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Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.535
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7930 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7949
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Neuroprotective effects of the fractions of Ocimum basilicum in seizures
           induced by pentylenetetrazole in mice

    • Abstract: Objective: Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures were investigated.  Materials and Methods: Mice were divided as follows: (Group 1) Control, (Group 2) PTZ, (Groups 3-5) 50,100 and 200 mg/kg hydro-ethanolic (HE) extract, and (Groups 6-8) 200 mg/kg ethyl-acetate (EAF), N-hexane (NHF) and water (WF) fractions. Minimal clonic seizures (MCS) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) latencies were measured. Biochemical and histological studies were done. Results: MCS and GTCS latency in HE groups were longer than the PTZ group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). EAF and NHF prolonged the onset of MCS and GTCS (p<0.001). PTZ increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and dark neuron (DN) production while decreased thiol, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.05 to p<0.001).  Pre-treatment by HE and all fractions of the plant attenuated MDA and DN while increased thiol, CAT and SOD (p<0.01 to p<0.001). Conclusion: EAF and NHF had anticonvulsant properties. The extract and fractions protected the brain from PTZ-induced oxidative damages and showed neuroprotective effects.
  • Therapeutic effects of herbal medicines in different types of
           retinopathies: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Objective: Retinopathy is an ocular manifestation of systemic diseases such as diabetes and vascular diseases. Herbal drugs have been considered as an effective therapeutic option with minimal side effects for the treatment of retinopathy by reducing the symptoms and improving visual acuity. The purpose of this systematic review was to collect studies on the effectiveness of medicinal plants in the treatment or prevention of retinopathy. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and other databases in April 2021 using “herbal products” and “Retinopathy” with all their equivalent and similar terms. For this purpose, human clinical trials with the English language were included and articles with subject irrelevancy were excluded from further evaluation. Results: Overall, 30 articles with 2324 patients were studied for possible effects of herbal therapy on retinopathy. From 30 included articles, different herbal products had been evaluated. Out of 30 selected articles, 11 articles were for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 14 articles covered patients with diabetic retinopathy, and the other five studies were for other retinal disorders. The outcomes in majority of the studies include changes in visual acuity (VA), fundus performance, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), focal electroretinogram (fERG), supplements and adjuvant medications appeared to be more beneficial in patients with AMD and diabetic maculopathy.  Conclusion: Herbal therapy can be considered as a potential candidate in the adjuvant and complementary therapies of retinopathy. However, further studies are required to verify such efficiency.
  • Curcuma reduces kidney and liver damage induced by titanium dioxide
           nanoparticles in male Wistar rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of curcuma caplet against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2)-induced damage in liver and kidney of male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (7-8 week old) male rats (200 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 each. The first and second groups received olive oil and nTiO2 (300 mg/kg body weight) as control and nTiO2 groups, respectively. The third, fourth, and fifth groups received Curcuma at concentrations of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight in addition to 300 mg/kg body weight of nTiO2, respectively. The treatment was performed through gavage for 3 weeks. Rats' blood was examined for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and activity of liver enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and renal factors (urea, uric acid, and creatinine). Histological analyses were also performed to estimate the extent of hepatic and renal injury. Results: nTiO2-induced liver and kidney damage by decreased serum SOD, GPx, and TAC (p<0.05). Fu +rthermore, nTiO2 increased serum MDA and TOS, and renal (Creatinine, Urea and Uric acid) and liver parameters (ALT, AST, ALP and LDH) (p<0.05). However, Curcuma treatment was able to moderate these changes dramatically (p<0.05). The results were confirmed by histopathological data. Conclusion: This study showed the antioxidant properties of curcuma against the side effects of nTiO2.
  • Indian traditional medicinal plants in ophthalmic diseases

    • Abstract: Objective: Traditional herbal plants have been in use since ancient times to treat ophthalmic conditions; so, the aim of this study is to evaluate some potent Indian traditional medicinal plants used in ophthalmic diseases in order to summarize their potential effect in ophthalmology along with their mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase were extensively explored. Additionally, relevant textbooks and literatures were consulted to summarize most of the considerable scientific literature for the review. Search term included ophthalmology, glaucoma, cataract, trachoma, conjunctivitis, traditional medicines, Unani drugs, and ayurvedic drugs were used. Around 80 review articles were consulted from the year 1982 to 2021. Results: The traditional medicinal plants are easily available, cost-effective and have no associated side effects in comparison to current conventional treatments. Moreover, these drugs in oppose to modern medicine, have an inherent potential to accelerate the body’s own immunity to fight against any infection. A large volume of scientific studies has reported the beneficial effects of traditional drugs in ophthalmology. Conclusion: This review, therefore, describes the potential benefits and uses of some traditional medicinal plants used in ophthalmic diseases.
  • Coconut oil rubbing as an easy and safe way to improve symptoms in primary
           nocturnal enuresis: A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Enuresis is a common pediatric problem for which, no unique therapy has been suggested. The conventional therapy is effective, but fails in some cases. So, many parents try complementary medicine. Therefore, this study attempted to find if rubbing coconut oil is effective on improving enuresis. Materials and methods: This double-blinded randomized clinical was conducted on 120 children aged 6 to 14 years with mono symptomatic nocturnal enuresis, from 2018 to 2019 in Yazd, Iran. The drug and placebo groups applied 6 drops of the coconut and paraffin oil topically on the suprapubic, sacral and flanks areas one time per night, respectively. Urination pattern was daily recorded for a period of 8 weeks by parents, and after one year, they were asked for any improvement by phone call. Results: The mean frequency of enuresis at the first, second, fourth, and eighth week was lower in the intervention group (p<0.001); this difference between the groups remained after one year. Moreover, there was no side effect requiring any medical attention. Conclusion: Rubbing coconut oil is effective on improving symptom of primary mono symptomatic enuresis if applied every night for 4 weeks on suprapubic, sacral and flanks areas. This may be related to anticholinergic effect of the oil but its persistent effect for longer time after the end of application period, needs to be investigated in other studies.
  • Therapeutic potential of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on high-fat diet-induced
           testicular and sperm damage in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Mucuna pruriens Linn., a leguminous plant, is identified as a herbal medicine for improving fertility-related disorders in the alternative and complementary systems of medicine. The study was focused on evaluating the therapeutic potential of M. pruriens on testis and sperm parameters in a high-fat-induced hypercholesterolemia model. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided as normal-control rats (NCR); normal-control rats + M.pruriens (200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed) treated (NCRD); hypercholesterolemic rats (HCR) and hypercholesterolemic rats + M. pruriens (HCRD). Groups were further divided into three post-exposure periods (subgroups) of 9, 18, and 36 days, and the progressive changes in testis histology and sperm were analyzed. Results: The study showed a significant impairment in testicular histoarchitecture, depletion of antioxidant enzyme levels, increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the HCR group. The study indicated severe structural and functional damage in sperm parameters and diminished chromatin integrity in the HCR group. In the HCR rats, the follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were significantly reduced. There was a significant improvement in sperm parameters and testis histology in the HCRD group. Conclusion: The study reveals the potential efficacy of M. pruriens to improve spermatogenesis, sperm parameters and hormone levels in hypercholesterolemic rats.
  • The effect of nanocurcumin on the incidence of atrial fibrillation, and
           markers of inflammation and oxidative stress level after coronary artery
           bypass graft surgery: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
           clinical study

    • Abstract: Objective: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most frequent dysrhythmias observed following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Several studies have shown the beneficial effects of curcumin on cardiovascular diseases; however, there is no clinical trial to examine its effect on POAF. This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effects of a nano-formulation of curcumin (SinaCurcumin™) versus placebo on POAF and levels of biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 eligible patients were randomized to receive 240 mg curcumin nano-formulation or placebo three days prior to the surgery and on the first four postoperative days. The occurrence of POAF was monitored for at least 96 hr after the surgery. Also, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed at baseline and the end of the study. Results: Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. No significant difference was observed in the occurrence of POAF between the treatment (9.5%) and placebo (11.5%) groups. Also, curcumin intervention did not alter serum concentration of the hs-CRP, MDA, or GSH in comparison with placebo. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that perioperative treatment with SinaCurcumin™ did not prevent POAF after CABG surgery.
  • Anti-inflammatory response to curcumin supplementation in chronic kidney
           disease and hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to determine the association curcumin has on pro-inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD (and in those receiving hemodialysis (HD). Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis was undertaken following PRISMA guidelines. An extensive systematic review was undertaken until 10/11/2021 using PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), and Scopus databases. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the overall effect size of curcumin on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with CKD and those receiving HD. Results: Overall, ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comprising 523 patients were incorporated into the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that when compared with control groups, there was no significant effect observed linking curcumin and IL-6 (SMD = 0.24%, 95% CI = -0.14 to 0.62, p = 0.221), TNF-α (SMD = 0.11%, 95% CI = -0.19 to 0.40, p = 0.480) or hs-CRP (SMD = -0.17%, 95% CI = -0.36 to 0.03, p = 0.093). The analysis determined no publication bias related to the influence of curcumin on IL-6, TNF-α or acute phase reactant, hs-CRP. The Egger’s and Begg’s test results were not statistically significant (p˃0.20). Conclusion: In patients with CKD and those receiving HD, the use of curcumin supplementation has no statistically significant effect on the anti-inflammatory biomarkers reviewed in this study.
  • Effects of a polyherbal formulation on inflammation and histopathological
           alterations in mice with ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma

    • Abstract: Objective: Allergic asthma is a complex inflammatory disorder that affects the airways. As an ancient medical system, Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) recommends a polyherbal formula called “Monzej-e-balgham” for the treatment of asthma. In the present investigation, the antiasthmatic effects of “Monzej-e-balgham” were examined in a murine model of allergic asthma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Balb/c mice weighing 15-20 g were allocated into 4 groups. As negative and positive controls, groups I and II received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and ovalbumin (OVA) solutions, respectively. Groups III and IV were first sensitized with OVA and then respectively treated with “Monzej-e-balgham” (63 mg/kg) and budesonide. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues of the animals were collected and used for eosinophil counting, Th2 type interleukins (IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33) measurement, and histological examinations. Results: “Monzej-e-balgham” significantly reduced the number of eosinophils and the levels of IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33 in BALF specimens compared to OVA-sensitized group (p<0.05). It also ameliorated histopathological changes of the lung tissues such as goblet cells hyperplasia and mucus overproduction in comparison to group II. Interestingly, the results of the “Monzej-e-balgham”-treated group were comparable with those obtained for budesonide-inhaled mice. Conclusion: The present data indicated a mechanism that involves Th2 inflammatory responses in allergic asthma and suggested a polyherbal mixture for the treatment of this disease.
  • Nigella sativa supplementation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A
           systematic review of clinical trials

    • Abstract: Objective: Based on the results of previous studies, the effects of N. sativa on some of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease's (NAFLD) biomarkers were positive; however, there were conflicting results regarding other variables. Therefore, the present systematic review of clinical trials was designed to clarify whether N. sativa effectively prevents the progression of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: A search of four databases (Scopus, PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar) was conducted to identify the clinical trials that assessed the effects of N. sativa supplementation on NAFLD. The outcome variables of interest were biomarkers of hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and inflammation. Results: Overall, four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. In three studies, hepatic steatosis grade decreased significantly after N. sativa supplementation. Serum levels of liver enzymes reduced significantly in three of four included trials. In the only study that examined the effect of N. sativa on insulin resistance parameters, all variables related to this factor were significantly reduced. In two included studies that measured biomarkers of inflammation, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) decreased significantly after intaking N. sativa supplements. Conclusion: Although the efficacy of N. sativa on liver enzymes and the grade of hepatic steatosis was reported in some of the included studies, more well-designed clinical trials are needed to determine the definitive effects of N. sativa on NAFLD. The present study provides suggestions that help to design future studies in this field.
  • Meticulous parade on naringin respecting its pharmacological activities
           and novel formulations

    • Abstract: Objective: Medicinal plants having antioxidant potential possess numerous constituents which are responsible for different beneficial effects and are used as an alternative resource of medicine to lessen diseases linked with oxidative stress. Flavonoids are identified in the plants since ages and display wide spectrum of biological actions that might be able to stimulate the steps which are disturbed in different diseases. Flavonoids are significant natural compounds with various biologic properties, among which the most common is the anti-oxidant potential.Citrus flavonoids establish an important stream of flavonoids. Naringin, very common flavonoids present in the diet, belongs to the family of flavanone. It is the principal constituent of citrus family that contains flavonoids for example tomatoes, grapefruits and oranges. Materials and Methods: In this article, we reviewed naringin with respect to sources, chemical property, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological activity, and novel formulations. The literature survey has been done by searching different databases such as Psyc INFO, Science Direct, PubMed, EMBASE, Google, Google Scholar, Medline. Results: Naringin is known to behave as an antioxidant and possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-atherosclerotic, neuroprotective, anti-psychotic, anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-tussive, cardioprotective, and anti-obesity activity. Further clinical studies using large sample sizes remain essential to obtain the appropriate dose and form of naringin for averting diseases. Furthermore, the therapeutic approach of these bioflavonoids is significantly inappropriate due to the lack of clinical evidence. Different plants must be explored further to find these bioflavonoids in them. Conclusion: The results of this exploration provides biological actions of bioflavonoid (naringin), predominantly on pharmacological and novel dosage forms of naringin.
  • Carvacrol attenuated neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and depression
           and anxiety like behaviors in lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The beneficial effect of carvacrol on neuroinflammation, oxidative damage of brain tissue, and depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in rats. Materials and Methods: Vehicle (1% Tween 80), 1 mg/kg of LPS, and carvacrol (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg administered prior to LPS) were injected and behavioral and biochemical tests were done. Results: The results of forced swim test revealed that carvacrol attenuated immobility time and increased activity and climbing times (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The results of elevated plus maze also revealed that treatment by carvacrol prolonged the open arms time and entries and decreased the time and entries in the closed arms (p<0.05 to p<0.01). Carvacrol enhanced crossing, time, and traveled distance in the central segment of the open field and increased total crossing and distance while attenuating the peripheral zone time (p<0.05 to p<0.001). All doses of carvacrol attenuated TNF- α (tumor necrosis factor α) and NO (nitric oxide) in the brain (p<0.01 to p<0.001). The 50 and the 100 mg/kg doses of carvacrol decreased malondialdehyde (p<0.001 for both), and the 100 mg/kg dose of carvacrol increased the content of the thiol (p<0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, carvacrol improved the behavioral consequences of LPS challenge and attenuated neuroinflammation and brain tissue oxidative stress in rats.
  • Effects of some anti-diabetic herbal extracts on the insulin-degrading
           enzyme in human colon cancer Caco-2 cell line

    • Abstract: Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a condition characterized by insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance. The insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is responsible for degrading insulin and is a potential drug target for T2DM treatment. Numerous activities have been proposed for plant extracts, but research on the effects of plant extracts on IDE expression and activity is riddled with drawbacks. Materials and Methods: We investigated the effect of Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa, Portulaca oleracea, Cinnamomum verum, and Citrullus colocynthis extracts on the expression and activity of IDE in the Caco-2 cell line. Results: Findings of RT-PCR showed that IDE gene expression was reduced following treatment with P. vulgaris, C. colocynthis, and C. verum extracts. The results of IDE activity with fluorogenic peptide substrate V also indicated that P. vulgaris, C. colocynthis, and P. oleracea extracts reduced IDE activity in a significant and dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extracts studied, except for A. cepa, can prevent insulin degradation by reducing the expression and activity of the IDE enzyme. This new insight into the effects of herbal medicines on IDE activity can help future studies.
  • Effects of gallic acid on intraperitoneal adhesion bands in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Gallic acid (GA) is an organic acid that possesses anti-inflammatory effects as it inhibits the production of metalloproteinases, tissue plasminogen activator, growth factors and adhesion molecules. Since formation of abdominal surgery-induced adhesion bands is accompanied by inflammation, angiogenesis and cell proliferation, in the current study, we assessed potential beneficial properties of GA against adhesion bands formation in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male rats were assigned into six groups of six animals. After induction of anesthesia, peritoneal injury was induced using a standard method and animals received either GA (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), or normal saline, while a group of rats remained intact. Seven days after the surgery, animals were decapitated and samples were collected for pathology evaluations. Also, lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were determined in serum samples. Results: Our results showed that GA significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in serum samples but had no effect on TNF-α levels. Furthermore, microscopic and macroscopic injuries reduced significantly in GA-treated animals. Conclusion: Since GA reduced adhesion bands formation at microscopic and macroscopic levels, it could be considered a treatment against adhesion bands formation.
  • Comparative effects of Curcuma longa and curcumin on paraquat-induced
           systemic and lung oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Comparative effect of Curcuma longa (C. longa) ethanolic extract and curcumin on paraquat (PQ)-induced systemic and lung oxidative stress and inflammation were evaluated in the present study. Materials and Methods: Control animals were exposed to normal saline and PQ group to 54 mg/m3 PQ aerosols (8 times, each time for 30 min). Treatment groups were exposed to PQ and treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg/day C. longa, or 30 and 120 mg/kg/day curcumin after PQ exposure period for 16 days. Total and differential white blood cells (WBC) and oxidative markers were measured both in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and blood at the end of the study. Results: Total and differential WBC counts as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) level were significantly increased but total thiol content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were reduced in both the BALF and blood of the PQ group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Both doses of C. longa and curcumin diminished MDA level, total and differential WBC counts in the blood and BALF but increased CAT and SOD activities in both of them compared to PQ group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The effects of C. longa and curcumin high dose on most variables were markedly more than low dose (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Furthermore, the effects of curcumin on some variables were markedly more than C. longa (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: Both C. longa and curcumin improved PQ-induced systemic and lung inflammation and oxidative stress, but the effect of curcumin was more prominent.
  • The effect of gallic acid on memory and anxiety-like behaviors in rats
           with bile duct ligation-induced hepatic encephalopathy: Role of AMPK

    • Abstract: Objective: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neurological syndrome which is caused by acute and chronic liver diseases. In this study, the effect of gallic acid (GA) as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on memory and anxiety-like behaviors in rats with HE caused by bile duct ligation (BDL) was investigated. Materials and Methods: The rats were randomly divided into the following eight groups (n=7): sham; BDL; BDL+GA 20 mg/kg; BDL+GA 30 mg/kg; sham+dorsomorphin or compound C (CC) (as AMPK inhibitors); BDL+CC; BDL+GA 20 mg/kg+CC; and BDL+GA 30 mg/kg+CC. The rats received GA once daily by gavage for four weeks, and dorsomorphin 6.2 µg per rat was administered on a daily basis via bilateral intraventricular injection for four weeks. Behavioral tests including novel object recognition (NOR), open field and Morris water maze (MWM) were used to evaluate anxiety and memory in the rats. Results: Examining some parameters of NOR and MWM tests showed that memory performance was significantly reduced in the BDL versus the sham group, and in the BDL+CC versus the sham+CC group (p<0.05). GA intake improved memory in the GA-receiving groups compared with the BDL and BDL+CC groups (p<0.05). Examining some parameters of open field test showed that anxiety was significantly increased in the BDL versus the sham group, and the BDL+CC versus the sham+CC group (p<0.05). GA intake reduced anxiety in GA-receiving groups compared with the BDL+BDL+CC group (p<0.05). Conclusion: GA was effective in improving cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors through activating AMPK.
  • Pomegranate seed oil protects against tacrolimus-induced toxicity in the
           heart and kidney by modulation of oxidative stress in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The clinical use of tacrolimus is limited due to its side effects. This research investigated the protective activities of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) against TAC toxicity. Materials and Methods: The groups are included normal (1 ml of corn oil), TAC (2 mg/kg), and co-treatment of PSO (0.4 and 0.8 ml/kg) and TAC. All administrations were carried out intraperitoneally for 14 days. After the last injection, blood was collected from the heart. Results: TAC increased creatinine and urea. Increased malondialdehyde, reduced thiol content and superoxide dismutase. The elevation of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine kinase-MB and creatinine phosphokinase that confirmed cardiac toxicity. PSO reduced TAC toxicity. PSO decreased TAC-induced pathology injury. Conclusion: PSO reduced TAC toxicity in renal and heart via scavenging free radicals.
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized fraction of
           Oenothera rosea L'Hér. ex Aiton and its possible mechanism of action in

    • Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Oenothera rosea (EAOr) and the mechanism involved, in mice. Materials and Methods: The antinociceptive activity was tested using chemical- and heat-induced nociception models. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using carrageenan-induced edema and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results: EAOr reduced the licking time on the second phase of the formalin test (100 and 177 mg/kg). The antinociception of EAOr was prevented by L-NAME (10 mg/kg), 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo [4, 3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.1 mg/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and bicuculline (1 mg/kg), but not by naloxone (2 mg/kg). Also, EAOr decreased licking time in capsaicin induced-nociception. EAOr did not have effect on withdrawal latency in tail-flick test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was reduced by EAOr, and TNF-α and IL-1β levels were reduced in mice treated with EAOr by 72.2 and 32.8%, respectively. Furthermore, EAOr did not present side effects as sedation nor gastric injury. Chemical analysis of this fraction showed the presence of glycosylated quercetin derivatives such as quercetin glucoside and quercetin rhamnoside in a 2.5% concentration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of an organic fraction of O. rosea and its possible interaction with the NO-cGMP-K+ channels and GABAergic system and thus, it could be considered a therapeutic alternative.
  • Nephroprotective activity of naringin against chemical-induced toxicity
           and renal ischemia/reperfusion injury: A review

    • Abstract: Objective: The kidney is well-known as the vital organ which is responsible for maintaining body homeostasis and secretion of toxic metabolites. Renal injury is accompanied by oxidative stress which results in cellular apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, and reduction of antioxidant levels. Plant extracts and their phytoconstituents, owing to free radical scavenging properties, seem to be valuable against modern synthetic and chemical drugs. Naringin is a flavonoid present in citrus fruits with pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. This review summarizes the renoprotective effects of naringin and discusses mechanisms of its action against renal injury. Materials and Methods: For this paper, original subject-related articles published up to October 2020 have been reviewed in the databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Results: Naringin increases antioxidant enzyme activity, and glutathione content, reduces lipid peroxidation and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. In the molecular investigation, naringin activates the Nrf-2 signaling, prevents apoptosis signaling, and inhibits the autophagy pathway. Besides, naringin could protect the kidney through modulating microRNA-10a in the kidney tissue in an acute kidney injury model. Conclusion: This review recommends that naringin can be considered a promising candidate to treat kidney dysfunction induced by oxidative stress in the future.
  • Neuroprotective effects of carvacrol against Alzheimer’s disease and
           other neurodegenerative diseases: A review

    • Abstract: Objective: Neurodegenerative diseases are considered an important cause of cognitive deficit and morbidity in old ages. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of these disorders affecting about 40 million people in the world at the present time. Available drug therapy is mostly symptomatic and does not modify or stop disease progression. Recently, biologically active chemicals from herbs have been studied to develop new therapeutic drugs. Carvacrol has shown positive properties on many neurological diseases. This compound is expected to have the ability to affect AD pathogenesis and therefore, it is considered an anti-AD agent. Materials and Methods: This review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct bibliographic databases until November 2021. For data collection, the following keywords were used: carvacrol, neuroprotective, cognition, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, Acetylcolinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), Alzheimer's, Parkinson’s, epilepsy, stroke, ischemic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. Results: This review summarizes in vitro and in vivo studies on protective potential of carvacrol in neurodegenerative disorders and various underlying mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase effects.  Conclusion: We gave an overview of available literature concerning neuroprotective effects of carvacrol in ameliorating the neurodegenerative diseases symptoms in vivo and in vitro. Particular attention is given to AD. Several neuro-pharmacological actions of carvacrol have been summarized in the current review article including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and AChEI properties.
  • Hepatoprotective effect of β-myrcene pretreatment against
           acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    • Abstract: Objective: In the present study, the hepatoprotective effects of β-myrcene (MYR) on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 Balb/c mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: 1) Normal control group which received only carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), the vehicle used to dissolve acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP, paracetamol) and MYR; 2) APAP group which received a single dose of acetaminophen (250 mg/kg) orally on day 7; 3) Silymarin group which received 200 mg/kg/day of silymarin; and 4 and 5) pretreatment groups in which, mice were treated with 100 or 200 mg/kg/day of MYR. Liver and blood samples were collected to analyze serum aminotransferases, inflammatory response, oxidative stress markers, and histopathological insults. Results: Our results showed that MYR pretreatment attenuated liver damage and restored liver cells function and integrity as it decreased the leakage of serum aminotransferases (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST, respectively)) into the blood (p<0.01). MYR treatment also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) (p<0.001). In addition, MYR pretreatment demonstrated significant antioxidant activity by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels (p<0.001). Furthermore, it restored the hepatic level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) (p<0.001).  Conclusion: For the first time, our results showed that MYR treatment significantly improved liver function by reducing oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by APAP.
  • Curcumin as an effective suppressor of miRNA expression in patients with
           knee osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Objective: Osteoarthritis is the most common disease in the group of joint diseases, and its incidence is directly related to aging. Given the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin as an active ingredient of turmeric, we aimed to investigate the effects of this compound in a new curcumin nanomicelle formula named SinaCurcumin® on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in immune responses of patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: We divided 30 patients with osteoarthritis into two groups namely, nano curcumin-receiving (15 patients) and placebo-receiving (15 patients) and we studied them for 3 months. The Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) approved our study with the IRCT registry No. IRCT20151028024760N4. We evaluated the rates of the expression of microRNAs 146, 155, 16, and 138 employing SYBR Green Real-Time PCR method. Results: The expression of miRNAs 155, 138, and 16 revealed a significant reduction in the curcumin-receiving group (p=0.002, p=0.024 and p=0.0001 respectively). Conclusion: Our research data indicated that the consumption of curcumin in patients with osteoarthritis could affect the immune system partially via altering the expression of microRNAs and cytokines.
  • The neuropsychotropic effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron): an overview
           of systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating its clinical
           efficacy in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    • Abstract: Objective: Saffron is a spice derived from the Crocus sativus L. with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. This study aims to systematically review the systematic reviews (SRs) investigating the clinical neuropsychotropic effects of saffron.Materials and Methods: The protocol of this SR was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021268446). Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and PROSPERO were searched up to June 6, 2021, to find SRs investigating the neuropsychotropic effects of saffron. The primary outcome was a report on whether or not saffron was effective in each study. AMSTAR was checked for the included reviews.Results: Twenty-three studies were reviewed with a mean AMSTAR score of 6.08 (ranging from 1 to 10). Thirteen SRs investigated the effects of saffron on depression. Six of the SRs studied its impact on sexual dysfunction. Each of the anxiety and cognitive disorders was discussed in three distinct reviews. Furthermore, possible effects of saffron on some other disorders, like premenstrual syndrome, postpartum depression, sleep disorders, and snacking behavior, have been reported.Conclusion: Saffron is beneficial, safe, and tolerable in treating the mentioned neurological and psychiatric disorders. Further high-quality, large-scale studies are recommended to rectify the shortcomings.
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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