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Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2148-9637
Published by Badebio Biotechnology Ltd Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Effect Of Integrated Reporting On Financial Performance Of Quoted Finance
           Companies In Nigeria

    • Authors: Ogar-Abang John Oyong ; Asso. Prof. Osita Aguolu , Umagu Udemeobong Bahakonfe , Inyang, Ethel Ohanya
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: This study investigates the effect of integrated reporting on the financial performance of quoted finance companies in Nigeria from 2014 to 2020. The study used a sample size of 28 finance companies quoted on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, now called exchange group, by way of the purposive sampling method. The researcher used an ex-post facto research design. The dependent variable was measured by earnings per share. The independent variable was measured by integrated reporting. The study employed a secondary source of data obtained from the finance firms' annual reports and the Nigerian exchange group website. The results from the multiple regression analysis proved that integrated reporting has a positive relationship with the financial performance of quoted finance companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings and the study's conclusion, the study recommends that The Financial Reporting Council of Nigeria (FRCN), the country's standard-setter, make integrated reporting mandatory, as it is in South Africa.
      PubDate: 2022-05-02
  • Decision Making Strategy In Regional Based New And Renewable Energy
           Governance Planning As A Supporter Of State Defense (East Nusa Tenggara
           Case Study)

    • Authors: Syaiful Hidayat ; Purnomo Yusgiantoro , Suyono Thamrin , Rudy Laksmono Widayatno
      Pages: 14 - 24
      Abstract: The important role of energy in the country's economy causes the need for energy security, such as availability and ease of
      access. Limited fossil energy sources require diversification from the use of new and renewable energy sources (EBT).
      Therefore, the important role of energy in the economy is directly linked to the element of national security. The national
      defense sector, which has the duty and responsibility of maintaining regional sovereignty, requires energy to support
      national defense efforts. The reciprocal relationship between defense and energy shows the urgency of energy. In the area
      of Indonesia that is in energy use, when viewed from the level of electrification ratio, the province of East Nusa Tenggara
      (NTT) is the region with the lowest level. Energy supply support to support defense in the NTT region must be planned
      effectively, efficiently and sustainably. NTT has the potential for wind energy worth 10,130,000 MW and the potential for
      solar energy worth 9,930,000 MW. The potential needs to be managed through the right policy planning strategy. The
      formulation of targets, alternative engineering and evaluation of alternatives are needed in strategic planning so that the
      assessment of alternatives based on assumptions can fully identify the policy needs of the NTT region.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Energy Management Strategy For State Defense Toward The Energy Crisis

    • Authors: Syaiful Hidayat ; Purnomo Yusgiantoro , Suyono Thamrin , Rudy Laksmono Widayatno
      Pages: 25 - 35
      Abstract: Energy needs to support activities make energy an influential factor for everyday life. The guarantee of the
      availability of energy supply which has decreased requires diversification. Energy for defense requires a
      management planning strategy by supporting government programs, namely the energy mix using new and
      renewable energy (EBT). Through this research, it is hoped that an effective and efficient energy management
      strategy for national defense can be obtained in the face of the energy crisis experienced by Indonesia. The
      method used is by conducting literature studies through policies related to defense and energy and studying
      existing phenomena. The results showed that the need for electricity to support military base operations can
      use power plants with renewable energy sources. Regional arrangement based on the energy potential that
      is owned can be used as a strategic area for the formation of a defense area plan. The synergy between the
      targets of the National / Regional Energy General Plan (RUEN / D) and the Regional Defense Plan (RWP) can
      create infrastructure that can support the management and utilization of energy for military bases. Strategies
      that can be carried out are to carry out an inventory of the potential for new and renewable energy in various
      regions, do more in-depth research, make plans in more detail and finally determine energy generators that
      are suitable for availability and needs.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Geospatial Intelligence For The Selection Of Locations For The New
           Indonesian Presidential Palace

    • Authors: Sa’dianoor ; Syamsul Maarif , Sobar Sutisna Edy Saptono
      Pages: 36 - 47
      Abstract: Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) has expanded to various fields of life. By combining with the science
      of geography to produce defense geography. This study aims to see the ability of GEOINT in assisting the
      selection of the location of the presidential palace, which is planned to be moved from Jakarta to East
      Kalimantan. Using photogrammetric data can produce an overview of the planned location of the capital as a
      basis for competent respondents to make choices. Of the eight respondents, all of whom live or work around
      the planned location of the capital city, they got the best alternative based on GEOINT data. Respondents
      chose alternative 1 because it had the highest score from the aspect of physical geography and socio-cultural
      geography. From the interviews, most of the respondents wanted a location that was safe from flooding and
      far from residential areas and there was no relocation of residents. The conclusion is that GEOINT can
      summarize the condition of the planned location of the new state capital from a physical and socio-cultural
      perspective. GEOINT is not only useful for military purposes but also for non-military interests.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Plyometric Training And Its Effects On Power And Speed, Applying A Program
           Of Plyometric Intervention In Pre-Pubertal Children Practicing Indoor

    • Authors: Cristhian Alberto Bautista Rico ; Mario Alexi Isidro Delgado , Edgar Maurcio Amaya Corredor
      Pages: 48 - 81
      Abstract: The study aims to determine the effect of strength training from the plyometric method on power and speed, applying an intervention program in prepubertal children practicing indoor soccer. The selected sample was divided into two groups: control (group that continued with the development of the basic training established by the sports training school) and experimental (group to which was applied, in addition to the training activities of the sports training school, the intervention program). In the development of this research, the quantitative approach was taken into account, allowing making conjectures in the research process to generate descriptive and correlational scopes between the control and experimental groups. The intervention was developed establishing ten weeks for the execution of the program, with a training frequency of three weekly sessions. Three blocks were established: block one, self-loading; block two, elastics; and block three, traction and facilitated exercises. The following tests were used for the evaluation: University and Illinois agility tests, thirty-meter speed, Abalakov, CMJ counter-movement jump, squat jump, as well as the percentage of muscular contraction and the percentage of elastic contribution.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
  • Qbd Approach High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Technique For
           Determination Of Clofarabine Impurities In Clofarabine Api, Clofarabine
           Parenteral Dosage Form And Reconstitution Studies

    • Authors: Arjuna Rao Nekkalapudi ; Venu gopal Veldi , Hanimi Reddy Bapatu
      Pages: 82 - 98
      Abstract: Using the quality by design concept (QbD) and a DoE methodology to identify the design space for a technique of Related impurities method for Clofarabine API, Clofarabine parenteral dosage form, and reconstitution studies using 0.9 percent sodium chloride.
      Using design expert software, DoE was used to do a simultaneous multivariant approach for pH, buffer strength in the mobile phase, and flow rate. Trials were done in a two-level fractional factorial design (2 4-1 + 4 canter points = 12 experiments) to establish design space. Method development experiments were performed by using a composite degradation sample with spiked known impurities. Degradation unknown and known impurity pairs were studied statistically to identify the chromatographic parameters essential for their resolution. Various data tables, such as analysis of variance and Pareto charts, were used to assess conclusions made during this process. The 'design space' of the method's chromatographic factor range was shown in the plot of desirability. The procedure is exact, specific, accurate, and reliable all at once. This method is found suitable for the quantification of impurities in Clofarabine API, Clofarabine parenteral dosage form, and reconstitution studies.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
  • Automation In Agricultural Robot For Farming And Seeding Purpose

    • Authors: Mohamed Mehdi Hadi Mohamed ; Cristian German Santiana Espín , Jacinto Alex Roca Cedeño , Ricardo Augusto Ponce Jaramillo , Lanchimba Coyago Paulino Jeovanny
      Pages: 99 - 106
      Abstract: To help farmers by providing real time date about their cultivation land With the advancement of science and recent
      technologies the scientist is attracted towards agricultural field and the work is based on Robotic system. The field farming and
      robotics systems are merge together and it is efficiently worked together to overcome the issues. This issue is solved by the
      robotics and it is worked very well for the agriculture process and the robotics technology is played a good vital role in engineering,
      medical field, military, etc. The main topology of this paper deals with the robot for the farming seeds to reduce the man power
      intervention. In this work moisture sensor indicates the soil water content in the agricultural field. Ultrasonic sensor is used for
      distance calculating the obstacles to indicate the robot to turn the direction for seeding the cultivation land. Program is simulated
      using Arduino Software. In this paper the whole work reviews with the robot for cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
  • Influence Of Oxidative Biomarkers On APE1 Gene Expression In Iraqi Breast
           Cancer Women

    • Authors: Altayeb Jasim Mohammed ; Murat Çanlı
      Pages: 107 - 113
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the APE1 gene expression with some clinical biomarkers in breast cancer women. Ninety
      women were enrolled in this study; they were divided equally into 2 groups: the breast cancer patients’ group, which
      attended the Al-Eluia hospital for women's care in Baghdad, and the healthy control women's group. Five milliliters of
      blood were taken from patients and a healthy control group. Two milliliters of blood were transmitted directly to EDTA
      tubes, and then the ELISA technique was used to determine the oxidative biomarkers like Glutathione Peroxidase 1
      (GPX1), Estradiol (E2), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three milliliters of blood were used
      for gene expression by using the RT-PCR method. The result of this study showed that there were significant differences
      in the expression of the APE1 gene were the gene folding for patients was 3.004 ±0.15 when compared with the control
      group 1.00 ±0.00. In conclusion, when comparing breast cancer patients to healthy people, it was discovered that the
      APE1 gene was out of the ordinary.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
  • Effects Of Complex Exercise For 12 Weeks On The Bone Mass Content,
           Diabetes Risk Factors, Bdnfs, And Inflammation-Related Factors Of Type 2
           Diabetic Patients

    • Authors: Jang-Jun Park ; Hyun-Jun Kim , Yeun-Suk Cho , In-Joo Kim , Sang-Soo Kim , Won-Sik Bae
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of complex exercise for 12 weeks on the bone
      mass content, diabetes risk factors(HDL-C, LDL-C, HbA1c, TC, TG), BDNFs, which are brain derived neurotrophic
      factors, inflammation-related factors(IL-6, TNF-α) of type 2 diabetic patients. The subjects of this study were 50-
      70 years old female type 2 diabetic patients residing in Busan selected through simple random sampling and
      assigned to an exercise group of 10 subjects and a control group of 10 subjects. A complex exercise program was
      administered to 20 type 2 diabetic patients (10 in an exercise group, 10 in a control group) for 60 minutes per
      time, three times per week for 12 weeks and differences in the amounts of changes were analyzed. As for
      changes in bone mass content (BMC), whereas the exercise group did not show any significant change, the
      control group showed significant decreases and the difference in mean values between the two groups was
      significant(p<.01). Among diabetes risk factors, HbA1c was shown to be statistically different between the two
      groups after the execution of the complex exercise program(p<.05). HDL-C was shown to be statistically different
      between the two groups after the execution of the complex exercise program (p<.01), and changed significantly
      in the complex exercise group but not in the control group(p<.01). Changes in BDNF were analyzed and the
      results indicated significant intergroup differences (p<.01). The results of analysis of changes in IL-6 also showed
      significant intergroup differences (p<.01). Through this study, it could be seen that the 12-week complex exercise
      program is effective for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications because the
      program improved the factors such as the bone mass content, HDL-C, HbA1c, BDNF, IL-6 of type 2 diabetic
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
  • Comparison Of Health-Related And Skill-Related Physical Fitness Status Of
           Elite Youth Under-17 Ethiopian Football Players Across Four Different
           Positions Of Play

    • Authors: Mohammednasir Yimer ; Aemero Asmamaw , Zerihun Birhanu
      Pages: 123 - 134
      Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to investigate health-related and skill-related such as strength endurance,
      flexibility, and agility, speed physical fitness of elite youth under-17 Ethiopian football players across four
      different positions considered as fullback, center back, midfield, and striker. The current study employed a crosssectional survey design with a purposive sampling technique to obtain the required data. Thus, 75 (62.5%)
      volunteer elite youth under-17 players were selected from five elite youth under-17 football clubs. There were
      statistically significant differences among positions of play in agility, F (3, 71) = 2.92, P < .05; flexibility, F (3, 71)
      = 2.65, P < .05; and speed, F (3, 71) = 2.89, P < .05. However, there was no statistically significant difference in
      strength endurance across four different positions of players. We suggest that Ethiopian elite youth U-17
      football coaches should test and record fitness profile of players vis-à-vis their position of play and identify
      players’ individual level of fitness in comparison to the demand of contemporary football game in general and
      their positions of play in particular.
      PubDate: 2022-05-08
  • Effect Of Soil Compaction In Central And Southern Iraq On Growth And
           Productivity Of Wheat And Rice Crops

    • Authors: Asaad RAJ Al-Mhannawi; Hussein GA Al-Kellabi
      Pages: 135 - 140
      Abstract: A field study was carried out to reveal the effect of compaction of irrigated soils resulting from the movement of heavy machinery adopted in soil and crop management processes in central and southern Iraq on some physical, water and engineering properties of soil. The effect of compaction of heavy and light soils in the fields of cereal crops "wheat and rice" was studied. The study was conducted on eight sites in four stations of different textures, two sites in each station. The four sites are Al-Fajr district, Dhi Qar governorate (mixed texture soil), sand dunes station located on the FAO project between Dhi Qar and Al-Qadisiyah (mixed sandy soil), rice research station in Al-Mashkhab area/Najaf governorate (clay mixed soil), and Al-Qadisiyah-Hor Salib region (Alluvial clay soil). The study focused on comparing sites with compacted soils with sites with non-compacted soils in terms of some of the growth and yield measures (plant length, horizontal root length, deep root length, and dry weight of total yield) of wheat and rice yields affected by soil compaction. The results showed the clear effect of soil compaction on the vegetative growth of wheat and rice crops. In general, a significant decrease in growth indicators and yield was observed in the frequently cultivated compacted soil sites (C1) compared to the neighboring newly planted (un-compacted) sites (C0). This effect was negatively reflected on plant height, root system and yield, and led to a decrease in total yield in Qadisiyah and Mashkhab stations, which are characterized by clay soil, and Al-Fajr station with mixed soil. In general, the compaction operations affected the physical properties of the soil and led to a clear imbalance in the growth systems and yield indicators. This is in addition to the risk of soil detoriration over time and an increase in compaction due to pressure and repeated cultivation.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
  • Effect Of Spraying With SW Extract And Plant Earthing Up Process On Growth
           And Yield Of Greenhouse Tomato Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill

    • Authors: Hisham A. Amran ; Mohammed H. Obaid Khalid A. Mutar
      Pages: 141 - 147
      Abstract: The experiment was carried out in a plastic house belonging to the Department of Horticulture and
      Landscape of the College of Agriculture - University of Karbala for the 2021 growing season to study
      the effect of spraying with marine lichen solution and the export process on the growth and yield of
      tomato (Wjdan variety). The treatments included five concentrations of the organic nutrients marine
      lichens 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ml. Liter-1 for the first factor, while guaranteeing the factor or the
      procedure or not to make the Plant Hilling. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete
      block design (RCBD), as a factorial experiment with three replications. The results showed that
      spraying SW extract had a significant effect on the characteristics of vegetative growth and plant
      yield. The best rate of plant yield was in the spray treatment with a concentration of 200 ml. L-1
      which led to 2.138 kg. Plant-1
      , compared to the control treatment (spraying with distilled water),
      which led to 1.492 Kg. plant-1
      . The results also showed that the plant earthing up process had a
      significant effect on the vegetative growth and yield characters, which was 1.956 Kg. plant-1
      in the
      hilled plants, while the non-earthing up plants gave 1.815 kg. plant-1
      . In general, the best results of the
      yield were in the treatment of the interaction 200 ml.L-1
      SW and plant earthing up, which led to the
      highest yield of 2.152 Kg.plant-1
      compared to the yield of non-earthing up and DW sprayed plants
      which resulted in 1.235 Kg. plant-1
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
  • Effect Of Powders Of Three Plants On Some Biological Characteristics Of
           The Cowpea Beetle Callosobruchus Maculate (Fabricius) (Coleoptera:

    • Authors: Jumaʹa T. Muhammad ; Ibrahim A. Hassan Basem A. Taha
      Pages: 148 - 159
      Abstract: Laboratory study was conducted at Plant Protection Department/ College of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of
      Mosul, Iraq, during 2021, to investigate the bioactivity of powders from Fenugreek, Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
      (seed) (Fabaceae), Oleander, Nerium oleander L. (leave) (Apocynaceae) and Coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. (seed)
      (Apiaceae) against the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on cowpea
      seed (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp), based on the rate of egg-laying performance, the emergence of the adult, the
      percentage of decrease in the first generation, seed damage, weight loss of cowpea seed, weevil perforation index
      (WPI)% and the percentage of germination of seeds infected by this insect. The powders were incorporated at rates 0.0
      (control), 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 g/10 g cowpea seeds. Results of this studies revealed that C. sativum at concentration
      1.0g/10g seed had significantly negative effects on C. maculatus for all parameters measured. T. foenum-graecum and
      N. oleander also showed significant effects but with less effect. The results indicate that these botanical powders have
      the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils damage compared to when the seeds stored unprotected.
      They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for C. maculatus in grains stored on-farm in rural
      tropical and subtropical regions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
  • Effect Of Microwave Oven Exposure On Olive Oil Stability Against Oxidation

    • Authors: Saif Nabeel Qasim; Shaymaa Riyadh Abdulsalam
      Pages: 160 - 166
      Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effect of microwave radiation at different exposure periods (0, 2,
      4, 6, 8, or 10 min) on the chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of olive oil. The
      effect of microwave radiation on olive oil was also tested after adding some antioxidants including
      vitamin E, BHT and BHA at concentrations of 300, 400, 500) ppm, respectively. The measurements
      included calculating the pH, peroxide, viscosity, density, refractive index and absorbance (UV at
      wavelengths of 232 and 270 nm). The results showed that exposing olive oil to microwave rays
      increased, although not significant, in acidity number, refractive index and density. On the other
      hand, the values varied between significant and insignificant with respect to smoking point and
      viscosity until the end of the exposure period, while the absorbance increased at wavelength 232 and
      271 nm with increasing exposure period.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
  • Platelet To Lymphocyte Ratio As A Predictor Of SIRS In Patients With
           Peptic Ulcer Perforation Underwent Surgery

    • Authors: I Gede Hendra Wijaya ; I Ketut Sudiasa , Tjokorda Gde Bagus Mahadewa , Sri Maliawan , I Gede Budhi Setiawan , I Wayan Yudiana
      Pages: 167 - 178
      Abstract: Background: The high incidence of postoperative Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) in patients with peptic ulcer perforation motivates researchers to search for inexpensive, convenient, simple, and non-invasive preoperative biomarkers that can be used to predict SIRS.
      Aim: To assess the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) as a predictor of SIRS in patients with peptic ulcer perforation who underwent surgery at Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar.
      Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort design involving 94 respondents of Peptic Ulcer Perforation patients who underwent surgery at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar from January 2016 to December 2019. The parameters in this study were age, gender, nutritional status, PLR, and occurrence of SIRS.
      Results: Of all the research variables, only PLR was significant. The statistical tests obtained a p-value <0.001 and OR 37.3 (CI: 2.71-9.02). The best cut-off point is 348.5, with an AUC value of 87.5%. The OR value of 37.3 means that PLR️348.5 causes SIRS to occur 37.3 times.
      Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between PLR with the incidence of SIRS, and PLR can be a predictor of SIRS incidence in PUP patients undergoing surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • Pulmonary Hypertension As Initial Presentation Of Systemic Lupus
           Erythematosus: A Rare Case Report

    • Authors: Rizqi Arini Siregar ; RM Suryo Anggoro Kusumo Wibowo
      Pages: 179 - 188
      Abstract: Backgrounds: SLE is a disease with diverse manifestations and occurred 6-10 times more often in women than
      men. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been reported as clinical manifestations of SLE and its prevalence is
      estimated between 0.5% and 43%. However, PH as the presenting manifestation of SLE is rarely reported. SLE
      patients with PH has an unfavorable prognosis with the median survival from the onset of PH is two years.
      Aim: To report a case of 37-year-old woman with PH as the presenting manifestation of SLE and review the
      literature about such case.
      Cases: A 37 years old female patient was admitted with the main complaint of worsening shortness of breath
      since one week before. She experienced lassitude and felt more comfortable sleeping with 2 or 3 pillows. She
      also experienced nausea and edema at her lower extremities. From the physical examination she was slightly
      jaundice, non-scarring alopecia, mild bilateral pitting edema and holosystolic murmur were also found. Her
      Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) test was positive with 1/320 titer and low complement level. Chest X-ray showed
      cardiomegaly. Echocardiography and aortic CT scan showed pulmonary hypertension. She fulfilled 2019
      ACR/EULAR criteria for SLE and was diagnosed as SLE-associated pulmonary hypertension (SLE-a PH). She was
      treated with anticoagulant, glucocorticoid, antimalarial, immunosuppressive agent and standard treatment
      of PH with improving symptoms.
      Conclusion: Pulmonary hypertension is a rare initial manifestation of autoimmune disease including SLE
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • Ready To Bake Multigrain Cookies

    • Authors: Khushboo Singhal ; Amit Pratap Singh , Ashish Khare , Apoorva Behari Lal , Anurag Singh
      Pages: 189 - 200
      Abstract: Traditional cookies are ready to eat and the most palatable snack product widely available in the market. These cookies
      are low in protein and dietary fibres. Also, the preparation of fresh cookies at home is a tedious and time-consuming process.
      Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare ready-to-bake multigrain cookies with a high protein and fibre content. These
      ready-to-bake cookies will be available in the market in the form of frozen unbaked cookies that only have to be baked at home
      so that the consumers will get freshly baked cookies with increased nutritional value. In this study, barley flour (BF) and cornflour
      (CF) were incorporated with refined wheat flour (RWF) in various proportions. The incorporation of barley increases the protein,
      fibre and adds beta-glucan to cookies which is very beneficial for health, while corn flour improves the taste and texture of the
      multigrain cookies. Therefore, five different formulations for ready-to-bake cookies were prepared, i.e. S1 (RWF: BF: CF :: 70:
      20: 10), S2 (RWF: BF: CF:: 60: 30: 10), S3 (RWF: BF: CF:: 50: 40: 10), S4 (RWF: BF: CF:: 40: 35: 25), and S5 (RWF: BF: CF:: 30: 30:
      40). Based on the physicochemical and sensory evaluation of baked cookies, Sample S4 was found the most acceptable. The
      unbaked cookies of Sample S4 were then stored at freezing temperature -18°C in the deep freezer. The sensory characteristics
      of the frozen stored cookies (after baking) were studied at an interval of 15 days for about three months of frozen storage. No
      significant changes have appeared in the quality of ready-to-bake cookies during frozen storage. Thus, this study's outcome will
      help in development of healthy multigrain cookies, which can be baked at home in a few minutes.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • Large Scale Simulation Of Cyanovirin Production From Conventional And
           Biotechnological Techniques

    • Authors: Martín Torres ; Jose Carvajal ; German Gelves
      Pages: 201 - 211
      Abstract: This paper's primary purpose is to determine the best cyanovirin-N n large-scale technique for production
      based on its pre-feasibility reached using the traditional method (applying recombinant soybean) and the
      biotechnological method (employing Nostoc ellipsosporum cultures in bioreactors). Cyanovirin-N is a lectin capable
      of inhibiting HIV type 1 and 2 infections. Hence the importance of optimizing production and improving costeffectiveness for its use as immediate treatment in HIV patients is crucial for further researches. In various studies,
      it is confirmed that the problem lies in the low production of cyanovirin at the level of Nostoc ellipsosporum.
      However, this method is essential to find a solution since the operating conditions can be controlled and not
      dependent on environmental factors as in traditional processes. The results obtained using SuperPro Designer®
      software indicate that the soybean produces a greater quantity of crystallized cyanovirin-N (744.48kg/h), but it is
      not profitable due to the annual operating cost (USD) $ 458,892,000. The latter is due to its comparison to the results
      using Nostoc ellipsosporum. This latter reveals lower cyanovirin-N crystals (0.36kg/h). However, the annual
      operating cost significantly decreases to (USD) $ 24,236,000, almost 85% less than the cost compared to the
      traditional method. It should be noted that the culture medium used for Nostoc ellipsosporum offers better
      conditions for protein synthesis and opens the way to future studies that standardize profitable methods in the
      production of this lectin.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • The Effects Of Urbanization Towards Social And Cultural Changes Among West
           African Countries

    • Authors: Dr. KM Ashifa
      Pages: 212 - 218
      Abstract: The West Africa society is rapidly becoming Urban as a result of multitude push and pull factors going on in West
      Africa. The study examines the rhythm of urban life marked by collective consumption which influences cultural
      values, pervades dressing styles of the wider social environment and health in West Africa. This has also generated
      urban health crises among city dwellers and the rural areas. The review showed that the pace of urbanization is
      unprecedented with cities such as Lagos having annual urban growth rate of 5.8%. Urbanization in West Africa is
      mainly demographically driven without commensurate socioeconomic dividends and benefits to the urban
      environment. This has created urban health crises of inadequate water safe supply, squalor and shanty settlements,
      sanitation, solid waste management, double burden of diseases and inefficient, congested, and risky transport
      system. In conclusion, when managed carefully, urbanization could reduce hardship and human suffering; on the
      other hand, it could also increase poverty and squalor. Some laws need to be amended to change the status of poor
      urban settlements. Urban health development requires intersectoral approach with political will and urban renewal
      program to make our urban societies sustainable that promote healthy living.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • Development In The Scavenging Efficiency Of H2S Scavengers In Oil And Gas

    • Authors: Ismail A. Elhaty
      Pages: 219 - 229
      Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide H2S is an acid gas present in oil and gas reservoirs. The presence of H2S reduces the quality of
      natural gas. Hydrogen sulfide scavengers are widely used in the production and processing operations in the Oil and
      Gas Industry to maintain the integrity of the pipelines and workplace safety. Scavengers are divided into regenerative
      and non-regenerative. In degenerative scavengers, concentrated solutions of aqueous alkanolamines are the most
      employed for H2S removal from natural gas. Non regenerative scavengers include triazines, amine based, aldehydes,
      metal chelates and others. Triazines represent the most widely used non regenerative scavengers due to their high
      efficiency, fast kinetics, and low toxicity. This paper includes the up to date development in the field of H2S
      scavengers used to minimize or eliminate the various problems caused by hydrogen sulfide during oil and gas drilling
      operations. The advantages and disadvantages of such scavengers will be compared.
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
  • Economics Of Maize (Corn) Cultivation In District Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber

    • Authors: Muhammad Ehsan Elahi ; Jalal Hayat Khan , Fawad Anwar Usman Ali Tiwana
      Pages: 230 - 236
      Abstract: At Arid Zone Research Centre (AZRC), Dera Ismail Khan (D.I.Khan), a study was conducted to evaluate cost and benefit of Maize cultivation in district D.I.Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2021. The economic analysis basic underlying assumption of Maize production was to assess the farmers / growers financial impact of Maize cultivation. A sample of 100 respondents from 5 major villages of Maize growing areas of D.I.Khan namely Himat, Ketch, Mandran, Ramak and Daraban were interviewed through pre-tested questionnaire. The results indicate that the average cost per acre was Rs. 41,500 and average production (output) of Maize was estimated 32 mounds (1280 kg / acre). Therefore, the gross return of Maize production was Rs. 69,000 per acre. The BCR was Rs. 1.662. Moreover, positive influence between return price and output of Maize was concluded from the study whereas negative effect of cost on the other hand was observed in maize production. It is concluded that Area, Tractor, crop Seed, Lab, Fert, Pest and Comb Harvester are statistically significant. As per equation 7 & 8, the calculated value of Maize area elasticity of production (0.64123) indicates that if maize area increase by 1%and all other inputs remain unchanged, production will increase by 0.64%. Similarly, the output elasticities of Tract, Seed, Lab, Fert, Pest and Comb Hrvt are 0.124587, 0.31244, 0.5874, 0.55461, 0.08248 and 0.65743 respectively, which can be interpreted in the same way.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
  • Rhizobacterial Inoculation Effect On Yield Contributing Parameters Of
           Maize (Zea Mays)

    • Authors: Muhammad Arshad khan ; Haroon Shahzad , Muhammad Waheed , Fawad Anwar , Muhammad Adil , Imran Qazi , Muhammad Jazib , Ejaz Ullah Khan
      Pages: 237 - 244
      Abstract: Increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers are posing a grave threat to world’s agriculture. The use of alternate ways to
      minimize the use of synthetic fertilizers without compromising yields is the fundamental objective of today’s
      research. Use of beneficial microbes in agriculture is among the methods to minimize the risk. To address the
      problem two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on
      percent germination, vigour, and other parameters of pot-grown maize. In these trials, four bacterial strains,
      including P. aeruginosa, P. putida, E. mori, and E. asburiae. P. aeruginosa, P. putida, E. mori, and E. asburiae were
      the microorganisms used. The results of the first investigation revealed that seed Inoculation greatly increased the
      germination of maize seed and the vigour of maize seedlings. In the second experiment, bacterial inoculation
      followed by a considerable rise in the dry weight of the shoots, as well as the surface area of the leaves. The findings
      revealed that inoculating seeds with rhizobacteria had an additional encouraging influence on the growth and
      development of the plants than other treatments. Seeds Inoculation with rhizobacterial strains resulted in
      considerable increase in plant height, fresh biomass, dry biomass, and leaf area of the maize plants in this
      experiment, as demonstrated in results.
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
  • Contact Toxicity, Fumigant Toxicity And Repellence Assessment Of Thymus
           Vulgaris And Cymbopogon Winterianus Against Blattela Germanica

    • Authors: G.K. Sedikelo ; G.G. Lenetha , N.J. Malebo F. Chidawanyika
      Pages: 245 - 254
      Abstract: Background: Natural materials such as plant essential oils provide an exceptional alternative to synthetic
      pesticides to control pests and decrease the negative impact the environment and human health. The move
      towards using green products and the continuing need to develop new methods to control and prevent pest
      infestation is increasing. Pests such as cockroaches have demonstrated a growing resistance against the
      common synthetic pesticides. However, synthetic pesticides have been shown to have detrimental effects
      on humans and the environment. Thus, the need to develop safer ways for pest management.
      Materials and methods: This study evaluated the effect of Java citronella and red thyme essential oils against
      the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, using three bioassay methods to determine the contact toxicity,
      fumigant toxicity and repellent activity. The essential oils were diluted in hexane. The dilutions were 5%,
      10%, 15%, 30%, and 100% essential oil for all Java citronella and red thyme assays. Aliquots of 2.5 ml were
      used for every assay to treat the filter papers.
      Results. Generally, the results showed a higher insecticidal effect in test groups treated with Java citronella
      oil than in groups treated with red thyme essential oil.
      Conclusion: Java citronella and red thyme have been shown to have an insecticidal effect against the German
      cockroach, with Java citronella showing more affinity over red thyme as a potential cockroach repellent. This
      further proves that essential oils can be explored as a safer alternative pesticide.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
  • Potent Medicinal Applications Of Essential Oil Of Hedychium Coronarium
           Koenig Species From The Konkan Region

    • Authors: P. B. Nagore ; P.B. Lokhande , H. A. Mujawar
      Pages: 255 - 261
      Abstract: The rhizomes of Hedychium coronarium species were subjected to extraction of essential oil as secondary
      metabolites by the hydrodistillation method. A total of eleven components were revealed in the essential oil by
      GC/ GC-FID and GCHRMS analysis. Eucalyptol was the major component of oil along with α-terpinol and βpinene. Out of four tested bacteria (two gram +ve and two gram –ve), the oil showed excellent antibacterial
      activity versus E. coli while the preeminent antifungal potency was found against C. albicans. The excellent
      antimalarial efficacy of oil was observed against Plasmodium falciparum. To the best, the presence of –(a) 1,4-
      cineole, (b) Bicyclo[2,2,1] heptan-3-one,6,6-dimethyl-2methylene,(c)7,11Dimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trien-1-ol(E,E)
      and (d)1-terpinol in Hedychium coronarium are reported first time for Konkan region in this study.
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
  • Anticancer Activity Of Praecitrullus Fistullosus Fruit Extracts Against
           Eac Tumor Bearing Mice

    • Authors: Nidhi Tyagi ; Nitin Chaudhary , Manok Kumar Sharma , Neelam Singh
      Pages: 262 - 269
      Abstract: Object: To evaluate the anticancer activity of Praecitrullus fistullosus
      Materials and methods: The different extracts of Praecitrullus fistullosus were studied for anticancer activity EAC
      tumor bearing mice The inhibitory properties of these extracts are compared with standard 5-Fluoro Uracil for EAC
      tumor bearing mice. The various extracts of Praecitrullus fistullosus treated animals significantly inhibited the tumor
      volume, Packed cell volume, tumor (viable) cell count.
      Results: The ethanolic extract of Praecitrullus fistullosus shows the better results as compared to other extracts. The
      Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of phenol, flavonoid, glycosides, alkaloids Saponins.
      Conclusion: The existence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract may be accountable for the anticancer
      activity. Thus this activity can be contributed to the phytochemicals present in it. The ethanolic extract of
      Praecitrullus fistullosus can be concluded to possess highest amounts of phenolic and flavonoid from the present
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
  • Compatibility Of Funguses With Chemical Insecticides Used In Rice

    • Authors: Luz Angola ; Marcos Díaz ; Kelly Alvarado ; Lilian Ramírez
      Pages: 270 - 281
      Abstract: The integration of chemical and biological methods for pest control has become an indispensable strategy to reduce environmental pollution in recent years. For this reason, this work evaluated the compatibility of the biocontrol fungi Paecilomyces sp., Lecanicillium lecanii, and Trichoderma sp. in vitro conditions with four chemical insecticides used for pest control in rice crops in the department of Norte de Santander. The agrochemicals used were Actara® (0.01-0.05%), Engeo® (0.05-0.6%), Lorsban® (0.1-1.0%) and Numetrin® (0.01-0.4%). The tests were performed on PDA agar, where the growth inhibition, agrochemical effect on the concentration, and conidia germination were determined. The statistical results showed that the Lorsban® insecticide had the greatest inhibitory effect on mycelial growth for the three fungi evaluated and was classified as moderately toxic according to the OILB.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
  • Obesity As A Risk Factor For Lymphedema In Breast Cancer Patients After
           Modified Radical Mastectomy

    • Authors: AA Ngurah Rai Kusuma Putra ; I Wayan Sudarsa , I Wayan Niryana , INW Steven Christian , Nyoman Golden , I Ketut Sudiasa
      Pages: 282 - 294
      Abstract: Backgrounds: Surgical therapy with the Modified Radical Mastectomy technique is the primary choice in
      treating breast cancer, but some complications may arise, such as lymphedema. Lymphedema causes
      permanent loss of function of body parts, such as decreased range of motion that impacts the quality of
      life. Postoperative obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of lymphedema.
      Aim: to determine the relationship of obesity to the incidence of post-MRM lymphedema.
      Methods: An analytical study using a case-control study design in breast cancer patients who had
      undergone MRM surgery and were hospitalized and controlled at the Oncology Surgery Polyclinic of
      Sanglah Hospital Denpasar from January 2020 to July 2020. The bivariate test uses chi-square and the
      multivariate analysis uses Poiston regression. The p-value of 0.05 was considered significant.
      Results: Obesity was associated with the incidence of post-MRM lymphedema (OR: 36.529; 95%
      Confidence Interval 4.5 to 295.95; p-value <0.0001), a history of inflammation in the ipsilateral arm also
      had a significant relationship (OR: 3.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 11.98; p-value = 0.023. In multivariate analysis, it was
      found that obesity was the risk factor that most influenced the occurrence of lymphadenopathy (AOR: 6.3;
      95% CI -1.392 to -0.170; p-value = 0.012), but a history of inflammation in the ipsilateral arm was not a
      risk factor (AOR: 1.16; 95% CI -0.921 to 0.268; p value=0.282).
      Conclusion: Obesity is a risk factor for lymphedema in breast cancer patients after Modified Radical
      Mastectomy surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
  • Effects Of Antimicrobial Peptides With Emphasis On Plant Defenses

    • Authors: Zarqa Hassan ; Muhammad Hafeez Javed , Beenish Butt , Fareeha Akram , Rana Javaid Iqbal , Muhammad Tahir Akbar , Abdul Waheed , Saiqah Toor , Faraz Ahmed , Muhammad Asif , Muhammad Ibrar Ahmed , Ansa Rebi
      Pages: 295 - 301
      Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides of plants had been isolated from an extensive range of species. Under environmental stress,
      they are composed of different protein groups with different properties such as overall molecular charge, disulfide
      bond contents, and structural stability. Several plant peptides possessed three-dimensional structures but the
      mechanism of action of these peptides was unknown. Plants produced these peptides in a lot of different places,
      including roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, by enhancing their physiological importance. Here is an overview
      of what was currently known about plant-derived bioactive peptides, with such an emphasis on their antimicrobial
      activity and contribution in the plant signaling network, as well as potential uses.
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
  • Relative Efficacy Of Synthetic And Botanical Insecticides Against Pea Leaf
           Miner (Phytomyza Horticola) On Pea Crop

    • Authors: Aftab Ahmad Khan ; Riaz Hussain , Adnan Ihsan , Najeeb Ullah , Arshad Ali , InamUllah , Muhammad Amin , Afsar Ali Khan , Hamza Iftikhar , Kajal Sana , Ranra Jalal , Ahmad Said Zia
      Pages: 302 - 309
      Abstract: The study was carried out to observe the relative efficacy of botanicals and synthetic insecticides viz., Onion bulb
      (200ml/l), Neem leaves (500ml/l), Garlic bulb (100ml/l), Tobacco leaves (150ml/l), Spintoram 120SE and Lambda
      cyhalothrin 2.5 EC against pea leaf miner at farmer field in Kalam, District Swat during 2019. Randomized Complete
      Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications. Total three spray were applied when the infestation reaches
      to economic threshold level (ETL). The data were recorded on weekly interval. The least means percent infestation
      was recorded in plot treated with Lambda cyhalothrin (5.58), followed by Spintoram (9.22). The botanical extracts
      also reduce the means percent infestation of pea leaf miner viz., Neem leaves (14.06), Onion bulb (13.97), Tobacco
      leaves (13.76) and Garlic bulb (13.46) as comparatively to control. The highest means percent infestation was
      recorded in untreated plot (39.69). The highest yield and CBR was recorded in plot treated with Lambda cyhalothrin
      (3482kg/ha, 1:17.27), followed by Spintoram (2965kg/ha, 1:13.09). All the chemicals and botanicals insecticides
      reduce infestation and improved yield of the crop. But chemical insecticides Lambda cyhalothrin is recommended
      for the better management of pea leaf miner.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
  • Genotyping Of Crb1 And Rp1 Genes In Families With Visual Impairment
           (Retinitis Pigmentosa)

    • Authors: Syed Anees Ali ; Abrar Hussain , Bakht Beland , Ma. Socorro Gonzaga-Leong-on , Muhammad Hashim Raza , Hamid Mehmood , Maria Binte Sarfraz , Tanmay Ghosh , Muhammad Sajid , Arsalan Rasheed
      Pages: 310 - 338
      Abstract: Almost 285 million individuals suffer from vision impairment worldwide in which 90% live in underdeveloped
      countries. A total of 150 mutations and 60 genes have been associated to Retinitis Pigmentosa. In the current study,
      two families with Retinitis Pigmentosa were identified in Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The pedigree
      analysis indicated an autosomal recessive pattern of Retinitis Pigmentosa inheritance. The non-syndromic nature of
      Retinitis Pigmentosa was confirmed by clinical evaluation of affected members by an eye specialist. Homozygosity
      mapping was used to analyze the linkage of two families, RP1 and RP2. The microsatellite markers D1S2816,
      D1S2840, D1S1183, D1S1660, D1S158, D1S422, D1S412, D1S413, D8S532, D8S260, and D8S509 were chosen for linkage analysis in the RP1 and RP2 families. Affected members of the RP1 family (III.1, III.2, III.3, and III.4)
      demonstrated homozygosity at the D8S260 marker. Individuals from the RP2 family that were impaired (III.3 and
      III.4) showed homozygosity at marker D1S1660. The CRB1 locus was used to confirm family linkage in RP1, while the
      RP1 locus was used to confirm family linkage in RP2. Haplotyping confirmed the allelic pattern in RP1 and RP2
      families. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using the Stitch 5 database, and the closest functional
      partner was discovered. The one closest to CRB1 has a maximum interaction score of 0. 978.The interaction of a
      mutant protein with other proteins and how it affects the pathway can be predicted by applying this research study.
      This research could aid in prenatal diagnostics and gene therapy for linked diseases in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
  • Exploring Fears About The Covid-19 Vaccines: The Impact Of Misinformation
           On Willingness To Accept Vaccination

    • Authors: Tariq Elhadary ; William Mosier , Ismail A. Elhaty
      Pages: 339 - 352
      Abstract: Many people believe in conspiracy theories related to COVID-19. An example of an unfounded belief is that the
      pandemic is part of a plan to impose global control over people through vaccinations. This belief increases
      distrust of vaccines although vaccines are an important tool against life-threatening and debilitating diseases.
      In this work, the opinions of university educators and students were surveyed to find out participant sources of
      information about the COVID-19 vaccines and to ascertain the extent this information influences decisions
      concerning willingness to be vaccinated. Basic information about the currently available vaccines were provided
      then participants were asked about their readiness to receive the vaccine.
      The results revealed that the percentage of people (32.0%) willing to take the vaccine before receiving accurate
      and reliable information about the safety of the vaccines was not significantly different (33.1%) after receiving
      information about the safety of the vaccines. This suggests that a statistically significant proportion of people are
      not willing to receive the vaccine, which may represent a risk of delaying an end to the global pandemic. This
      study raises the alarm that people's confidence in vaccines that can aid in the fight against the COVID-19
      pandemic may be significantly inhibited by unfounded fears about COVID-19 and the vaccines against it.
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
  • Prevention Of Diabetic Foot Problems: A Review Based Study

    • Authors: Tania Naveel ; Subia Jamil , Amber Nawab , Mahrukh khurshid , Sidra Zubair
      Pages: 353 - 371
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus can be considered as a long-lasting disease that can consist of multiple complications that can affect the entire body system including foot problems. Diabetes foot ulcers are a prevalent disease. Knowledge and practice are two of the most important factors affecting the quality of diabetes care. The present study aims to know diabetes patients' knowledge and experience concerning foot problem prevention and care. The current review-based study aimed to identify the problems and prevention of diabetic foot problems. The present study involves the data from secondary resources such as published and unpublished articles, research studies, websites, information from books, etc. The findings of the previous literature demonstrated that knowledge and awareness of the problem and a healthy lifestyle play an eminent role in diminishing and exacerbating the disease. Furthermore, results revealed that those individuals who were educated and motivated regarding the knowledge and practices regarding their foot ulcers showed better improvement in their health. Furthermore, lower levels of education and motivation can lead to poor health or a lack of improvement in health. Future studies should highlight other prominent causes of the ulcers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
  • Identification The Genetic Dimension For Several Genotypes Of Cowpea
           (Vigna Unguiculata L.)

    • Authors: Ayad M. Yassen AL- Obeidi ; Jasim M. Aziz AL- Joburi Rana H. Aloush AL- Sammarai
      Pages: 372 - 381
      Abstract: Eight genetic types of cowpeas were used which (Max , JA20 , JA10 , Ramshorn , GLS/14 , Italia , Black eyes , AL- hokool ) to study genetic diversity and determine it,s genetic dimension, DNA is isolated from the leaves of the genetic types and the fit amount is obtained which conceutration and parity , (15) Random praimer form RAPD pointers were used , The total of pundles produced was (127) bunds , (60) were dissimilar bundles , The (OP-G9) Primer had the highest formal multiplicity which (85.71) , while the lowest of Formal multiplicity which (%0) in (OP – VO2) Primer . (OP – 1O2) Primer had the highest efficiency (9.45) , (OP – VO2) had the Lowest discriminative ability which was (%0) and the highest discriminative ability was (11.67) in (OP – 1O2) , (OP – G11) Primers , The study also showed that the values of genetic dimension was (0.05 – 0.21) , The lowest genetic dimension in (V5 – V7) types which (0.05) , and that was the highest genetic similarity between the two types , while The highest genetic dimension was (0.21) between (V4 – V1) types and that was the lowest genetic similarity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Stability Analysis Of Some Genotypes In Flax (Linum Usitatissimum L.)

    • Authors: Abdul Qadir Hamidi Jassim; Jassim Mohammed Aziz
      Pages: 382 - 396
      Abstract: The research was conducted to evaluate stability of eight genotypes of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) (Sakha 1, Sakha 2,
      Sakha 3, Sakha 5, Sakha 6, Giza 8, Syrian and Poloni) which was cultivated in the research station of the Field Crops
      Department of the College of Agriculture - Tikrit University during the season (2019/2020) in six agricultural environments,
      which is the combination of two agricultural distances (5 and 10 cm) and three planting dates, it was applied according to
      the split-plot system in the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). With three replicated, the plants were divided into
      separate plot by four lines for each genotype in each environment, where the line length (2 m) and the distance between
      the lines was (0.40 m), The main plots contained agricultural environments and subplot of genotypes, and the study
      included thirteen traits , which are duration to 50% flowering, plant height, number of vegetative branches, number of
      capsules per plants, number of seeds per capsule, yield of seeds per plant, weight of 1000 seeds, average leaf weight,
      biological yield, leaf percentage, seed yield, and harvest index. The results of the analysis of variance of Genotype x
      environment interaction showed that the mean of the environments squares (E) were significant at the level of probability
      (1%) for the duration to 50% flowering, plant height, duration to maturity, number of vegetative branches, number of
      capsules, biological yield and seed yield, and the statistical significance limit was not reached for the rest of the traits. As
      for the squares mean of genotypes (G), it was significant about the level of probability (1%) for most of the traits under
      study and at (5%) for the average trait of leaf weight except for the trait of percentage of leaves was not significant, As for
      that due to the interaction of genotypes x environments (G × E) was significant at the level of probability (1%) for the
      recipe, the seed yield by the plant, the weight of 1000 seeds, and the seed yield and the evidence of harvesting did not
      reach the limit of significance for the rest of the traits studied, and the results showed that the squares mean of the
      environments (linear) was significant at a 1% probability level for all traits and at 5% for the average leaf weight trait, it is
      not significant for the number of seeds per capsule, and that the mean of the linear component squares of interaction
      genotypes x environments when tested against pooled deviation was significant for all traits and was non-significant for
      the number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and average leaf weight, The results of the stability
      parameters showed that some genotypes were suitable and stable for some approved agricultural environments, for the
      duration traits to 50% flowering, plant height, number of vegetative branches, number of capsules per plant, number of
      seeds per capsule, and biological yield.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • The Effect Of Different Levels Of Nitrogen Fertilizer On Some Growth
           Characteristics Of Three Cultivars Of (Sorghum) Sorghum Bicolor.L

    • Authors: Abdulsattar Hashim A. Ghani ; Mohamed Hussein Hamza Ali Kareem Hussein
      Pages: 397 - 405
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during the fall season of the year 2019-2020 in the field of experiments of the Abu Ghraib
      station of the Agricultural Research Department - Ministry of Agriculture, 10 km west of Baghdad within the longitude 44 ° east
      and north latitude 33. The research aims to find out the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on some growth
      characteristics of three varieties of Sorghum.it used Randomized complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) by Global experience system
      with three replicates. The experiment included two factors, the first factor, three levels of nitrogen (150,0 and 300) kg. ha-1 and
      symbolized by the symbol (N0, N1, N2). The second factor included three items (Kafir,Inqathe and buhooth70) and symbolized by
      the symbol (S1, S2, S3). The results showed that the variety (S1) of Kafir was superior in the characteristic of height by giving it the
      highest average of (165.23 cm), while the variety Inqathe (S2) gave the highest average in some studied traits, the number of
      leaves. Plant-1, leaf area. Cm2 and stem diameter It reached (11.44 leaf.plan-1, 14.02 cm2 and 1.91 mm), while the cultivar
      buhooth70 (S3) gave the highest average in the characteristic of the number of branches. Plant -1 (2.19 branch. Plant -1). The nitrogen element levels showed a significant effect in all the studied traits, as the level was 300 kg. ha-1 (N2), the highest average in all the traits that were under the study: plant height. Cm, number of branches. Plant-1 , number of leaves. Plant-1 , leaf area.Cm2 , The stem diameter was (164.78 cm, 2.57 branch. Plant -1 , 11.69 Leaf .plant-1 , 14.92 Cm 2 and 2.12 mm)
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Effect Of The Type Of Added Weight And Tire Inflation Pressure On Some
           Field Performance Indicators For The Tractors At Two Different Types Of
           Soil Texture

    • Authors: Ahmed Tawfeeq Basheer AL-Qassab; Mothana Abed Al-malik Noori Al-jarrah
      Pages: 406 - 416
      Abstract: The research included a study of the effect of the type of added weight and tire inflation pressure on (vibration, noise, fuel
      consumption, and percentage of slip), for two different locations (silty loam, clay). The experiment was based on the
      Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) according to split-split plot design and Duncan's new multiple range test was
      used to compare the averages at the probability level of (0.05). The results showed that the first location (silty loam) was
      significantly excelled by recording the lowest value of (vibration and fuel consumption), while the second location (clay)
      recorded the lowest significant value of the percentage of slip. The tire inflation pressure (80 kPa) was significantly
      excelled by achieving it the lowest value for (vibration, noise, fuel consumption, and percentage of slip). While the water
      addition treatment recorded the lowest significant value for (vibration, noise, fuel consumption, and percentage of slip).
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Genetic Diversity Of Some Barley Cultivars Using Rapd Dna Analysis

    • Authors: Ashraf Mahmoud Hussein Al-Khazraji ; Ali Hamza Mohammed Al-Jubouri Ahmed Hawas Abdullah Anees
      Pages: 417 - 433
      Abstract: The current study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of six cultivars of barley (Samir, Buraq, Amal, Shahah, Alhadr, IPA
      99) using the PCR-based Random Polymorphism (RAPD) technique for ten primers, which produced 64 bands , including 26
      polymorphism bands. With a genetic variance of (40%).Analysis of the genetic distance of the cultivars showed that the
      largest genetic distance was between the two cultivars Shahah and Buraq (0.185). While the lowest genetic distance was
      between the Alhadr and Amal cultivars (0.027), and the cultivars were classified into two main groups, the first group
      included Buraq and the second group for the rest of the cultivars. The RAPD parameters were highly efficient in diagnosing
      the genetic link between cultivars, It will also serve as an indicator for plant breeders, especially in future studies of this
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Combining Ability And Heterosis For Half Diallel Crosses In Cowpea (Vigna
           Unguiculata L.)

    • Authors: Ayad. M. Yassen AL-obeidi ; Jasim. M. Aziz AL-joburi Rana. H. Aloush AL-sammarai
      Pages: 434 - 451
      Abstract: The eight cowpea genotypes were used (AL_hokool, Black eyes, Italia, Gls/14, Ramshorn, JA10, JA20 and Max), which were cultivated in the spring of (2020) in order to perform the Diallel Meting Design (AA) according to the second method. (random model) proposed by Griffing (1956a). Then, The compared experiment was conducted by planting the seeds of parents and hybrids (8 parents + 28 individual hybrids) in the autumn season (2020) using a randomized complete block design (CRBD) in three randomly distributed replicates to estimate genetic parameters, the combining abilities and Heterosis for leaf area traits (cm2. Plant -1). The number of pods. Plant-1 and the number of seeds. Pod-1, weight of 100 seeds (g), biological yield (g) and yield of individual plant (g). The results of the analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences at the probability level (1%) for all traits. The results showed that there were significant differences for all the traits of the general combining abilities to specific combining abilities, the ratio of the components of the general combining abilities to specific combining abilities  was greater than one for the number of pods . Plant-1traits and weighed 100 seeds (g), biological yield (g) and yield of individual plants, while the parents (4), (7) and (8) recorded significant effects in the desired direction for these traits. The hybrids x Gls/14) JA20, (x Black eyes JA20), (Ramshorn x Black eyes), (Max x Gls/14) and (Max x JA20) (Ramshorn x AL - hokool) showed the highest desirable heterosis  in All traits are based on the deviation of the first generation from the average and best parents. While the results of the analysis showed significant of zero for the values ​​of the additive and dominance variance and for all traits, while the dominance variance was greater than the additive variance for all traits except for the 100-seed weight (g) and biological yield (g). It was noticed through the values ​​of genetic parameters that the mean of the degree of dominance was greater than one for all traits except for the trait of 100-seed weight (g), while the percentage of heritability in the narrow sense was high for the two traits of 100-seed weight (g) and biological yield (g), and it was medium in the trait The number of pods. Plant-1 and the yield of the individual plant (g).While it was decreased in traits of leaf area (cm2. Plant-1) and number of seeds. Pod-1 . The expected genetic improvement percentage was as a high percentage in the traits of 100-seed weight (g) and biological yield, and it was average for the traits of leaf area (cm2.plant-1) and the number of pods. Plant-1 The yield of the individual plant (g), while it was low for the number of seeds. Pod-1.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Studying The Antioxidant And Inhibitory Efficacy For The Flowers Of
           Roselle Plant And Adding It To Yogurt

    • Authors: Ban Imran Mohsen Al-Jubouri; Hussein L. Algboory
      Pages: 452 - 466
      Abstract: This study was conducted with the aim of testing the effectiveness of the Roselle flower plant as an antioxidant and as an anti-growth agent for microorganisms and its use in the manufacture of dairy products, It was bought from the local market and crushed and dried as soon as it reaches the laboratory. The content of total phenolic compounds was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) device to estimate the concentration of some of the active compounds: Catechine, Gallic acid, Keamferol, Qurcetine and Rutin. A GC.MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to total diagnose the volatile active compounds. The antioxidant activity was estimated in the alcoholic extract and the aqueous extract of the samples under study. Where it is noticed that the aqueous extract of Roselle flowers has the ability to free radical scavenging and the total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extract of Roselle flowers reached 29.39%. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Roselle flowers showed clear contrast in the inhibition of the pathogenic bacteria under study (S. aureus, E.coil). One of the fermented dairy products, which is yogurt, was chosen to study the effect of adding aqueous extracts to the flowers of the Roselle plant under study. The antioxidant activity of the fermented milk was estimated before and after the addition. A sensory evaluation was performed for yogurt containing 3.0% of the plant extract. The results of the evaluation showed consumer acceptance. No significant differences were showed between the manufactured product and the control treatment in terms of flavor, taste, texture, acidity and external appearance.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
  • Competitiveness Of Sesame And Mung Bean Intercropping With Different
           Fertilizer Combinations

    • Authors: Burhan Ahmed Saeed; Jasim Mohammed Aziz
      Pages: 467 - 476
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted in the fall agricultural season(2020) In the province of Kirkuk , Hawija ghazieh village in the soil of tissues alluvial sand study included workers first factor loading systems (sesame alone ) and ( mash alone ) and ( 2 mash + line 2 sesame line) and (3 Mash + 3 lines sesame lines) and (2 sesame + 4 Mash lines) The second factor is fertilizer. Levels (0P + 0 N) and ( 30 P +80 N)  and ( P60+N80 ) and( P 30 +N160)  and ( P60 + N 160kg h -1) The experiment was carried out according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results obtained from the effect of competition between sesame and mung showed that the ground equivalent ratio (LER for the mung crop Lb Bigger than sesame values La In all loading systems and at all fertilizer levels , the crop efficiency ratio (CPR) Mach is higher than the sesame yield in loading systems and in fertilizer combinations , as indicated by the values ​​of the mobilization factor )RCC)  for mash were higher than the values ​​of )RCC (For sesame crop in case of cultivation system ) 2:2). And for all fertilizer combinations except the fertilizer combination) P30 + N160(. If the value of the relative mobilization coefficient was (CR) of sesame is higher than that of mung, and this indicates that mung is more competitive in the loading system, as the values ​​of the ground equivalent factor showed) LEC). It gave a yield advantage for all loading systems whose value ranged)0.25, 0.63( while the value of the competition ratio (CR) high in loading systems )2: 2( . And the  )3: 3(  And at all levels of fertilizer was the value of (CR) greater than one and reached )2.07 , 1.9) respectively, either aggressive evidence (A(It was aggressive to the negative mash except for the treatment of the loading system)2:2) in the fertilizer combination ) P30 + N160) which was positive, as for the monetary advantage (MAI) It was positive in all loading systems and fertilizer combinations, which indicates a crop advantage and cash return in all transactions compared to single cultivation. It is noted that the monetary advantage amounted to (921) thousand dinars per hectare.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Characterization Of Some Iraqi Wheat Cultivars According Their Capability
           For Callus Induce And Salinity Tolerance

    • Authors: Dhafir H. Al-Kaab ; Dawood S. Madab Majid Sh. Hamdalla
      Pages: 477 - 486
      Abstract: Three experiments aimed to (1) classify sixteen Iraqi wheat varieties according to their ability to induce callus from the mature embryo under different concentrations of sodium chloride;(2) to investigate the effect of two medium types on the ability of wheat varieties to induce callus in-vitro; and (3) to study the performance of Iraqi wheat cultivars according to seedling characters under different concentrations of sodium chloride. These experiments were conducted at Crop Biotechnology Laboratory / Dept. of Agronomy and Horticulture/ University of Nebraska/ USA. Three Experiments have been conducted; the first experiment used two types of media were used for callus induction. Iraqi wheat varieties showed great differences in their ability toward callus induction, where Rabea variety own high performance according to callus induction, Media type II was superior to media type I. Second experiment included two treatments of sodium chloride (0, 400 mM) to induce callus using media type II for the sixteen genotypes. The results showed superiority of Iraq and Furat genotypes. The third experiment studied the effect of four concentration of sodium chloride (0, 100, 200, 400 mM) on seedling characters. The results showed supremacy of Iraq and Furat cultivars.  
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Effect Of Nanoparticles On Some Biological Aspects Of The Lesser Grain
           Borer Beetle Rhyzopertha Dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

    • Authors: Dhuha Jasim Mohammad Aziz ; Adil Ali Haidir Thikra A. Mustafa
      Pages: 487 - 500
      Abstract: Lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). It is one of the harmful and dangerous pests that attack stored crops, especially wheat, and because it feeds on a very important crop for all peoples of the world, it has become very important to develop methods of control for this insect away from the use of dangerous chemical pesticides. In this study some nanoparticles were used (ZnONPs, AgNPs and SeNPs) with different concentrations (250, 500, 750, 1000) ppm. These materials showed a significant effect on the life aspects of the insect. The average number of eggs was 185 in the treatment of AgNPs, while the average number of eggs was 201.46 and 191.8 in the two treatments of ZnONPs and SeNPs, respectively. The incubation period for eggs was 10.2 days in the treatment of AgNPs, while the incubation period for eggs was 8.93 and 9.35 days in the two treatments of ZnONPs and SeNPs, respectively. AgNPs had a significant effect on the duration of the larval stage, reaching 19.53 days, and the duration of the larval phase in the two treatments of  ZnONPs and SeNPs was 18.33 and 18.46 days, respectively. As for the pupal stage, the period was 4.73 days in the treatment of AgNPs, 3.86 days in the treatment of ZnONPs, and 4.26 days in the treatment of SeNPs, the nanomaterials had a clear effect on the killing rate, as the killing rate in the adults of Rhyzopertha dominica reached 100% after 9 Days from the start of this experiment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Evaluation Of Some Qualitative Traits And Quality Of Flour For Several
           Cultivars Of Bread Wheat By The Effect Of Humic Acid And Storage Periods

    • Authors: Emad Hamid Saadoun Asaad; Ahmed Hawas Abdullah Anees
      Pages: 501 - 518
      Abstract: In this study, ten genotypes of bread wheat (Jihan, Adana, Aras, Aksad, Clark, Florka, Tham 6, Alaa, IPA 99, Rizkari) were used under the influence of three levels of humic acid (without, 20 and 40 kg ha-1) during season 2019-2020, Where the experiment was applied in the fields of a farmer in Kirkuk province. Five genotypes with high growth traits and yield were selected (Rizgary, Jihan, IPA 99, Alaa, Clark) for the purpose of storing their grains in jute bags for three periods (after 3 months, after 6 months, after 9 months of storage) in addition to the non-storage to study the quality and quality characteristics (percentage Protein, wet gluten percentage, dry gluten percentage, sedimentation, ash percentage, specific weight and extraction percentage). The most important results were reached: the presence of significant differences for the study factors and their bi-interaction for all the studied traits except for dry gluten for humic factor and the interaction between humic and cultivars for dry gluten and specific weight and the interaction between storage periods and cultivars for protein and ash content. As for the interaction between humic levels and storage periods, it was only significant for the percentage of ash and sedimentation. The Rizgary cultivar was excelled in the traits of protein content (13.2%), specific weight (78.44 kg.ha-1), and extraction percentage (75.00%) and Clark cultivar in the trait of wet gluten (39.42%) and dry gluten (39.42%, 13.14%),The fourth storage period was excelled on the percentage of ash (1.84%), the third level of humic acid, and the first storage period for most of the studied traits, as well as the significantly of the third level of acid in its interaction with the cultivar Jihan for sedimentation trait (36.13 ml).The interaction between storage periods and cultivars was non-significant for protein and ash ratio, and this means that cultivars exhibited similar behavior in these traits on the one hand, and on the other hand, there was no significant difference between the first and second storage period in its interaction with Clark cultivar for the ratio of wet and dry gluten. Therefore, it is possible to focus on the maintenance and propagation of cultivars with high protein content and sedimentation value in order to improve these traits of the varieties that are excelled in yield, to improve the specific traits and quality of flour, and to pay attention to the two cultivars, Rizgary and Clark, and to preserve them from mixing for the sake of expanding their cultivation and taking care of them in the future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Genetic Variance In Flax Cultivars Using RAPD Technique, Cluster And
           Principal Component Analysis

    • Authors: Hiyam Sabah Habeeb ; Jasim Mohammed Aziz Yasir Hamad Hummada
      Pages: 519 - 533
      Abstract: In the study, eight flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes were used (Sakha 1, Sakha 2, Sakha 3, Sakha 5, Sakha 6, Poloni, Geza and Syrian), which were planted in the fields of the College of Science / University of Kirkuk during the 2020-2021 season according to the RCBD design with three replications. DNA was extracted from plant leaves for the studied genotypes in the laboratory of Wahaj Aldna Co. during the year 2021 according to the attached method (Geneaid@genomic DNA mini kit plant) with the extraction kit, thirteen primers were tested and the results of using those primers in RAPD reactions showed a difference in the number of amplified sites and their molecular sizes according to the primer used, resulting from the difference in the number of sites complementing that primer in the genome of each of the flax cultivars included in this study. The thirteen primers used in this study showed All of the technology doubled in locations as it showed bundles of varying numbers and locations among the varieties under study, and produced a total of 202 bundles, which included 192 different bundles with a percentage of 95.05%, while identical bundles (main bundles) amounted to only 10 bundles with a percentage of 4.95%. The lowest value recorded for the genetic dimension among the studied cultivars was 0.365 between the two cultivars Sakha 5 and Sakha 6, while the highest genetic dimension was between the two cultivars Sakha 1 and Sakha 6 with a value of 0.582, and the results of the Principal Analysis Component (PCA) showed a clear agreement with the results of the dendrogram, The results of the distribution showed the matching of the groups that make up the dendrogram based on the RAPD indicators, which shows their distribution in three main groups, the first group included the two cultivars Sakha 5 and Sukha 6, while the second group included the two cultivars Sakha 2 and Sakha 3, while the third major group included the rest of the varieties.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Chemical Waste Treatment Of Liquefied Gas Containers Using Sustainable
           Green Nanomaterial

    • Authors: Wafaa Mekheel Hasan ; Hussein A.H. Al-Keriawy Alaa K.H. Al-Khalaf
      Pages: 534 - 541
      Abstract: The present study dealt with the problem of waste formation which is a mixture of liquid, solid and gas materials in the liquefied gas containers through their maintenance process at the gas-fuel station. The waste from the cooking gas containers was analyzed using a Gas-Mass Chromatography (GC-MS) and an Infrared Spectrophotometer-Fourier Transform (FT-IR) to find out their components and then treat them using solid catalyst of calcined nano bentonite clay over reaction time (24 and 48 hours) with convenient stirring. The calcined nano bentonite clay has a high oxidative-catalytic ability to break down hydrocarbons into shorter chains due to the possession interchangeable protons distributed through clay surface and that led to new production of dominant hydrocarbon with longer chains such as (2-Furanol, tetrahydro-2,3-dimethyl-, trans) that amounted to (74.09⁒) of the total summit area, due to its high surface area, high dispersion, and converting all produced hexane (49.35%) over reaction time (24 hours). The results showed that the use of solid catalysts had a clear role in treating these wastes cleanly and converting them into other chemical forms that could be used if they were exploited industrially.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Zero-Tillage Performance Of Comparing With Conventional Cultivation In The
           Economic Study

    • Authors: Mohammed A. Hasan ; Jasim M. Aziz AL- Jeboory , Hussain T. Tahir
      Pages: 542 - 552
      Abstract: This study was carried out at the Agricultural Research and Experiments Station (Bani Maqan) in Chamchamal district (2019-2020) and (2020-2021), and it is within an area that is almost guaranteed rain and has a silty clay texture. Two types of cultivation systems are used in this study, which is (the traditional planter system and the zero tillage system) with two levels of forward speed (3 and 5) km/h and two depths of tillage (3 and 6) cm to study some of the mechanical characteristics of agriculture (draw bar power, lost power due to slippage, and Effective field capacity) and some of economical characteristics (operation time, and fuel consumption) and their effect of net profit. The experiment field was divided according to the design of (RCBD). The indicators were randomly distributed among the experimental units within the sector. The experiment field was divided into three sectors. The range is below the level (0.05). The results showed, the zero-tillage system achieved the lowest value required for a time and fuel consumption during the process of agriculture, draw bar power and losses power from slippage were increased by increasing tractor speed, while effective field capacity and fuel consumption were decreased., draw bar power, power losses due to slippage, and fuel consumption were increased by increasing the depth. 
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • The Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Cow's Milk Prepared For The
           Manufacture Of Low-Fat Monterrey Cheese With Skim Buffalo Milk On The
           Traits Of Product Quality

    • Authors: Najla Dakhil Habeeb; Dhia Ibrahim Jerro Al-Bedrani
      Pages: 553 - 571
      Abstract: The current study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing cow's milk prepared for the manufacture of low-fat Monterrey cheese with different percentages of buffalo milk on the chemical, rheological, sensory, and yield percentage of Monterrey cheese. Whole cow's milk was used as a control treatment (C), full-fat buffalo milk (T1) and sorting buffalo milk, which was divided into four sections. As for the other three sections, they were used for the manufacture of Monterrey cheese for the treatments T3, T4 and T5, in which cow’s milk was replaced by skim buffalo milk,in percentage (25, 50 and 75%) respectively, Chemical tests were conducted, which included estimating the percentage of moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, ash, and total acidity, in addition to estimating the pH, while the rheological tests included checking the hardness, flexibility, and cohesion, in addition to estimating the percentage of yield and performing sensory evaluation. The results showed a high percentage of moisture in the replacement treatments, in addition to a decrease in the percentage of solids represented by protein, fat and ash, and the percentage of carbohydrates varied compared to the control treatment. It has also noted a high percentage of stiffness for the substitution coefficients compared to the control treatment, while the elasticity and cohesion decreased for the substitution coefficients compared with the control treatment. The percentage of cheese yield decreased in the replacement treatments compared to the control treatment. The results also showed an improvement in the sensory properties of the addition treatments compared to the control treatment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Studying The Effect Of Adding Different Starter Cultures To The Milk On
           Chemical, Sensory Properties And Yield Of Soft Cheese

    • Authors: Zainab Rumman Hussein AL-janabi; Dhia Ibrahim Al-Bedrani
      Pages: 572 - 586
      Abstract: The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adding different types of traditional starters to the milk prepared for cheese industry on the chemical, organoleptic properties and yield percentage for soft cheese, where whole cow milk was used and it was divided into four treatments: C, the control treatment without adding, The treatments T1 to which the starters was added and consist of Streptococcus thermophillus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus and The treatments T2 to which the starters was added and consist of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterum Lactis, The treatments T3 to which the starters were added and consist of Lactococcus Lactis subsp.Lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diactylactis, The chemical tests were conducted, which included estimating the percentage of moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, salt, ash, and total acidity , pH, yield and conducting the organoleptic  evaluation. The results showed that the moisture content decreased in the adding treatments, the percentage of solids represented by protein, fat, and ash increased, and the percentage of carbohydrates decreased compared to the control treatment. Also, acidity increased in adding treatments, and pH decreased in adding treatments compared with control treatments, where cheese clearance percentage decreased in starters adding treatments. The results also showed improved organoleptic properties of adding treatments compared to control treatments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • The Role Of Some Agricultural Applications In The Yield And Components Of
           Varieties Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Mohammed A. Hasan ; Jasim M. Aziz AL- Jeboory , Hussain T. Tahir
      Pages: 587 - 615
      Abstract: This study was carried out at the Agricultural Research and Experiments Station (Bani Maqan) in Chamchamal district (2019-2020) and (2020-2021), and it is within an area that is almost guaranteed rain and has a silty clay texture. Two types of cultivation systems are used in this study, which is (the traditional farming system and the cultivation system without tillage) with two levels of speed (3 and 5) km/hour and two depths of tillage (3 and 6) cm to study and some growth and yield (Number of Spike, Number of Grain per spike, Thousand Grain Weight and Crop Yield) and their effect of net profit. The experiment field was divided according to the design of (RCBD) and a factor arrangement in the split-split plot's design. The parameters were randomly distributed among the experimental units within the sector. The experiment field was divided into three sectors. The range is below the level (0.05).
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
  • Effect Of Different Seed Rates On New Wheat Genotypes Under Thal Irrigated

    • Authors: Rana Javaid Iqbal ; Khalid Mehmood Mughal , Nadeem Hussain , Asim Pervez , Munir David , Muhammad Iqbal Shahid , Syed Sajjad Haider Kazmi
      Pages: 616 - 628
      Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Agronomic Research Station Karor at Layyah. Four seed rates (75kg ha-1,100kg ha-1,125kg ha-1 and 150kg ha-1) and five varieties (Akhbar-19, Bakhar Star-19, Fakhar e bhaker, TWS-15137 and TWS-15159) were selected. The experiment was based on RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with two factorial arrangements and three times replication. The size of plot was 6m*1.35m (8.1m2) and the row-to-row distance of the wheat plant kept 22.5cm. The result of different seed rate treatments was significant on yield parameters of wheat.  Seed rates significantly affected grain yield of wheat ha-1. Wheat productivity could be improved with optimized seed rate for different varieties. This year study was conducted to determine the optimum seed rate for different varieties of wheat for better yield and related components. Increase in seed rate improved the number of productive tillers per m2 and grain yield of all wheat varieties although productive tillers per plant, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight was increased. Fakhar e Bhakkar and Bhakkar Star performed better regarding grain yield and related components among all varieties. Plant height and spike length did not affect significantly on grain and different seed rate of varieties. Correlation analysis revealed that grain yield was positively correlated with number of productive tillers per m2 during years and grain weight during year.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
  • Effect Of Time And Methods Of Phosphorus Application On Phosphorus Use
           Efficiency Under Prevailing Temperature And Its Impact On Plant Growth And
           Yield Traits Of Wheat

    • Authors: Muhammad Arshad ; Shakeel Ahmad Anwar , Muhammad Imran , Muhammad Rashid Farooq , Abdul Rehman Akber , Muhammad Aslam , Muhammad Iqbal Shahid
      Pages: 629 - 643
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time and methods of application of phosphatic fertilizer to wheat crop under Arid condition. Experiment was comprised of seven treatments viz: T1:  Boadcasting full recommended dose at seedbed preparation (115 kg ha-1), T2: Boadcasting 1/2 dose at seedbed preparation + 1/2 dose at booting, T3 :  Boadcasting 1/2 dose at seedbed preparation + 1/2 dose at grain filling, T4: Boadcasting 1/3rd dose at seedbed preparation + 1/3rd at booting + 1/3rd at grain filling, T5: Boadcasting 1/2 dose at seedbed preparation + Fergating 1/2 dose at booting,.T6:  Boadcasting 1/2 dose at seedbed preparation + fergating 1/2 dose at grain filling,.T7:  Boadcasting 1/3rd dose at seedbed preparation + fergating 1/3rd at booting + fergating 1/3rd at grain filling. Results showed that although all the treatments tested were differing significantly from the control in all aspects studied but, application of phosphatic fertilizer broadcasted half at the time of seed bed preparation and half dose at booting stage, produced maximum grain per spike (39), number of fertile tillers m-2 (360.67), 1000 grains weight (52g) and grain yield (6622 kg ha-1) as compared to other treatments. Maximum spikelet’s and spike length were recorded in T6 was statistically at par with the T1 and T2. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that application of phosphatic fertilizer, broadcasted half dose of phosphorus out of total dose (115 kg ha-1) at the time of seed bed preparation and half at the time of booting stage not only increase the plant vigor but also produced better yield under arid condition.
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
  • The Efficiency Of Different Methods In Controlling Potato Weeds And Their
           Effect On Some Traits Of Potato Tuber Yield

    • Authors: Osama Saad Abdul-Jabbar Al-Rajbo; Nofal Issa Mohammed Al-Hamdani Hussein Jawad Moharram Al-Bayati
      Pages: 644 - 654
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in one of the agricultural fields in Nineveh province to study the effect of weeds control methods on the potato crop in the autumn season 2020-2021, represented by manual, chemical, and mechanical control, with three dates (50, 50 + 100 and 100%) of the percentage of potato tubers germination with the presence of a control treatment  (without counter),The results showed that all control methods led to an increase in the percentage of control based on the dry weight of the weeds and the number of weeds that were eliminated in compared with the control treatment (without control), but in varying proportions, and that all control methods were expensive when compared with the control treatment. (without counter), Where manual control was twice as expensive due to the large number of workers involved in the control work, while mechanical control gave the lowest value of control costs, but it was useless in the quantitative yield traits. Chemical control was less expensive than manual control, and it was noted that all control methods led to an increase in the total number of tubers per plant compared to the control treatment (without control),As for the marketable plant yield and the total yield, the mechanical control gave a yield close to that of the control treatment (without control).While manual and chemical control recorded for the second date the highest total yield of tubers (ton. ha-1).
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • The Effect Of The Penetration Angle Of Two Types Of Shanks And Shares
           Subsoiler Plow On Some Field Performance Indicators

    • Authors: Ibrahim Saleh Ibrahim Al-Zubaidi; Saad Abdul-Jabbar Samir Al-Rajbo
      Pages: 655 - 666
      Abstract: This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the field performance of the locally manufactured shank and share Subsoiler plow and comparing them with the conventional shank and share through a field experiment in which the following factors depended: the type of shank by two levels (the conventional shank , the locally manufactured shank ) and the share type by two levels (the traditional share , the locally manufactured share) and with two angle penetration (40º, 50º) and the effect of this on (Drawbar Power, fuel consumption, Slippage percentage, Distribution Area), Where the experiment was conducted in the autumn agricultural season (2020) in an agricultural field located in the Abbasiya area in Nineveh province. The field was divided according to the randomized complete block design (RCBD) for a factorial experiment with three replicates. Duncan's multiple range test was used to compare the averages. The following are the most important findings studying, , the locally manufactured shank achieved the highest significant value for the distribution area, while the conventional shank achieved the lowest significant value for fuel consumption .While the locally manufactured share achieved the highest significant value for the distribution area, the angle penetration 40º achieved the lowest significant value for fuel consumption, Slippage percentage, and the highest significant value for the distribution area. The interaction between the conventional shank with the traditional share and the angle penetration 40º achieved the lowest significant value for fuel consumption, while the locally manufactured shank and share with the penetration angle 40º achieved the highest significant value for the distribution area.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Competitive Nature In The Corn And Cowpea Intercropping Systems

    • Authors: Omar Jasim Mohammed Al- Kalash; Jasim Mohammed Aziz AL Joburi
      Pages: 667 - 674
      Abstract: The field experiment was conducted in the spring agricultural season 2020 in one of the agricultural fields in Al-Alam district, north of Tikrit. The field was divided into three replicates, each replicate included eight experimental units in a randomized complete block design RCBD, and each experimental unit included 12 centers, the distance between them was 0.75 m and the length of 3 m. The distance between one pit and another in the yellow corn (popcorn) was 20 cm, while it was 25 cm in the cowpea crop. The results showed that the average values ​​of Lb for cowpea crop are greater than La values ​​for corn in all intercropping systems. This means that the use of cowpea for the available growth requirements of soil, climate, fertilizer and water in intercropping is better than corn, It gave the highest Lb values ​​for cowpea in intercropping systems (1 corn: 3 cowpeas) and (3 corn: 3 cowpeas) amounting to 0.82 and 0.76, respectively. It is noted that the LER  Land Equivalent values ​​were better than Monocropping in intercropping systems (1 corn: 3 cowpeas). ) and (2 corn: 3 cowpeas) and (3 corn: 3 cowpeas), as the LER values ​​were higher than the correct one and reached 1.1 and 1.0, and the highest value was 1.72 in the loading system (3 corn: 3 cowpeas),This is an indication that intercropping systems whose LER values ​​are higher than one are better at making use of the available environmental conditions and growth requirements.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Studies On Irrigation Management For A Recently Developed Cotton Variety,

    • Authors: Muhammad Akbar Zardari ; Aijaz Ahmed Soomro , Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro , Namatullah Laghari
      Pages: 675 - 686
      Abstract: Cotton is considered as backbone of Pakistan’s textile industry; because this industry predominantly depends upon cotton crop for raw material to manufacture fibre and clothes. Cotton seed is the principal source of edible oil production that is the major contributor to the domestically produced total edible oil. Therefore, the current field study has been framed to categorize the irrigation frequencies with reference to growth and yield enhancement in newly developed cotton variety ‘Sindh-1’ in mitigating the major challenge of irrigation water especially during summer season. Four irrigation regimes (7 irrigations: 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 DAS; 6 irrigations: 30, 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 DAS [the existing recommendation]; 5 irrigations: 30, 55, 80, 105, 130 DAS; and 4 irrigations: 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAS) were tested. The results showed that cotton performed economically better when supplied with five irrigations as compared to six and seven irrigations in terms of weight boll-1 (3.38, 3.32, 3.06 g), seed cotton weight plant-1 (137, 136.14, 125.32 g), seed weight plant-1 (87.68, 85.21, 80.20 g), lint weight plant-1 (49.93, 47.32, 45.12 g), seed cotton yield ha-1 (3287.4, 3216.9, 3007.8 kg), seed yield ha-1 (2128.5, 2068.2, 1921.6 kg) and, lint yield ha-1 (1158.9, 1148.7, 1086.2 kg). The study concluded that cotton crop could economically be managed under reduced irrigation (5 irrigations) against existing recommended irrigation times (6 irrigations) to cope with water shortage in summer season for Kharif crops particularly for cotton variety Sindh-1.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Supervised Community Based Outdoor Group Exercise: As Prevention And
           Treatment Of Arterial Blood Pressure And Body Weight

    • Authors: Alemmebrat Kiflu (Dr.)
      Pages: 687 - 697
      Abstract: Background: Sedentary lifestyle predispose to Cardiometabolic diseases which are the number one cause of death in the world. Despite large data are available; the benefits of supervised community based outdoor group exercise (SCBOGE) have not been addressed in the study area. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of SCBOGE on arterial blood pressure and body weight.  Methods: A total of (n= 184) subjects were sampled from four different physical exercise training sites for a periods of 12 weeks.  Subjects were classified purposely into three different groups took account of resting arterial blood pressure. The first 72 subjects were grouped as normotensive (NTS) and the second 38 subjects were high normal hypertension (HNH) or mild and the controlled subjects were 74. Quasi-experimental quantitative pre- post-test study design was used. Data were taken twice, at baseline and post exercise intervention and it were analysed using SPSS 24 software version.  Results: The results indicated that in NTS, the mean( x̄) resting arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduced by 4.24 and 2.76 mm Hg respectively, and a p-value of ˂0.05  was obtained, however; as compared to NTS, a better systole (6.26 mm Hg) and diastole (4.0 mmHg) x̄ reduction were observed in HNH subjects.  This study showed a strong foundation for future researchers to examine the different result observed in the two experimental groups. Unlike to the control group (p≥0.05), both experimental groups again showed a significant body weight reduction. Conclusions: Participation in SCBOGE program is effective in bringing about   a significant health outcome over 12 weeks if the exercise activities are assisted by qualified individuals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Effect Of Hammer Edge Incline And Grinder Velocity On Some Hammer Mill
           Performance Indicators

    • Authors: Khudher ; A. Y , Mishaal , A. AL- H.
      Pages: 698 - 707
      Abstract: The study aims to save hammer manufacturing materials and reduce energy consumption without harmfully impacting the performance of the hammer mill. It involves two factors—the slope of the hammer edge and the angular velocity and their effect on  the mill capacity (MC), Modulus of fineness (FM) and specific energy consumption (Spc). A hammer mill was manufactured locally for this purpose, with an electric motor capacity of 1 hp. The hammer edge incline was done by making a deliberate cut in the edge of the hammer in an angle. Therefore, the study was carried out with four levels of incline angles—00, 300 , 450 and 600—with three angular speeds for the mill—1100, 1247 and 1467 r p m. The results showed that there was a significant effect of hammer edge and angular velocity in MC, FM and Spc. The 300 angle caused a decrease in mill capacity and an increase in the mill’s energy consumption more than the rest of the edge angles, as it recorded a mill capacity of 16.96 kg. h -1 vs. 25.12 , 21.2 and 19.46 kg.h-1 for hammer 00 angle , 600 and 450, respectively. The 600 angle showed the lowest FM for grinding. The mill capacity increases and the energy consumption decreases as the angular velocity increases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
  • Side Effects Of Covid-19 Vaccine. A Review Based Study

    • Authors: Tania Naveel ; Sabiha Riaz , Saima Mushtaq , Sidra Zubair , Sehar Iaqtidar , Ayesha Kiran , Shehnaz Shouket , Mahrukh Khurshid
      Pages: 708 - 720
      Abstract: Flu-like symptoms, rashes, and muscular soreness are the most frequent adverse reactions to the coronavirus vaccination. People who have been vaccinated may get convulsions or pneumonia. Since there is no effective therapy for COVID19, 259 new vaccination studies will begin on November 11, 2020. Inactivated whole-virus vaccinations do not cause a clinical illness when given to children. Fever as well as injection site soreness were the most prevalent moderate side effects, which often went away on their own. 86 percent of the Sinopharm-produced vaccine was effective as of Dec. 9, 2020, according to the United Arab Emirates. There is a lack of published data on the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine's adverse responses. After receiving their vaccinations, many individuals are still unsure of what to expect. If the first and second immunization doses are explained, this vaccine will be less dreaded. Emergency use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 was authorized by the FDA on Dec. 11, 2020. The vaccination necessitates the administration of two doses, at least 21 days apart. A week following the second dose, the maximum level of efficacy has been reported, about 95%. Injection site pain is the most common side effect of Sinovac immunization. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, anaphylactic shock, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, facial paralysis, cerebral hemorrhage, and anaphylactic shock are all potential adverse effects. A gap of eight weeks should be allowed between the first two doses of the COVID-19 vaccination, according to the CDC. Those with moderate and severe immune system dysfunction should nevertheless take a three- to four-week hiatus from work. Four months after the original injection, the government permits a booster shot to be given again (COVID, 2021). The unfavorable consequences of vaccination are more likely to occur than myocarditis. The usage of additional boosters seems to amplify the negative effects. Get medical help as soon as possible if you or your child are suffering chest pain, breathlessness, or any other symptoms that suggest a fast-paced or fluttering heartbeat.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
  • Cardiovascular And Neurologic Applications Of Biomarkers

    • Authors: Akash Limba Kawale ; Nirmal Joshi , Kaushal B. Navadiya , Ayesha Nisar Shaikh , Utkarsh Trivedi , Ayushmann Roy
      Pages: 721 - 734
      Abstract: Biomarkers are inexpensive, repeatable, and accessible diagnostic tools. Recent research has focused on their well-known benefits. Cardiovascular and neurological illnesses share risk factors and pathogenic pathways, affecting biomarker use and interpretation. Neurological illnesses affect hs-TroponinT, CK-MB, and NTproBNP. Galectin-3, lysophosphatidylcholine, copeptin, sST2, S100B, myeloperoxidase, and GDF-15 have been studied as cardiovascular and neurology alternatives. Due to their limited specificity, values require clinical judgement and additional tests.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
  • Proximate Composition And Sensory Evaluation Of Jam Produced From
           Pineapple And Pumpkin Pulp Blends

    • Authors: Cornelia Tuolienuo; Benedicta Galyuoni
      Pages: 735 - 744
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine the nutritional content and organoleptic attributes of pineapple and pumpkin fruits blended jam in ratios 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 respectively with jam sample made of 100% pineapple was set as a control. The proximate composition revealed 15.61-19.79% moisture content, 2.40-7.55% ash content, 1.00-1.54% protein content, 2.56-3.00% fat content, 3.00-7.90 fibre content and 66.54-70.70% carbohydrate content.  However, when pineapple and pumpkin fruits were combined and processed into jam in different formulations, the ash, protein, and fiber content increased while the moisture, fat, and carbohydrate content decreased. The score of sensory evaluation reveals that composite Jam sample made of 80% pineapple and 20% pumpkin pulp was the most preferred by the panelists.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
  • Quality Characteristics Of Biscuits Made With Wheat, Unpolished Rice And
           Soyabean Flour

    • Authors: Abena Sekyere ; Salam Abubakari , Veronica Akwaah
      Pages: 745 - 754
      Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of wheat flour biscuits supplemented with soybean and unpolished rice blended flour at varying percentages of 4%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 8%, 30%, 40%, and 50% respectively. Prepared biscuits were subjected to nutritional and sensory analysis to evaluate their suitability of the biscuits for consumption. Ash, fat, fiber, and Protein content of biscuits increased as the proportion of soybean and unpolished rice flour increased, with values of 1.50%-6.34%, 1.55%-7.69%, 0.88%-1.12%, and 14.42%-20.41% for 10%, while wheat flour biscuits had the lowest values of ash 1.50%, fat 2.5%, fiber 0.85% and protein, 12.30%. With a comparable increase in the amount of soybean and unpolished rice flour, the moisture and carbohydrate levels were reduced. The prepared biscuits’ were assessed and evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale ranking system. The sensory analysis revealed that there were no significant (p<0.05) variations in aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptance between the control sample biscuit and the supplemented biscuit with 4% and 8% soybean and unpolished rice flour incorporation, however, there were significant differences between the control sample biscuits and the composite biscuit samples AB2, AB3, AB4, and AB5 in all the parameters assessed. Biscuits fortified with 4% and 8% soybean and unpolished rice flour was highly rated.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
  • Quality Characteristics Of Bread Made With Wheat, Plantain And Pigeon Peas

    • Authors: Ibrahim Nshinmi Iddrisu ; Abena Sekyere , AyambaDorothy
      Pages: 755 - 762
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to determine the proximate composition and consumer acceptability of 100% wheat bread and supplemented bread from composite flour of wheat, pigeon peas, and plantain in a ratio of 100:0:0, 90:4:6, 80:8:12, 70:10:20 and 60:15:25 respectively. Five bread samples were prepared and coded as PO1, PO2, PO3, PO4, and PO5, with the PO1 acting as a control. The AOAC (2005) techniques were used to determine the protein, fat, ash, moisture, and crude fiber content of bread samples. A 30-member panel of semi-trained Hospitality Management students evaluated the bread samples. Data were subjected to a one-way ANOVA and the means were separated using Fisher's Least Significant Difference test (LSD) at p<0.05. With the addition of pigeon pea and plantain flours, proximate composition revealed substantial (p<0.05) increases in fat (2.09-2.44%), fiber (1.80-2.05%), ash (1.15-1.48%) and protein (9.6-12.86%). However, there were considerable reductions in moisture (26.94-20.47%) and carbohydrate (76.54-70.44%) contents. The proximate compositions of the composite bread samples were statistically different from the control (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the bread samples revealed that the bread sample produced from a partial replacement of pigeon and plantain flour 8% and 12% was highly rated in terms of texture, taste, and overall acceptability.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
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