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Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.535
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7930 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7949
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Hydrophilic extract of Pistacia vera pericarp protects against
           phenylhydrazine–induced hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia

    • Abstract: Objective: Pistacia vera is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-anemia and hepatoprotective effects of Pistacia vera pericarp extract (PVPE) in a rat model of phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemia. Materials and Methods: PVPE was prepared using the maceration method. The extract was administered at doses of 20, 80, and 160 mg/kg for 28 days to normal and PHZ-treated rats. The effects of PVPE were evaluated in terms of changes in biochemical, histological, hematological, and molecular biomarkers in the liver and blood. Results: Administration of PVPE to the anemic animals significantly restored these deleterious effects on hematological parameters compared to the anemic group. Kupffer cell activation was seen in the liver tissue of the anemic rats. Administration of PVPE mitigated these deleterious effects. Conclusion: PVPE has potent antioxidant activity and may represent a promising treatment for anemia and liver protection in clinical settings.
       
  • Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extract as an adjunct to valsartan in
           patients with mild chronic kidney disease: A double-blind randomized
           controlled clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract (HS) as an adjunct to valsartan in the treatment of high blood pressure in patients with mild chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted in Gorgan, Iran. Seventy-two participants with CKD and high blood pressure were randomly assigned to either the HS group, receiving a 350 mg pill every 12 hr for 90 days along with 40 mg of valsartan every 12 hr, or the control group (40 mg valsartan + 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide). The primary objective was to assess the improvement of hypertension, while secondary objectives included the evaluation of proteinuria, albuminuria, kidney function, lipid profile, and electrolyte levels. Molecular docking analysis was performed to examine the mechanisms of action of the isolated components of HS. Results: Out of 80 initial participants, 72 were included in the analysis. Both groups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure (p<0.001). The HS group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in lipid profile (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding the reduction of renal markers. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the compounds present in HS, particularly its anthocyanins and flavonoids, exhibited greater angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential than hydrochlorothiazide in both domains. Moreover, the compounds met the criteria for drug likeness and Lipinski rules. Conclusion: Adjunctive therapy with HS showed promising results in reducing hypertension and improving lipid profile in patients with CKD.
       
  • Experimental and clinical studies on pharmacological actions of the genus
           Achillea: A comprehensive and updated review

    • Abstract: Objective: Species of the genus Achillea (from the family Compositae or Asteraceae) are widely used for their numerous pharmacological properties. The present paper reviews pharmacological actions and their possible underlying molecular mechanisms reported for various species of Achillea. Materials and Methods: Various databases including PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus were used. Results: Immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects were shown for these plants. In addition, it was shown that these plants pose wound-healing properties and antimicrobial effects on various bacteria as well as antitumor effects on different cell lines. Achillea species showed anti-arrhythmic, anti-thrombotic, vasorelaxant, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective and gastroprotective effects. In addition, the plants showed different endocrine effects such as anti-diabetic, estrogenic and anti-spermatogenic properties. Neurological effects of the plants also included anti-nociceptive and anti-anxiety actions. Clinical studies also indicated therapeutic effect of A. millefolium on multiple sclerosis, chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in cancer patients, and dysmenorrhea but did not affect atopic dermatitis. Conclusion: Achillea species could be of therapeutic potential for treating of a wide range of diseases but further investigations are needed regarding the other properties of Achillea plants.
       
  • The comparison of the effects of nano-silymarin and silymarin on high-fat
           diet-induced fatty liver of adult male rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Considering the high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its complications, this study aims to determine and compare the effect of nano-silymarin and silymarin on non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into 5 groups: Control, high-fat diet, high-fat diet and atorvastatin, high-fat diet and silymarin, and high-fat diet and nano-silymarin. After 12 weeks, blood samples were taken to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, ALT and AST. The animals were killed and the liver tissue was removed to examine the histopathological changes. Results: Feeding with a high-fat diet caused a significant increase in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C in serum of rats compared to the control. Nano-silymarin and silymarin could significantly reduce serum triglyceride compared to negative group but the reduction of cholesterol, LDL-C, AST and ALT by nano-silymarin was not significant as compared to silymarin. The liver histology evaluation mainly showed that in the group receiving nano-silymarin, a significant decrease in the percentage of fat vacuoles and degree of steatosis was observed compared to the negative group. In the positive group, the percentage of fat vacuoles and the degree of steatosis showed a significant decrease compared to the negative group. Group receiving atorvastatin showed a greater protective effect than silymarin and nano-silymarin. Conclusion: The use of nano-silymarin similar to silymarin in rats treated with a high-fat diet led to a decrease in the percentage of fat vacuoles and the degree of hepatic steatosis mainly and can be used to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
       
  • Effect of Nigella sativa on dexamethasone-induced testicular toxicity in
           mice

    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of Nigella sativa essential oil on testicular toxicity in mice induced by dexamethasone. Materials and Methods: Forty NMRI mice were randomly divided into four groups. The first group (Sham) received 1 ml per day of normal saline by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection for 7 days. The second group (Control) received (i.p) injection of 5 mg/kg dexamethasone for 7 days. The third group (Dexa+ N.S 5 mg/kg) received dexamethasone (5 mg/kg) and gavaged 5 mg/kg N. sativa essential oil for 7 days. The fourth group (N.S 5 mg/kg) for 7 days was gavaged 5 mg/kg N. sativa. Histopathology of testis, spermatogenesis, and sperm fertility rate were assessed. Results: The results of histopathology assessments showed that in the third group, all histopathology criteria were decreased compared to the second group. The number of seminiferous tubules that had abnormal spermatogenesis in Johnsen’s score was slightly decreased in the third group compared to the second group. Furthermore, in the third group, embryo formation criteria were increased. Conclusion: The data of this research demonstrate that N. sativa improves spermatogenesis defects and sperm fertility in mice treated with dexamethasone.
       
  • Auraptene inhibits migration, invasion and metastatic behavior of human
           malignant glioblastoma cells: An in vitro and in silico study

    • Abstract: Objective: The present work examined the anti-metastatic effects of auraptene and their underlying mechanisms of action in U87 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. Materials and Methods: To test the hypothesis, cell culture, Matrigel invasion assay, scratch wound healing assay, gelatin zymography assay, qRT-PCR, and western blot analysis were conducted. Results: At sublethal concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µg/ml, auraptene exhibited a significant reduction in cell invasion and migration of U87 cells, as assessed using scratch wound healing and Transwell tests, respectively. The qRT-PCR and zymography experiments demonstrated a significant decrease in both mRNA expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 following auraptene treatment. Western blot analysis also showed that the total protein level of MMP-2 as well as phosphorylation of crucial metastasis-related proteins, including p-JNK and p-mTOR, decreased in auraptene-treated cells. The molecular docking studies consistently demonstrated that auraptene exhibits a significant affinity towards MMP-2/-9, the ATP binding site of mTOR and JNK1/2/3. Conclusion: Auraptene effectively inhibited the migration and invasion of GBM cells. This inhibitory effect was induced by modulating specific mechanisms, including suppressing MMPs, JNK, and mTOR activities. Auraptene might serve as a potential anti-metastatic agent against malignant GBM.
       
  • Syzygium malaccense leaves methanol extract modulate some biochemical and
           inflammatory markers and prostate histology of testosterone-estradiol
           valerate induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The effect of Syzygium malaccense methanol leaf extract (SMLE) on some parameters of testosterone-estradiol valerate induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was assayed. Materials and Methods: Thirty male albino rats were used and they were grouped as: Control: received 1 mL/kg olive oil (oral and subcutaneous); BPH: received subcutaneously 9 mg/kg dihydrotestosterone (DHT)+0.9 mg/kg estradiol valerate (ESV) and orally 1 ml/kg olive oil; finasteride: received 9 mg/kg of DHT+0.9 mg/kg ESV (subcutaneously) and 5 mg/kg finasteride (orally) and test groups 1 and 2: received 9 mg/kg of DHT+0.9 mg/kg ESV (subcutaneously) and 200 and 400 mg/kg SMLE (orally). The duration of the treatment was 28 days. Results: The BPH group had increased prostatic total proteins, oxidative stress, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostate weights, serum concentrations of prostate specific antigen, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and C-reactive protein, dyslipidaemia, altered prostate histology and hormonal levels but had no significant change (p>0.05) in haematological indices relative to the control. Finasteride or S. malaccense modulated most of these parameters as corroborated by prostate histology. Acute toxicity study indicated the non-toxicity of SMLE. SMLE showed strong in vitro antioxidant activity which corroborated its in vivo antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The study showed that S. malaccense could be useful in the management of BPH.
       
  • Aloe vera supplementation improves cardiovascular risk factors in
           hemodialysis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
           trial

    • Abstract: Objective: This study assessed the effects of Aloe vera supplementation on serum inflammatory factors, blood sugar and lipid profiles in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: Totally, 50 hemodialysis patients were allocated randomly to either Aloe vera or placebo groups. The Aloe vera group received 2 Aloe vera capsules daily for 8 weeks (500 mg/day). Serum C-reactive protein (hs- CRP), Fasting blood glucose (FBS), and lipid profiles levels were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the eighth week. Results: Aloe vera supplementation for 8 weeks was associated with a significant reduction of serum hs- CRP (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.01), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (p=0.02) leves and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) (p=0.002) concentration in the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Aloe vera supplementation is beneficial in improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis patients.
       
  • Apigenin attenuates serum concentrations of TNF-a, interleukin 1b and
           interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The use of flavonoids is increasing due to their cost-effectiveness and less adverse reaction. Therefore, the effect of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation was investigated by measuring IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF-a, of serum in the male rats. Materials and Methods: Ninety male wistar rats were divided in 6 groups included; control, sham, dexamethasone 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), and apigenin (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg, i.p). Thirty minutes after the administration of solvent or apigenin, LPS (30 μg/kg, i.p) was injected. At time intervals of 4, 12 and 24 hr after injection, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared to the control, apigenin (5 mg/kg) decreased the level of TNF-a, and IL-1b in a period of 24 hr (p<0.05). The concentration of IL-6 decreased significantly by apigenin (15 mg/kg) 24 hr after injection (p<0.05). Apigenin (30 mg/kg) decreased the level of TNF-a, at all three time points (4 hr; p<0.05, 12 hr; p<0.01, and 24 hr; p<0.01), and the level of IL-1b (p<0.01), 24 hr and the level of IL-6 at 4 hr (p<0.05), and 24 hr (p<0.01) after LPS injection. Conclusion: Apigenin can suppress serum inflammatory cytokines, similar to dexamethasone.
       
  • Cardiovascular and renal oxidative stress-mediated toxicities associated
           with bisphenol-A exposures are mitigated by Curcuma longa in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Curcuma longa Rhizome (CLR), due to its potent antioxidant phytochemical constituents, was investigated for its effects on bisphenol A (BPA)-induced cardiovascular and renal damage. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats were randomly selected, and grouped as control, BPA (100 mg/ kg), BPA and CLR 100 mg/kg, BPA and CLR 200 mg/kg, CLR 100 mg/kg, and CLR 200 mg/kg for 21 days. Oxidative stress indices, antioxidant status, blood pressure parameters, genotoxicity, and immunohistochemistry were determined. Results: Rats exposed to the toxic effects of BPA had heightened blood pressure, lowered frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes compared with rats treated with CLR. Moreover, administration of CLR significantly (p<0.05) lowered malondialdehyde content and reduced the serum myeloperoxidase activity. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased expressions of cardiac troponin and Caspase 3 in the BPA group compared with the CLR-treated groups. Conclusion: C. longa ameliorated cardiotoxic and nephrotoxic actions of bisphenol-A via mitigation of oxidative stress, hypertension, and genotoxicity.
       
  • Naringenin modifies T-helper responses and macrophage activities in BALB/c
           mice

    • Abstract: Objective: Naringenin is a naturally occurring flavonoid found in citrus fruits. This study was done to compare the oral immunomodulatory effects of naringenin and prednisolone. Materials and Methods: The effect of one-month oral administration of naringenin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg) on peritoneal macrophage was compared in the first set of experiments. Separate evaluations were conducted on the effects of naringenin on in vivo and ex vivoT-helper (Th) lymphocyte responses and their subsets in mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA). Animals challenged with OVA received oral doses of naringenin or prednisolone from two days prior to immunization to 28 days after immunization. Results: Naringenin and prednisolone increased macrophages’ respiratory burst, and nitric oxide and interleukin (IL)-10 production while decreasing IL-12 production. Macrophages isolated from mice administered with 40 mg/kg naringenin had greater phagocytic potential than those isolated from mice administered with prednisolone. OVA-challenged mice treated with 40 mg/kg naringenin or prednisolone had decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity comparable to control mice. The splenocyte proliferation index was lower in the prednisolone-treated group than the naringenin-treated group, even at 40 mg/kg. In the splenocyte cultures, both agents decreased T-bet expression. Naringenin, in contrast to prednisolone, did not affect GATA3expression. The 40 mg/kg naringenin dose reduced RORγt more effectively than prednisolone. Conclusion: All these findings indicate the potential of naringenin as a modifying agent of immune responses. Consequently, naringenin may be beneficial in controlling some immunopathological conditions.
       
  • An in vitro antiviral evaluation of punicalagin toward influenza A virus

    • Abstract: Objective: Influenza complications are mild to serious, and can cause death in some cases. A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years to the development and use of new antiviral compounds to overcome drug resistance in certain strains of the influenza virus and treat the clinical implications. This study aimed to investigate the antiviral effect of punicalagin and its associated mechanism against influenza A (H1N1) virus in vitro. Materials and Methods: the ant-influenza activity of punicalagin was studied in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells using influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8) using Hemagglutinin assay (HA) and 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Then, the inhibition of haemagglutination, virucidal activity, inhibitory effect at different times, replication of viral RNA and expression of viral genes were investigated. Results: Punicalagin could inhibit influenza virus infection with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.98 μg/ml and selectivity index (SI) value of 6.1.  Punicalagin decreased virus titers with an inhibitory effect on virus hemagglutination (p<0.05).  Punicalagin also inhibited viral adsorption. The results of virus RNA replication and viral mRNA (NS1 and HA) expression after treatment with punicalagin showed significant suppression of viral mRNA expression but no effect on replication of viral RNA. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that punicalagin was effective against influenza infection most probably via inhibition of haemagglutination activity and virus binding.
       
  • Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by cinnamon in women with
           polycystic ovarian syndrome: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Objective: Most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have metabolic abnormalities in which insulin resistance (IR) plays a pivotal role. Cinnamon is a herbal medicine with insulinotropic properties. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on ovarian volume, androgenic profile, and metabolic and anthropometric parameters in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 39 overweight / obese women with PCOS. For six months, subjects in the cinnamon (500 mg) (n=19) and placebo (n=20) groups were given three capsules daily. Before and after the intervention, the variables were assessed. The data was analyzed using the GraphPad Prism software. Results: After the intervention, the two intervention and control groups had significant differences in abdominal subcutaneous fat and ovarian volume, but they did not differ significantly in terms of body mass index (BMI). Also, after the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of lipid profile and the concentration of androgenic biomarkers of insulin resistance. Conclusion: Cinnamon supplementation improves ovarian volume and subcutaneous abdominal fat but has no effect on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin resistance, or androgen hormones.
       
  • The therapeutic potential of Melissa officinalis L. hydroalcoholic extract
           and rosmarinic acid in a rat asthmatic model: A study on anti-inflammatory
           and antioxidant effects

    • Abstract: Objective: The article studies how Melissa officinalis L. extract and rosmarinic acid (RA) affect lung inflammation, pathology, and oxidative stress in rats with ovalbumin-induced asthma. Materials and Methods: Asthma was induced in rats using ovalbumin injection and inhalation. The study assessed lung inflammation, pathological changes, and oxidative stress in control, untreated asthmatic rats and three treatment groups. These groups received M. officinalis extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), RA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg), or dexamethasone (Dex) 1 mg/kg. Results: In the sensitized group, white blood cell counts, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels increased significantly, while thiol levels and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased (p<0.001). However, all treatment groups with the extract, RA, and Dex showed a significant reduction in total white blood cells, eosinophils, monocytes, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels compared to the asthma group (p<0.001 in all groups). Thiol levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly higher in all treated groups with RA and high extract doses (p<0.001). Lung pathological changes were also significantly less severe in the treated groups with dexamethasone, plant extract, and RA compared to the asthma group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that M. officinalis and RA have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in an animal asthma model, suggesting their potential for treating asthma symptoms.
       
  • Efficacy and safety of a novel antiviral herbal preparation in
           ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19: A phase III double-blinded controlled
           trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Despite an increasing number of studies, there is as yet no definite treatment developed for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this clinical trial, we examined the efficacy of a novel herbal antiviral preparation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 ICU-admitted patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia were recruited to the trial. Participants were equally randomized to receive either the novel antiviral preparation sublingually, for up to two consecutive weeks or till discharge, or placebo. Clinical and laboratory parameters as well as survival rates were compared between the two groups. Results: The cumulative incidence of death throughout the study period was 8.33% in the intervention group and 60% in the placebo group (risk ratio: 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.32; p<0.001). On day 7, several parameters including white blood cells (WBCs) count, C-reactive protein, and SpO2 were improved for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (p-values of 0.05, 0.01, and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: This preparation might be suggested as a potentially promising COVID-19 treatment.
       
  • Herbal and nano-based herbal medicine: New insights into their therapeutic
           aspects against periodontitis

    • Abstract: Objective: Periodontitis is a type of prevalent chronic inflammatory disorder resulting in a failure in the function of tissues supporting the tooth, like gingiva, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Although antibiotic therapy is a common therapy for periodontitis cases, this approach can cause some adverse effects in these patients. Thus, finding an effective curative option with low side effects is still a puzzle. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted on the effects of herbal and nano-based herbal medicine against periodontitis by searching different databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases. Results: According to published studies, some popular herbal formulations, such as Aloe vera, curcumin, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, can be effective in periodontitis treatment. However, these herbal products may be accompanied by some pharmacological limitations, such as poor bioavailability, instability, and weak water solubility. On the other hand, harnessing nano-based herbal formulations can elevate the bioavailability, diminish toxicity, and omit repeated administration of drugs. Conclusion: Herbal and nano-based herbal products can create a good chance to treat periodontitis efficiently.
       
  • Therapeutic potency of curcumin on radiodermatitis: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Objective: Radiodermatitis (RD) is a frequent adverse event of radiotherapy (RT).  Currently, there is no consensus and approved protocol for the treatment of RD. Curcumin (CUR) is a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric and it has low intrinsic toxicity in humans. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the efficacy of CUR for prevention and treatment of RD. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in the following online databases: Cochrane library, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Among the 5 selected records, 3 had a randomized clinical trial (RCT)-design and the other had a pilot and controlled study designed. The included studies were performed on breast cancer (N=3), head and neck cancers (N=1) and different types of cancer (N=1). Results: Four of the studies reported that the application of curcumin in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy is associated with decreased intensity of radiodermatitis. However, one study did not report any significant effect of CUR on radiodermatitis. This review provides substantial evidence which confirm the clinical value of CUR in cancer supportive care. Conclusion: Further prospective clinical trials in larger scales are warranted in order to determine the " supplemental form and dose of CUR" for RD prevention and treatment in patients receiving radiotherapy.
       
  • A preliminary report comparing the effect of Asafoetida with oral
           contraceptive on polycystic ovarian syndrome in a double-blind randomized
           trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infertility and endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. In Persian medicine, Ferula assafoetida L. (Asafoetida) was recommended for treating PCOS. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of Asafoetida with oral contraceptive tablets on PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with PCOS (n=30) were enrolled in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. On Day 5 of the menstrual cycle, patients received two periods of 21-day treatment, with 7 days rest between the two treatments. On a daily basis, half of the patients (n=15) received Asafoetida (1 g), and the rest received low dose oral contraceptive (LD; one tablet). Menstrual status, anthropometric characteristics, hematology and biochemistry parameters, ovarian ultrasound examination and hirsutism were evaluated prior to the initiation of the experiment and 14 days after the end of treatment. The occurrence of menstrual cycles and pregnancy was assessed eight months after the end of treatment. Results: The incidence of pregnancy was greater in patients who received Asafoetida compared to those who received LD (p=0.019). The time intervals between menstrual cycles became shorter in both groups (p<0.05). The occurrence of regular menstrual cycles remained longer in the Asafoetida compared to the LD group (p=0.001). Concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were significantly increased after treating with LD (p<0.05). Conclusion: In PCOS patients, the occurrence of regular menstrual cycles and the incidence of pregnancy were improved following treatment with Asafoetida. This medicament could be considered a safe treatment for patients with PCOS.
       
  • The effect of Phytopaj )Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and
           tragacanth( in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a positive effect on respiratory diseases. Oleo-gum of Ferula assa-foetida contains this compound. This study assessed the effects of Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and tragacanth (Phytopaj) on patients with COVID-19.  Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial (RCT) phase 2 was conducted in Mashhad on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this RCT, 122 patients were randomly assigned to either receive a 14-day oral phytopaj plus ordinary treatment or ordinary treatment only. Changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte count (LC) and blood oxygen saturation (PO2) were the endpoints. Results: Mean±SD of PO2 in Phytopaj comparison ordinary treatment before intervention was 91.86±4.62 and 91.41±9.18, after the intervention it was 93.22±4.26 and 91.91±5.92 mmHg; before intervention, mean±SD of peripheral blood lymphocyte count was 1015.90±500.55, and 1104.28±543.61, and after intervention, it was 1652.27±921.38 and 1326.12±719.28/μL respectively. Participants' age, comorbidity, gender, and stage of Conclusion: Phyopaj is most useful in moderate stages of Covid19, and it is not recommended for elderly patients and patients with comorbidity until more insight is gained.
       
  • Evaluation of oral nano-curcumin efficacy on respiratory function and
           quality of life in patients with bronchial non-atopic asthma: A randomized
           controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Asthma is a common disease and curcumin has modest effect in inflammatory disorders. This study investigated the efficacy of nano-curcumin on asthma. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 patients with non-atopic bronchial asthma were randomly stratified in two groups of intervention (N=30) and control (N=30) groups. Apart from their standard treatment, the intervention group received 40 mg nano-curcumin (soft gel) three times daily while the control group received placebo. During the 60-day study, patients were assessed using spirometry to measure Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). Asthma control test (ACT) was completed every 30 days and asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) was completed at the first and end of the study. Results: Totally, 31 patients (51.7%) were male and the mean age was 51.45±12.58 years. FEV1 was improved but there was no significant difference between intervention and control groups. ACT and AQLQ domains scores significantly improved. However, it was not statistically different between control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Nano-curcumin at administered dosage had no additive effect on the standard treatment in asthmatic patients.
       
  • Assessment of the effects of bean extract on axillary hair reduction

    • Abstract: Objective: Body hair removal plays an important role in beauty standards, particularly for women. Finding a method that is easy to use, cheap, and can be done without supervision can significantly affect long-term hair reduction and reduce the side effects of hair removal. The present study investigated the impact of a containing 20% broad bean (Vicia faba) extract cream on axillary hair removal.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five female volunteers were randomly divided into A (right axillary intervention - left axillary placebo) and B (right axillary placebo - left axillary intervention). Depending on the group, each person used a cream containing 20% broad bean extract )"The extract made from the seeds and pods of broad beans.") on one side and a placebo on the other twice a day for three months. Volunteers shaved their axillary hairs three days before each visit and took pictures of both sides on the day of the visit with a trichoscope (to check the diameter and thickness of the hairs).Results: We found a decrease in thickness on the intervention group (the axilla where a cream containing broad bean extract was applied); however, this difference was not significant between the intervention side and the placebo. In terms of the number of hairs, the difference between the two groups was significant only in the second month despite the decrease on the intervention side. Evaluation based on the personal judgment of the volunteers showed that there was a substantial difference in terms of the number of hairs (p=0.012) and thinning of hair (p=0.02).Conclusion: Our findings showed that 20% broad bean extract cream could potentially reduce axillary hair growth.
       
  • Quercetin may reduce the risk of developing the symptoms of COVID-19

    • Abstract: Objective: Recent evidence reported that some dietary compounds like quercetin and apigenin as the most well-known flavonoids with anti-inflammatory effects may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The hypothesis of the promising effects and possible mechanisms of action of quercetin against COVID-19 were assessed in this article. Materials and Methods: Related papers on the inhibitory effects of quercetin against COVID-19 were collected using the following search strategy: “corona or coronavirus or COVID or COVID-19 or viral or virus” AND “nutrient or flavonoid or Quercetin”. Results: The findings indicated that quercetin can be considered an effective agent against COVID-19 because of its SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitory effects. In addition, quercetin may attenuate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors leading to a reduction of SARS-CoV-2 ability to enter host cells. Moreover, the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities of quercetin have been frequently reported. Conclusion: Quercetin may be an effective agent for managing the complications of COVID-19. Further longitudinal human studies are warranted.
       
  • Silibinin improved the function of T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear
           cells (PBMCs) co-cultured with U-87 MG cell line

    • Abstract: Objective: Silibinin has exhibited antitumor activities. However, there are few reports about the immunomodulatory properties of silibinin on T lymphocyte function in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we determined the effects of silibinin on T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cultivated alone or with a human cell line of glioblastoma (U-87 MG). Materials and Methods: The proliferation of T lymphocytes was assessed by MTT test in the presence of silibinin (15 and 45 µM). Also, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activity of superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3), and the levels of two cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor growth beta (TGF-β) were compared between treated and untreated PBMCs alone or co-cultured with U-87 cells. Results: According to our results, silibinin raised the TAC levels and SOD3 activity in the PBMCs and in the co-culture condition. Moreover, silibinin-treated PBMCs showed higher IFN-γ levels and lower TGF-β levels. Interestingly, silibinin protected PBMCs against the U-87-induced suppression. Conclusion: Altogether, these results proposed the immunomodulatory potential of silibinin on T cells of PBMCs, as well as its partially protective effects on PBMCs against the suppression induced by U-87 MG cells.
       
  • Concomitant administration of resveratrol and resistance training
           ameliorates acrylamide-induced spatial learning impairment in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The present study examined effects of resistance training (RT) and resveratrol (RES) alone and together on acrylamide (AC)-induced memory impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups: (1) Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneally (ip) daily for 8 weeks; (2) Scopolamine (SCO) group which received SCO (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (3) AC group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (4) AC + RT group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks); (5) AC + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; and (6) AC + RT + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks). On day 53, animal training began in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) and 24 hr after the last training, the probe test was performed. Results: RT and RES alone did not significantly affect escape latency or traveled distance increased by AC. However, concomitant RES and RT treatment significantly reduced these parameters compared to the AC group. Co-treatment with RES and RT also significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant compared to the AC group. Lipid peroxidation was reduced in the AC+RES and AC+RT+RES groups compared to the AC group.  Conclusion: It seems that daily co-treatment with RES and RT for 8 weeks ameliorates the memory-impairing effects of AC.
       
  • Investigation of the neuroprotective effect of crocin against
           electromagnetic field-induced cerebellar damage in male Balb/c mice

    • Abstract: Objective: Mobile devices are sources of electromagnetic fields  (EMFs) that cause increasing concern among scientists about human health, especially with the long-term use of mobile phones. With regard to this issue, the potential adverse health effects, particularly on brain function have raised public concern. There is considerable evidence that natural compounds have neuro-protective effects due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Growing evidence suggests that crocin as a natural bioactive compound can be considered a potential therapeutic agent against various neurologic disorders. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of crocin on the cerebellum after exposure to EMF. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Male Balb/c mice were divided into control group, EMF group (2100 MHZ), EMF +Crocin group (2100 MHZ+50 mg/kg), and crocin group (50 mg/kg). The animals in the EMF and EMF+Crocin groups were exposed continuously for 30 days to an EMF 120 min/day. After 30 days, cerebellar cortex was evaluated by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The results showed that 30 days of exposure to EMF had no significant effect on Purkinje cell size. However, EMF reduced significantly the diameter of astrocytes and increased Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression compared to the controls (p<0.05). Our findings also indicated that crocin treatment could improve the diameter of astrocytes and normalize GFAP expression (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that 2100-MHz EMF caused adverse effects on the cerebellum through astrocyte damage and crocin could partially reverse the EMF-related adverse effects.
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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