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Herba Polonica
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0018-0599 - ISSN (Online) 2449-8343
Published by Sciendo Homepage  [370 journals]
  • Study of total antioxidant activity of green tea leaves ( L.)

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: There is a high interest in creating medicines, dietary supplements, cosmetics including plant extract with antioxidant activity. For understanding whether plant extract has a maximum level of antioxidant activity it is important to know the total antioxidant activity of raw material.Objective: The main goal of study was to find out the green tea leaves total antioxidant activity.Methods: The antioxidant activity was measured by potentiometric method. Total phenolic, flavonoids, catechins and hydrocinnamic acids derivatives were quantified using Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminium chloride, vanillin and sodium molibdate methods, respectively.Results: The green tea leaves total antioxidant activity was 660.75 mmol-eqv./mres. dry weight. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, which indicated its main role in antioxidant activity.Conclusion: The research showed that the green rea leaves possess a high value of antioxidant activity and it is a good source of phenolic constituents.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • The occurrence of fungi on the commercial dietary supplements based on the
           milk thistle ( (L.) Gaertn.) available on Polish market

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.) is an important medicinal plant, its achenes contain a silymarin, which has a regenerating and stabilizing effect on liver cells. The milk thistle based dietary supplements are among the best-selling plant pharmaceuticals in the US and the UE.Objective: The goal of the experiment was to determine which – if any – fungi contaminated either the whole or ground milk thistle achenes, available on the Polish market.Methods: The mycological analyses were performed on 200 achenes, using deep-freeze blotter method. Ground material was assessed using agar test method. For each sample, 10 Petri dishes were used. The material was applied in five places per one Petri dish, with a micro scoop laboratory spatula. Then, Petri dishes with achenes and ground material were incubated at 20°C under alternating cycles of 12 h NUV light and 12 h darkness. The identification of fungi was performed using stereo microscope and compound microscope, if necessary.Results: The milk thistle achenes were infested with following fungi: Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus spp., Bipolaris sp., Cladosporium spp., Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium spp., Melanospora simplex, Mucor spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Sarocladium strictum, Stemphylium botryosum, Trichothecium roseum, Ulocladium consortiale and Verticillium sp. Among them A. alternata predominated. Whereas, milled milk thistle achenes were occupied by Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium sp., Mortierella spp., Mucor spp., Penicillium spp. and R. stolonifer.Conclusion: Considering the significant fungal contamination of milk thistle achenes-based dietary supplements, it seems reasonable to introduce a system of achene control due to possible microbiological contamination.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Anti-methicillin resistant and growth inhibitory studies of extract and
           fractions of leaves of (Lam.) Kurz ()

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Bryophyllum pinnatum is a plant with diverse ethnomedicinal claims yet to be verified scientifically.Objective: This work was aimed at evaluating the extract and vacuum liquid chromatographic (VLC) fractions of B. pinnatum on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anti-proliferating seed radicle cells of Sorghum bicolor.Methods: The extract and VLC fractions of B. pinatum were screened phytochemically and subsequently tested against MRSA at concentrations of 3.125–100 mg/ml, while the antiproliferative assay at 1–30 and 1–10 mg/ml.Results: The extract recorded zone of inhibition of 7.05 mm was only at 100 mg/ml against L20 MRSA strains. While VLC bulked fractions A(1), C (5–7), D (8–9) and E (10) had no zones of inhibition against the strains, fraction B had zones of inhibitions at all concentrations with the highest ones of 9.7 and 8.5 mm at 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively, against MRSA sample (L20). The MIC of the active fraction B was observed at 3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/ml for all samples used. At 96 h of seed incubation, 56 mm radicle length was recorded by the control seeds was reduced to 1.5 mm (97%) and 0.4 mm (99%) when treated with 20 and 30 mg/ml of the extract. The VLC sub-fraction B at 10 mg/ml showed more inhibitory effects on the germinating radicles as it recorded 100% reduction when compared to the control at 96 h against 80 and 70% recorded by fractions ‘A’ and ‘C’, respectively.Conclusion: The results obtained showed an evidence of susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and growth inhibitory potentials of B. pinnatum, particularly the active VLC fraction “B”. Thus, further studies are required to support these findings.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Evaluation of antioxidant activity of extracts from

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Leucosidea sericea finds applications in the treatment of herpes and HIV.Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and determine the total flavonoid contents (TFCs) and total phenolic contents (TPCs) of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol crude extracts obtained from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea.Methods: Maceration and hot solvent extraction methods were used to obtain various crude extracts. DPPH and ferric reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. Colorimetric aluminium chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to determine the TFCs and TPCs, respectively.Results: The methanol leaf extract showed highest radical scavenging activity of 82.00±0.93% at a concentration of 3000 µg/ml followed by ethyl acetate leaf extract and methanol stem-bark extract with 79.40±5.21 and 75.16±1.15%, respectively. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest ferric reducing power of 0.539±0.004 at 700 nm at a concentration of 100 µg/ml followed by hexane leaf extract and hexane stem-bark extract with 0.474±0.014 and 0.437±0.013 at 700 nm, respectively. Ethyl acetate stem-bark extract showed highest TFCs of 655.6±0.1111 mg QE/g of DW of the extract followed by acetone stem-bark extract with 450.0±0.00711 mg QE/g of DW of the extract. Acetone stem-bark extract showed highest TPCs of 891.9±0.657 mg TAE/g of the DW of extract followed by methanol stem-bark extract with 878.3±0.029 mg TAE/g of DW of the extract.Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from leaves and stem-bark of L. sericea was evaluated. L. sericea could be a source of potent antioxidants.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Natural aldose reductase inhibitors for treatment and prevention of
           diabetic cataract: A review

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol responsible for the development of diabetic complications like cataracts. Medicinal plants contain several phytocompounds that can inhibit this enzyme.Objective: The purpose of this review is to cite medicinal plants that have been tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase and consequently prevent cataracts and classify the major isolated compounds that have this activity.Methods: We reviewed 154 articles published between 1954 and 2020 in English via three databases: ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and PubMed. We have classified the plants that showed a significant anti-cataract effect, in the form of a list including the scientific and family names of each plant. Also, we have cited the IC50 values and the active constituents of each plant that showed inhibitory activity towards AR.Results: We have described 38 herbs belonging to 29 families. Besides, 47 isolated compounds obtained from the cited herbs have shown an AR inhibitory effect: luteolin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-epi-quinic acid, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’-O-β-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, andrographolide, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-D-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one, E-4-(60-hydroxyhex-30-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate, delphinidin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside-3’,5’-di-O-β-glucopyranoside, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol, trans-anethole, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-(6’-O-galloyl)-glucoside, β-glucogallin, puerariafuran, quercetin, gallic acid 4-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, protocatechuic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid.Conclusion: natural therapy becomes an interesting alternative in the treatment and prevention of cataract by using medicinal plants rich in active compounds considered as AR inhibitors.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Kinetic study on peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation of
           black cherry tomatoes ( cv. OG) during blanching

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionBlanching is a necessary treatment stage in processing of tomato products to inactivate enzymes. However, it may cause the degradation of nutrients.ObjectiveIn this study, the kinetics of thermal peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation in black cherry tomatoes (cv. OG) were determined to predict the quality changes during the blanching.MethodsTomatoes were blanched at five levels of temperature (75–95oC) for five time periods (30–150 s).ResultsIt was found that as the blanching temperature increased and the blanching time is prolonged, more peroxidase was inactivated and the greater number of anthocyanins was lost. The thermal peroxidase inactivation and anthocyanin degradation showed an apparent first-order reaction with the activation energy of 129.96 kJ/mol and 65.99 kJ/mol, respectively. Peroxidase and anthocyanin in black cherry tomatoes were found to be heat-sensitive.ConclusionThese kinetic parameters were necessary to select and design appropriate blanching conditions for black cherry tomatoes on larger scale processing.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Selection of duplicates of flax accessions – an important task in the
           management of collection of genetic resources of L.

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionThe Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants National Research Institute (IWNiRZ) – formerly Institute of Natural Fibres, together with Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute (IHAR) in Radzików carry out tasks related to the protection of genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Genetic resources of flax are stored as seeds in IHAR refrigeration chambers. The research material consisted of passport data of genetic resources of flax.ObjectiveThe aim of the presenting the identification of duplicates of accessions of flax in documentation of the National Center of Plant Genetic Resources (IHAR). This will facilitate the management of the collection of flax genetic resources. Removal of duplicate accessions from the collection of flax genetic resources will save storage space in long-term chambers, savings in storage costs, savings in working hours.MethodsThe working methods were studying the passport database and the institute’s gene bank documentation.ResultsIn the cooling chambers of the seed bank at KCRZG at IHAR, unintentional duplicates are stored: 29 flax accessions with the same accessions number and 19 flax accessions with two different accession numbers.ConclusionsThe presentation in the article of two types of duplicates of flax accessions is very helpful in managing the collection of genetic resources of flax. Reducing the number of genotypes in the flax collection will facilitate the faster collection of all valorization data, which will be very helpful for users of the collection of genetic resources of flax.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • In memoriam of Professor Waldemar Buchwald (1962–2020) on the first
           anniversary of his passing

    • PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Occurrence of pathogenic fungi on commercially available medicinal plants
           and packaged seeds

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionPathogenic fungi decrease the quality of commercially available medicinal plants and packaged seeds. Some of fungal pathogens can produce mycotoxins harmful to human health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the health status of commercially available medicinal plants and check if packaged seeds of these plants are free from pathogenic fungi.MethodsAn experiment was conducted on potted plants of lemon balm, peppermint and sweet basil, commercially available and intended for direct use by consumers. For microbiological analyses, 100 stems and leaves of each species were randomly taken. Furthermore, the health of 100 seeds of each species was examined using agar plate method.ResultsTen species and genera of pathogenic fungi were isolated from shoots, leaves and seeds of investigated plants. Some of them are toxin-forming species. Lemon balm was the most infected species.ConclusionBearing in mind the health of consumers, more attention should be paid to the microbiological purity of commercially available medicinal plants and packaged seeds.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Preliminary studies of Volten VR4 herb extracts on blood glucose levels in
           human type-2 diabetes mellitus and its mineral element analysis

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionVolten VR4® capsules containing herb extract of Kaempferia parviflora has been claimed to reduce blood glucose in patients with diabetes.ObjectivesThis preliminary study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Volten VR4® on healthy individuals and type-2 diabetes mellitus volunteers. The extracts of 400 mg capsules of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) were used to measure the blood glucose level of 2-hour postprandial.MethodsThe healthy group consists of 15 young adults aged 20-30 with no history of serious diseases, while the diabetic group includes 12 individuals aged 35-75 diagnosed with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Data were validated through the Willcoxon and Friedman test statistics and error distribution. The investigation was continued to trace the capsules contents of elements using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) techniques.ResultsIt has been shown that KP reducing blood sugar levels has been associated with flavonoids and methoxyflavones components. The result specifically showed that consuming VR4® capsules can significantly reduce blood glucose, either at the state of fasting or postprandially. In the study the content of mineral and heavy metal elements in VR4® capsules has been evaluated.ConclusionVolten VR4® Kaempferia parviflora extract is safe to be consumed at a single dose of 400 mg. The study also has shown that the participants are free from adverse reactions and hypoglycaemia.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • HPLC-DAD phenolics screening and investigation of haemostatic,
           antidiabetic, antioxidant and photoprotective properties of Boiss. & Reut.

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionTraditional medicine has an important place in human history and this since antiquity. Indeed, during Egyptian and Chinese civilization era, many detailed manuscripts, describing the therapeutic effect of plants, were found which suggest that folk medicine is the basis of the actual medicine.ObjectiveTo investigate the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the n-butanol (n-BuOH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of the aerial part of Centaurea tougourensis.MethodsThe phytochemical evaluation was done based on HPLC-DAD approach. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), while the hemostatic effect was performed using plasma recalcification time (PRT) method. The antidiabetic capacity was investigated by alpha-amylase inhibition assay and the photoprotective test was evaluated by the measurement of sun protection factor (SPF).Results13 phenolic compounds were identified in both extracts of C. tougourensis. These extracts showed antioxidant, haemostatic, antidiabetic and photoprotective properties with a dose-dependent manner. Amounts of n-BuOH activities were found higher, with a respective IC50 value of 0.72±0.07 μg/ml in DPPH assay, an A0.50 value lower than 3.125 μg/ml in CUPRAC assay besides a shortening rate percentage of coagulation (86.71%) in haemostatic assay, a moderate inhibition effect on alpha amylase activity with an IC50 value of (711.5±0.03 μg/ml) and a maximum sun protection factor of (56.035). These results were mostly found highly significant (p<0.001) when compared to respective standards.ConclusionThis study demonstrated some pharmacological effects of C. tougourensis which suggests that our plant could be a good candidate to treat some illnesses related to oxidative stress, bleeding or skin cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Phytochemical screening and galactagogic attributes of (Forssk.) Chiov.
           leaf extract in lactating mice ()

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionPergularia daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. [PD] is used as a galactagogue by various tribes in Purulia district, India, lacks a scientific basis.ObjectivesThe purpose of the study was to determine whether administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. daemia can increase milk production in lactating mice and encourages development in suckling pups.Methods30 lactating mice (n=6 per group) with a minimum of 5 pups each were treated with the aqueous PD extract at 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight while the control group was administered with only distilled water. The mice were daily fed with aqueous leaf extract via gavage, which started at day 3 and continued to day 15 post-partum and milk secretion was assessed by the weight-suckle-weight method. The qualitative estimation, UV-vis analysis and GC-MS study of the leaf extract was also done for the presence of phytoconstituents.ResultsAdministration of aqueous leaf extract led to a considerable increase in milk production (28.1%) and the pups gained weight substantially (p<0.05) when compared to control. Milk production was enhanced in mice treated with 150 mg/kg b.wt. of leaf extract compared to other doses (p<0.05). The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous leaf extract of P. daemia revealed 20 major peaks, some with small retention time and also revealing presence of several phyto-estrogenic compounds.ConclusionThe present study effectively demonstrated that aqueous leaf extract of PD enhanced milk production in mice and might be used as an alternative strategy for increasing milk production and can be extrapolated to farm animals and human beings.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Tentative qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in
           leaf extract from Linn. plant growing in Uganda

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionCarica papaya L. belongs to Caricaceae family. It is an evergreen tree or shrub with usually unbranched trunk. Previous studies on the methanolic leaf extract of this plant proved the antibacterial, cytotoxic, anticancer and antioxidant effects indicative of promising therapeutic potentials.MethodsChromatographic and spectroscopic techniques along with high performance liquid chromatography quantitative analysis were performed to isolate, tentatively identify and quantify polyphenolic compounds in MeOH extract of C. papaya leaves. UHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and UHPLC-DAD methods were adopted for qualitative and quantitative analysis respectively. In the case of polyphenol separation, some reference substances were isolated by preparative HPLC.ResultsSix polyphenols were isolated and quantified from C. papaya leaf extract, including three phenolic acids: derivatives of caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and three flavonoids: quercetin dirhamnosylhexoside, kaempferol dirhamnosyl-hexoside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside. Among them quercetin dirhamnosyl-hexoside was significantly higher (1.9 mg/g extract) than other identified compounds.ConclusionThe results of present study provide a new data on polyphenols composition of C. papaya plant derived from Uganda and promote research on its possible standardization and use as a dietary supplement and/or herbal medicine.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cytotoxic roles of apigenin and kaempferol on staurosporine-treated
           mesenchymal stem cells in an culture

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroductionFlavonoids are widely distributed in the wild. They constitute a large group of compounds that have a beneficial effect on the human body. Apigenin and kaempferol, which belong to the flavone subgroup, have, inter alia, an antitumor effect. The influence of these compounds on the survival of stem cells in a toxic environment has not yet been studied.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected concentrations of apigenin and kaempferol on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the presence of a cell-death inducer – staurosporine.MethodsMesenchymal stem cells that were obtained from the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cords were used for the research. In the first stage, the MSC were treated with apigenin at concentrations of 1.2, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µM/ml and kaempferol at concentrations of 1.2, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µM/ml. In the next stage, the effect of increased concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 µM/ml of staurosporine on MSC was examined. The key stage of the experiment was investigating the interaction between the selected concentrations of apigenin (12.5 and 50 µM/ml) and kaempferol (12.5 and µM/ml) on MSC in the presence of staurosporine at a concentration of 1 µM/ml, which had the highest toxicity.ResultsBoth apigenin and kaempferol significantly increased the cytotoxic features of staurosporine on the MSC culture.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Probiotics in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

    • Abstract: SummaryIncreasing knowledge of the gut microbiota and its interference in human homeostasis in recent years has contributed to a better understanding of number of different interactions occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the microbiota is detrimental to health and contributes to the development of numerous diseases and may also be an accelerator of pathophysiological processes such as atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death worldwide, so the development of new methods to support the treatment and prevention of these diseases becoms one of the priorities of modern medicine. Probiotics may constitute an important element of support in the treatment and prevention of CVD (cardiovascular diseases). A number of papers support such a statement, however, larger clinical trials are needed. Through a number of mechanisms including mitigating inflammation, sealing the intestinal epithelium, and affecting metabolism, probiotics may have a beneficial effect on general health and slow down the pathogenesis of many diseases, including those affecting the cardiovascular system. This article contains a review of current discoveries on the role of probiotics in the prevention and support of CVD treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Feb 2022 00:00:00 GMT
  • Lack of salidroside impact on selected cytochromes encoding genes
           transcription in the liver of ethanol induced rats

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: The molecular basis of in vivo metabolism of selected representatives of phenylethanoids in the presence of ethanol has not been fully elucidated.Objective: The aim was to estimate a salidroside (Sal) metabolism in the liver tissue in rats with induced alcohol tolerance by assessing changes in the transcription of genes encoding cytochromes: CYP1A2, 2D2, 3A1, 2C23.Methods: cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from rat liver samples. mRNA level changes were evaluated using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) technique.Results: Ethanol caused a significant induction of the CYP1A2 and CYP2C23 genes transcription, and a decrease in the CYP3A1 mRNA level, predominantly without statistical significance. A statistically significant increase of the CYP1A2 mRNA level was observed in the group receiving only Sal (4.5 mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) (p<0.01).Conclusions: There was no unequivocal effect of salidroside on the transcription of investigated cytochrome genes in the liver of rats with induced alcohol tolerance.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Cytoprotective roles of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on
           staurosporine-treated mesenchymal stem cells in culture

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: There are many scientific reports on the beneficial effects of epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol on the human body, e.g. antioxidant properties, a protective effect on the circulatory system and reduction of inflammation.Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of these substances on the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the presence of the pro-apoptotic factor staurosporine.Methods: Cell viability WST-1 colorimetric assay.Results: It was confirmed that both 25 µM/ml and 50 µM/ml of epigallocatechin and 50 µM/ml of resveratrol statistically significantly increased the MSC survival rate.Conclusion: An excess supply of epigallocatechin gallate (50 µM/ml and higher) has a cytotoxic effect on MSC, which may have a negative impact on the body’s auto-regenerative capacity. Under toxic and stressful conditions, resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate perform cytoprotective functions, thereby reducing the negative impact of toxic environmental conditions on the mesenchymal stem cells.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Pilot study of dietary supplement consumption by kindergarten and
           elementary school children

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: The use of dietary supplements has been increasing globally, especially among children. A lot of parents are influenced by advertising. In addition, in Poland a trend to self-medication has been observed. Parents often do not distinguish dietary supplements, medicinal products and non-prescription drugs. These are the most common reasons for the increase in sales of dietary supplements in Poland. Until a few years ago, many products containing vitamins and minerals intended for children were sold as medicines. Today, a product with the same formulation is sold as a dietary supplement. However, a few studies have been conducted to assess the use of dietary supplements among Polish children.Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse the use of dietary supplements provided by parents and the study of the awareness of the risks associated with supplements intake among preschool and elementary school students.Methods: The study was conducted by questionnaire method among 316 parents/legal guardians of children attending elementary schools and preschools in three provinces.Results: The questionnaire was completed by 88.3% mothers and 11.7% fathers. The age of the respondents was as follows: 64.5% aged 31–40, 18.3% aged 41–45, 9.5% aged 26–30, 7.2% above 46 years and only 0.3% younger than 25. About 80% of parents administered their children with dietary supplements in specific situations. Vitamin and mineral supplements were predominant. A statistical analysis showed the effect of the education level as well as having many children on the administration of dietary supplements.Conclusion: The questionnaire shows that the vast majority of parents/legal guardians administer their children with dietary supplements. There is a need to educate parents/legal guardians about the use of supplements and the risks involved.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Phytochemical characterization of leaves

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Moringa oleifera (moringa) is a fast-growing tree from north India and Himalayan foothills considered to be one of the most nutritious species. Especially it’s leaves contain proteins in a high concentration, all essential amino acids, nutrients like calcium, iron, potassium and cooper, vitamin A, E and group B, and also antioxidants and polyphenols. Many studies have demonstrated the medicinal properties of moringa leaves consumption thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, prevention of diabetes or antitumor and anticancer properties. The amount and number of essential nutrients and phytochemical constituents may vary depending on the plant tissue and age and especially on the climatic and edaphological conditions.Methods: We pointed to demonstrate moringa plants grown on proper conditions display a better production of its desired compounds. In this work, the mineral, amino acids, antioxidant activity and various bioactive compounds were analysed in moringa leaves extract from plants grown on Tenerife Island under organic production and similar climatic and edaphological conditions as the place of origin.Results: Our results revealed a high concentration of several nutrients as calcium, potassium and iron, as comparison to other moringa plants; β-carotene (pro-vitamin A), ascorbate (vitamin C) and glutathione, whose function is mainly antioxidant; chlorogenic acid with anticancer function; quercetin with antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic functions, among others; glucomoringin-isothiocyanate with anti-micro-biological and neuroprotective function.Conclusion: The results obtained in this study placed on Tenerife Island as one of the best suitable places for moringa good quality production and highlight the potential use of moringa novel food for humans and as a biostimulant for plants.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
  • Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee ( L.
           Linden) bee pollen

    • Abstract: SummaryIntroduction: Coffee bee pollen contains some precious bioactive compounds, especially phenolic compounds. This material is easily found in many regions in Vietnam and is quite useful for human health.Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of coffee (Coffea robusta L. Linden) bee pollen with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE).Methods: TPC and AC of extract of coffee (C. robusta) bee pollen were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In addition, micromorphology of sample was observed using scanning electron micrographs (SEM).Results: The findings showed that all factors strongly affected the efficiency of the extraction process. The best extraction conditions obtained were ethanol concentration of 60% (v/v), solid to solvent ratio of 1/30 (w/v), extraction time of 7 min, and a microwave power of 314 W.Conclusion: The highest TPC and AC obtained were 13.73 mg GAE/g DW and 10.08 µmol TE/g DW with aqueous ethanol as the solvent at the optimal extraction condition. In addition, the microstructures of the material changed insignificantly under microwave irradiation.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Nov 2021 00:00:00 GMT
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