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  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 106 journals)
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Research Journal of Pharmacognosy
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4458 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5977
Published by Iranian Society of Pharmacognosy Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Pharmacists about Natural
           Products used for Urolithiasis in Shiraz, Iran

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: We wanted to figure out how pharmacists make their judgments about the efficacy of natural products in urolithiasis and how they make suggestions about these products. Methods: A self-made descriptive questionnaire was designed, evaluated, and performed to assess pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) about natural products in urolithiasis in 46 young pharmacists and final year pharmacy students in Shiraz. Results: In all of the KAP sections, Rowatinex®, Cystone®, and Sankol® were the most known, believed to be effective, and preferred pharmacist products. Respondents had received different education hours. About 54% of them believed their education was averagely adequate. Brochures (63.0%), web-search (60.9%), and applications (45.7%) were the primary resources used by pharmacists, mainly to check the instruction of use. About 80% of pharmacists were unaware of the mechanism of action of at least 5 of 14 products. Generally, respondents had a positive view of natural products. In addition, they thought price and advertisements were effective in patients’ and physicians’ choice of products. More than half of pharmacists preferred to use clinical trials (52.2%) rather than systematic reviews (19.6%). Conclusion: Providing a vast amount of information in the education process is not the best solution for preparing pharmacists for their role in community pharmacies. Besides the need for increasing clinical trials about complementary and alternative medicines and developing evidence-based databases, we need to train pharmacy students in professional ways to gain knowledge about complementary and alternative medicines.  
  • Fennel-Lemon Balm Syrup for Alleviating Hot Flash in Post-Menopausal
           Women, a Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Hot flash is one of the most common problems in post-menopausal women. The usual treatment is hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone, which presents side effects such as heart attack, cancer, and depression. In Iranian traditional medicine, some prescriptions have been recommended for treatment of hot flash; in the present study, a syrup was formulated based on traditional medicine and the efficacy in hot flash was evaluated in a pilot study in post-menopausal women. Methods: Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) were used for preparing the syrup. Physicochemical and microbial quality control tests were performed and the syrup was standardized based on rosmarinic acid and total phenolics content. The effect in post-menopausal women was evaluated in a pilot study with Carpenter Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale questionnaire. Results: The results of the quality control and accelerated stability tests after six months were in agreement with the acceptance criteria. The pH, density, viscosity, dry residue, total phenolics and rosmarinic acid contents were 5.29, 1.12 g/cm3, 42.15 cP, 43.43, 4 mg/mL (as pyrogallol) and 1.28 mg/mL, respectively. In the pilot study, the number and intensity of hot flash decreased (p<0.05); however, there were no significant differences between the number and intensity of night sweating before and after the intervention (p>0.05). Conclusion: Considering the promising effect of the formulated syrup on hot flash and the acceptable quality and stability of the product, it can be suggested in larger clinical trials for confirming the efficacy.
  • Effectiveness of a Herbal Vaginal Tablet Containing Oak Gall and Ajwain on
           Vaginitis: A Randomized, Double-blind Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in women. Oak gall and ajwain have been used in traditional Persian medicine for treatment of vaginitis. The purpose of this study was to formulate a vaginal preparation containing oak gall and ajwain and evaluate its effectiveness on the recovery and recurrence of vaginitis. Methods: The present pilot study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial performed on 24 women with mixed vaginitis, including bacterial vaginitis and trichomoniasis in a gynecology center. Subjects were divided into two groups receiving herbal vaginal tablets or metronidazole vaginal tablets for 7 days. The vaginal tablets were prepared using dried extract of oak gall and essential oil from ajwain by direct compression method. Clinical signs and laboratory tests were assessed after treatment. The symptoms were evaluated on day 10, and also 4 and 12 weeks after intervention. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in sexual function, and characteristics of secretions including amount, pH, odor, leukocyte count and parasite content in both groups of herbal (oak gall and ajwain) and metronidazole vaginal tablets before and after treatment (p<0.05). The group receiving herbal vaginal tablets showed significantly reduced secretion at follow-up on day 10 and after 4 weeks (p<0.05). Conclusion: In our pilot study, herbal vaginal tablets containing oak gall and ajwain were as effective as metronidazole vaginal tablet. The results provide a good basis for future confirmatory tests.  
  • Remarkable Variation in Phytochemicals of Ferula gummosa Bioss. Essential
           Oils Collected From Different Parts of Iran

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The oleo-gum resin from Ferula gummosa Bioss. is commercially important. Variability of geographic location has shown a deep effect on essential oil of different genus of plants. Thus, evaluation of oleo-gum resin of Ferula gummosa from different locations is important for further studies. In the present study, phytochemicals profile of essential oil of oleo-gum resins from F. gummosa in different geographic location and various bioclimates of Iran, were studied. Methods: The oleo-gum resin of F. gummosa was collected from different regions of Iran. The essential oils of the samples were extracted by Clevenger apparatus and were analyzed by GC-MS. Results: The highest amount of essential oil compared was observed in the samples from Damghan area (24.0%), Firuzkuh area (22%) and Kalat-e-Naderi area (22%). The variability in the oil composition of different samples exhibited a notable difference in monoterpenes content from 39.15 % to 87.48%. Based on GC-MS analysis, the major components were β-pinene (5.11-63.80 %), sabinene (3.37-30.69%), α-pinene (4.43-12.72%) and δ-carene (2.38-10.23 %). The highest concentrations of β-pinene (63.80%) and sabinene (30.69%) were observed in the Shiraz and Torbat-e-Jam essential oils, respectively.  The highest amounts of α-pinene (12.72%) and δ-carene (10.23%) were recorded in Firuzkuh and Shiraz areas, respectively. Conclusion: Significant variation in the component of the essential oils from different oleo-gum resins can be used to improve the knowledge about the endemic medicinal plants.  
  • Cholesterol Metabolism Pathway, the Main Target of Coffee

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Coffee as a common drink for many people has been evaluated in the preset study due to its relationship with cancer risk or prevention, regulation of cholesterol level, and anti-oxidant properties. The dysregulated genes in liver of high-fat dieted mice which were treated with coffee were evaluated via network analysis to explore molecular mechanism of the event. Methods: Data were downloaded from gene expression omnibus (GEO) and the significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed via protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis by Cytoscape V.3.7.2. The Selected DEGs were enriched via gene ontology by ClueGO. Results of PPI network analysis and gene ontology enrichment were interpreted together to find the critical genes and pathways. Results: Hmgcr, Hmgcs1, Msmo1, Nsdhl, Lss, Fdps, Idi1, Mvd, Ppara, and Hsp90aa1 were identified as the central targeted genes while “cholesterol metabolism pathway” was introduced as the main affected pathway. Conclusion: Final analysis led to determine Hmgcr, Hmgcs1, Msmo1, Nsdhl, Lss, Fdps, Idi1, and Mvd as key dysregulated genes which are related to the most biological terms of “cholesterol metabolism pathway”.   
  • Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical and Molecular Docking Analysis of
           Croton macrostachyus Root Extracts Growing in Wolaita, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Croton macrostachyus Hochst ex. Delile (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine for treating infectious diseases in Ethiopia. This study was aimed for investigating the phytochemicals, in vitro antibacterial and molecular docking of the Croton macrostachyus roots extract. Methods: Silica gel column chromatographic separations afforded four known compounds. In vitro antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds, (1-4), and extracts of C. macrostachyus were evaluated against four human reference pathogens. Insilco molecular docking was performed for isolated compounds against two target proteins of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase B (PDB: 6F86) and Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A (PDB: 1T2P). Results: From the root extract of C. macrostachyus, four known compounds of lupeol (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), and linoleic acid (4) were isolated and characterized. The extracts and isolated compounds exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity. Molecular docking results revealed that the isolated compounds interacted with the target proteins with the minimum binding energy ranging from -7.38 kCal/mol to -5.57 kCal/mol against DNA gyrase B and -7.40 kCal/mol to -5.54 kCal/mol against Sortase A. Conclusion: Our study proved that extracts and isolated compounds possess potential antibacterial activity, and the findings support the use of C. macrostachyus as a traditional medicine for treating skin infections, cough, respiratory tract problems, stomachache, and influenza virus by local people in Ethiopia.
  • Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Andrographolide in Combination
           with Antimicrobial drugs

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The resistance of infectious pathogens to antimicrobial drugs is an underestimated threat to public health. This rapidly developing phenomenon necessitates the discovery of new treatment strategies. Combining natural compounds with first-line antimicrobials is one treatment strategy to mitigate the emergence of resistant pathogens. Andrographolide, a diterpene lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been reported to possess potent anti-infective activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination effect of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobial drugs to fight emerging resistance. Method: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fold increase in antimicrobial efficacy and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) of andrographolide and ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, amikacin, clindamycin and fluconazole were determined using the high throughput spot culture growth inhibition (HT-SPOTi) assay against ten isolated clinical strains; Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi B and Candida albicans. Results: Combination of andrographolide and the first-line antimicrobials showed various degrees of susceptibility and efficacy against the tested microorganisms with the highest MIC, 0.85 μg/mL recorded. The FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices) for synergy ranged between 0.00 to 0.28 depending on the microorganism and antimicrobial drug. Conclusion: Use of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobials could aid in combating the menace of resistance pathogens. However, this should be done with caution as some of the antimicrobials tested exhibited antagonistic effects.
  • Curcumin Nanoformulation for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Curcumin has various beneficial effects on human health, but its efficacy is yet to be proven in clinical trials. Curcumin has poor bioavailability, low solubility, and rapid metabolism which become the principal reasons behind the lack of curcumin efficiency in clinical trials. This review aimed to focus on nanotechnologies to improve the bioavailability of curcumin inhalation formulations. Many studies were done to improve curcumin's bioavailability by administering through nanoparticle drug carriers. Pulmonary drug delivery has some advantages such as giving a rapid onset of action and bypassing the first hepatic metabolism. Lungs also have a large area for absorption. So far, there are various methods to produce curcumin nanoformulations that are proper, stable, and effective, and are suitable to enhance curcumin pulmonary delivery in the form of liposomes, polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles, nano suspensions, and cyclodextrin formulations. Therefore, analysis of the various methods, to conclude the best method for curcumin pulmonary delivery is needed. In conclusion, the best method to make nanocurcumin formulation is the one that gives the most advantage and lowest toxicity. Therefore the best choices for curcumin nanoformulations are curcumin nanosuspension and cyclodextrin formulated nanocurcumin/proliposomes.
  • Efficacy of Valerian Root Extract on Anxiety via Bioinformatics

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Treatment with root extract of valerian can reduce anxiety neurosis symptoms. To investigate the related therapeutic impacts, bioinformatics analysis of proteome profile of rat’s hippocampus tissue was carried out. Methods: Cytoscape V.3.9.1, and its plug-ins were applied for the construction of protein-protein interaction network of the treated subjects. NetworkAnalyzer and ClueGO+CuePedia were used to study centrality and gene ontology of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Results: Results indicated that seven central proteins Actb, Alb, Akt1, Egfr, Tp53 as hub-bottlenecks and Th and H2afx as hub and bottleneck differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are present in the PPI network and four corresponding biological processes. Among these seven proteins, two including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (Th) and Histone H2A (H2afx) are differentially expressed proteins in the exposure of valerian. Conclusion: It was found that the histone H2A and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase as central nodes are the main targets of valerian which are associated with anti-anxiety effects of the herb.   
  • Ethnopharmacological Properties of African Medicinal Plants for the
           Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    • Abstract: Agriculture is considered the primary source of income and livelihood in Africa. It is rational for people to look around their environment for food and medicine. The African legacy regarding the traditional use of medicinal plants is vast and diverse, due to cultural myths and economic logic. This review briefly defines the neglected tropical diseases and surveys African medicinal plants used for neglected tropical diseases. In Africa, people may share several plants for similar diseases, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum L. and Ricinus comminus L. are used for treating Buruli ulcer infection. Folkloric African plants for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, and viral neglected tropical diseases are listed and reported in the first parts. Medicinal plants for curing parasitic neglected tropical diseases are tabulated. A plethora of medicinal plants and bioactive compounds and their preparation methods, such as macerations and boiling are reported. This report reflects the richness of Africa with medicinal plants and herbal preparations being used for the treatment of various diseases, including neglected tropical diseases. Scientific investigation of these plants has yet to be conducted to isolate the active components and determine any toxic activities. Besides, knowledge of the mechanism of action behind these beneficial effects is highly required. This review will draw the attention of pharmaceutical companies and research institutions to examine the plants presented here for further laboratory analysis and experiments. 
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