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Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2519-559X - ISSN (Online) 2616-4809
Published by AOSIS Publishing Homepage  [33 journals]
  • Gibberellic acid influences growth indices and biochemical parameters in
           micropropagated Ocimum gratissimum L. explants

    • Authors: Muyibat M. Olaitan, George Mangse, Chukwuma C. Ogbaga, Taofik O. Uthman
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Ocimum gratissimum L. is a well-known tropical and subtropical plant widely utilised for both medicinal and nutritional purposes. However, its continuous existence is currently threatened because of excessive human exploitation and non-regulated collection.Aim: This study aimed at mass-producing O. gratissimum through its explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.Settings: Sterile explants of O. gratissimum were used to generate whole plant through the process of somatic embryogenesis and under the influence of different plant growth regulators (PGRs).Methods: The growth medium was supplemented with various concentrations (0.1 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L) of PGRs, namely, gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyl aminopurine (BAP) in combination with 0.2 mg/L indole acetic acid (IAA), which also served as the control.Results: The results showed that germination response, shoot and root lengths were significantly enhanced in O. gratissimum explants raised in media containing the two PGRs in a concentration-dependent manner after four weeks of culture. Ocimum gratissimum explants treated with GA3 and BAP also experienced reduced lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid concentration, particularly at the highest tested concentration (1.0 mg/L) as evidenced by the significant drop in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. In response to this, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased in O. gratissimum explants raised in MS medium supplemented with PGRs.Conclusion: These results generally suggest that GA3 in combination with IAA is more favourable than BAP for the micropropagation of O. gratissimum explants. Thus, our study revealed that PGRs possess special attributes, which could be exploited in tissue culture for the micropropagation of O. gratissimum explants.
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.154
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Isolation and antioxidant activity of 5-methyldihydroflavasperone from
           ethanol leaf extract of Guiera senegalensis JF Gmel

    • Authors: Mosa E.O. Ahmed, Jeremiah Senabe, Ewura S. Yahaya, Gerda Fouche, Paul Steenkamp, Vanessa Steenkamp
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Guiera senegalensis (Ghibaish) is a medicinal plant extensively used in central and west Africa for the management of various diseases.Aim: This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of the ethanol leaf extract of the plant.Method: The ethanol leaf extract was sequentially sub-fractionated using liquid–liquid extraction, vacuum-liquid chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography with accurate mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were employed to isolate and confirm the identity of the most abundant compound. The antioxidant activity of the fractions and isolated compound was assessed by bioautography analysis and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assay.Results: The dichloromethane subfraction contained the most promising antioxidant activity (IC50 = 3.18 µg/mL). Purification of this subfraction led to the isolation of a brown crystalline compound, which was identified as 5-methyldihydroflavasperone (IC50 > 4000 µg/mL).Conclusion: This is the first report of the isolation of 5-methyldihydroflavasperone from the ethanol leaf extracts of G. senegalensis. This compound was not found to be responsible for the antioxidant activity observed. Further research is warranted to identify the compound responsible for the antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2022-02-28
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.137
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Antistaphylococcal effects of alcoholic extracts of Tetrapleura tetraptera
           (Schum and Thonn.) (Taub.) against multidrug methicillin resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Morenike O. Adeoye-Isijola, Kubendran K. Naidoo, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen causing life-threatening hospital and community-acquired infections with high morbidity and mortality rates requiring constant vigilance.Aim: This study aimed at investigating the antistaphylococcal effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera against different strains of multidrug methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to indicate the need for its use in ethnomedicine in addition to its fruits being used in traditional medicine.Methods: In this study, the susceptibilities of S. aureus were investigated using multi-disc antibiotics and extracts of T. tetraptera by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods.Settings: While attention has been focused on the fruits of this plant, it is necessary to investigate the pharmacological importance of its stem bark.Results: The antibiogram showed that 70% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Nitrofurantoin and gentamicin antibiotics were the most effective whilst amoxicillin and augumentin were the least effective. The susceptibility of the isolates was concentration dependent as inhibition zones decreased with decrease in the concentrations of each of the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acetone extract ranged between 0.019 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL whilst the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The MICs of the methanol extract ranged between 0.039 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL whilst the MBCs ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Both extracts were more bactericidal than being bacteriostatic against all the isolates. The methanol extract was more active than the acetone extract as indicated by the varied inhibition zones and MICs obtained from the different extracts.Conclusion: This study revealed the great therapeutic potentials of T. tetraptera and validated its use in ethnomedicine and would be effective in the treatment of multidrug and MRSA infections.
      PubDate: 2022-01-12
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.122
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • A review of the role of the Cucurbitaceae family in food security in West

    • Authors: Olufunke O. Fajinmi, Olaoluwa O. Olarewaju, Georgina D. Arthur, Kuben Naidoo, Roger M. Coopoosamy
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: Food and nutritional security are main development goals in several countries of Africa. In West Africa, the use of African indigenous vegetables caters for the food and nutritional needs of a high proportion of the people, most particularly amongst the poor and rural dwellers. The family Cucurbitaceae is one of the most important and widely grown vegetables in the tropical and subtropical climates.Aim and objective: This review discusses the culinary relevance of several species of Cucurbitaceae and their roles in food security in West Africa.Methods: A literature search was conducted on electronic databases such as Google Books, Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science.Discussions: Certain genera such as Telfairia, Cucurbita and Citrullus and other Egusi species are commonly cultivated in different parts of West Africa including Nigeria for their fruits, seeds and leaves because of their crucial nutrient compositions and palatability in local diets. These species and other species of Cucurbitaceae are used as traditional vegetables or African indigenous vegetables and are either sourced from the wild or cultivated in several African countries. Some of these species have played roles beyond food security but have also been crucial tools for nutritional security, especially within the low-income group and rural communities.Conclusions: Several communities in West Africa use almost all parts of the plant (leaves, fruit, seed, flowers) of some species of this family as food or in food preparations. Their use could also lead to innovative pathways towards reducing diseases associated with malnutrition especially those related to protein deficiency.
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.155
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • A review of the relevance of bottle gourd in Eastern and Southern African
           traditional music, and social life

    • Authors: Olufunke O. Fajinmi, Olaoluwa O. Olarewaju, Georgina D. Arthur, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Kuben Naidoo
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Background: The history of several communities and tribes in Africa is incomplete without emphasising on the crucial role of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially the calabash or dried gourds, in Africa. The plant is extensively used in several traditional ceremonies and spiritual exercises, and in the production of various traditional African musical instruments which proffer economic incentives to stakeholders.Aim: To discuss the relevance of the bottle gourd in Eastern and Southern African nations in relation to the production of traditional musical instruments; the uses and impacts of the traditional musical instruments; and their morphology.Methods: A literature search was conducted on electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Google books, Scopus, and Web of Science. The search was performed using several terms and free text words, combining them in an appropriate manner. The authors further set inclusion and exclusion criteria to screen for relevant articles. Each of the identified articles was independently reviewed to determine eligibility and to extract study information.Results: The African continent has a deeply rich and fascinating traditional and cultural heritage such as ancestral worship, cleansing ceremonies, spiritual ceremonies, intervillage ceremonies and competitions, and royal ceremonies like enthronement of kings, royal weddings, royal funerals, and appeasement of the gods. Traditional musical instruments made with gourds (as the resonator) are prominently played during these ceremonies and spiritual exercises. The ceremonies are often accompanied by chanting and singing whilst traditional musical instruments such as rattles made of gourds or chordophones, in which gourds are used as resonators, are played.Conclusion: Bottle gourd is an important raw material in the assemblage of several Southern and Eastern Africa traditional musical instruments and is highly revered in the socio-cultural ceremonies and spiritual exercises of several tribes and communities across these regions. Hence, bottle gourd plays a vital role as a bedrock of the culture, social and spiritual life of these people and therefore reflects in the history and daily life of the Southern and Eastern Africans.
      PubDate: 2022-04-28
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.141
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Evaluating the effect of 40% and 0% shading levels on the secondary
           metabolites, antifungal and anti-insect activities of extracts of Allium
           porrum cultivated hydroponically under greenhouse conditions

    • Authors: Bulelwa Ntobela, Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju, Fanie Rautenbach, Ninon G. Etsassala, Enoch A. Akinpelu, Felix Nchu
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Background: Allium species are generally reputed for their anti-pest properties; however, few studies have focused on optimising the quality and yield of anti-pest bioactive materials from these medicinal plants.Setting: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out on the Bellville campus of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town.Aims: This research study aimed to evaluate the effect of light intensity on the volatile constituents, antifungal and anti-insect activities of extracts obtained from Allium porrum L. cultivated hydroponically under greenhouse conditions.Methods: Seedlings of A. porrum were hydroponically grown under 40% shading and 0% shading conditions for 12 weeks. The phytochemical constituents of the aerial parts (leaf and bulb) of A. porrum were analysed. The antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and the anti-insect activity on the grapevine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) was evaluated by microdilution and repellency bioassays, respectively.Results: Remarkably, the total polyphenol content was statistically higher (DF = 1, 6; F = 9.17; p < 0.05) in plants exposed to 40% shade treatment. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the volatile compounds varied significantly (DF = 1; χ 2 = 3.435; p > 0.05) between the two treatments. However, although a higher number of compounds (73) occurred in plants exposed to 40% shade than in those exposed to 0% shade (58), the shading effect on the number of compounds was not significant (DF = 1; χ 2 = 69.551; p > 0.05). The acetone extracts of A. porrum that were cultivated under lower light irradiance showed a higher fungistatic activity against F. oxysporum in the antifungal bioassay.Conclusion: Broadly, this study revealed that lowering light intensity from 313 μmol m-2 s-1 to 153 μmol m-2 s-1 favoured a higher phenolic content, volatile constituents and higher anti-F. oxysporum activities in leeks.
      PubDate: 2022-05-10
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.144
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • South African medicinal plants screened against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: McMaster Vambe, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Kuben Naidoo, Georgina D. Arthur
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is amongst the three high-ranking pathogens on the World Health Organization’s global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The list highlights research priorities in drug discovery and development.Aim: This study aimed to provide a detailed account of efforts by researchers to find anti-P. aeruginosa compounds from South African medicinal plant species during the period 2000–2020.Method: Various online research and journal databases were used to obtain information relating to South African medicinal plants and P. aeruginosa.Results: During the study period (2000–2020), only 31 studies reported on the antibacterial properties of South African medicinal plants against the pathogen. Given that P. aeruginosa is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, it was interesting to note that none of the published reports were dedicated solely to the pathogen. Furthermore, only one study included the antibiotic-resistant mutants of the pathogen as a test organism. Over 150 plant species belonging to 78 families were screened against the bacterium. Barringtonia racemosa, Croton megalobotrys, Erythrina caffra, Leucosidea sericea, Maesa lanceolata, Morella serrata and Trichilia emetica exhibited potent anti-P. aeruginosa properties (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ˂ 0.1 mg/mL). Plumbagin, a compound isolated from the leaves of Aristea ecklonii demonstrated promising activities (MIC = 0.008 mg/mL) against the bacterium. Essential oils extracted from some plants demonstrated noteworthy antibacterial synergistic effects (fractional inhibitory concentration index [FICI] ˂ 0.5) when used in pairwise combinations with conventional antibiotics.Conclusion: Overall, empirical evidence presented in the scantly available literature suggests that novel anti-P. aeruginosa agents could be developed from South African herbal extracts.
      PubDate: 2022-09-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Sociocultural relevance of the bottle gourd and selected species of
           Cucurbitaceae family in West Africa

    • Authors: Olufunke O. Fajinmi, Olaoluwa O. Olarewaju, Georgina D. Arthur, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Kuben Naidoo
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Since time immemorial, humans have devised means to improvise for survival on the planet earth. The environment has been the source of materials for manufacturing objects that have supported human existence. These materials include plants (plant parts and by-products) such as the Cucurbitaceae species.Aim: To discuss bottle gourd and some selected species of Cucurbitaceae in relation to the history, sociocultural and spiritual lives of the West African people.Methodology: A literature search was conducted on electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Google Books, Scopus, and Web of Science. The search was performed using several terms and free text words, combining them in an appropriate manner. The authors further set inclusion and exclusion criteria to screen for relevant articles.Results and discussion: Plants play crucial roles in the global economic, social, cultural, and spiritual stability. Several plant families have especially played a fundamental role(s) in the spiritual and cultural ceremonies, and history of many tribes and communities in Africa. This is because entertainment tools such as rattles, drums, harps, and lutes used during most of these ceremonies are often by-products of plants. This study revealed that Cucurbitaceae family is a spectacular class of plants with such roles. Traditional musical instruments derived from bottle gourd, Telfairia occidentalis and Momordica charantia, form an integral part of the history, spiritual and sociocultural life of some West African communities.Conclusion: The history of some tribes in West Africa is linked to specific Cucurbitaceae species.
      PubDate: 2022-07-22
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.139
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry chemical profile investigation and
           biological activities of ethylacetate fraction of Baobab (Adansonia
           digitata L.) pulp used in the treatment of urinary tract infections

    • Authors: Kehinde O. Fagbemi, Daniel A. Aina, Roger M. Coopoosamy, Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: As a result of high percentage of women infected with urinary tract infection (UTI) annually, many rural dwellers use Adansonia digitata fruit pulp as herbal cure. Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) is one of the great trees idolised in Africa because of its therapeutic properties.Aim: This study aimed at identifying chemical compounds in the ethylacetate fraction of the baobab fruit pulp and indicated their biological activities to justify its use for the folkloric treatment of UTI.Methods: The crude extract from Baobab fruit pulp was partitioned and ethylacetate extract was used for assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was performed to identify the bioactive compounds in the ethylacetate fraction, antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays whilst the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by already adopted protocols. The antibacterial properties were tested against some urinary tract pathogens using macro broth dilution method.Results: A total of 36 bioactive compounds were identified by GC–MS analysis, most of them have been reported as antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiasthma, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents. The extract exhibited highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 19582 (1.22 mg/mL) whilst Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 (˃ 8.6 mg/mL) displayed high level of resistance amongst the five bacterial isolates used in this study.Conclusion: These findings indicated that the extract contained bioactive compounds of therapeutic importance with significant antioxidant and antibacterial potentials and justify the folkloric use of this fruit in the treatment of UTIs by many African dwellers.
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.117
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Phytochemical composition and chemical profiling of extracts of Cordia
           grandicalyx Oberm

    • Authors: Mildred A. Chauke, Motetelo A. Mogale, Ladislaus K. Mdee, Leshweni J. Shai
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Background: The search for bioactive organic products for the treatment of various diseases is a growing concern worldwide, because these bioactive natural products are associated with fewer side effects and are easily accessible.Aim: The present study analysed the phytochemical constituents and cytotoxic effects of the leaf, bark and fruit extracts of Cordia grandicalyx Oberm.Setting: Plant samples were collected from Ga-Mashishimale village in Ba-Phalaborwa Municipality, South Africa.Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method, whilst cytotoxic assay was assessed using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Plant extracts were subjected to phytochemical profiling using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The extracts were also subjected to fractionation using column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, and the sub-fractions with considerable yields were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).Results: The aqueous extracts of the bark and leaves had significant (p < 0.001) antioxidant activity as compared to negative controls and ascorbic acid. Additionally, appreciable amounts of total phenolic and alkaloid contents were recorded on polar extracts, notably 200 mg/GAE and 140 mg/quercetin equivalents for leaf cold water and leaf hot water extracts, respectively. All extracts were not toxic to cells, whilst the positive control (H2O2) led to almost 100% demise of cells. Two compounds were isolated from the leaf acetone extracts collected from fraction 20 to 30 and fraction 101 to 120 and identified as α˗amyrin and β-amyrin by NMR spectral analysis.Conclusion: The study provided evidence supporting the screening of plants for the discovery of therapeutic compounds. The study also revealed that all the different C. grandicalyx extracts were less toxic to cells and may provide scientific backing for continued use of the plant in mixtures for the treatment of diseases.
      PubDate: 2022-06-24
      DOI: 10.4102/jomped.v6i1.149
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
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