, and prolong the lifespan of the mouse.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Medicinal plants of the Tomsk region and possibilities of their
           application

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      Abstract: Abstract As a result of the analysis of the distribution of wild medicinal plants on the territory of the Tomsk region, a list of species used for medical treatment has been formed. The list includes 129 species of medicinal plants belonging to 110 genera and 37 families. The most rich in the composition of medicinal plants used for the treatment of various diseases are the following families: Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae, Apiaceae, Rosaceae, Liliaceae, Brassicaceae, Boraginaceae. Out of 129 species of medicinal plants, 91 species are used in folk medicine, 31 species belong to official medicinal plants, and 27 species are poisonous. In most species, the aboveground part is used (70 species), in 29 species, the underground part is used, in the rest of the plants, separate organs of the aboveground or underground part are used. Of the entire list of medicinal plants, 36 species can be classified as frequently occurring, 20 species as common, 29 species as rare and very rare, and the remaining species are infrequent and rare.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Assessment of the synergistic anti-inflammatory effect of
           naringin/sulindac for the treatment of osteoarthritis: in vitro and in
           vivo

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      Abstract: Osteoarthritis is a prevailing form of arthritis that affects more than two hundred million people globally. Current treatments depend mainly on reducing pain and improving movement; however, their adverse effects made their use problematic. Usually, a combination of more than one drug is used to alleviate chronic inflammation. Naringin is a natural plant flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables, having many biological actions as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic actions. In our study, we inspected the anti-inflammatory action of naringin in silico then we evaluated its role individually or in combination with sulindac in vitro on RAW 264.7 cells and in vivo by measuring the levels of most common inflammatory mediators; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interlukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor kappa β (NF-κB), and the inflammation related pathway mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulator Kinase (MAPK/Erk1). We also investigated the wound healing effect, locomotor activity and coordination. Results indicated that the combination of low doses of naringin and sulindac restrained the release of IL-6 and NF-κB by 63% and 56% respectively. The combinative treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of MAPK and Erk1 by 90% and 91% respectively as compared to carrageenan group. Histological analysis revealed a decline of cellular infiltration, development of pannus, damage of bone and cartilage, which ensures the obtained antiarthritic effect of combination, the physical activity improved also. This study disseminates the effectiveness of naringin to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of sulindac in the treatment of osteoarthritis through attenuation of NF-κB levels and suppression of MAPK/Erk1 signaling pathway. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • In silico approaches for study the therapeutic potential of Cannabis
           sativa (Bhang) against HIV

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      Abstract: Abstract Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the world's most significant public health issues. HIV become severe in the COVID pandemic. Scientists are investigating antivirals for HIV from phytoconstituents. Since the beginning of civilization, medicinal plants have played an important role in plentiful sources of nutrients and, healing of infection. The purpose of this in-silico study was to investigate the potential antiviral activity of metabolites from Cannabis sativa against HIV. The plant's active metabolites were retrieved, and molecular docking for 24 molecules was performed against the Protease, GP120, Integrase, and Reverse transcriptase proteins of the HIV, and their binding affinity compared with the existing drug. Results revealed that delta-cadenine, campestrol, beta-carotene and cannabinol showed the lowest binding energy for the proteins reverse transcriptase, protease, GP120, and Integrase when compared with their reference drugs respectively. Bhang is a potential therapeutic agent and provides alternative treatments to prompt, sensitive, cost-effective management of HIV.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of hydro-alcoholic extract of dried
           fruits of Piper longum Linn in Wistar rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The current study evaluated the prospective toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Piper longum L. (HEPL) dried fruits with acute and sub-acute oral administration in Wistar rats. During acute toxicity study, female rats were orally administered with HEPL at a single dose of 300 mg/kg and repeated dose of 2000 mg/kg (OECD guidelines-423). Subacute toxicity of HEPL (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg p.o.) was studied with the control group (1% CMC) by daily dosing in Wistar rats of both sexes for 28 days. To assess reversibility, other satellite groups were kept for another two weeks post-treatment. The acute toxicity study showed no lethal effects, and toxicity signs and LD50 transpire more significantly than 2000 mg/kg. In subacute toxicity study, oral administration of extract for 28 days; caused no significant changes in body weights; food and water consumption of rats were observed. In addition, no toxic effects of the extract on rats for hematological and biochemical parameters were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed no signs of degeneration for kidneys, testis, and ovaries; however liver showed mild multifocal hepatocellular necrosis with infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats treated with 1000 mg/kg of HEPL. These results showed that 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were found safe, in addition to some liver toxicity was found for 1000 mg/kg. It is concluded that the oral LD50 of HEPL was more significant than 2000 mg/kg and is considered safe. Hence, Piper longum is safe in the short and long term for an oral dose.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
  • Polydatin as a potential candidate that alleviates lead poisoning:
           insights from biochemical and oxidative damage in lead-induced Wistar rats
           

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      Abstract: Abstract Lead is one of the most common heavy metal elements and has high biological toxicity. Polydatin (PD), also known as piceid (3, 4′, 5-trihydroxystilbene-3-β-D-glucoside), is a monocrystalline compound isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc. (Polygonaceae), but is also found in fruits and many daily diets. Aim of this research is polydatin as a potential candidate that alleviates lead poisoning: insights from biochemical and oxidative damage in lead-Induced Wistar rats. The study employed 42 Wistar rats of 90 days of age (150–200 g) which were randomly divided into six (6) groups and used for sub-chronic toxicity study according to OECD 407 guideline were lead acetate (PbAc) was administered for 90 days and followed by treatment with PD for 30 days. Control DW (1 mL/kg); PbAc (120 mg/kg); PbAc (120 mg/kg) + PD (250 mg/kg); PbAc (120 mg/kg) + PD (500 mg/kg); PbAc (120 mg/kg) + PD (1000 mg/kg); and PbAc (120 mg/kg) + DMSA (10 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks per oral. At the end of treatment period, blood, plasma and organs samples were evaluated for blood lead levels (BLLs), biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers and histopathology. PD and DMSA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced liver indices of PbAc-induced toxicity in rats with the exceptions of total and direct bilirubin which were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated. PD and DMSA significantly (p < 0.05) restored levels of renal indices and lipid profiles in PbAc-induced toxicity in rats by reducing the levels in serum and the effects were dose depended in all parameters. Furthermore, PD and DMSA also alleviate PbAc-induced MDA, GSH levels and inhibition of CAT and SOD in rats. PD alleviates lead poisoning through its ability to improve biochemical and oxidative damage in lead-induced rats. The overall findings shows that polydatin alleviates lead poisoning which might be due its ability to improve biochemical and oxidative damage through stabilizing the levels GSH, MDA and activities of SOD, CAT in lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.
      PubDate: 2024-03-01
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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