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Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.535
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2228-7930 - ISSN (Online) 2228-7949
Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Aloe vera supplementation improves cardiovascular risk factors in
           hemodialysis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

    • Abstract: Objective: This study assessed the effects of Aloe vera supplementation on serum inflammatory factors, blood sugar and lipid profiles in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: Totally, 50 hemodialysis patients were allocated randomly to either Aloe vera or placebo groups. The Aloe vera group received 2 Aloe vera capsules daily for 8 weeks (500 mg/day). Serum C-reactive protein (hs- CRP), Fasting blood glucose (FBS), and lipid profiles levels were evaluated at the baseline and the end of the eighth week. Results: Aloe vera supplementation for 8 weeks was associated with a significant reduction of serum hs- CRP (p=0.004), total cholesterol (p=0.01), low density lipoprotein (LDL) (p=0.02) leves and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) (p=0.002) concentration in the hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Aloe vera supplementation is beneficial in improvement of cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis patients.
  • Apigenin attenuates serum concentrations of TNF-a, interleukin 1b and
           interleukin 6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The use of flavonoids is increasing due to their cost-effectiveness and less adverse reaction. Therefore, the effect of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation was investigated by measuring IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF-a, of serum in the male rats. Materials and Methods: Ninety male wistar rats were divided in 6 groups included; control, sham, dexamethasone 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), and apigenin (5, 15, and 30 mg/kg, i.p). Thirty minutes after the administration of solvent or apigenin, LPS (30 μg/kg, i.p) was injected. At time intervals of 4, 12 and 24 hr after injection, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of TNF-a, IL-1b and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared to the control, apigenin (5 mg/kg) decreased the level of TNF-a, and IL-1b in a period of 24 hr (p<0.05). The concentration of IL-6 decreased significantly by apigenin (15 mg/kg) 24 hr after injection (p<0.05). Apigenin (30 mg/kg) decreased the level of TNF-a, at all three time points (4 hr; p<0.05, 12 hr; p<0.01, and 24 hr; p<0.01), and the level of IL-1b (p<0.01), 24 hr and the level of IL-6 at 4 hr (p<0.05), and 24 hr (p<0.01) after LPS injection. Conclusion: Apigenin can suppress serum inflammatory cytokines, similar to dexamethasone.
  • Cardiovascular and renal oxidative stress-mediated toxicities associated
           with bisphenol-A exposures are mitigated by Curcuma longa in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Curcuma longa Rhizome (CLR), due to its potent antioxidant phytochemical constituents, was investigated for its effects on bisphenol A (BPA)-induced cardiovascular and renal damage. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats were randomly selected, and grouped as control, BPA (100 mg/ kg), BPA and CLR 100 mg/kg, BPA and CLR 200 mg/kg, CLR 100 mg/kg, and CLR 200 mg/kg for 21 days. Oxidative stress indices, antioxidant status, blood pressure parameters, genotoxicity, and immunohistochemistry were determined. Results: Rats exposed to the toxic effects of BPA had heightened blood pressure, lowered frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes compared with rats treated with CLR. Moreover, administration of CLR significantly (p<0.05) lowered malondialdehyde content and reduced the serum myeloperoxidase activity. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed significantly (p<0.05) increased expressions of cardiac troponin and Caspase 3 in the BPA group compared with the CLR-treated groups. Conclusion: C. longa ameliorated cardiotoxic and nephrotoxic actions of bisphenol-A via mitigation of oxidative stress, hypertension, and genotoxicity.
  • Naringenin modifies T-helper responses and macrophage activities in BALB/c

    • Abstract: Objective: Naringenin is a naturally occurring flavonoid found in citrus fruits. This study was done to compare the oral immunomodulatory effects of naringenin and prednisolone. Materials and Methods: The effect of one-month oral administration of naringenin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg) on peritoneal macrophage was compared in the first set of experiments. Separate evaluations were conducted on the effects of naringenin on in vivo and ex vivoT-helper (Th) lymphocyte responses and their subsets in mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA). Animals challenged with OVA received oral doses of naringenin or prednisolone from two days prior to immunization to 28 days after immunization. Results: Naringenin and prednisolone increased macrophages’ respiratory burst, and nitric oxide and interleukin (IL)-10 production while decreasing IL-12 production. Macrophages isolated from mice administered with 40 mg/kg naringenin had greater phagocytic potential than those isolated from mice administered with prednisolone. OVA-challenged mice treated with 40 mg/kg naringenin or prednisolone had decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity comparable to control mice. The splenocyte proliferation index was lower in the prednisolone-treated group than the naringenin-treated group, even at 40 mg/kg. In the splenocyte cultures, both agents decreased T-bet expression. Naringenin, in contrast to prednisolone, did not affect GATA3expression. The 40 mg/kg naringenin dose reduced RORγt more effectively than prednisolone. Conclusion: All these findings indicate the potential of naringenin as a modifying agent of immune responses. Consequently, naringenin may be beneficial in controlling some immunopathological conditions.
  • An in vitro antiviral evaluation of punicalagin toward influenza A virus

    • Abstract: Objective: Influenza complications are mild to serious, and can cause death in some cases. A great deal of attention has been paid in recent years to the development and use of new antiviral compounds to overcome drug resistance in certain strains of the influenza virus and treat the clinical implications. This study aimed to investigate the antiviral effect of punicalagin and its associated mechanism against influenza A (H1N1) virus in vitro. Materials and Methods: the ant-influenza activity of punicalagin was studied in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells using influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) (PR8) using Hemagglutinin assay (HA) and 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Then, the inhibition of haemagglutination, virucidal activity, inhibitory effect at different times, replication of viral RNA and expression of viral genes were investigated. Results: Punicalagin could inhibit influenza virus infection with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 3.98 μg/ml and selectivity index (SI) value of 6.1.  Punicalagin decreased virus titers with an inhibitory effect on virus hemagglutination (p<0.05).  Punicalagin also inhibited viral adsorption. The results of virus RNA replication and viral mRNA (NS1 and HA) expression after treatment with punicalagin showed significant suppression of viral mRNA expression but no effect on replication of viral RNA. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that punicalagin was effective against influenza infection most probably via inhibition of haemagglutination activity and virus binding.
  • Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by cinnamon in women with
           polycystic ovarian syndrome: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Objective: Most polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have metabolic abnormalities in which insulin resistance (IR) plays a pivotal role. Cinnamon is a herbal medicine with insulinotropic properties. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of cinnamon on ovarian volume, androgenic profile, and metabolic and anthropometric parameters in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 39 overweight / obese women with PCOS. For six months, subjects in the cinnamon (500 mg) (n=19) and placebo (n=20) groups were given three capsules daily. Before and after the intervention, the variables were assessed. The data was analyzed using the GraphPad Prism software. Results: After the intervention, the two intervention and control groups had significant differences in abdominal subcutaneous fat and ovarian volume, but they did not differ significantly in terms of body mass index (BMI). Also, after the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of lipid profile and the concentration of androgenic biomarkers of insulin resistance. Conclusion: Cinnamon supplementation improves ovarian volume and subcutaneous abdominal fat but has no effect on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin resistance, or androgen hormones.
  • The therapeutic potential of Melissa officinalis L. hydroalcoholic extract
           and rosmarinic acid in a rat asthmatic model: A study on anti-inflammatory
           and antioxidant effects

    • Abstract: Objective: The article studies how Melissa officinalis L. extract and rosmarinic acid (RA) affect lung inflammation, pathology, and oxidative stress in rats with ovalbumin-induced asthma. Materials and Methods: Asthma was induced in rats using ovalbumin injection and inhalation. The study assessed lung inflammation, pathological changes, and oxidative stress in control, untreated asthmatic rats and three treatment groups. These groups received M. officinalis extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), RA (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg), or dexamethasone (Dex) 1 mg/kg. Results: In the sensitized group, white blood cell counts, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels increased significantly, while thiol levels and the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased (p<0.001). However, all treatment groups with the extract, RA, and Dex showed a significant reduction in total white blood cells, eosinophils, monocytes, malondialdehyde, and nitrite levels compared to the asthma group (p<0.001 in all groups). Thiol levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly higher in all treated groups with RA and high extract doses (p<0.001). Lung pathological changes were also significantly less severe in the treated groups with dexamethasone, plant extract, and RA compared to the asthma group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that M. officinalis and RA have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in an animal asthma model, suggesting their potential for treating asthma symptoms.
  • The effects of swimming training at different temperatures along with
           cinnamon supplementation on liver enzymes and thyroid hormones in diabetic

    • Abstract: Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of swimming (S) training in water at 5°C (S5C) and 35°C (S35C) along with cinnamon (Cin) supplementationon liver enzymes and thyroid hormones in streptozotocin (STZ(-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods:In this experimental trial, 48 diabetic rats (55 mg/kg STZ) were divided into (1) diabetic control (CD), (2) S5C, (3) S5C+Cin, (4) S35C, (5) S35C+Cin and (6) Cin groups.Eight rats were placed in the healthy control (HC) group to evaluate the effects of diabetes induction on the research variables. Swimming training was performed at 5±2°C and 35±2°C for eight weeks, 3 days a week.For Cin supplementation, 200 mg/kg/day of the aqueous extract of cinnamon was dissolved in the animals drinking water. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post- hoc test in Graphpad Prism software was used to analyze the findings. Results:S5C and S35C significantly increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)(p≤0.05). TSH levels in the S35C group were higher than the S5C group (p≥0.05); ALT levels in the S5C group were lower than the S35C group (p≥0.05). Also, Cin decreased AST and ALT levels (p≥0.05), while S35C+Cin decreased T3, ALP and ALT and S5C+Cin decreased ALP (p≥0.05). Conclusion:It seems that training at different temperatures and consumption of cinnamon synergistically lead to improvement of liver enzymes and modulation of thyroid hormones. However, the effect of training in cold water and its impact on thyroid hormones is still unknown and needs further research.
  • Efficacy and safety of a novel antiviral herbal preparation in
           ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19: A phase III double-blinded controlled

    • Abstract: Objective: Despite an increasing number of studies, there is as yet no definite treatment developed for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this clinical trial, we examined the efficacy of a novel herbal antiviral preparation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 ICU-admitted patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia were recruited to the trial. Participants were equally randomized to receive either the novel antiviral preparation sublingually, for up to two consecutive weeks or till discharge, or placebo. Clinical and laboratory parameters as well as survival rates were compared between the two groups. Results: The cumulative incidence of death throughout the study period was 8.33% in the intervention group and 60% in the placebo group (risk ratio: 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.32; p<0.001). On day 7, several parameters including white blood cells (WBCs) count, C-reactive protein, and SpO2 were improved for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (p-values of 0.05, 0.01, and <0.001, respectively). Conclusion: This preparation might be suggested as a potentially promising COVID-19 treatment.
  • Herbal and nano-based herbal medicine: New insights into their therapeutic
           aspects against periodontitis

    • Abstract: Objective: Periodontitis is a type of prevalent chronic inflammatory disorder resulting in a failure in the function of tissues supporting the tooth, like gingiva, alveolar bone, and periodontal ligament. Although antibiotic therapy is a common therapy for periodontitis cases, this approach can cause some adverse effects in these patients. Thus, finding an effective curative option with low side effects is still a puzzle. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted on the effects of herbal and nano-based herbal medicine against periodontitis by searching different databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases. Results: According to published studies, some popular herbal formulations, such as Aloe vera, curcumin, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, can be effective in periodontitis treatment. However, these herbal products may be accompanied by some pharmacological limitations, such as poor bioavailability, instability, and weak water solubility. On the other hand, harnessing nano-based herbal formulations can elevate the bioavailability, diminish toxicity, and omit repeated administration of drugs. Conclusion: Herbal and nano-based herbal products can create a good chance to treat periodontitis efficiently.
  • Therapeutic potency of curcumin on radiodermatitis: A systematic review

    • Abstract: Objective: Radiodermatitis (RD) is a frequent adverse event of radiotherapy (RT).  Currently, there is no consensus and approved protocol for the treatment of RD. Curcumin (CUR) is a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric and it has low intrinsic toxicity in humans. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the efficacy of CUR for prevention and treatment of RD. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in the following online databases: Cochrane library, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE. Among the 5 selected records, 3 had a randomized clinical trial (RCT)-design and the other had a pilot and controlled study designed. The included studies were performed on breast cancer (N=3), head and neck cancers (N=1) and different types of cancer (N=1). Results: Four of the studies reported that the application of curcumin in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy is associated with decreased intensity of radiodermatitis. However, one study did not report any significant effect of CUR on radiodermatitis. This review provides substantial evidence which confirm the clinical value of CUR in cancer supportive care. Conclusion: Further prospective clinical trials in larger scales are warranted in order to determine the " supplemental form and dose of CUR" for RD prevention and treatment in patients receiving radiotherapy.
  • The modulating effects of astaxanthin on apoptosis in women with
           polycystic ovarian syndrome: Arandomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Astaxanthin (ASX) is a lipid-soluble keto-carotenoid with several biological effects. These effects may benefit polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients. Imbalanced apoptosis/anti-apoptosis signaling has been considered the major pathogenesis of PCOS. In a randomized clinical trial, we tested the impact of ASX on the apoptotic pathway in PCOS granulosa cells (GCs). The present study hypothesizes that ASX may improve apoptosis in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: This trial recruited patients with confirmed PCOS. A total of 58 patients were randomly assigned to take ASX (12 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks. Aspirated follicular fluid (FF) and blood samples were taken from both groups to measure BAX and BCL2 protein expression. Following FF aspiration, GCs from both groups were obtained; Real-Time PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the apoptotic pathway’s gene and protein expression levels in GCs.BAXBCL2 Results: In GCs analysis, ASX reduced DR5 gene and protein expression after 8 weeks compared to placebo(p<0.05). Also, Caspase8 (p>0.05) and BAX (p<0.05) gene expression declined, although the difference was not statistically significant for Caspase8. Besides,ASX treatment contributed to an elevated BCL2 gene expression in GCs(p<0.05). In FF and serum analysis, a statistically significant increase was found in BCL2 concentration in the ASX group (p<0.05). Moreover, a reduction in BAX level was confirmed in both FF and serum of the ASX group; however, this change was not significant in the serum (p>0.05). Conclusion: It seems that ASX consumption among women with PCOS improved serum and FF levels of apoptotic factors and modulated genes and protein expression of the apoptosis pathway in GCs. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to reveal the potential role of this compound in PCOS treatment.
  • A preliminary report comparing the effect of Asafoetida with oral
           contraceptive on polycystic ovarian syndrome in a double-blind randomized

    • Abstract: Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infertility and endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. In Persian medicine, Ferula assafoetida L. (Asafoetida) was recommended for treating PCOS. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of Asafoetida with oral contraceptive tablets on PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: Patients with PCOS (n=30) were enrolled in a double-blind randomized clinical trial. On Day 5 of the menstrual cycle, patients received two periods of 21-day treatment, with 7 days rest between the two treatments. On a daily basis, half of the patients (n=15) received Asafoetida (1 g), and the rest received low dose oral contraceptive (LD; one tablet). Menstrual status, anthropometric characteristics, hematology and biochemistry parameters, ovarian ultrasound examination and hirsutism were evaluated prior to the initiation of the experiment and 14 days after the end of treatment. The occurrence of menstrual cycles and pregnancy was assessed eight months after the end of treatment. Results: The incidence of pregnancy was greater in patients who received Asafoetida compared to those who received LD (p=0.019). The time intervals between menstrual cycles became shorter in both groups (p<0.05). The occurrence of regular menstrual cycles remained longer in the Asafoetida compared to the LD group (p=0.001). Concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were significantly increased after treating with LD (p<0.05). Conclusion: In PCOS patients, the occurrence of regular menstrual cycles and the incidence of pregnancy were improved following treatment with Asafoetida. This medicament could be considered a safe treatment for patients with PCOS.
  • Effects of curcumin supplementation on insomnia and daytime sleepiness in
           young women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: A randomized
           clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Premenstrual syndrome and primary dysmenorrhea are common gynecological complaints that are associated with psychological disorders. There is increasing evidence for the neuroprotective properties of curcumin, a polyphenolic natural product. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on sleep complications in women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial comprised 124 patients with both premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Participants were randomly assigned to curcumin (n=57) or control (n=60) groups. Each participant received one capsule containing either 500 mg of curcumin plus piperine or placebo, daily, from 7 days before until 3 days after menstruation for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Insomnia and sleepiness were assessed using standard questionnaires. Results: Scores for insomnia and daytime sleepiness were directly correlated with the Premenstrual Syndrome Screening Tool (PSST) score (p<0.05), but not with the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at baseline (p>0.05). There was a non-significant reduction in insomnia and sleepiness scores in both curcumin and placebo groups after the study intervention. Whilst, improvement rate of insomnia status, daytime sleepiness severity, short sleep duration and difficult sleep initiation was not statistically significant between the curcumin and placebo groups. Conclusion: Curcumin does not significantly affect sleep disorders in young women with premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea.
  • Effect of nano-micelle curcumin on hepatic enzymes: A new treatment
           approach for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    • Abstract: Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive lipid accumulation in hepatocytes with no consumption of alcohol. Recently, curcumin is a natural polyphenol found in turmeric has been examined for the treatment of NAFLD. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 160 mg/day nano-micelle curcumin on the amelioration of NAFLD by measuring liver enzymes. Materials and Methods: Patients with NAFLD were randomly divided into curcumin (intervention group n=33) and placebo (n=33) groups and at the end of the study, the data of 56 participants who completed the 2-month intervention were analyzed. Laboratory tests and questionnaires were used to gather information. Both groups received recommendations for lifestyle modification, and were advised to other necessary advices. Patients in the curcumin group received 160 mg/day of nano-micelle curcumin in two divided doses for 60 days. The 2 groups were followed up for two months and clinical and laboratory indices were compared. Results: Our data showed a significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the curcumin group (p<0.01) as well as a significant difference between the groups before and after the intervention in curcumin group (p<0.05). Interestingly, a meaningful decrease in AST serum level was observed in the intervention group (p<0.01).  Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that short-term supplementation with nano-micelle curcumin results in the reduction of AST and ALT and is beneficial for the treatment of NAFLD.
  • Silibinin effects on cognitive disorders: Hope or treatment'

    • Abstract: Objective: Almost all diseases of the nervous system are related to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, neuronal death, glia activation, and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cognitive disorders are one of the common complications of nervous system diseases. The role of some plant compounds in reducing or preventing cognitive disorders has been determined. Silibinin is a plant bioflavonoid and exhibits various effects on cognitive functions. This article discusses the different mechanisms of the effect of silibinin on cognitive disorders in experimental studies. Materials and Methods: Databases, including ISI, , Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline  and PubMed, were investigated from 2000 to 2021, using related keywords to find required articles. Results: Silibinin can improve cognitive disorders by different pathways such as reducing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, activation of reactive oxygen species- Brain-derived neurotrophic factor- Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (ROS–BDNF–TrkB) pathway in the hippocampus, an increase of dendritic spines in the brain, inhibition of hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and increasing the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R), inhibiting inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and amygdala, and decrease of Homovanillic acid/Dopamine (HVA/DA) ratio and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid + Homovanillic acid/Dopamine (DOPAC+ HVA/DA) ratio in the prefrontal cortex and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HIAA/5-HT) ratio in the hippocampus. Conclusion: These results suggest that silibinin can be considered a therapeutic agent for the symptom reduction of cognitive disorders, and it acts by affecting various mechanisms such as inflammation, programmed cell death, and oxidative stress.
  • Potential therapeutic effects of baicalin and baicalein

    • Abstract: Objective: Baicalin and baicalein are natural flavonoids reported for the first time from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Recently, attention has been paid to these valuable flavonoids due to their promising effects. This paper aims to have a comprehensive review of their pharmacological effects. Materials and Methods: An extensive search through scientific databases including Scopus, PubMed, and ISI Web of Science was established. Results: According to literature, these compounds have been mainly effective in the treatment of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, hepatic and cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, and cancers through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Induction of apoptosis and autophagy, and inhibition of migration and metastasis are the main mechanisms for their cytotoxic and antitumor activities. Decreasing inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, regulating the metabolism of lipids, and decreasing fibrosis, apoptosis, and steatosis are their main hepatoprotective mechanisms. Inhibiting the development of cardiac fibrosis and reducing inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are also the mechanisms suggested for cardioprotective activities. Decreasing the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and improving cognitive function and depressive-like behaviours are the main mechanisms for neurological and neurodegenerative activities. Conclusion: The findings suggest the therapeutic potential of baicalin and baicalein. However, complementary research in different in vitro and in vivo models to investigate their mechanisms of action as well as clinical trials to evaluate their efficacy and safety are suggested.
  • In vivo and in vitro effects of crocetin and its amide derivative on
           acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity

    • Abstract: Objective: Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxic agent whose damage could be attenuated by antioxidants administration. Crocetin is a saffron-derived antioxidant that has neuroprotective effects. This study evaluates the protective effects of trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) and its water-soluble derivative, Bis-N-(N-methylpyprazinyl) crocetinate (BMPC) against ACR neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: PC12 cells were treated with TSC and BMPC (1.95, 3.9, 7.81, 15.62, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, and 1000 μM) for 24 hr. ACR was then added at a concentration of 6.5 mM (IC50), and cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. In the in vivo study, male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) for 11 days alone or in combination with TSC and BMPC (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p.). Motor impairments were then evaluated. The cerebral cortex of sacrificed rats was taken for the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels measurement. Results: In vitro studies showed that TSC at a concentration of 7.81 μM and BMPC at concentrations of 3.9, 7.81, and 15.62 μM exhibited the lowest toxicity in acrylamide administration. In the in vivo study, pretreatment with 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of TSC ameliorated behavioral impairments, but BMPC could not attenuate them. GSH and MDA were improved by 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg TSC and 2.5 mg/kg BMPC. Conclusion: TSC and BMPC administration improved behavioral index and oxidative stress injuries in Wistar rats exposed to ACR through MDA reduction and GSH content enhancement in the cerebral cortex.
  • Hormetic effects of curcumin on oxidative stress injury induced by
           trivalent arsenic in isolated rat hepatocytes

    • Abstract: Objective: Arsenic (As) poisoning is a worldwide public health problem. Arsenic can cause cancer, diabetes, hepatic problems, etc. Hence, we investigated possible hepatoprotective properties of curcumin against As3+-induced liver damages in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.Materials and Methods: Isolation of hepatocytes was done by the two-step liver perfusion method using collagenase. The EC50 concentration of As3+ was used in toxicity assessments and curcumin (2, 5, and 10 µM) was added 15 min before As3+ addition to isolated hepatocytes. Curcumin impact was assessed in terms of cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation induction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential.Results: As3+ significantly increased cytotoxicity, malondialdehyde and ROS levels and induced mitochondrial membrane damage and hepatocyte membrane lysis after 3 hr incubation. Curcumin 2 µM significantly prevented lipid peroxidation induction, ROS formation, and mitochondrial membrane damage; while curcumin 5 µM had no apparent effect on these parameters, curcumin 10 µM potentiated them.Conclusion: Curcumin only at low doses could ameliorate oxidative stress injury induced by As3+ in isolated rat hepatocytes.
  • The methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa downregulates the relative
           expression of Kiss1 gene in the hypothalamus of Wistar rats: A preliminary

    • Abstract: Objective: Kiss1 gene expression in the rat hypothalamus was investigated following administration of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (MEHS) to provide mechanistic evidence for the reproductive effect of the MEHS as a potential regulator of Kiss1 gene (which directly controls the hypogonadal axis). Materials and Methods: This experiment was done using fifteen (15) male rats with average weight of 148 g, randomly grouped into three (3) groups (A-C). Group A was the control group and received no treatment. Group B and C were orally administered with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of MEHS, respectively. The animals received the extract once a day for twenty-one (21) days. The hypothalamus was harvested on the last day of administration to investigate antioxidant levels, histopathology, and Kiss1 gene expression. Results: The relative expression of Kiss1 gene in the group C was downregulated compared to the control group (p=0.023). No significant changes were seen in the antioxidant levels of the groups treated with MEHS when compared to the control. MEHS had no histopathological effects in the hypothalamus at both low (200 mg/kg) and high (400 mg/kg) doses. Conclusions: High-dose MEHS lowers the expression of the Kiss1 gene in the hypothalamus. However, this effect could not be explained by the oxidative profile or histology of the hypothalamus.
  • Assessment of the neuroprotective effect of Cocos nucifera L. oil on
           learning and behavior impairment in ovariectomized rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The current study aimed to investigate whether Cocos nucifera L. oil (CO) is effective on menopause-related memory dysfunction in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy female Wistar rats were randomly selected and classified into five groups as control, OVX rats, and three OVX groups of rats which received three different doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) of CO for five consecutive weeks by gavage. To assess the effect of CO, neurobehavioral tests such as Morris water maze (MWM) and Passive avoidance (PA) were done and then the animals were sacrificed to remove cortical and hippocampal tissues for biochemical analysis. Results: In both behavioral tests including MWM and PA, treatment with CO particularly two higher doses of 200, and 400 mg/kg demonstrated significant improvement in comparison with OVX group. Furthermore, antioxidant biomarkers such as total thiol content, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly higher in the OVX-CO groups versus the OVX group. On the contrary, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative stress biomarker was remarkably lower in the OVX-CO200 and 400 mg groups than the OVX group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the significant improvement of CO on learning and memory impairment induced by ovariectomy. Although the exact mechanism needs further investigation, it might have occurred due to the anti-oxidative effect of CO.
  • The preventive effect of Zingiber officinale essential oil on
           demyelination of corpus callosum in a cuprizone rat model of multiple

    • Abstract: Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent neurological disability among young adults. Anti-inflammatory drugs have shown to be effective in MS. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been shown and proven in many phytotherapy studies. This study aimed to evaluate effects of ginger essential oil on preventing myelin degradation in a rat model of MS. Materials and Methods: In this study, we divided 49 rats into 7 groups; 4 control and 3 experimental groups that received 3 different dose of ginger essential oil (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day) for treatment of cuprizone-induced demyelinated rats. Basket test and transmission electron microscopy were performed in this study. Olig2 and Mbp genes and proteins were respectively evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Histologically, cuprizone created demyelination in the corpus callosum fibers. Remyelination of fibers was seen in the group treated with the medium dose of ginger essence, by toluidine blue staining. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed increased thickness of the myelin of fibers in all 3 treated groups (p<0.05). Feeding by the medium dose of ginger essence significantly increased the levels of Mbp and Olig2 genes (p<0.05).  ELISA test showed that 100 mg/kg/day of ginger caused a significant difference between experimental and the cuprizone-induced groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggested that administration of ginger essential oil prevented demyelination and improved remyelination of rats` corpus callusom and can be used as an effective substance in the prevention of MS.
  • Ellagic acid alleviates motor, cognitive and hippocampal electrical
           activity deficits in the male rats with 2-vessel occlusion cerebral

    • Abstract: Objective: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) has been known as a major cause of inability and mortality worldwide. Ellagic acid (EA) has many pharmacological effects including antioxidant, antithrombotic and neurorestoration activities. The aim of this study was evaluation of the effects of EA on motor and cognitive behaviors, hippocampal local field potential (LFP), brain oxidative stress in male rats with cerebral 2-vessel occlusion ischemia/reperfusion (2VO I/R). Materials and Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were assigned into six groups. 1) The Sham: rats were treated with DMSO10%/normal saline as solvent of EA 3 times daily for 1 week; 2) I/R+Veh; I/R rats received vehicle; 3-5) EA-treated groups: I/R rats received 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg EA; and 6) Cont+EA100: intact rats received EA. The cerebral 2VO I/R was made by the bilateral common carotid arteries closing for 20 min followed by reperfusion. The behavioral tests and hippocampal LFP recording were performed after treatment with EA. The oxidative stress parameters were assayed by special ELISA kits. Results: Cerebral 2VO I/R significantly decreased motor coordination, memory and hippocampal LFP and significantly increased oxidative stress. Treatment with EA improved all I/R complications.  Conclusion: The current findings showed that treatment of I/R rats with EA could reverse cognitive and motor functions, and improve the LFP and oxidative stress markers. So, effects of EA on cognitive and motor function may at least in part, be due to its antioxidative actions.
  • Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa on cisplatin-induced
           memory impairment and brain oxidative stress status in male rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Studies have shown the complications of chemotherapy on learning and memory. Empirical evidence suggests that Nigella sativa (NS) has neuroprotective activities. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of NS on cisplatin-induced memory impairment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 male rats grouped as: control (saline: 2 ml/kg, intraperitoneally (IP), once weekly/2 weeks), cisplatin (Cis, 2 mg/kg, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), NS (200 mg/kg, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), Cis +NS 200 (2 mg/kg Cis + 200 mg/kg NS, IP, once weekly/2 weeks), and Cis +NS 400 (2 mg/kg Cis + 400 mg/kg NS, IP, once weekly/2 weeks). Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess spatial learning and memory. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and thiol and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated in the brain. Results: Cis significantly enhanced the traveled distance and time spent in the target quadrant in the MWM test. Additionally, MDA levels increased in the Cis group, while thiol and SOD decreased in this group. As a result of treatment with NS, behavioral results were reversed in the groups receiving NS compared to the Cis group. Also, NS reduced MDA level but improved SOD and thiol levels in brain tissue samples. Conclusion: NS could improve memory impairment and oxidative stress in animals receiving Cis. Therefore, NS could be used as a potential food supplement to prevent neurotoxicity in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Medicinal plants and foods with metaphorical concepts in Rumi’s
           “Masnavi Manavi”: The psychosomatic approach to human health

    • Abstract: Objective: “Masnavi Manavi” is one of the most valuable texts of Persian literature. In this book, Rumi (Mevlana) with a unique method and in the form of moral stories teaches life lessons, mystical truths and even therapeutic advices to people. The aim of this study is to highlight the medicinal plants and foods that had been applied both in somatic and spiritual concept in “Masnavi Manavi’ poems.Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a library-based, descriptive and analytical method was used.Results: Some medicinal plants and food terms such as rose-water, vinegar, honey, oxymel, common reed, grape, onion, garlic and wheat are mentioned in this study to show Rumi's metaphorical and therapeutic approach as a doctor who treats both soul and body. In fact, Rumi's intention to apply these terms was to express his ideas and views about the inseparability of physical and spiritual aspects in human health and well-being.Conclusion: Rumi focus in “Masnavi Manavi” moral stories is the soul health and consider body as carrier of the soul. Therefore, because of this psychosomatic approach to human disease, he selects the most suitable herbs and foods for explaining spiritual and somatic medicine.
  • The effect of Phytopaj )Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and
           tragacanth( in patients with COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a positive effect on respiratory diseases. Oleo-gum of Ferula assa-foetida contains this compound. This study assessed the effects of Ferula assa-foetida L. oleo gum resin and tragacanth (Phytopaj) on patients with COVID-19.  Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial (RCT) phase 2 was conducted in Mashhad on hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In this RCT, 122 patients were randomly assigned to either receive a 14-day oral phytopaj plus ordinary treatment or ordinary treatment only. Changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte count (LC) and blood oxygen saturation (PO2) were the endpoints. Results: Mean±SD of PO2 in Phytopaj comparison ordinary treatment before intervention was 91.86±4.62 and 91.41±9.18, after the intervention it was 93.22±4.26 and 91.91±5.92 mmHg; before intervention, mean±SD of peripheral blood lymphocyte count was 1015.90±500.55, and 1104.28±543.61, and after intervention, it was 1652.27±921.38 and 1326.12±719.28/μL respectively. Participants' age, comorbidity, gender, and stage of Conclusion: Phyopaj is most useful in moderate stages of Covid19, and it is not recommended for elderly patients and patients with comorbidity until more insight is gained.
  • Evaluation of oral nano-curcumin efficacy on respiratory function and
           quality of life in patients with bronchial non-atopic asthma: A randomized
           controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Asthma is a common disease and curcumin has modest effect in inflammatory disorders. This study investigated the efficacy of nano-curcumin on asthma. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 patients with non-atopic bronchial asthma were randomly stratified in two groups of intervention (N=30) and control (N=30) groups. Apart from their standard treatment, the intervention group received 40 mg nano-curcumin (soft gel) three times daily while the control group received placebo. During the 60-day study, patients were assessed using spirometry to measure Forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1). Asthma control test (ACT) was completed every 30 days and asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) was completed at the first and end of the study. Results: Totally, 31 patients (51.7%) were male and the mean age was 51.45±12.58 years. FEV1 was improved but there was no significant difference between intervention and control groups. ACT and AQLQ domains scores significantly improved. However, it was not statistically different between control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Nano-curcumin at administered dosage had no additive effect on the standard treatment in asthmatic patients.
  • Effects of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and headache-related
           disability of patients with migraine: A randomized double-blind
           placebo-controlled trial

    • Abstract: Objective: Increased body mass index (BMI) seems to be a risk factor for migraine attacks. Cinnamon has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-obesity effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of cinnamon on anthropometric indices and headache-related disability of patients with migraine. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 50 migraine patients. Patients were randomized to receive either 600 mg cinnamon powder or placebo capsules for two months. Height, body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured. Furthermore, Minimal or Infrequent Disability (MIDAS) and Headache Daily Result (HDR) Questionnaires were recorded. Results: At the end of the treatment period, BW and BMI did not change in the intervention group; however, both factors were significantly increased in the placebo group (p=0.001). The change of WC, HDR and MIDAS was significantly different between the intervention and placebo groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, HC and WHR significantly decreased (p=0.001). Conclusion: Cinnamon seems to have beneficial effects on anthropometric indices and headache disability of migraine patients. 
  • Identification of Lilium ledebourii antiproliferative compounds against
           skin, bone and oral cancer cells

    • Abstract: Objective: This study aimed at the evaluation of anti antiproliferative activity of Lonicera nummularifolia, Lilium ledebourii, Campsis radicans and Parthenocissus quinquefolia extracts. Materials and Methods: The extract was taken from the fresh leaves and bulbs of the plants by maceration method in the dark. After separating the solvent, the remaining dry matter was added to the culture medium containing G292, A431 and KB cancer and HGF-1 normal cells. Cytotoxicity tests, as well as cell cycle and apoptosis tests were performed on cells treated with dry substances and untreated cells. Finally, the most effective extract was separated into fractions by preparative HPLC and the effective fraction was characterized by Triple-Quad LC/MS connected to the UHPLC system. Results: All extracts significantly enhanced cell death rate in the three cancer cell lines more than the HGF-1 line. The Methanolic extract of L. ledebourii bulbs exhibited considerable efficacy on apoptosis induction in the cancer cell lines. It seems that the mode of action for L. ledebourii methanolic extract is mediated through increased BID/MAPK14 expression and decreased MDM2/BCL2/MYC expression, which led to activation of the p53 protein-induced apoptosis. It was also determined that the effective fraction of L. ledebourii methanolic extract consists of substances such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, coumarin acid, catechin and apigenin. Conclusion: Overall, the findings suggest that L. ledebourii is a promising source of bioactive compounds with anticancer properties.
  • Assessment of the effects of bean extract on axillary hair reduction

    • Abstract: Objective: Body hair removal plays an important role in beauty standards, particularly for women. Finding a method that is easy to use, cheap, and can be done without supervision can significantly affect long-term hair reduction and reduce the side effects of hair removal. The present study investigated the impact of a containing 20% broad bean (Vicia faba) extract cream on axillary hair removal.Materials and Methods: Twenty-five female volunteers were randomly divided into A (right axillary intervention - left axillary placebo) and B (right axillary placebo - left axillary intervention). Depending on the group, each person used a cream containing 20% broad bean extract )"The extract made from the seeds and pods of broad beans.") on one side and a placebo on the other twice a day for three months. Volunteers shaved their axillary hairs three days before each visit and took pictures of both sides on the day of the visit with a trichoscope (to check the diameter and thickness of the hairs).Results: We found a decrease in thickness on the intervention group (the axilla where a cream containing broad bean extract was applied); however, this difference was not significant between the intervention side and the placebo. In terms of the number of hairs, the difference between the two groups was significant only in the second month despite the decrease on the intervention side. Evaluation based on the personal judgment of the volunteers showed that there was a substantial difference in terms of the number of hairs (p=0.012) and thinning of hair (p=0.02).Conclusion: Our findings showed that 20% broad bean extract cream could potentially reduce axillary hair growth.
  • Protective effect of ellagic acid against high-glucose-induced injury in
           human umbilical venous endothelial cells

    • Abstract: Objective: There is escalating evidence suggesting the beneficial effects of ellagic acid (EA) on the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of EA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against high glucose (HG)- induced endothelial dysfunction and to study the potential roles of adropin and nitric oxide (NO) in this regard. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups consisted of normal and HG (30 mM, 48 hr)-treated HUVECs incubated without or with 5 or 10 μM of EA (6 groups of at least 6 replicates, each). The cell count and viability were studied. Moreover, the markers of the redox state, including malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase enzymes, and ferric reducing anti-oxidant power (FRAP), were assayed. The levels of adropin and eNOS gene expression were also studied using RT-qPCR. Results: A high concentration of glucose reduced cell count and caused lipid peroxidation, reduced anti-oxidant capacity of the cells, decreased NO levels, and downregulated the expression of NOS3 (encoding eNOS) and ENHO (encoding adropin) genes. Ellagic acid reversed all these effects. Conclusion: These results suggest a significant protective effect for EA against HG-induced injury in HUVECs. The improved redox state and upregulation of NOS3 and ENHO genes seem to play critical roles in this regard.
  • Therapeutic effects of Medicago sativa against cyclophosphamide-induced
           toxicity in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: Medicago sativa (M. sativa) has been traditionally used for treating anemia; therefore, M. sativa hydro-ethanolic extract therapeutic effects against cyclophosphamide (CP) -induced hematologic and liver toxicity were examined. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided to control (saline); CP (100 mg/kg, day 1-3, subcutaneously); CP+ M. sativa 200 mg/kg (MS 200); CP+ M. sativa 400 mg/kg (MS 400); CP+ dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg), (all groups n=6). Treated animals received M. sativa or dexamethasone by gavage from days 7-14. On days 0, 7, and 14, hematologic parameters, and on the 14th day, serum and liver tissue oxidative stress markers including nitric oxide, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, serum lipids, and liver enzymes were measured. Results: Animal weight, platelet, white blood cells, and red blood cells counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit as well as thiol, SOD, and CAT activities in serum and liver tissue were significantly reduced, but serum nitric oxide, MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins levels, and liver enzymes were increased in the CP group compared to the control group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Administering M. sativa extract (400 mg/kg) significantly enhanced platelet count, and SOD and CAT activities and inhibited all of the CP toxic effects, while dexamethasone improved platelet count and oxidative stress markers compared to the CP group (p<0.05 to p<0.001). Conclusion: The extract of M. sativa (400 mg/kg) showed therapeutic effects against the CP-induced myelosuppression and thrombocytopenia and improved oxidative stress markers which were comparable to the effect of dexamethasone.
  • Spirulina supplement and exercise training affect lipid droplets-related
           genes expression in visceral adipose tissue

    • Abstract: Objective: Disruption of lipid droplets (LDs) is associated with many metabolic diseases. Spirulina, as a natural bioactive dietary supplement, along with exercise training, may improve lipid metabolism; however, their effects on LDs-regulated genes in visceral adipose tissue are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of six-week Spirulina supplementation along with exercise training on LDs regulating gene expression. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: saline (control), control+Spirulina (Spirulina), aerobic interval training (AIT), AIT+ Spirulina (AIT+Spirulina), resistance training and resistance+ Spirulina. The supplement groups consumed 500 mg/kg Spirulina five days per week. The training groups performed AIT (5 times per week) and resistance training (3 times per week) for 6 weeks. LDs regulating genes expression in visceral adipose tissue (Zw10, Bscl2, DFCP1, Rab18, Syntaxin 18, Acsl3, and Plin2) was analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: Spirulina and exercise training had no significant effects on the gene expression of Syntaxin18 (p=0.69) and DFCP1 (p=0. 84), ACSL3 (p=0.98), or BSCL2 (p=0.58). In addition, Spirulina was found to significantly attenuate the expression of Plin2 (p=0.01) and Rab18 (p=0.01) genes compared to the control, AIT, and resistance training groups. However, Plin2 gene expression was higher in the resistance training than the AIT. Furthermore, Spirulina decreased ZW10 (p=0.03) gene expression in visceral adipose tissue compared to the control, AIT, and resistance training groups. Unexpectedly, Spirulina supplementation decreased the expression of these genes even more when taken without exercise training Conclusion: Spirulina supplementation and exercise training have significant effects on LDs-regulated genes in visceral adipose tissue.
  • Quercetin may reduce the risk of developing the symptoms of COVID-19

    • Abstract: Objective: Recent evidence reported that some dietary compounds like quercetin and apigenin as the most well-known flavonoids with anti-inflammatory effects may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The hypothesis of the promising effects and possible mechanisms of action of quercetin against COVID-19 were assessed in this article. Materials and Methods: Related papers on the inhibitory effects of quercetin against COVID-19 were collected using the following search strategy: “corona or coronavirus or COVID or COVID-19 or viral or virus” AND “nutrient or flavonoid or Quercetin”. Results: The findings indicated that quercetin can be considered an effective agent against COVID-19 because of its SARS-CoV-2 main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitory effects. In addition, quercetin may attenuate angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors leading to a reduction of SARS-CoV-2 ability to enter host cells. Moreover, the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities of quercetin have been frequently reported. Conclusion: Quercetin may be an effective agent for managing the complications of COVID-19. Further longitudinal human studies are warranted.
  • Silibinin improved the function of T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear
           cells (PBMCs) co-cultured with U-87 MG cell line

    • Abstract: Objective: Silibinin has exhibited antitumor activities. However, there are few reports about the immunomodulatory properties of silibinin on T lymphocyte function in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we determined the effects of silibinin on T cells of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cultivated alone or with a human cell line of glioblastoma (U-87 MG). Materials and Methods: The proliferation of T lymphocytes was assessed by MTT test in the presence of silibinin (15 and 45 µM). Also, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the activity of superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3), and the levels of two cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor growth beta (TGF-β) were compared between treated and untreated PBMCs alone or co-cultured with U-87 cells. Results: According to our results, silibinin raised the TAC levels and SOD3 activity in the PBMCs and in the co-culture condition. Moreover, silibinin-treated PBMCs showed higher IFN-γ levels and lower TGF-β levels. Interestingly, silibinin protected PBMCs against the U-87-induced suppression. Conclusion: Altogether, these results proposed the immunomodulatory potential of silibinin on T cells of PBMCs, as well as its partially protective effects on PBMCs against the suppression induced by U-87 MG cells.
  • Concomitant administration of resveratrol and resistance training
           ameliorates acrylamide-induced spatial learning impairment in rats

    • Abstract: Objective: The present study examined effects of resistance training (RT) and resveratrol (RES) alone and together on acrylamide (AC)-induced memory impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups: (1) Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneally (ip) daily for 8 weeks; (2) Scopolamine (SCO) group which received SCO (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (3) AC group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; (4) AC + RT group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks); (5) AC + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks; and (6) AC + RT + RES group which received AC (5 mg/kg/day, ip) and RES (1 mg/kg/day, ip) for 8 weeks and performed RT (5 days a week for 8 weeks). On day 53, animal training began in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) and 24 hr after the last training, the probe test was performed. Results: RT and RES alone did not significantly affect escape latency or traveled distance increased by AC. However, concomitant RES and RT treatment significantly reduced these parameters compared to the AC group. Co-treatment with RES and RT also significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant compared to the AC group. Lipid peroxidation was reduced in the AC+RES and AC+RT+RES groups compared to the AC group.  Conclusion: It seems that daily co-treatment with RES and RT for 8 weeks ameliorates the memory-impairing effects of AC.
  • Naringin mitigates testicular injury and associated neuronal toxicity in
           lead-exposed cockerel chicks

    • Abstract: Objective: Lead (Pb) poisoning affects multiple organs including the reproductive system. The experiment was performed to explore the protective effect of naringin on testicular apoptosis, neuronal dysfunction and markers of stress in cockerel chicks. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six cockerel chicks were used for this study, and randomly grouped into six chicks per group viz. control, Pb only (600 ppm), Pb and naringin (80 mg/kg), Pb and Naringin (160 mg/kg), naringin only (80 mg/kg) and naringin only (160 mg/kg), respectively, for eight weeks. Pb was administered via drinking water while naringin was administered via oral gavage. Oxidative stress indices in the brain and testes were assessed, and immunohistochemistry of TNF-α and caspase 3 was done in the brain and testes, respectively. Results: Lead administration induced inflammatory and testicular apoptosis cascade accompanied with increased oxidative stress and upregulation of brain and testicular antioxidant enzymes in comparison to the control and Pb-only-treated cockerels. Immunohistochemistry showed significant immunoreactivity of testicular caspase 3 and TNF-α in the brain. Conclusion: Treatment of Pb-exposed chickens with naringin offered protection to Pb acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neuroinflammation in cockerel chicks.
  • Britannin suppresses MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis
           and inhibiting autophagy

    • Abstract: Objective: Breast cancer is the main reason for cancer-related death in women. Britannin is a sesquiterpene lactone compound derived from Inula aucheriana with anti-tumor properties. We aimed to explore the impacts of britannin on apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic influences of britannin on MCF-7 cells were estimated by the MTT method. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes such as CASP3, BCL2, BCL2L1, STAT3, and JAK2 and transcripts of autophagy markers including ATG1, ATG4, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, BECN1, and MAP1LC3A were quantified using quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blotting method was used to evaluate the amount of caspase 3, phosphorylated JAK2, phosphorylated STAT3, ATG1, ATG4, ATG5, Beclin1, and LC-III.  Results: Treatment of MCF-7 cells with various concentrations of britannin remarkably hindered the viability of these cells compared to the controls. This compound significantly elevated the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 but did not influence the levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 and BCL2L1. Britannin decreased the levels of phosphorylated forms of JAK2 and STAT3 proteins causing the blockage of the JAK/STAT pathway. Four autophagy factors expressions, including ATG4, ATG5, Beclin1, and LCIII, were reduced due to the effect of britannin on MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Britannin triggered apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by a mechanism that led to the blockade of the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, britannin prohibited autophagy in these cancer cells. This may suggest britannin as an agent for the suppression of breast tumors or as an adjutant for the enhancement of anti-breast cancer drugs effect.
  • Investigation of the neuroprotective effect of crocin against
           electromagnetic field-induced cerebellar damage in male Balb/c mice

    • Abstract: Objective: Mobile devices are sources of electromagnetic fields  (EMFs) that cause increasing concern among scientists about human health, especially with the long-term use of mobile phones. With regard to this issue, the potential adverse health effects, particularly on brain function have raised public concern. There is considerable evidence that natural compounds have neuro-protective effects due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Growing evidence suggests that crocin as a natural bioactive compound can be considered a potential therapeutic agent against various neurologic disorders. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of crocin on the cerebellum after exposure to EMF. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Male Balb/c mice were divided into control group, EMF group (2100 MHZ), EMF +Crocin group (2100 MHZ+50 mg/kg), and crocin group (50 mg/kg). The animals in the EMF and EMF+Crocin groups were exposed continuously for 30 days to an EMF 120 min/day. After 30 days, cerebellar cortex was evaluated by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The results showed that 30 days of exposure to EMF had no significant effect on Purkinje cell size. However, EMF reduced significantly the diameter of astrocytes and increased Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression compared to the controls (p<0.05). Our findings also indicated that crocin treatment could improve the diameter of astrocytes and normalize GFAP expression (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that 2100-MHz EMF caused adverse effects on the cerebellum through astrocyte damage and crocin could partially reverse the EMF-related adverse effects.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
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