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Traditional Medicine Journal
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2406-9086
Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada Homepage  [46 journals]
  • The Effect of Cultivation Site Altitudes on the Quality Parameters of
           Meniran (Phylanthus niruri L.)

    • Authors: Dinar Sari C. Wahyuni, Maya Widia Pangestika, Della Andriyani, Yudi Rinanto, Siti Fatimah
      Abstract: Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) is known as a medicinal plant for immunomodulatory, hypoglycemic, diuretic treatment, and kidney disorders. It has phenolic and flavonoid as the active compounds. Several commercial products utilize meniran as the main ingredient for immunomodulators. However, the standard raw material for production has not been well reported. The study aimed to standardize the quality of meniran’s raw materials from different locations and altitudes. The phenolic compounds as the active component and their antioxidant activity were further studied. The raw materials were collected from Sukoharjo, Jember, and Karanganyar which are located from 104 masl, 243 masl, and 722 masl. The specific and non-specific standardization based on Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia were investigated. The antioxidant activity was investigated. It resulted in the specific and non-specific parameters that were according to standard except for the acid soluble ash test from the Jember sample which was much higher (6.333% ± 0.969) than the standard (<1.2%). In addition, the flavonoid (1.529 ± 0.167%w/w) and phenolic (1.65 ± 0.006 %w/w) content showed that the sample collected from Jember was significantly higher than other locations. However, the strongest antioxidant activity was in the sample collected from Sukoharjo (IC50 101.84μg/mL). On the other hand, there was no correlation between the total flavonoid and the total phenolic to antioxidant activity in this plant. It suggested that the antioxidant activity in these plants did not depend on the flavonoid and phenolic compounds. In conclusion, the raw material of meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) collected from 3 different altitudes showed the quality of herbal medicine of mainly non-specific parameters and met the requirements of Indonesian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. The total phenolic and flavonoid as the active substances varied through all 3 different altitudes. It was in line with the antioxidant activity which varied to all 3 different altitudes due to the phytochemical profile variety.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.72163
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Comparing Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Gel Preparations
           Combination of Buas-buas leaves (Premna serratifolia l.) and Secang Wood
           (Caesalpinia sappan)

    • Authors: Albianus Febri Tarung, Bella Cristin, Yuninta Maulidia, Insan Kamil, Regitha Rianda Syalsabila, Isnindar -
      Abstract: Indonesia is a tropical country that has exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun throughout the year. This causes susceptibility to skin problems for the Indonesian population, including the vulnerability to aging of the skin due to exposure to ultraviolet rays for a long time. In the prevention of degenerative diseases and aging, antioxidants play an important role. Buas-buas and secang, which are plants from the West Kalimantan region, have very high antioxidant activity. Gel preparations are typically formulated as moisturizers with the aim of increasing water content in the stratum corneum, thus hydrating and maintaining skin pH. Hence, this study aimed to create a gel preparation combining buas-buas leaf extract and secang, effective as a moisturizing and anti-aging gel. The results of measuring the antioxidant activity of the combination of crude ethanol extracts of buas-buas leaves and secang wood with the results of the three formulas have very strong antioxidant activity, namely F1 at 0.0329 mg/ml, F2 at 0.0246 mg/ml, and F2 at 0.0246 mg/ml. F3 of 0.2282 mg/ml, and IC50 results for gel preparations for F1 3,8677 mg/ml, F2 4,3953 mg/ml, F3 4,396 mg/ml. The gel preparations produced in this study have the appearance and fulfill the evaluation requirements, except for the evaluation of spreadability.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.77740
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Analysis of Curcumin Contents in Curcuma xanthorrhiza using FTIR
           Spectroscopy and HPLC-UV in Combination with Multivariate Calibration

    • Authors: Awal P. Kusumadewi, Rohmat Mujahid, Ronny Martien, Purwanto Purwanto, Anita A. Styawan, Irnawati Irnawati, Abdul Rohman
      Abstract: Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. or Java Turmeric with the local name of Temulawak is one of herbal medicines used in Indonesia. This plant is believed to prevent some degenerative diseases due to its active compounds, especially curcumin (CUR) contained in Java Turmeric. Therefore, analysis of active components including CUR is very urgent. This study highlighted the development of FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PLSR for the determination of CUR in Java Turmeric powders. The levels of CUR in Java Turmeric powders were determined using HPLC with UV detectors, and the obtained results were used as actual values to be predicted using FTIR spectroscopy-multivariate calibrations. The results revealed that the levels of CUR ranged from 0.6741 ± 0.0705% (g/100 samples) to 2.1062 ± 0.0095%. PLSR modeling for the relationship between the actual value of CUR as determined using HPLC and calculated values as predicted using FTIR spectroscopy provide the value of R2 of 0.9990 with RMSEC of 0.0028. The developed method offers reliable results providing a green analytical method due to the use of minimum solvent and reagent and does not involve extensive sample preparation.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.82220
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Antioxidant and Antiaging Potential of Salak Fruit Extract (Salacca
           zalacca (Gaert.)Voss)

    • Authors: Wahyu Widowati, Dani Dani, Vera Vera, Viranda Andria Yuninda
      Abstract: Natural skin aging is indicated by a loss of skin structure and integrity caused by external factors including UV exposure. This exposure causes oxidative stress on skin cells, initiates aging, and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure which is composed of many proteins, including collagen and elastin. ECM degradation is caused by the increased activity of proteolytic enzymes, one of which is elastase (closely related to wrinkling). To inhibit oxidative stress during the photoaging process, the skin needs antioxidant compounds. Salak (Salacca zalacca (Gaert.)Voss) is a fruit that is rich in antioxidants because it contains flavonoid, phenolic, and polyphenolic compounds, including chlorogenic acid. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the antioxidant activity and antiaging properties of salak fruit extract (SFE) as a candidate for active ingredients in the prevention of aging. To determine the antioxidant activity of SFE, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were performed, while elastase assays were performed to determine the anti-aging properties of SFE. The IC50 values for DPPH scavenging and FRAP activity of SFE were 107.52 μg/mL and 16.82 μg/mL with the highest activity at 68.79% and 97.96%, at concentrations of 200 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, the anti-aging properties determined through the elastase assay showed an IC50 value of 19.71 μg/mL with the highest inhibition 72.50% at a concentration of 66.67 μg/mL. SFE has the potential as an active ingredient in preventing aging through its antioxidant activity and anti-aging properties.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.83995
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Compound Molecules of Network Pharmacology-Based of Tamarillo (Cyphomandra
           betacea Cav.) and the Potential as Noodle for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Fitriyani Fitriyani, Salsabila E.S. Ningrum, Rohiatul Mutiah, Larasati Sekar Kinasih
      Abstract: Consuming noodles excessively is not good for health because it contains high trans fat, which can cause diabetes mellitus (DM) as a disease with a high prevalence, especially type 2 DM, as much as 95% in Indonesia. Tamarillo (Chypomandra betacea Cav.) can potentially reduce blood glucose levels and restore adipokine regulation to prevent insulin resistance in type 2 DM. This study aims to determine the formulation and potential of tamarillo compounds into noodle products named "Chypotes (Chypomandra Antidiabetes) Noodle" as an alternative food for type 2 DM patients.  The methods used are noodle formulation, organoleptic test, hedonic test, and network pharmacology.  Based on the results of an organoleptic test, Chypotes Noodle has a chewy texture, a distinctive smell, yellow colour, and a slightly sour tasteless taste typical of Tamarillo. Based on the results of the hedonic test, 30 respondents chose the like and very like options in filling out the questionnaire with a percentage of 80-90%. Based on the Network Pharmacology of Tamarillo shows that 150 of the 365 target proteins of Tamarillo are involved in the biological processes and signaling pathways of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with 75 target proteins locking and interacting. Compound Molecules of Tamarillo, such as six bioactive components of the hydroxycinnamic acids group, have activity in type 2 DM and affect the biological processes and signaling pathways of type 2 DM against ADIPOQ, TNF, and INS. Therefore, Tamarillo can potentially be used as an alternative food product in the form of noodles for type 2 DM treatment.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.84655
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanol Extract of Notika Leaves
           (Archboldiodendron calosericeum (kobuski)) on Liver Function in Carbon
           Tetrachloride-induced Mice

    • Authors: Nuralifah Nuralifah, Parawansah Parawansah, Nurramadhani A. Sida, Rachma Malina, Arfan Arfan
      Abstract: Notika leaves are traditional medicinal plants used as antimalarial medications by the Papuans. Notika leaf is an endemic plant with many benefits but has not been scientifically proven. Plasmodium falciparum is a species of malaria that damages up to 50% of red blood cells, and its schizogony process mainly occurs in the liver. This study aims to confirm the activity of the ethanolic extract of notika leaf in improving liver function by using an experimental pre and post-test-only control group design with five treatment groups of Wistar strain mice. The normal group was treated with 0.5% NaCMC, the negative group was treated with 0.5% NaCMC and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4), and the third, fourth, and fifth groups received extract with doses of 125 mg/kgBW, 250 mg/kgBW, and 500 mg/kgBW, respectively. The extract was administered for seven days and, on the eighth day, was induced with CCl4 intraperitoneally. The SGOT and SGPT levels in mice were measured using a 5010v5+ photometer, and liver histopathology was examined using HE (Hematoxylin-Eosin) dye. The SGPT levels in the normal, negative, third, fourth, and fifth groups were 20.6 U/L, 52.08 U/L, 32.8 U/L, 19.8 U/L, and 7.8 U/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the SGOT levels were 18 U/L, 54.2 U/L, 28.2 U/L, 17.8 U/L, and 7.4 U/L in the normal, negative, third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively. Based on ANOVA analysis, the SGPT and SGOT levels of the mice liver-treated group with notika leaf extract show significant values of < 0.05. The extract exhibits hepatoprotective activity and liver histological characteristics that do not induce necrosis at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.84803
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • The Ameliorative Effects of Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F. on Sperm
           Parameters of Rats Induced with Bisphenol A

    • Authors: Evana Kamarudin, Razif Dasiman, Ebby Anuar Bahari, Kamalru Azman Daud, Nur Rohmah Suwandi
      Abstract: Infertility due to poor sperm quality is a common problem nowadays, particularly in developed countries. Herbs are one of the natural treatment options that have been proposed. Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F is a tropical plant that has traditionally been used in Malaysia to treat male infertility. Antioxidant characterization of its root aqueous extraction was performed using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). Male rats were administered two different concentrations of the extract orally along with BPA for 21 days, and their sperm was evaluated using Computer-Assisted-Sperm-Analysis (CASA). The results showed that this plant has a high antioxidant capacity, with 78.6 ± 0.65 %, 0.14 ± 0.01 mg/ml, 28.52 ± 0.13 mg GAE/g and 164.73 ± 23.13 mg QE/g, for DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC respectively. The ability of this plant to enhance sperm concentration, motility, velocity, progression ratio, elongation, and percentages of normal sperm morphology significantly with p<0.05, appears to be due to its high antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, this plant was found to have sperm-protective effects against the endocrine disruptor BPA. A thorough investigation is required to determine the full mechanism of this plant's beneficial effects on male fertility and human health.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.84823
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • The Effects of Giving Coconut Milk on Aortic Wall Thickness of Rats
           (Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar) Fed with High Fat Diet (HFD)

    • Authors: Jauhar Firdaus, Aris Prasetyo, Septa Surya Wahyudi, Yumna Rifda Haniefah
      Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease due to fat accumulation in the blood vessel walls. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Indonesian people’s habit of consuming coconut milk is suspected of causing dyslipidemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, by increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, other studies suggest that coconut milk can increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), an antioxidant that prevents atherosclerosis. Because of the different findings, this study aims to determine the effects of coconut milk administration on the aortic wall thickness of rats (Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar) fed a high-fat diet (HFD). This true experimental study used samples of 28 male Wistar rats divided into seven groups. These groups consisted of the normal group (N), the negative control group (Kn), and five treatment groups that received coconut milk at various doses, including 2, 5, 3.75, 5, 7. 5, and 10 ml/kgBW/day. The results obtained were then analyzed using SPSS. The statistical tests used are the independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, LSD post hoc, Pearson correlation test, and regression test. Based on this study, the results showed that giving HFD for 45 days could cause the aortic wall to thicken. Meanwhile, giving an HFD accompanied by coconut milk for 45 days can prevent the thickening of the aortic wall, with the maximum effective dose that can be given being 9.75 ml/kg BW/day.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.84939
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • The Effect Of Extract Binahong Leaves (Anredera cordifolia Steenis) On
           Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Creatinine Serum and Renal Histopathology Of
           Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) of Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Joni Tandi, Recky Patala, Dessy Gracelia Towulu, Putri Marcelita Lidongi, Tien Wahyu Handayani, Maria Kanan
      Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus on the pancreas that can end up in chronic pancreas failure. Various treatment options to repair pancreas damage due to diabetic nephropathy, one of which is by using Anredera cordifolia leaves. This study aims to determine the content of secondary metabolites in Anredera cordifolia leaves ethanol extract, and to determine the effective dose of Anredera cordifolia leaves ethanol extract in regenerating male white rat kidney cells. This study uses a laboratory experimental method. This study used 30 rats divided into 6 treatment groups, each group consisting of 5 test animals, namely normal group, negative control, positive control, dose of 25 mg/kg BW, dose 50 mg/kg BW, and dose 100 mg/kg bw. The level of histological damage to the renal tubules was observed with HE staining using an Olympus CX23 microscope. The data from the scoring of the level of renal tubular damage were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney test to see the differences between treatments. The results showed that the Anredera cordifolia leaves ethanol extract contained secondary metabolites of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins; Anredera cordifolia leaves ethanol extract has an effect on kidney cell repair; Anredera cordifolia leaves ethanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw is effective reducing urea and creatinine; with an average decrease of 17.0 and 0.71 mg/dL in repairing kidney cells with an average damage value of 1.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.85034
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
  • Identification of Compounds and Antidiabetic Activities of the Ethyl
           Acetate Fraction of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Leaves using In
           Silico and In Vitro Approaches

    • Authors: Binar Pratama, Tatang Irianti, Hari Purnomo
      Abstract: Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant that is vastly cultivated in Indonesia and has anti-diabetic activity. The purpose of this study was to isolate the compounds from the semipolar fraction of yacon leaves, as well as test them in silico and in vitro approaches. In this study, we use maceration for extraction, fractionation with n-hexane and ethyl acetate as solvent, and separation by preparative TLC method. The compounds tested were in silico by molecular docking using plant applications and in vitro by alpha-glucosidase inhibition assay. The difference between the molecular docking scores of an obtained molecule was calculated with Pair T-test methods. The results of the separation of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded a fraction, namely the H fraction. GC-MS analysis and IR spectroscopy showed that the H fraction contained the dominant compound called phthalic acid, di(2-propyl pentyl) ester. The docking score of the phthalic acid di(2-propyl pentyl) ester molecule and the alpha-glucosidase receptor, it is showed lower potency than 1-deoxynojirimycin as an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. The in vitro test results showed that isolate H (IC50 = 130.479 ppm) from yacon leaves was no better than acarbose as an alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitor because the IC50 value was > 100 ppm.
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.22146/mot.85748
      Issue No: Vol. 28, No. 3 (2023)
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