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  Subjects -> ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (Total: 106 journals)
Showing 1 - 15 of 15 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Acupuncture in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advanced Herbal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Traditional Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Akupunktur & Aurikulomedizin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Allgemeine Homöopathische Zeitung     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Alternative & Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Alternative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alternative Medicine Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anales de Hidrología Médica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Plant Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chinese Herbal Medicines     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Medicine and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cognitive Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Complementary Therapies in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Deutsche Heilpraktiker-Zeitschrift     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Erfahrungsheilkunde     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Medicinal Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Fitoterapia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Journal of Integrated Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine     Open Access  
Global Journal of Traditional Medicine     Open Access  
Herba Polonica     Open Access  
Herbal Medicines Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Ayurveda and lntegrative Medicine Klue     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge (IJTK)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Innovare Journal of Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intas Polivet     Full-text available via subscription  
Integrative Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of High Dilution Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
International Journal of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ipnosi     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Applied Arts and Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Asian Natural Products Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Ayurveda Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of AYUSH :- Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Dance Medicine & Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Fasting and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Science and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Health Sciences Scholarship     Open Access  
Journal of Herbal Drugs (An International Journal on Medicinal Herbs)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Herbal Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Herbal Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Integrative Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Integrative Medicine & Therapy     Open Access  
Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Medicinally Active Plants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Natural Remedies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutraceuticals and Herbal Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Palliative Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medical Sciences     Open Access  
Médecine Palliative     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Medical Acupuncture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Medicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mersin Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Lokman Hekim Tıp Tarihi ve Folklorik Tıp Dergisi     Open Access  
Muller Journal of Medical Sciences and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Natural solutions     Full-text available via subscription  
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
OA Alternative Medicine     Open Access  
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Research Journal of Pharmacognosy     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Acupuntura     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Plant and Soil     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Synfacts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Traditional & Kampo Medicine     Full-text available via subscription  
Traditional Medicine Journal     Open Access  
World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion     Full-text available via subscription  
World Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine     Open Access  
Yoga Mimamsa     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Orthomolekulare Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

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Research Journal of Pharmacognosy
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-4458 - ISSN (Online) 2345-5977
Published by Iranian Society of Pharmacognosy Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Antibacterial Activity, Phytochemical and Molecular Docking Analysis of
           Croton macrostachyus Root Extracts Growing in Wolaita, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Croton macrostachyus Hochst ex. Delile (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant used as a traditional medicine for treating infectious diseases in Ethiopia. This study was aimed for investigating the phytochemicals, in vitro antibacterial and molecular docking of the Croton macrostachyus roots extract. Methods: Silica gel column chromatographic separations afforded four known compounds. In vitro antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds, (1-4), and extracts of C. macrostachyus were evaluated against four human reference pathogens. Insilco molecular docking was performed for isolated compounds against two target proteins of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase B (PDB: 6F86) and Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A (PDB: 1T2P). Results: From the root extract of C. macrostachyus, four known compounds of lupeol (1), β-sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3), and linoleic acid (4) were isolated and characterized. The extracts and isolated compounds exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity. Molecular docking results revealed that the isolated compounds interacted with the target proteins with the minimum binding energy ranging from -7.38 kCal/mol to -5.57 kCal/mol against DNA gyrase B and -7.40 kCal/mol to -5.54 kCal/mol against Sortase A. Conclusion: Our study proved that extracts and isolated compounds possess potential antibacterial activity, and the findings support the use of C. macrostachyus as a traditional medicine for treating skin infections, cough, respiratory tract problems, stomachache, and influenza virus by local people in Ethiopia.
  • Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Andrographolide in Combination
           with Antimicrobial drugs

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The resistance of infectious pathogens to antimicrobial drugs is an underestimated threat to public health. This rapidly developing phenomenon necessitates the discovery of new treatment strategies. Combining natural compounds with first-line antimicrobials is one treatment strategy to mitigate the emergence of resistant pathogens. Andrographolide, a diterpene lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata has been reported to possess potent anti-infective activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the combination effect of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobial drugs to fight emerging resistance. Method: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), fold increase in antimicrobial efficacy and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) of andrographolide and ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, amikacin, clindamycin and fluconazole were determined using the high throughput spot culture growth inhibition (HT-SPOTi) assay against ten isolated clinical strains; Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella paratyphi B and Candida albicans. Results: Combination of andrographolide and the first-line antimicrobials showed various degrees of susceptibility and efficacy against the tested microorganisms with the highest MIC, 0.85 μg/mL recorded. The FICI (Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices) for synergy ranged between 0.00 to 0.28 depending on the microorganism and antimicrobial drug. Conclusion: Use of andrographolide with first-line antimicrobials could aid in combating the menace of resistance pathogens. However, this should be done with caution as some of the antimicrobials tested exhibited antagonistic effects.
  • Curcumin Nanoformulation for Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Curcumin has various beneficial effects on human health, but its efficacy is yet to be proven in clinical trials. Curcumin has poor bioavailability, low solubility, and rapid metabolism which become the principal reasons behind the lack of curcumin efficiency in clinical trials. This review aimed to focus on nanotechnologies to improve the bioavailability of curcumin inhalation formulations. Many studies were done to improve curcumin's bioavailability by administering through nanoparticle drug carriers. Pulmonary drug delivery has some advantages such as giving a rapid onset of action and bypassing the first hepatic metabolism. Lungs also have a large area for absorption. So far, there are various methods to produce curcumin nanoformulations that are proper, stable, and effective, and are suitable to enhance curcumin pulmonary delivery in the form of liposomes, polymeric and solid lipid nanoparticles, nano suspensions, and cyclodextrin formulations. Therefore, analysis of the various methods, to conclude the best method for curcumin pulmonary delivery is needed. In conclusion, the best method to make nanocurcumin formulation is the one that gives the most advantage and lowest toxicity. Therefore the best choices for curcumin nanoformulations are curcumin nanosuspension and cyclodextrin formulated nanocurcumin/proliposomes.
  • Efficacy of Valerian Root Extract on Anxiety via Bioinformatics

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Treatment with root extract of valerian can reduce anxiety neurosis symptoms. To investigate the related therapeutic impacts, bioinformatics analysis of proteome profile of rat’s hippocampus tissue was carried out. Methods: Cytoscape V.3.9.1, and its plug-ins were applied for the construction of protein-protein interaction network of the treated subjects. NetworkAnalyzer and ClueGO+CuePedia were used to study centrality and gene ontology of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Results: Results indicated that seven central proteins Actb, Alb, Akt1, Egfr, Tp53 as hub-bottlenecks and Th and H2afx as hub and bottleneck differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) are present in the PPI network and four corresponding biological processes. Among these seven proteins, two including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (Th) and Histone H2A (H2afx) are differentially expressed proteins in the exposure of valerian. Conclusion: It was found that the histone H2A and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase as central nodes are the main targets of valerian which are associated with anti-anxiety effects of the herb.   
  • Ethnopharmacological Properties of African Medicinal Plants for the
           Treatment of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    • Abstract: Agriculture is considered the primary source of income and livelihood in Africa. It is rational for people to look around their environment for food and medicine. The African legacy regarding the traditional use of medicinal plants is vast and diverse, due to cultural myths and economic logic. This review briefly defines the neglected tropical diseases and surveys African medicinal plants used for neglected tropical diseases. In Africa, people may share several plants for similar diseases, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum L. and Ricinus comminus L. are used for treating Buruli ulcer infection. Folkloric African plants for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, and viral neglected tropical diseases are listed and reported in the first parts. Medicinal plants for curing parasitic neglected tropical diseases are tabulated. A plethora of medicinal plants and bioactive compounds and their preparation methods, such as macerations and boiling are reported. This report reflects the richness of Africa with medicinal plants and herbal preparations being used for the treatment of various diseases, including neglected tropical diseases. Scientific investigation of these plants has yet to be conducted to isolate the active components and determine any toxic activities. Besides, knowledge of the mechanism of action behind these beneficial effects is highly required. This review will draw the attention of pharmaceutical companies and research institutions to examine the plants presented here for further laboratory analysis and experiments. 
  • Synergistic Activity of Three Iranian Medicinal Plants in Combination with
           Ceftazidime and Neomycin against Bacterial Strains Causing Nosocomial

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of Salvia limbata, Centella asiatica, and Bacopa Monnieri extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We also examined the synergistic effect of these extracts with ceftazidime and neomycin. The antimicrobial effects of these plants had been reported before but synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics such as ceftazidime and neomycin was an important issue that we tried to determine. Methods: Methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and phenolics content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the synergistic effect of the extracts with ceftazidime and neomycin. Results: Salvia limbata methanolic extract with MIC of 25, 100, and 150 mg/mL could inhibit the growth of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and MRSA, respectively. Bacopa monnieri with MIC of 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL inhibited the growth of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Centella asiatica did not affect the studied strains. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) results showed partial synergistic activity between S. limbata with ceftazidime and neomycin against P. aeruginosa and MRSA. The MIC of ceftazidime and neomycin in combination with S. limbata was reduced fourfold for each antibiotic. Conclusion: Salvia limbata is a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used with ceftazidime and neomycin to provide a synergistic effect.
  • Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Flavonoids and a Geraniol Derivative
           from Artemisia kermanensis on Normal and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The aim of this study was extraction, isolation, and identification of potent metabolites from aerial parts of Artemisia kermanensis Podl.“Dermaneh kermani’, the Iranian endemic species of Asteraceae family, and finally evaluation the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects against normal and breast cancer cell lines. Methods: Air-dried aerial parts of A. kermanensis Podl. were extracted by maceration method with acetone/dichloromethane and then fractionated with MPLC apparatus using a gradient solvent system. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on analysis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Anti-proliferative effects of the three compounds were determined by MTT assay against HUVEC, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. The apoptotic effects of compounds 2 and 3 were determined by flow cytometry on MCF-7 cells. Results: Compound 1 (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone, eupatilin), compound 2 (5,7,3'-Trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone) and compound 3 (1-acetoxy-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octa-2E,5E-dien-4-one) were isolated from the plant extract. Compound 3 was identified for the first time from A. kermanensis. Statistical studies revealed that this compound showed the most anti-proliferative properties on all three cell lines. In MCF-7 cells treated with concentration of 10 µg/mL of compound 3, 36% apoptosis was observed. Furthermore, compound 2 (5,7,3'-Trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone) showed 33% apoptosis at 650 µg/mL. Conclusion: In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-6,4',5'-trimethoxyflavone and Compound 3 (1-acetoxy-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-octa-2E,5E-dien-4-one) were determined for the first time. On the other hand, since Compound 3 showed the most cytotoxic effects on the cancer cell lines, investigation of its biological effects is recommended.
  • Cuscuta chinensis Antidepressant-Like Effect, the Role of 5-HT and the
           Impact on Behavioral Response in Mice

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Depression is a chronic mental disorder that influences people’s lives and functionality.  The available medications do not give full guaranty of effectiveness and are not devoid of unwanted side effects.  Cuscuta chinensis has been recommended for the treatment of depression in traditional medicine. In this study, the antidepressant-like activity of C. chinensis has been evaluated by using forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Methods: Cuscuta chinensis extract was provided by boiling in water. The antidepressant effect was evaluated by forced swimming test (FST) in mice with daily gavage of 270, 360 and 430 mg/kg of the treatments for four weeks. The immobility time and behavioral activity and also the blood levels of 5-HT and norepinephrine were measured. Results: The FST confirmed antidepressant effect of the extract with decreased time of immobility and increased swimming time alongside increase in serum 5-HT in all groups (p<0.01compared to the control) except for the extract at the dose of 270 mg/kg (MA270).  This effect was not statistically significant with fluoxetine group. Conclusion: Cuscuta chinensis demonstrated antidepressant effects in mice model which is a confirmation for its traditional use in depression.
  • Network Analysis of 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 Effect on Human Colorectal
           Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 is a pharmacological active compound of ginseng. Evidences indicate that S20-Rg3 as an anti-cancer factor plays role in prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, proteomic data of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 effect on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was analyzed via network analysis to understand more details about the molecular events. Methods: The differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) related to the effect of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 on human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 were extracted from literature and analyzed via protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The central nodes of the network were determined based on degree value and betweenness centrality. Results: Eight DEPS plus 100 added first neighbors were included in the PPI network. Five central nodes as hub-bottlenecks including ACTB, GAPDH, TP53, AKT1, and ALB among the added first neighbors and ANXA5 as hub-bottleneck and GSTP1 and PCNA as bottlenecks among the queried DEPs were introduced. Conclusion: PCNA, GSTP1, and ANxA5 as cell protective proteins are the crucial targeted proteins by 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 in the treated cell line HT-29. Up-regulation of GSTP1 and ANXA5 is correspondent to the cell protective property of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3, and down-regulation of PCNA refers to the opposite effect. It seems that cell protective roles of 20S-ginsenoside Rg3 are accompanied with the possible side effects.
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Effects of Pistacia atlantica Desf.
           Oleoresin Essential Oil

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The oleoresin of Pistacia atlantica Desf. (known as “Baneh” in Iran) has been frequently used in traditional medicine for its medicinal properties. Herein, P. atlantica essential oil was investigated for its antimicrobial and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities since α-pinene which has been identified as the most abundant component in Pistacia genus oil, has demonstrated antimicrobial and anti-α-glucosidase properties. Methods: Fresh oleoresin was collected from Javanroud, Kermanshah, Iran and the essential oil was obtained by Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of essential oil was identified with GC/MS analysis and compared with those reported from various regions. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against various strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli spp.) through MIC method. Also, its anti-α-glucosidase property and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay were investigated. Results: GC/MS analysis of the essential oil confirmed the presence of nineteen compounds and among them, α-pinene (64.8%) was identified as the major constituent. Also, β-pinene (5.7%) and cis-limonene oxide (4.5%) were relatively abundant. Our results revealed antimicrobial properties of the “Baneh” essential oil against various bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, it demonstrated inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 41.5 ± 2.5 mg/mL compared with acarbose (IC50=0.5±0.2 mg/mL). DPPH free-radical scavenging activity assay showed antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 155.2 ± 1.4 mg/mL compared with quercetin (IC50=250.0±0.0 μg/mL). Conclusion: Pistacia atlantica oleoresin essential oil depicted satisfactory antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. However, it demonstrated low antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects.
  • Significance of Pharmacognosy: Students’ Perspective

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: The use of herbal medicine dates back to ancient times when humans used to consume natural substances such as medicinal plants to treat various diseases. Advancement in technology increases the importance of natural medicines in health care. Numerous drugs have been derived from natural sources and the alternative system of medicine mainly utilizes herbs and other natural sources or their extracts to treat different diseases. These herbs also possess herb-drug, food-drug interactions and other side effects; therefore, the knowledge of pharmacognosy is mandatory for pharmacists in order to work efficiently in their field. The present study was conducted to evaluate the significance of pharmacognosy from the viewpoint of pharmacy students. Methods:  An online survey was conducted in which students from all the recognized institutes of pharmacy located in Karachi, Pakistan were given a questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge about the significance of pharmacognosy. Results: Majority of students were satisfied with the curriculum of pharmacognosy in the Pharm-D curriculum and they believed that one can’t be a good pharmacist without studying pharmacognosy. They have the concept of herb-drug and food-drug interactions. They have studied the doses and side effects of herbal drugs in their undergrad curriculum, and they will consider studying pharmacognosy in their postgrad program. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that pharmacy students of various institutes of Karachi, Pakistan are well aware of the importance of pharmacognosy.
  • Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. (Meadowsweet): a Review of Traditional
           Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    • Abstract: Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. commonly known as "meadowsweet", is a perennial herb native to Iran, Europe, and Western Asia. Several medicinal properties of the plant have been reported in Persian medicine. Filipendula ulmaria is traditionally used for fever, pain, inflammatory diseases (arthrosis, rheumatism, and arthritis), gastric disorders, liver dysfunction, and gout. The phytochemical studies indicate the presence of several active compounds, mainly phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids. Salicylic acid and its derivatives are the most important compounds found in essential oil and extracts of different parts of the plant. Pharmacological evaluations have shown the anti-arthritis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-coagulant, anti-microbial, immunomodulatory, gastro-protective, and hepato-protective activity of F. ulmaria. Despite pharmacological activities, traditional uses and herbal supplements, there is no complete review article on this herb's properties. In this paper, we have provided a review on traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological properties and medical information of this valuable medicinal plant.
  • Potential Cytotoxic Activity of Galegine on Human Melanoma Cells

    • Abstract: Background and objectives: Melanoma, the most lethal type of skin cancer, has a high recurrence rate within one year in melanoma patients following treatment by chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In an effort toward reducing this event, the present study aimed to investigate whether galegine has inhibitory effects on human melanoma cell lines. Galegine is a natural active compound found in Galega officinalis which was known and used in Europe for medicinal purposes for centuries.  Methods: Cell viability by MTT assay was conducted to measure the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of galegine on DFW and SK-MEL-5 cells. Also, apoptosis level was determined using Annexin V/FITC-propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) for Bax, Bcl2, and p53 genes was performed with specific primers to evaluate their expression pattern in each group. Results: The experimental results indicated that galegine induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 of 630 µM and 3300 µM in DFW and SK-MEL-5 cells, respectively. Also, apoptosis induction occurred in both melanoma cell lines, in a way that 12.4% of the DFW cells and 41.8% of SK-MEL-5 were detected in the apoptotic phase. Furthermore, it was found that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was upregulated in both melanoma cells. An upregulation in p53 gene expression was observed in SK-MEL-5 cells, as well. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that galegine induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human melanoma cells with the potential toward more research as a novel therapeutic candidate for melanoma treatment.
  • Antiparasitic Effects and Cellular Mechanism of Astragalus maximus
           Chloroform Extract Against Clinical Isolates of Giardia lamblia

    • Abstract: Background and objectives:  Chemical drugs such as metronidazole, quinacrine and furazolidone are used to treat giardiasis. Although these drugs are useful in most cases, they are associated with some side effects. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antiparasitic effects and cellular mechanisms of Astragalus maximus chloroformic extract against both trophozoites and cysts of Giardia. Methods:  The extraction was done based on the maceration method with 70% methanol. The in vitro anti-Giardia effects of various concentrations of A. maximus extract (11.25, 22.5, and 450 mg/mL) were evaluated on cysts and trophozoites of G. lamblia for 15-360 min. In addition, the effects on the plasma membrane permeability and the induction of apoptosis in the trophozoites of G. lamblia were studied. Results: Astragalus maximus extract significantly (p<0.0001) declined the viability of cysts of G. lamblia; in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, the extract killed 100% of G. lamblia cysts after 240 and 360 min of incubation. The results also showed that the extract in both concentrations of 22.5 mg/mL and 45 mg/mL, killed 100% of G. lamblia trophozoites after 120 and 240 min incubation The findings revealed that treatment of G. lamblia trophozoites with A. maximus extract increased the permeability of the plasma membrane in a dose dependent response. The extract, especially at the concentration of 10 mg/mL, significantly (p<0.001) induced caspase-3 activation. Conclusion: The present study showed the promising in vitro antiparasitic effects of A. maximus extract against both trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia by affecting the permeability of the plasma membrane and induction of apoptosis. Further investigations especially in animal models and clinical setting are required to clarify the accurate efficacy and mechanisms against G. lamblia infection.
  • Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on Sports
           Injuries: a Review of Patents

    • Abstract: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used for its therapeutic effects since a long time ago. Most of the healing properties of rosemary might be attributed to its antinociceptive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. The present review covers the certified patents and discoveries on medicinal, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic properties of rosemary to disclose its brilliant value on athletes’ health. An extended literature review was carried out in Google Patent, US Patent, and Patentscope in the field of sports injuries, inflammation, and pain. Numerous patents uncovered the importance of rosemary to apply in various healing, pharmaceutical, and medicinal fields. These discoveries might also be used as complementary methods in sports medicine for sore muscle, muscle and ligament sprain, strain, bruise, spasm, tendinitis, tendon rupture, cartilage, and joint injuries. Due to a lack of clinical trials, the use of rosemary in the clinic has been limited to a few medicinal products. Considering the human trend to use phytocompounds rather than medications based on chemical compounds, precise attention must be devoted to linking the value of rosemary from basic science to clinical usage.  
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