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Journal of Fasting and Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-2587
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • The Effect of Aerobic Exercise and Consumption of Eryngium Billardieri
           Extract On Women with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Introduction: This study aims to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of eryngium billardieri extract on insulin resistance and lipid profile in obese women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is quasi-experimental research, by the control group in pre and post-test. The subjects were 38 obese women with type 2 diabetes (Mean age 51.56± 5.21 and BMI 31.88 ± 2.57) randomly divided into four groups: control (C=9), Drug (Drug=10), Exercise (EX=9), and Exercise and drug (EX&Drug=10). The aerobic exercise protocol consisted (of 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The drug- consumed 200 ml of eryngium billardieri extract every day. Blood samples were collected 24 h before and 48 h after the last exercise to measure blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile including cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, and VLDL. The statistical methods include the Kolmogorov- Smirnov, Levin, covariance (ANCOVA), and Bonferroni test. Results: a significant decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and a significant increase in HDL after aerobic exercise and consumption of eryngium extract in type 2 diabetes compared to C and Drug groups. Conclusions: The effect of exercise and consumption of eryngium extract increased insulin sensitivity by improving insulin and GLUT4 function. In addition, the improvement of lipid profile was the positive effect of aerobic activity and consumption of eryngium Extract on the increase in the removal of adipose tissue, which is due to the increase in the activity of lipase enzymes.
       
  • Development and Validation of Ramadan Fasting Basic Information and
           Nutritional Habits Questionnaire

    • Abstract: Introduction: Most Ramadan fasting studies are usually conducted over one-year periods and show the short-term effects of Ramadan fasting. There is no standard tool or questionnaire to evaluate people's fasting habits and Ramadan fasting long term effects. For the first time, we designed a study to develop and validate a questionnaire to evaluate people's fasting habits as a tool for the determination of short-term and long-term Ramadan fasting effects. Methods: After designing the questionnaire, it was sent to 10 experts in this field for judging and commenting (content validity). The validity of the questionnaire was evaluated using the Content Validity Ratio (CVR) index> 0.62, which includes the questionnaire's essentiality, relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness. In order to check the questionnaire reliability, the "test-retest method" was applied among 10 individuals. Results: After multiple drafts, the questionnaire contained 16 items, categorized into “Basic information on fasting (demographic information)”, and “Fasting nutritional habits” including 13 and 3 questions, respectively. The overall CVR for relevancy, clarity, and comprehensiveness of the tool were 0.92, 0.95, 0.97, and 0.95, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the test–retest stage was 0.85. Conclusions: This Ramadan fasting habits questionnaire demonstrated strong content validity and test-retest reliability. It can be an appropriate instrument for the evaluation of Ramadan fasting basic information and nutritional habits in research or practice-oriented settings for the determination of short-term and long-term Ramadan fasting effects.
       
  • COVID-19 Pandemic Challenges for Nutrition Research

    • Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) became a global health concern and dramatically affected many aspects of life on earth. The effects of COVID-19 and its preventive strategies during 2019-2020 have been studied in the fields of psychology, sociology, economy, and politics (1-4). Although the world health organization and regional health authorities responded promptly to the pandemic, but most of the recommendations especially in the prevention and treatment of the disease were based on animal studies and studies conducted on other coronavirus diseases or influenza (5). 
       
  • A Pilot Randomized Comparative Study of Short-Term Response to Yoga and
           Diet Intervention on Myopia among College Students

    • Abstract: Introduction: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of vision impairment in India. Myopia is a common refractive error that can also be defined by a spherical equivalent (SE) ≤−0.5 dioptre (D). To explore the combined effect of Yogic eye exercise and Diet compared with Yogic eye exercise in the management of myopia. Method: A comparative study with 28 students diagnosed with myopia was randomly assigned into two groups. Group A received a naturopathic diet protocol and Yoga eye exercises, and Group B received Yogic eye exercises. Improvement in myopia was assessed as the mean change in refractive error -Spherical equivalent (SE) from baseline. Result: The mean SE values were reduced post-intervention in both groups. Within-group comparison of SE pre- and post-intervention showed a significant reduction in SE measures in Yoga and diet (Group A) for the right and left eye at 95% CI with a p-value of 0.003 and 0.01 respectively. There were no significant changes in SE values in the Yoga-only group. When compared between groups, no statistically significant changes were observed in SE.  Conclusion: The group that followed the diet combined with Yoga showed better improvement in pre-and post-assessments for both eyes. But when compared between the two groups there were no statistically significant changes in SE. Yogic eye exercise proved beneficial in both groups, but the results are better when combined with diet. The findings need to be verified further by conducting a large-scale placebo-controlled clinical trial with a wider population base on diverse age groups.
       
  • Probiotics and Their Conceivable Part within the Avoidance or Treatment of
           Covid-19: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Introduction: Today, the use of probiotics is very popular among the public, which has recently been tested in COVID-19. The aim of this study was to collect all studies related to the immune effects of probiotics and their possible role in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 achieve a comprehensive result. Method: The article is a systematic review that uses the PRISMA checklist to extract articles. After searching for the keywords probiotics, treatment, prevention, coronavirus, and covid-19 and combining them in databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct) according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 articles were finally reached. Therefore, the articles of the last 10 years (2012-2012) that have been scientifically published in databases were qualitatively analyzed by reviewing both authors. Results: Through the qualitative analysis of most articles, we can mention that the modulation of the gut or lung microbiome is an adjuvant treatment or prevention of COVID-19, due to the immunomodulating properties of probiotics. As well as, based on the results of these articles, probiotics can be effective in reducing the secondary infection caused by Covid-19, modulating the inflammatory response, and reducing the duration of the disease. In addition, the administration of probiotics can be useful as an alternative to ameliorate COVID-19 disease and increase the effectiveness of the vaccine. Conclusion: Based on the evidence, probiotics boost the immune system and could be useful in the prevention or adjunctive treatment of COVID-19. More randomized trials are required to support these findings.
       
  • Health Risk Assessment and Evaluation of Nitrate And Nitrite in Salad
           Vegetables of Mashhad City

    • Abstract: Introduction: Nitrate and nitrite are parts of the nitrogen cycle and can enter human body through eating and drinking. In spite of the fact that nitrate is characterized as a safe compound,  it may turn into nitrite form in the body and react with amines to form dangerous compounds like nitrosamines, preventive cautions; therefore, the intake of nitrate should be controlled. The aim of this research was to analyze data and risk assessment of nitrate/nitrite content in four commonly used salad vegetables (onion, cucumber, lettuce, and, tomato) that were sold in the Mashhad central vegetable market. Methods: In this study, data from 1008 samples between 21st March 2019 to 20th March 2022 that were tested based on spectrophotometric method were analyzed by SPSS version 22 and compared with the Iranian National Standard and WHO limits. Results: Nitrate and Nitrite mean values of four analyzed vegetables were: onion = 76±6 mg/ kg; 1.45±0.99 mg/kg, tomato = 95±15 Mg/kg; 2.35±1.28 Mg/kg cucumber 216±30 Mg/kg, 2.50 ±1.30 mg/kg, lettuce 1050±234 mg/kg;2.89±1.54 respectively.  There was an increasing trend in nitrate levels over the 3 surveyed years.  The Mean increase was significantly different between vegetables in 3 years (p<0.01). Mean daily intake of nitrates from vegetables was within acceptable daily intake (ADI) limit and the Noncarcinogenic index was less than EPA limits for children and adults. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI) of nitrite and nitrate were less than the EDI value (1 mg/kg bw/day) and 3.70 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. But lettuce consumption should be controlled among children (THQ=0.95). Conclusion: Nitric compounds intake from salad vegetables is considered safe for Iranian consumers. However, the EDI of nitrate from other sources, including processed meat products and drinking water, should be regarded. 
       
  • Evaluation of Pre-Sarcopenia and Sarcopenia in a Well-Nourished
           Late-Middle-Aged Population: A Feasibility Study of a Registry

    • Abstract: Introduction : Sarcopenia is characterized by weakness of the skeletal muscles. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its relationship with dietary intake, socioeconomic status, depression, lifestyle, and physical activity for the first time in a well-nourished over 55 year’s old population. Methods: This study was conducted on a well-nourished above 55 years old population. The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People-2 (EWGSOP-2) guideline was used to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia. Muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength and performance were evaluated using handgrip and gait speed, respectively. The dietary intake, socioeconomic status, psychological health, lifestyle, clinical factors, and physical activity were examined using valid tools. Results: A total of 766 well-nourished individuals (mean age=65.14±6.84 years old; male:female ratio= 1:1.99) were evaluated for sarcopenia. The prevalence of pre-, confirmed-, and severe sarcopenia were 23.9%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Age was significantly related to sarcopenia (OR=1.096 (95% CI: 1.069-1.124), p<0.001). Females had an increased risk of pre-sarcopenia (OR=2.189 [95% CI: 1.48-3.239], p=0.002), while males were at higher risk of confirmed and severe sarcopenia (OR=15.102 [95% CI: 4.461-51.131], p<0.001). The decision tree model of sarcopenia indicated age as the main predictor for sarcopenia. Conclusion: According to EWGSOP-2, the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 27% among well-nourished almost healthy elderly population. There was a relationship between age and sarcopenia. Females and males were at higher risk of pre-sarcopenia and confirmed and severe sarcopenia; respectively. Further research is strongly suggested to asses pre-sarcopenia. 
       
  • Cooking Process Optimization in Canned Beef Production Using the Response
           Surface Method

    • Abstract: Introduction: Canning food is one of the good methods of food preservation. This method will create a good shelf if the principles of preparation are observed. In this regard, the present study aimed to optimize the cooking time and pressure for canned beef production. Methods: In this study, three levels of pressure (1, 1.2 and 1.4 bars) and three cooking times (9, 15 and 18 minutes) were applied. Response surface method was used for pH, phloem weight, water-soluble solids (Brix), and protein content and sensory examinations in the produced products.Results: The results showed that the phloem, weight and the general acceptance of the samples decreased with the increasing of processing time and pressure. Only the linear parameter of process time had a significant effect on the pH at the level of 5%, which increased slightly with the pH of the samples. Conclusion: The results of process optimization showed that the surface response method is an appropriate approach for optimizing the cooking process in the preparation of canned veal.
       
  • A Correlation between Nutritional Adequacy and Clinical Outcomes among
           Critically Children Hospitalized With Covid-19

    • Abstract: Introduction: Malnutrition is a prominent cause of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized children. The accompaniment of malnutrition with infectious diseases worsens the healing process and intensifies nutritional deficiencies. This study was done to assess the nutritional status, and dietary intake adequacy, and their relationship with clinical outcomes among children diagnosed with COVID-19 disease and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: In this prospective observational study, we collected the data of 30 children admitted to the PICU ward of Akbar Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran, during 8 weeks. The age, gender, and nutritional status (by z-scores of weight-for-length/ height, based on the World Health Organization child growth standards) of critically ill children with COVID-19 were recorded and evaluated upon admission time. Dietary intake and its adequacy were also calculated during hospitalization. The correlation between mentioned variables with clinical outcomes was examined. Results: Out of the 30 patients, the malnutrition rate was 16.7% severe, 16.7% moderate, and 66.7% normal. In correlation between variables, it was no significant difference between z-scores with mortality, and length of stay, but statistically, remarkable differences were found between energy intake adequacy and length of hospitalization (p<0.001), and between protein intake adequacy and mortality (p=0.008). Conclusion: The study showed that there is a significant relationship between dietary intake adequacy and clinical outcomes, suggesting the role of optimizing nutrition therapy in ameliorating clinical consequences in critically ill children.
       
  • The Effect of High- and Low-Intensity Interval Training on Myostatin Gene
           Expression Levels in Muscles Fibers of Rats with Myocardial Infarction

    • Abstract: Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI) is an essential coronary artery disease, which affects mitochondrial function and causes muscle atrophy due to vessel blockage and disruption in blood transfusion and oxygen transfer. Interval exercises reduce muscle atrophy, but the appropriate exercise intensity is still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of interval training with two for six weeks on Myostatin gene expression levels in slow (ST) and fast (FT) twitch muscles in rats with MI. Method: Eighteen ten-week male Wistar rats with MI were randomly assigned into high- (HIIT) (90-85% VO2max) and low-intensity interval training (LIIT) (50-60% VO2max) with a control group (CG, without training). Myostatin gene expression of FT and ST was investigated as a stimulant of muscle atrophy. The training protocol was 30-minute intermittent jogging sessions on a treadmill. Each interval included 4 min of running (85-90% VO2max for HIIT and 55-60% for LIIT) and 2-minute active recovery (50-60% for HIIT and 45-50% for LIIT) three days a week for six weeks. Results: LIIT significantly decreased myostatin expression in both ST and FT while HIIT only decreased myostatin expression in ST compared to CG (P = 0.002, P = 0.016, and P=0.011, respectively). HIIT induced myostatin expression reduction was higher in FT compared to CG (P = 0.078). There was a significant difference in myostatin expression between CG (8.87) and the two training groups (HIIT [0.949] and LIIT [3.11]) in ST (P≤0.05), and between  CG and LIITs and HIIT (1.22) and LIIT (0/975) in FT (P<0.05). Conclusion: Six weeks of HIIT and LIIT reduced myostatin gene expression and decreased ST and FT atrophy in rats with MI. 
       
  • Identification of Coxiella burnetti and Mycobacterium SPP through
           Touch-down PCR Examination in Unpasteurized Camel Milk in North-East of
           Iran

    • Abstract: Introduction: Food-borne illness caused major international health problems and reduced economic growth. A highly prevalent zoonotic disease is Q fever, found in many area like Newzland, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and etc. Coxiella burnetii is caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium that is considered in ruminants and ubiquitous and it can survive in environment for a long time. Early and reliable diagnosis of the pathogens borne by food through molecular methods like polymerase chain reaction is critical to find positive outcomes in eradication programs. Method: In this study 100 milk samples obtained from 100 camels were examined in terms of C. burnetii and Mycobacterium presence through a Touch-down PCR assay. Results: In total, there were six positive specimens of Coxiella burnetii in camel milk and no Mycobacterium was found in the samples. Conclusions: The findings indicated that healthy camels were major sources of C. burnetii in North-East of Iran. There is a need for studies on risk infection of Coxiella in farmers, veterinarians, milk‐processing workers, and slaughterhouse workers.
       
  • Evaluation of the Presence of Yeasts, Moulds and Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Sheep
           Milk in Mazandaran, Iran

    • Abstract: Introduction: Aflatoxins are one of the most important fungal mycotoxins with carcinogenic properties. Aflatoxin M1 can be transmitted to humans through milk and dairy products. This study proposed to appraise the fungal and aflatoxin M1 contaminations in sheep milk collcted from different farms in Mazandaran province. Methods: During July to September 2020, 70 samples of raw milk from sheep were collected in disparate regions of northern Iran. All of the samples were analyzed in order to presence of fungal agents by culturing the raw milk onto Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) as well as AFM1 by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results: Of the fungal agents identified, the most frequently moulds were related to Aspergillus spp. (38.8%), Cladosporium spp. (22.4%) and Penicillium spp. (13.9%); and yeasts dependent on Trichosporon spp. (47.1 %), Rhodotorula spp. (33.8%) and Candida spp. (14.7%). Of the 70 milk samples, all samples (100%) had AFM1 at condensation lower than the high level specified in European Union (EU) regulations, i.e., 50 ng/L.  The AFM1 contamination levels ranged from 1.15 to 48.50 ng/L with the average 13.26 ± 4.87 ng/L. Conclusions: Contamination of milk with mycotoxins, especially AFM1, can be a potential risk for the consumer, so raw sheep's milk should be checked for these toxins.
       
 
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