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Research Journal of Pharmacognosy
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4458 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5977
Published by Iranian Society of Pharmacognosy Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Myrtenol Protects Against Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Cisplatin in Mice

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug which has some side effects such as acute kidney injury. Myrtenol, a monoterpene alcohol which is found in some plants, has various pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the nephroprotective effects of myrtenol in acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in male mice. Methods: In this experimental in-vivo study, 35 male mice were randomly separated into 5 groups, including control, CIS (20 mg/kg cisplatin, intraperitoneally on day 1), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; received cisplatin only on day 1, plus DMSO 1% on the first day, continued for 3 days), and treatment groups (received cisplatin only on day 1, plus myrtenol 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the first day, continued for 3 days). The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were evaluated in serum. The renal tissues were collected for evaluating malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities; histopathological investigation was also performed. Results: Our results showed that cisplatin administration caused significant elevation in the levels of renal MDA and serum BUN; in contrast, renal SOD and CAT activities significantly reduced. Myrtenol treatment, especially 50 mg/kg for four consecutive days mitigated these alternations in serum and renal tissue. Also, the kidney’s histopathological investigations were consistent with biochemical and oxidative parameters. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that myrtenol ameliorates acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin via oxidative stress suppression.
  • Effect of Oral Administration of Astragalus ecbatanus Chloroform Extract
           on Acute and Chronic Pain in Balb/C Mice

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Astragalus spp., have been used as a pain reliever in traditional medicine; therefore, in this study, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of Astragalus ecbatanus chloroform extract (AECE) in acute and chronic pain in male mice. Methods: The extract was obtained from aerial parts of A. ecbatanus with maceration method. The antinociceptive effect of AECE was determined by tail-flick, hot-plate, formalin, and rotarod tests followed by the oral intake of mice with AECE at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 14 days in male Balb/C mice. Results: The results showed AECE at the concentrations of 400 and 800 mg/kg revealed a mean latency time of 6.4 and 7.2 s, respectively; representing a remarkable (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity compared with the control group. AECE, especially at the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg, significantly increased the time until the occurrence of painful behaviors (licking or jumping) compared to the control group (p<0.001). The results showed AECE, especially in concentrations of 400 and 800 mg/kg, markedly (p<0.05) reduced the pain behaviors in the first phase (acute) and the second (chronic) phase of the formalin test compared to the control group. Conclusion: According to the reducing pain effect of this plant in both pain tests and in both stages of the formalin test, it can be concluded that Astragalus ecbatanus reduces both acute pain and chronic pain, and can relieve pain both peripherally and centrally.
  • Bacteriostatic and Haemolytic Activities of Extracts and Compounds of
           Commiphora swynnertonii

    • Abstract: Background and objective: Commiphoraswynnertonii (Pax) is used in traditional medicine to treat infectious diseases. Previous studies have reported antimicrobial activity of this plant;however, the activity of compounds that are present in extracts of this plant has not been thoroughly documented. Likewise, the primary mode of action (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and the possible toxicity on red blood cells have not been reported. Methods: Extracts of leaves, whole root, root bark, root wood, whole stem, stem bark and stem wood, were produced using hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Cold and hot extraction methods were employed. Antibacterial activity of extracts was tested against selected medically important Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by growth inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentrations and time kill assays. Moreover, haemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells was determined in vitro. Results: The hexane extracts of whole root and root bark, methanol extracts of root wood, and dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of C. swynnertonii inhibited the growth of S. aureus. MIC values for the extracts and compounds, indicated moderate activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci species and Enterococci species) while the activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, Shigella sonnei and Yersinia enterocolitica) was weak. Time kill profiles showed the extracts have bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus, and low haemolytic effect, except for extracts of whole root and leaves at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL. Conclusion:Extracts of C. swynnertonii showed bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria with low toxicity on red blood cells.  
  • Evaluating Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Citrus
           medica L. Pulp and Peel on Rat Model of Acute Colitis

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Citrus medica L. (citron) belongs to the Rutaceae family and contains several bioactive compounds including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins and essential oils with great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Since alleviating inflammation and ulcers have been suggested for these bio-compounds, this study was conducted in a model of experimental colitis. Methods: In order to standardize the extracts prepared by the maceration, total flavonoids were assayed. Colitis was induced by acetic acid in male Wistar rats. Rats received three doses (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) of the citron’s peel and pulp hydroalcoholic extracts for five days. Dexamethasone (1mg/kg) and sulfasalazine (150 mg/kg) were administered as reference medications. The macroscopic parameters including weight of colon, ulcerated area, the severity and indices of ulcers, as well as tissue microscopic features were assessed. In addition, levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Results: Total flavonoid contents for peel and pulp extracts were obtained 6.25 and 37.5 mg/g equivalent to quercetin, respectively. Both citron extracts demonstrated great anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects by decreasing MDA and MPO levels comparable to the reference drugs. Administration of the citron extracts also significantly reduced colon weight as well as ulcer index, score, and area compared to the control group. In addition, pathologic parameters such as inflammation, cryptal damage and leucocyte infiltration were considerably decreased in rats received citron extracts. Conclusions: Both citron extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects on experimental acute colitis. Further investigations are required to suggest these extracts for colitis treatment in clinical setting.  
  • Onion Extract on Cell Gene Expression Profile: a System Biology Approach

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Widespread consuming of onion as a nutrient in the world implies more investigations about useful and harmful aspects of this common supplementary food. Assessment of molecular mechanism of yellow onion extract on cell line Caco-2 was the aim of this study. Methods: Data was extracted from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. The gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells in the presence of yellow onion extract versus control cells were analyzed via GOE2R software. The significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assessed via network analysis and the central nodes were enriched via gene ontology. Results: Thirteen central nodes including JUN, ATF3, DUSP1 VEGF, CDKN1A, SNAI1, HSPB1, MCL1, SQSTM1, SREBF1, MAP1LC3B, EZR, and DUSP5 were identified. The related biological terms in five groups were introduced. JUN as a crucial DEG was highlighted. Conclusion: Based on findings, yellow onion extract effects on the wide range of cellular function such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and more other vital functions. The significant role of c-Jun proto-oncogene (among JUN, ATF3, and DUSP1 as hub-bottlenecks) and “c-Jun-ATF3 complex” biological term group as the affected individuals by yellow onion extract were pointed in this study.
  • Lichenochemical Analysis and Cytotoxicity of Diploschistes ocellatus (Fr.)

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Diploschistes ocellatus (Fr.) Norman is a valuable lichen possessing various biological properties which has been traditionally used by indigenous people in southwest of Iran in the treatment of different disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of different fractions of D. ocellatus against breast cancer cell lines through MTT assay, as well as lichenochemical analysis of the most potent fraction. Also, ducking study was performed to investigate the isolated compounds-protein interactions. Methods: In this work, aqueous, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions of D. ocellatus were evaluated against three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-231) via MTT assay. Furthermore, docking was performed using the routine method and default parameters of the AutoDock 4.2 software. Results:  The acetone fraction depicted the most potent cytotoxicity and was candidate for lichenochemical analysis, leading to the isolation and identification of stictic acid and 2-(7'-hydroxy-3,5,6,8-tetramethyl-9-oxooxonan-2-yl) propanoic acid. Docking study of isolated compounds based on the inhibition of survivin, revealed desired interactions with that of amino acid residues. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, D. ocellatus can be considered as a natural source of biologically active compounds and complementary studies are in high demand.
  • Solanum torvum for Hypertension: a Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Solanum torvum is one of the plants mentioned in “Kitab Al-Tibb Pontianak”, a historical medical manuscript which encompasses many traditional healings of Malay people for various ailments including of hypertension. This systematic review involves searching within Science Direct, SCOPUS, and PUBMED databases with the aim to find scientific evidences purporting this traditional claim. The keywords such as anti-hypertensive, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, blood pressure, diuretic, vasodilation, Solanum torvum, and S. torvum were used with suitable Boolean operators. Sixteen research articles were finally included in this systematic review after considering some inclusions and exclusions criteria. The evidence that supported S. torvum use for hypertension included its capability in reducing blood pressure in normal and high fructose-induced hypertensive rats, and also its diuretic effect by increasing sodium excretion and total urinary output in normal and in nitric-oxide deprived rats, as well as the ability to inhibit ACE, the key enzyme that mediates consequential increment of blood pressure. On contrary, S. torvum also induced partial vasoconstriction and amplified the hypertensive effect in the nitric-oxide-deprived hypertensive rats. In conclusion, this review found scientific evidence asserting the traditional use of S. torvum for hypertension with some conflicting findings in some study models. Therefore, this ethnomedicinal claim warrants more scientific verification, especially on its effect on the essential hypertension model which is very common in humans but has not yet been explored.
  • Allium affine Extract Improves Dexamethasone-Induced Hyperlipidemia in

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Various Alliumplants were found to improve blood lipid profile. The present investigation explored the anti-hyperlipidemic potential of A. affine in a rat model of hyperlipidemia induced by glucocorticoid. Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by maceration method and assessed for total phenolic content. Forty-eight male Wistar rats in eightgroups were studied. Group I received vehicle; group II was treated only with 400 mg/kg A. affine orally; group III was subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg/day dexamethasone; group IV as the reference group received dexamethasone and 40 mg/kg atorvastatin orally; groups V-VIII were treated with dexamethasone and simultaneously with 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of A. affine extract orally. All treatments were done over a period of seven days. Blood levels of glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in over-fasted rats. Liver tissues were weighed and evaluated for histopathologicalalterations. Results: The amount of total phenolics content of A. affine extract was 11.24 ± 1.7 mg/g as gallic acid equivalent. Administration of A. affineextract significantly lowered the blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and MDA. However, there was no significant effect on high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level. A. affineimproved hepatic steatosis resulted from dexamethasone. Conclusion: These findings suggest potential of A. affine for preventing and managing hyperlipidemia. However, more trials are needed concerning its clinical efficacy and identifying its bioactive phytochemicals and mechanisms participated in the lipid-lowering action.
  • Hypertension in Africa and Medicinal Plants with Anti-Hypertensive

    • Abstract: Hypertension presents a major threat to global health. The prevalence of the disease is high in the adult population but an increasing number of children are being diagnosed with raised blood pressure globally. Although pharmaceutical drugs are effective in the treatment of hypertension based on targeting blood pressure regulatory mechanisms, the use of these products has been associated with several side effects. As a result, there has been an increasing interest to find natural sources for treatment of hypertension. Several local plants in Africa have been used in folk medicine to treat hypertension. In this review, an extensive literature search in databases including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google was performed to search plants with anti-hypertensive properties; the epidemiology of hypertension in Africa along with the mechanisms of regulation has been highlighted. The various classes of pharmaceutical drugs and medicinal plants used in treating hypertension in Africa with their anti-hypertensive properties were described. Several medicinal plants in Africa have been revealed with potential anti-hypertensive effects along with the phytochemical constituents and some potential mechanisms of action thus providing the scientific basis of their potential usefulness in hypertension treatment. However, further studies are needed for the exploration of these plants against hypertension.
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