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Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [340 journals]
  • Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Mental Health and
           Psychological Quality of Life among University Students: A GRADE-Assessed
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Psychological distress is a progressive health problem that has been linked to decreased quality of life among university students. This meta-analysis reviews existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have examined the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on the relief of psychosomatic stress-related outcomes and quality of life among university students. Methods. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO (formerly PsychLit), Ovid MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Cochrane Library databases were searched in November 2023 to identify the RCTs for analysis. Data on pathology (anxiety, depression, and perceived stress), physical capacity (sleep quality and physical health), and well-being (mindfulness, self-kindness, social function, and subjective well-being) were analyzed. Results. Of the 276 articles retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that MBSR had significant effects, reducing anxiety (SMD = −0.29; 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.09), depression (SMD = −0.32; 95% CI: −0.62 to −0.02), and perceived stress (SMD = −0.41; 95% CI: −0.60 to −0.29) and improving mindfulness (SMD = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.59), self-kindness (SMD = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.30 to 1.12), and physical health (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI: −1.14 to −0.04). No significant differences were observed in sleep quality (SMD = −0.20; 95% CI: −0.06 to 0.20), social function (SMD = −0.71; 95% CI: −2.40 to 0.97), or subjective well-being (SMD = 0.07; 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.32). The quality of the evidence regarding sleep quality and physical health outcomes was low. Conclusions. MBSR therapy appears to be potentially useful in relieving functional emotional disorders. However, additional evidence-based large-sample trials are required to definitively determine the forms of mindfulness-based therapy that may be effective in this context and ensure that the benefits obtained are ongoing. Future studies should investigate more personalized approaches involving interventions that are tailored to various barriers and students’ clinical characteristics. To optimize the effects of such interventions, they should be developed and evaluated using various designs such as the multiphase optimization strategy, which allows for the identification and tailoring of the most valuable intervention components.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2024 09:05:00 +000
       
  • The Meaning of Plants’ Names: A New Discovering Approach to Its
           Medicinal and/or Toxic Properties

    • Abstract: Some of the vernacular or scientific names are related to possible medicinal and/or toxic properties that can reveal the presence of potential bioactive agents, contributing to the discovery of new drugs and/or knowledge of the risks associated with their use. This study sought to list the scientific and vernacular names of plants whose lexicons are related to those possible properties of plants and to compare them with the “ethno” (ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological) and pharmacological data available in the scientific literature. A floating reading of the two classical and reference works on Brazilian medicinal plants was performed, and plants with vernacular and/or scientific names related to the possible medicinal and/or toxic properties were listed. Correlations between the meanings of the species’ names (lexicon) and their possible biological properties were made from their translation from Latin by consulting dictionaries. A bibliographic survey was conducted on the “ethno” and pharmacological data for each species. Finally, data from these three dimensions (lexicon, “ethno,” and pharmacology) were classified and compared using a bioprospection classification. It resulted in a list of 90 plant species belonging to 47 families. 66 of the 90 species presented “ethno” data from the scientific literature, while 46 species presented pharmacological data. Of these, 46 (69.7%) and 27 (58.7%), respectively, showed equivalence with the possible medicinal and/or toxic properties of plants according to their lexicons. According to this study, half of the plants investigated demonstrate equivalence in the three dimensions analyzed (lexicons, “ethno,” and pharmacological data from the scientific literature). Gastrointestinal and nervous system categories are among the most common in all three dimensions. Plant lexicons may be closely linked to the possible medicinal and/or toxic properties and the study of plant lexicons may represent one more approach for the search for new drugs, mainly considering the gastrointestinal, nervous, and parasites categories.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2024 15:20:00 +000
       
  • Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Activities of Lespedeza cuneata via
           Pharmacological Inhibition of Integrin αIIbβ3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT
           Pathways and FeCl3-Induced Murine Thrombosis

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the major cause of mortality all around the globe. Lespedeza cuneata abbreviated as L. cuneata with the authority name of Dumont de Courset (G. Don) is a perennial flowering plant commonly grown in Asian countries such as Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan. We aimed to investigate the L. cuneata extract’s antiplatelet and antithrombotic properties as GC-MS analysis indicated that the extract contained short-chain fatty acids, which have been reported to possess beneficial cardiovascular effects. L. cuneata was extracted using water, 50% EtOH, 70% EtOH, and 100% EtOH. For in vitro antiplatelet analysis, washed platelets were prepared and incubated with L. cuneata with 200 μg/mL of 50% EtOH in the presence of 1 mM of CaCl2 for 1 minute followed by agonist (collagen 2.5 μg/mL or ADP 10 μM or thrombin 0.1 U/mL) stimulation for 5 minutes over light transmission aggregometer. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to assess platelet shape change. ATP release and intracellular calcium mobilization were quantified to assess the granular content. Fibrinogen-binding assay and clot retraction assay assessed integrin αIIbβ3-mediated inside-out and outside-in signaling. Protein phosphorylation expression was investigated by western blot analysis. Finally, the in vivo antithrombotic efficacy was investigated by oral dosage of L. cuneata 200 and 400 mg/kg and aspirin 100 mg/kg for 7 days, and tail bleeding and FeCl3-induced murine thrombus model were performed. In vitro platelet aggregation and platelet shape change were dose-dependently suppressed by L. cuneata. Calcium mobilization, dense granules secretion, integrin αIIbβ3-mediated inside-out and outside-in signaling, and protein phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were significantly inhibited. In vivo assays revealed that L. cuneata prevents side effects of synthetic drugs via nonsignificantly increasing bleeding time and improving coronary artery blood flow and animal survival. Our results demonstrate that L. cuneata exhibited potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects and can be considered a potential herbal medicine with cardioprotective effects.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Feb 2024 03:50:01 +000
       
  • An Updated Comprehensive Review of Plants and Herbal Compounds with
           Antiasthmatic Effect

    • Abstract: Background. Asthma is a common disease with rising prevalence worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. Current asthma therapy with traditional medicines lacks satisfactory success, hence the patients’ search for alternative and complementary treatments for their diseases. Researchers have conducted many studies on plants with antiallergic and antiasthmatic effects in recent decades. Many of these plants are now used in clinics, and searching for their mechanism of action may result in creating new ideas for producing more effective drugs. Purpose. The goal of this review was to provide a compilation of the findings on plants and their active agents with experimentally confirmed antiasthmatic effects. Study Design and Method. A literature search was conducted from 1986 to November 2023 in Scopus, Springer Link, EMBASE, Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science to identify and report the accumulated knowledge on herbs and their compounds that may be effective in asthma treatment. Results. The results revealed that 58 plants and 32 herbal extracted compounds had antiasthmatic activity. Also, 32 plants were shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects or may act as bronchodilators and potentially have antiasthmatic effects, which must be investigated in future studies. Conclusion. The ability of herbal medicine to improve asthma symptoms has been confirmed by clinical and preclinical studies, and such compounds may be used as a source for developing new antiasthmatic drugs. Moreover, this review suggests that many bioactive compounds have therapeutic potential against asthma.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2024 11:20:00 +000
       
  • Antidepressant-Like Activity and Molecular Docking Analysis of a
           Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from the Root Bark of Ximenia americana
           (L.)

    • Abstract: Depression, a global cause of disability and premature death, is often treated by traditional healers in Africa using medicinal herbs such as Ximenia americana (L.). With recent pharmacological studies showing the potential antidepressant properties of X. americana extract, this study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of the compound(s) isolated from X. americana extract using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) models predictive of depression. The extracts, administered orally within a dose range of 100–400 mg/kg, notably decreased the immobility time in both the FST and the TST. The most significant reduction occurred at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg, with a decrease of 117.66 s in FST and 53.5 s in TST. However, this reduction in immobility was not linked to changes in movements, as observed in an open-field test (OFT), suggesting that the effect of the extracts was not due to activation of locomotion. Subsequently, a sesquiterpene lactone, dehydrocostus lactone (1) was isolated through solubility-based fractionation and column chromatography of the active root bark extract of X. americana. Dehydrocostus lactone (400 mg/kg) demonstrated a 46.50 s reduction in immobility time in the FST, which was comparable to the positive control, imipramine (30 mg/kg). With a highly favorable docking score of −8.365 kcal/mol on an antidepressant target, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A; pdb ID: 2BXS), dehydrocostus lactone (1) potentially outperforms the standard MAO-A inhibitor drug, isocarboxazid (−5.847 kcal/mol). Dehydrocostus lactone (1) displayed strong interactions involving hydrogen bond and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with specific MAO-A binding site residues. These findings highlight that the antidepressant-like activity of X. americana is partly attributed to the presence of dehydrocostus lactone. Additionally, it also supports the traditional medicinal use of the plant for treating depression.
      PubDate: Sat, 03 Feb 2024 04:20:00 +000
       
  • Biofilm-Inhibitory Activity of Wild Mushroom Extracts against Pathogenic
           Bacteria

    • Abstract: Objective. This study aims to investigate the bacterial biofilm-inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts. Methods. Mushrooms were collected from Arabuko-Sokoke and Kakamega forests and identified using morphological and molecular approaches. Auricularia auricula-judae, Microporus xanthopus, Termitomyces umkowaani, Trametes elegans, and Trametes versicolor were extracted by chloroform, 70% ethanol, and hot water. Extracts were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923). Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 20.0. Results. Chloroform, 70% ethanol, and hot water extracts of A. auricula-judae (50 μg/mL) showed statistically significant antibiofilm activities against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus ().M. xanthopus extracts (250 μg/mL) revealed significantly significant antibiofilm activities against each test bacterium (). All extracts of T. umkowaani (250 μg/mL) exhibited statistically significant antibiofilm activities against S. aureus only (). Chloroform extract of T. elegans (250 μg/mL) showed the best antibiofilm activity (69.75 ± 0.01%) against S. aureus. All T. versicolor extracts (250 μg/mL) indicated the best antibiofilm activities against S. aureus. Conclusions. Being the first study of its kind to be conducted in Kenya, it added a novel concept to the body of knowledge already known about medical biotechnology research. It offers a fresh understanding of the various varieties of mushrooms found in Kenya, their potential biological function in the production of drugs, particularly those that combat drug resistance, and perhaps even a peek at their bioactive elements. Wild mushrooms, a hidden gem, might help to reopen the pipeline of new antibiotics that have been on the decline. However, further research is required to determine the potential mechanism(s) of action of the extracts that are in charge of the apparent antibiofilm activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2024 07:50:01 +000
       
  • Green Tea Leaves and Rosemary Extracts Selectively Induce Cell Death in
           Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells and Enhance the
           Efficacy of Common Chemotherapeutics

    • Abstract: While incredible medical advancements in chemotherapeutics development for cancer treatment have been made, the majority of these are not selective in their mechanism of action, leading to adverse effects. Given the systemic toxicity associated with these therapies, they are not well suited for long-term use. Natural health products, or NHPs, may provide a way to selectively target the oxidative and metabolic vulnerabilities in cancer cells. White tea (Camelia sinensis) and rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus) are two natural extracts that have been studied extensively for their medicinal properties. However, their anticancer activity and mechanism of action are yet to be fully elucidated. We have examined the extracts’ cancer cell-killing ability as well as their interactions with common chemotherapeutics in MDA-MB-231 cells, a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, in vitro. Cell death measurement, morphological and biochemical characterization of apoptotic cell death, mechanisms of action (mitochondrial depolarization and oxidative stress), and immunofluorescence assays to estimate the percentage of cancer stem cells (CSCs) were performed following treatment with Synthite tea extract (STE) and rosemary extract (RE), provided by Synthite Industries Limited alone and in combination with cisplatin and paclitaxel. The key findings in this study are that STE and RE alone demonstrated very efficient anticancer activity against TNBC, and more importantly, the administration of the extracts in conjunction with cisplatin and paclitaxel sensitizes cancer cells to achieve enhanced cell death. In addition, CSCs were found to be sensitive to treatment with STE alone and in combination with RE and exhibited greater sensitivity to combination therapies compared to chemotherapeutic alone. The significance of these observations is that STE and RE, well-tolerated NHPs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of current chemotherapeutics when combined, as well as prevent relapse for TNBC.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jan 2024 06:20:00 +000
       
  • Development of the Short-Form Yin Deficiency Scale Using Three Item
           Reduction Approaches

    • Abstract: Background. Yin deficiency (YD) is a pathological condition characterized by emaciation, afternoon fever, dry mouth, and night sweats. The incidence of YD is 23.3%. A 27-item Yin Deficiency Scale (YDS) was developed to estimate the clinical severity of YD. This study aimed to develop three short-form YDS versions to reduce the burden of response time, using three item-reduction approaches: Rasch, equidiscriminatory item-total correlation (EITC), and factor-based analyses. Methods. Two datasets were analyzed from previous studies (169 outpatients from May to June 2009 and 237 healthy college students from January to April 2016). The optimal response category was examined using Rasch analysis. Items with higher item-total correlations were determined using the EITC. Using a factor-based approach, the items were reduced, while maintaining the original YDS construct. Reliability was estimated using the person separation index (PSI) and Cronbach’s α values. The predictive accuracy was examined using the area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the relationship between YD and dysfunctional breathing (DB) was examined using factor scores from the YDS and the Korean version of the Nijmegen Questionnaire (KNQ). Results. We developed two 14-item YDS versions using the Rasch and EITC approaches, and a 16-item YDS version using a factor-based approach. Rasch analysis suggested an optimal response category of five points. The PSI of Rasch and Cronbach’s α of the EITC and factor-based versions were 2.19, 0.855, and 0.827. The AUCs of the three short-form YDS were 0.812, 0.811, and 0.818. The sensitivity of the EITC-YDS was 0.632, which was lower than its specificity of 0.875. The fatigue-related scores of the factor-based YDS were fairly correlated with the factor scores of the KNQ estimating the DB (r = 0.349–0.499). Conclusion. The 14-item Rasch- and 16-item factor-based YDS may replace the original YDS during YD’s primary screening, epidemiological surveys, and health checkups.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jan 2024 10:20:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Dill (Anethum graveolens) Oil on Pruritus and Quality of Life of
           Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Three-Arm Controlled
           Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction. Anethum graveolens (AG), commonly known as dill, is a plant from the Apiaceae family that has been traditionally used as a skin softener and purifying agent in Persian medicine. In a previous study conducted on male rats, dill was found to have anti-inflammatory effects. The current study aimed to examine the efficacy of topical application of Anethum graveolens oil on pruritus severity, skin dryness, sleep quality, and quality of life in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods. In the current clinical trial, the participants were randomly assigned to one of these groups: topical AG preparation, sesame oil, or a control group receiving no treatment. The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled. The topical treatment was applied twice a day for one month to areas of the skin affected by pruritus. The outcome measures included the severity of skin dryness, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Duo’s Uremic Pruritus Severity Scale, and the Itchy QoL questionnaire. Results. This study involved 106 hemodialysis patients, and after intervention for one month, the medication group had a significantly lower mean score of sleep quality (3.24 ± 2.41) than the placebo (4.54 ± 3.11) and control (5.05 ± 3.21) groups (). The mean change in pruritus severity was significantly greater in the medication group (−17.28 ± 8.938) than the placebo (−5.91 ± 5.398) and control (−3.43 ± 3.228) groups (). Moreover, a significant difference was observed in the mean changes in quality of life between the medication, placebo, and control groups, with values of −14.88 ± 7.89, −5.34 ± 4.50, and −1.92 ± 2.86, respectively (). Furthermore, both the medication and placebo groups showed improvement in skin dryness compared to the control group having the values of −1.65 ± 0.91, −1.11 ± 0.79, and −0.38 ± 0.54, respectively ().Conclusion. Topical Anethum graveolens preparation significantly improved the sleep quality and quality of life and reduced skin pruritus and dryness in hemodialysis patients. It could be considered as a simple therapeutic modality to control pruritus in hemodialysis patients. This trial is registered with IRCT2017022032671N1.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2024 13:20:00 +000
       
  • Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations: A
           Safety Screening

    • Abstract: The present study evaluates the human health risk of metals in locally consumed herbal preparations used to treat diabetes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used after microwave-assisted digestion to mineralize the samples. Toxic metal assessment was done by adopting mathematical modeling for carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks in the exposed population and comparing the raw results with maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by regulatory authorities. Hazard quotient (HQ) values for Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Zn were recorded above 1. Noncarcinogenic health risks remain in 29% of samples for Fe, 67% of samples for Hg, 17% of samples for Cu, 33% of samples for Pb, and 4% of samples for Zn. Hazard index (HI) values in 33% of samples were above 1. Carcinogenic risks for Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni were higher than the acceptable limit (1 × 10−6). Carcinogenic health risks exist in 54% of samples for Pb, 58% of samples for Cr, 46% of samples for Cd, and 58% of samples for Ni. MRLs for metals were crossed in samples in varying degrees. This is a harrowing account and may put public health safety at risk. Considering these facts, there should be more investigation into toxic metals in other frequently marketed herbal drugs in the antidiabetic and other therapeutic classes. Pre- and postmarket monitoring strategies for the preparations should also be in place to ensure safe consumption.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2024 11:50:01 +000
       
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clematis terniflora Leaf on
           Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    • Abstract: For centuries, natural products are regarded as vital medicines for human survival. Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica (Rupr.) Ohwi is an ingredient of the herbal medicine, Wei Ling Xian, which has been used in Chinese medicine to alleviate pain, fever, and inflammation. In particular, C. terniflora leaves have been used to cure various inflammatory diseases, including tonsillitis, cholelithiasis, and conjunctivitis. Based on these properties, this study aimed to scientifically investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of leaves of C. terniflora (EELCT) using activated macrophages that play central roles in inflammatory response. In this study, EELCT inhibited the essential inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, by suppressing the nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in macrophages. Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal respiratory disease accompanied by serious inflammation. With high mortality rate, the disease has no effective treatments. Therefore, new therapeutic agents must be developed for ALI. We expected that EELCT can be a promising therapeutic agent for ALI by reducing inflammatory responses and evaluated its action in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced ALI model. EELCT alleviated histological changes, immune cell infiltration, inflammatory mediator production, and protein-rich pulmonary edema during ALI. Collectively, our results may explain the traditional usage of C. terniflora in inflammatory diseases and suggest the promising potential of EELCT as therapeutic candidate for ALI.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2024 07:50:01 +000
       
  • In Silico and In Vitro Studies of Antibacterial Activity of Cow Urine
           Distillate (CUD)

    • Abstract: Cow urine distillate (CUD) is a traditional Indian medicine used to treat various diseases, including bacterial infections. However, there is limited evidence to support its use as a medicine, and its safety and efficacy have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of CUD against five bacterial strains using in vitro and in silico approaches. In vitro experiments showed that CUD has significant antibacterial activity against all tested strains with a zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 13 to 24 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 12.5 to 50 µg/ml. The results indicated that the 15% concentration of CUD displayed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. To further investigate the antibacterial mechanism of CUD, we performed in silico docking studies of the active compounds of CUD with bacterial proteins involved in protein synthesis. Our results showed that 2-hydroxycinnamic acid (ΔG = −6.9 kcal/mol) and ferulic acid (ΔG = −6.8 kcal/mol) exhibited the best docking scores with the targeted proteins (DNA gyrase, PDBID: 4KFG). The hydrogen bonding interaction with amino acids Val71 and Asp73 was found to be crucial for their antibacterial activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2024 11:20:00 +000
       
  • Phytochemistry Profile, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Potential of the
           Methanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A DC and Eragrostis
           plana NEES

    • Abstract: Natural compounds that have the potential to act as antimicrobials and antitumors are a constant search in the field of pharmacotherapy. Eragrostis plana NEES (Poaceae) is a grass with high allelopathic potential. Allelopathy is associated with compounds generated in the primary and secondary metabolism of the plant, which act to protect it from phytopathogens. Tabernaemontana catharinensis A DC (Apocynaceae), a tree in which its leaves and bark are used for the preparation of extracts and infusions that have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects, is attributed to its phytochemical constitution. The objective of this study was to elucidate the phytochemical constitution, the antibacterial potential, the toxicity against immune system cells, hemolytic potential, and antitumor effect of methanolic extracts of E. plana and T. catharinensis. The phytochemical investigation was carried out using the UHPLC-QTOF MS equipment. The antibacterial activity was tested using the broth microdilution plate assay, against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, and cytotoxicity assays were performed on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in vitro hemolysis. Antitumor activity was performed against the colon cancer cell line (CT26). Results were expressed as mean and standard deviation and analyzed by ANOVA. was considered significant. More than 19 possible phytochemical constituents were identified for each plant, with emphasis on phenolic compounds (acids: vanillic, caffeic, and quinic) and alkaloids (alstovenine, rhyncophylline, amezepine, voacangine, and coronaridine). Both extracts showed antibacterial activity at concentrations below 500 µg/mL and were able to decrease the viability of CT26 at concentrations below 2000 µg/mL, without showing cytotoxic effect on PBMCs and in vitro hemolysis at the highest concentration tested. This is the first report of the activity of E. plana and T. catharinensis extracts against colon cancer cell line (CT26). Studies should be carried out to verify possible molecular targets involved in the antitumor effect in vivo.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jan 2024 12:05:00 +000
       
  • In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Reproductive Stage Withania somnifera Leaf and
           Stem on HepG2 Cell Line

    • Abstract: Background. The ayurvedic plant Withania somnifera, a member of the Solanaceae family, has been used as a remedy for diverse health problems, including cancer. Objectives. The objective of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of the in vitro cytotoxic properties of methanolic extracts derived from the leaf, stem, and root of W. somnifera on HepG2 and L929 cell lines. Methods. Methanolic extracts were obtained using the Soxhlet extraction method. To assess the in vitro anticancer action on the HepG2 and L929 cell lines, an MTT assay was performed. Changes in cell morphology were observed using an inverted microscope. Results. The MTT assay results indicated that the leaf, stem, and root methanolic extracts of W. somnifera showed significantly higher in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, with IC50 values of 43.06 ± 0.615, 45.60 ± 0.3, and 314.4 ± 0.795 μg/mL than in L929 cell lines with 78.77 ± 0.795, 90.55 ± 0.800, and 361.70 ± 0.795 μg/mL, respectively. The leaf methanolic extract was the most effective, followed by the stem methanolic extract in the HepG2 cell line. Conclusion. The results of our study have confirmed that the methanolic extracts of both the leaf and stem of W. somnifera exhibit significant in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell lines, while displaying no significant cytotoxicity in the L929 cell line. Furthermore, the data obtained from the MTT assay indicate that the leaf methanolic extract possesses a more potent cytotoxic activity than the stem methanolic extract with respect to the HepG2 cell line. Further studies on the identification and isolation of bioactive metabolites are required to explore the mechanisms underlying their in vitro cytotoxicity.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2023 08:35:00 +000
       
  • Antimalarial Properties of Sida cordifolia L. Leaf Extract in Mice:
           Survivability Depends Less on Parasitaemia Suppression

    • Abstract: Sida cordifolia has been used to treat malaria in Ghana albeit without scientific evidence of antimalarial activity and safety. This work aimed to assess the antimalarial properties and acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf extract of S. cordifolia in murine models. Aqueous extract of the plant was analysed for both suppressive and curative antimalarial properties in chloroquine-sensitive ANKA strains of rodent Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Acute toxicity evaluation was performed in rats according to the OECD 425 guidelines. The extract displayed antiplasmodial activity in vivo with ED50 of 117.49 ± 15.22 mg/kg and 144.84 ± 18.17 mg/kg in suppressive and curative studies, respectively. The highest % parasitaemia suppression exerted was 76.90 ± 0.64% and 61.50 ± 0.97%, respectively, in the suppressive and curative studies. Survival of infected mice treated with the extract was significantly prolonged. This was dependent on the dose of the extract but imperfectly related to the % parasitaemia suppression. Related antimalarial parameters including percentage hematocrit, changes in body weight, and temperature of experimental mice indicated alleviation of malarial symptoms of treated animals. The extract did not show toxicity in rats. Sida cordifolia L. has antimalarial properties, and was safe. It suppressed parasitaemia in both suppressive and curative studies, was not toxic to animals and prolonged the life of infected animals under treatment. This, therefore, justifies the traditional use of S. cordifolia for the treatment of malaria in Ghana.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Dec 2023 07:05:00 +000
       
  • Cardioprotective Effects of Solidago microglossa DC. in Nicotine-Treated
           Hypertensive Rats

    • Abstract: Solidago microglossa DC. (Asteraceae), “arnica brasileira,” is a Brazilian species popularly used to treat hypertension or renal ailments. This study investigated the cardioprotective effects of standardized S. microglossa extract (EESM) in nicotine-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Moreover, the molecular mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular effects were also investigated. The acute toxicity was evaluated in female Wistar rats. Afterwards, six-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats received the EESM (14, 28, and 56 mg/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/kg), and vehicle (filtered water; 0.1 mL/100 g) once daily for 28 days. All treatments were associated with 1.8 mg/kg of nicotine. At the end of the experimental period, the renal function, electrocardiographic profile, blood pressure, ventricular function, biochemical parameter, and mesenteric vascular bed reactivity were evaluated. Relative organ weights and cardiac morphometry were also investigated. Nicotine treatment in 6-month-old SHRs induced a significant reduction in renal function, with reduced urinary volume and lower renal elimination of sodium and creatinine. In addition, serum markers of the redox state and blood pressure levels remained significantly elevated, contributing to changes in vascular reactivity and left ventricular hypertrophy associated with reduced ventricular function. After 28 days of treatment, we found that the highest dose of EESM could mitigate all renal and cardiovascular changes developed by the nicotine-treated hypertensive rats. This study presented EESM as a possible cardioprotective drug that prevents cardiovascular dysfunctions in nicotine-treated hypertensive rats. Our data suggest EESM as a potential adjuvant therapy when cardioprotective effects are required.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Dec 2023 06:20:01 +000
       
  • Retracted: Changes of Intestinal Flora and Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients
           with Chronic Renal Failure

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:13 +000
       
  • Retracted: Efficacy of Methylprednisolone plus Azithromycin in the
           Treatment of RMPP and Its Effect on the Changes of T Lymphocyte Subsets

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:11 +000
       
  • Retracted: Simultaneous Determination of the Five Constituents in Maiwei
           Dihuang Pills by the HPLC-DAD Method

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:10 +000
       
  • Retracted: MiR-199 Aggravates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by
           Targeting TAF9b

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:08 +000
       
  • Retracted: The Influence of Ixeris sonchifolia Hance Injection Combined
           with Isosorbide Mononitrate in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and
           Diabetes

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:07 +000
       
  • Retracted: Loureirin A Exerts Antikeloid Activity by Antagonizing the
           TGF-β1/Smad Signalling Pathway

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:05 +000
       
  • Retracted: SERPINE1 Gene Is a Reliable Molecular Marker for the Early
           Diagnosis of Aortic Dissection

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:03 +000
       
  • Retracted: Circular RNA SMARCA5 Modulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal
           Transformation, Proliferation, and Metastasis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
           Cells via microRNA-582-3p/Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Axis

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:14:00 +000
       
  • Retracted: A Novel Immune-Associated Gene Signature for Overall Survival
           Prediction in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:58 +000
       
  • Retracted: The Effect of TLR9, MyD88, and NF-κB p65 in Systemic
           Lupus Erythematosus

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:56 +000
       
  • Retracted: Effect of Xinyi Biyan Pill in Adjuvant Treatment of Patients
           with Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Its Influence on Serum Inflammatory
           Factors and Immune Function

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:54 +000
       
  • Retracted: Optimal Extraction Process and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory
           Evaluation of High Purity Oily Capsicum Oleoresin for Pharmaceutical
           Applications

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:51 +000
       
  • Retracted: Influence of Bushen Tiaochong Cycle Therapy on Th1/Th2
           Deviation, Sex Hormone Level, and Pregnancy Outcome of Alloimmune
           Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:49 +000
       
  • Retracted: Ulinastatin as an Adjuvant Therapy to Restricting Volumes of
           Resuscitation Fluid Strategy for Patients with Septic Shock after Initial
           Management

    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2023 07:13:48 +000
       
 
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JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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