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Journal of Fasting and Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2345-2587
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Probiotic Consumption, Fatigue, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type
           2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction: Probiotics have recently been included in nutritional recommendations for the achievement of glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Probiotic foods are not standardized, and their effectiveness can vary greatly between different products and species. Therefore, the results of this study may not be generalized to all probiotics consumed. This study was conducted to determine the consumption of probiotics by type 2 diabetes patients and the relationship between probiotic consumption and their fatigue levels and glycemic control. Methods: This study was carried out in a university hospital located in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Two hundred thirty-five diabetic patients were included in the cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a patient information form, a self-report probiotic consumption information form, and the Visual Analog Scale for Fatigue. Results: It was determined that the majority of the patients (83.4%) consumed probiotic products, and the most frequently consumed probiotic products by them were yogurt (80%), ayran (67.7%), and pickles (57.9%). While the fatigue levels of the patients who were consuming probiotics and those who were not consuming probiotics were similar (p>0.05), the energy levels of the patients who were consuming probiotics were higher than those who were not (p<0.05). The fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels of the patients taking probiotics were low, but this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Considering the benefits of probiotics for patients with diabetes, it is recommended to provide information about probiotics and support the consumption of probiotics in line with expert recommendations.
  • Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Microbial, Chemical, and Organoleptic
           Characteristics of Ostrich Meat during Refrigeration

    • Abstract: Nowadays, there is a growing need to explore methods for increasing the shelf life of food. In the food industry, severe food security industry al techniques are employed, including canning, pasteurization, smoking, salting, freezing, heating, vacuum sealing, the use of chemical materials, and irradiation.This study focuses on the effects of gamma irradiation on changes in the chemical, biological, and organoleptic properties of ostrich meat. fifteen male ostriches, aged between 10 and 14 months, underwent evaluation. Initially, the ostriches were slaughtered, and their meat) from thigh(was subjected to different irradiation doses (0,2,4,6 KGY) at intervals of0,5,10, and 15 days. The various meat groups were then stored at 4°C.In this study, ostrich meat samples were divided into two groups: one group received no irradiation (0 kg) and the other received irradiation at doses of2,4, and 6 kg. These samples were then stored in a refrigerator for15 days, and microbial, chemical, and organoleptic tests were conducted. The results of our investigation indicate that the 4 kg irradiation dose effectively reduced the counts of mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, and psychrophilic bacteria, while also eliminating Salmonella spp and E. coli spp. Additionally, it led to a reduction in Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN) and prevented adverse organoleptic changes,such as alterations in odor and color,over the 15-day refrigerated storage period.The irradiated groups also demonstrated a remarkable reduction and elimination of Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli spp,and Salmonella spp bacteria during refrigerated storage, with significant differences from the control group. Additionally, Total Volatile Nitrogen (TVN) in the control group exhibited a significant increase onthe15th day compared to the other groups. To sum up, irradiation proves to be a viable method for preserving various foods, especially meats like ostrich, and is highly recommended to safeguard against food spoilage and contamination.
  • Nanocomposite Film Based On Soy Protein Isolate-Montmorillonite Nanoclay
           Containing Emulsion and Nanoemulsion of Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil
           for the Preservation of Chilled Chicken Burgers

    • Abstract: Introduction: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of nanocomposite film based on soy protein isolate-montmorillonite nanoclay (SPI-MMT) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil emulsion (ZEO) and nanoemulsion (ZNE) on the quality of chilled chicken burgers. Method: Nanoemulsion, nanocomposite film and chicken burger were prepared according to the instructions. The hamburgers were divided into 6 different groups with 4 replicates. The experimental groups were Control, SPI-MMT, SPI-MMT + 1% ZEO, SPI-MMT + 2% ZEO, SPI-MMT + 1% ZNE, and SPI-MMT + 2% ZNE; and analyzed for microbial, physicochemical, and sensory parameters during 16 days of storage at refrigerator (days include 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16). Result: The treated groups including SPI-MMT + 1% ZEO, SPI-MMT + 2% ZEO, SPI-MMT + 1% ZNE, and SPI-MMT + 2% ZNE showed the lower mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae count than the control and SPI-MMT groups during storage. The treatments also reduced the increasing rate of total volatile nitrogen, lipid oxidation, pH, and cooking loss during storage. The SPI-MMT + 2% ZNE treatment was the best treatment to reduce the microbial population, retard physicochemical and sensory changes, and increase the shelf-life of chicken burgers. Conclusion: The nanocomposite film based on soy protein isolate-montmorillonite nanoclay containing Z. multiflora essential oil emulsion and nanoemulsion can improve the microbiological and physicochemical quality and is recommended for the preservation of chicken burgers during chilled storage.
  • Improvement of the Immune System with Two Types of Emergency Rations in
           the Murine Animal Model

    • Abstract: Introduction: The efficient rescue and preservation of refugees and disaster victims hinge on the swift delivery of cost-effective, nutritionally sound food options. It is imperative to utilize food items enriched with vital nutrients and immune system fortifiers to bolster and sustain proper immune system functionality. This study seeks to delve into the immunomodulatory impacts of two distinct types of emergency rations on the immune system, utilizing a murine animal model. Methods: For this research, we handpicked four sets of ten Balb/c strain mice, each aged between 4 to 6 weeks and weighing in the range of 17.8 to 18.9 grams. Two of these groups were subjected to treatment diets designated as 1 and 2, while the other two groups were provided with control diets numbered 1 and 2. These diets were administered at a rate of 3 to 4 grams per day over a span of 8 weeks. Following the 8-week dietary intervention, blood samples were collected to evaluate the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IgG1, and IgG2. Results: The outcomes revealed that the treatment groups exhibited notably higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) when compared to their control counterparts. Additionally, the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was consistently elevated within the treatment groups as opposed to the control groups. These findings strongly support an augmentation in the Th1/Th2 cell ratio and a substantial enhancement in cellular immune responses within the treatment group. Moreover, within the treatment group, there was an observable increase in IgG2 antibodies and a corresponding decrease in IgG1 antibodies in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, the use of emergency rations in mice has led to an increase in cellular immune responses in both treatment groups.
  • A Comparison of the Effects Continuous and Interval Exercises on
           Fibrillin-1 and Asprosin in Obese Male Rats

    • Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is still a health problem for humanity. Although the favorable role of exercise on weight loss has been reported. But the effect of the type of exercise is still unclear. Present study compared the effects of continuous exercise (CE) and interval exercise (IE) on fibrillin-1 and asprosin in obese male rats. Methods: Forty- eight male rats divided into six groups including 1) obese IE, 2) obese CE, 3) healthy IE, 4) healthy CE, 5) obese control and 6) healthy control. Groups 1- 4 performed exercises for 8 weeks and 72 hours after the last training session the insulin resistance index, fasting glucose, insulin, fibrillin-1 and asprosin measured. Data analysis performed by Two-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests with SPSS software (P≤0.05). Results: There were significant differences in insulin resistance (P=0.001), fibrillin-1 gene expression (P=0.001), fasting glucose (P=0.001), asprosin serum levels (P=0.001), and insulin (P=0.002) levels between obese IE, obese CE, healthy IE, healthy CE, obese control and healthy control groups. Conclusions: Although obesity increased fibrillin-1 and asprosin, but IE and CE decreased fibrillin-1 and asprosin. Thus IE and CE can be used for controlling fibrillin-1 and asprosin levels as well as an intervention method contributing to the reduction of weight and obesity.
  • Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Meat Handlers in Ghazni,

    • Abstract: Introduction: The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of meat handlers in Ghazni city of Afghanistan. Food hygiene plays a vital role in the food safety. Meat is an important part of food, on the other hand, different type of meat consumed all over the world. As well as food hygiene, knowledge, attitude and practice can directly influence the quality and marketing of food. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study to evaluate 30 meat handlers food hygiene in Ghazni city of Afghanistan. Data was collected through a face-to-face questionnaire. Also, respondents were selected randomly and the data was analyzed through IBM SPSS Statistics version 24. Results: The results of the current study showed, the majority of respondents were middle-aged, 26–35 years (43.4%), most of them (83.3%) were married and (43.3%) had primary education. As well as, the majority of the respondents don’t have health certificates and also don’t participate in any food safety related training, respectively (96.7%). In general, most of the respondents have a high level of food safety knowledge and attitude, with a lower score in meat hygiene practices. Conclusions: Lack of the food safety and health training of meat handlers can be a risk for the consumer. Therefore, meat handler health certificates, food hygiene attitudes and practices should be checked by governmental and non-governmental organizations for the health of consumers and better hygienic practices.
  • Safety and Quality of Beef Meat Sausages Produced in the Industrial
           Factory Using the HACCP System

    • Abstract: Introduction: Food safety and hygiene are important principles for food hygiene officials and the majority of large food industries around the world. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the safety and quality of beef meat sausages produced in the local factories using the HACCP and non-HACCP systems. Methods: 120 samples of beef meat sausages from the non-HACCP and HACCP local meat product markets were examined for three months in terms of microbial (total viable count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., coliforms, and mold/yeast) and chemical (total volatile basic nitrogen and pH) properties based on the HACCP standard of meat products. Results: The levels of microbial population and chemical properties of raw materials and beef meat sausages in the HACCP factory samples were significantly lower than those of non-HACCP factory samples (P < 0.05). Moreover, 100% of the examined spices in HACCP factory were found to have microbial populations below the critical limit of plants. 100% of the examined spices in non-HACCP factory was contaminated. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the HACCP principle effectively controls the microbial hazards and chemical property of prepared beef meat sausages.
  • Prevalence of Feeding Intolerance in PICU: A Cross-sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction: Malnutrition, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), occurs when the body does not receive sufficient nutrients or energy to meet growth, maintenance, and functional needs. Severe malnutrition in children increases the risk of death, disease episodes, complications, and prolonged illnesses. Therefore, early nutritional support is crucial in pediatric critical care settings. In cases where oral feeding is not feasible, enteral feeding (EN) becomes necessary to provide adequate energy. However, despite its advantages, feeding intolerance remains a significant challenge. This study aims to determine the prevalence of feeding intolerance among critically ill children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Akbar Pediatric Subspecialty Center's PICU in Mashhad, Iran between March and April 2022. The evaluation focused on nutritional adequacy and feeding intolerance. Results: A total of 72 patients were included in this study with a majority being girls. Approximately 30 percent of patients exhibited severe malnutrition based on their BMI Z-score (-3). Boys were more affected than girls in this regard. Most patients received a combination of EN and parenteral nutrition (PN) to fulfill their energy and protein requirements successfully. In most cases, children consumed over 66% of their energy needs through these methods. Feeding intolerance primarily manifested as vomiting and regurgitation (47%), followed by high gastric residual volume (GRV) (36.1%) and abdominal distention (34.7%). Conclusion: The findings from our study highlight the prevalence of malnutrition within PICU settings along with common complications associated with feeding intolerance such as vomiting and regurgitation. Standardizing a definition for feeding intolerance could prove beneficial for improving research protocols aimed at effectively managing this condition.
  • The Correlation between Serum Selenium Concentration and Clinical Outcomes
           in Critically Ill Paediatric Patients following Major Gastrointestinal
           Surgeries: A Cross-sectional Study

    • Abstract: Abstract Introduction: Acute-phase inflammatory and oxidative response following major gastrointestinal surgeries may lead to critical conditions in pediatric patients. Selenium plays a key role in the antioxidant defense system and anti-inflammatory pathways, which are important in the clinical outcomes of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The present study aimed to assess the possible correlations between serum selenium levels and clinical outcomes in PICU patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgeries.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 66 critically ill pediatric patients who were in the postoperative stage of major gastrointestinal surgeries. Serum selenium concentration was assessed using the atomic absorption method, and the clinical outcomes were collected prospectively.Results: Serum selenium concentration upon PICU admission was 38.9±9.8 ng/ml, and no significant correlation was observed between the serum selenium level and the nutritional status of the patients. Furthermore, no significant associations were denoted between the serum selenium concentration and some clinical outcomes, such as the duration of ventilator dependency, PICU length of stay, and PICU/28-day mortality. However, the statistical analysis of the obtained data showed negative, significant associations between the serum selenium concentration, infection rate, and length of hospital stay (P= 0.01 and P=0.04, respectively).Conclusion: According to the results, serum selenium concentration decreased in the post-gastrointestinal-surgery patients admitted to the PICU upon PICU admission, and the reduction was associated with prolonged hospitalization and a higher infection rate.
  • Effect of Orange Peel Essential Oil as a Natural Preservative on
           Characteristics of Turkey Meat Stored in Refrigerator

    • Abstract: Introduction: The tendency to consume turkey meat and meat products is increasing due to its high nutritional value. But due to its perishability, many researchers are looking for new solutions to increase its storage time and maintain its quality. Thus the purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition of orange peel essential oil (OPEO) and its effect on the microbial, physicochemical and sensory properties of turkey meat during 12 days of storage at refrigerator temperature. Methods: The chemical composition of OPEO was identified using GC/MS device. Turkey meat samples in 3 groups (control, 0.5 and 1%) of OPEO were packed and kept in the refrigerator and at regular intervals (days 0, 3, 6, 9, 12) for microbial tests (total count of aerobic, Pcychrotrophic, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lactic acid, MIC and MBC), chemical (pH, TV-N, TBARS) and sensory (taste, aroma, appearance, texture and overall acceptance) were evaluated. Results: The results of GC/MS showed the presence of effective compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, especially D-limonene (71.47%). The results of microbial tests showed that treatments of turkey meat containing 1% OPEO had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the reduction of the bacteria population compared to the treatment of 0.5% OPEO and control samples. The MIC for Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined as 4 mg/ml and MBC was determined as 8 and 4 mg/ml. Lower values ​​of pH, TV-N and TBARS, the highest sensory scores in terms of taste, aroma, appearance, texture and general acceptability were obtained in turkey meat treatments containing orange peel essence compared to the control group. Conclusions: It can be said that OPEO, due to its antimicrobial properties, can be used as a natural preservative to increase the shelf life and sensory improvement of turkey meat samples during storage at refrigerator temperature.
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