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Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.169
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  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 1598-2386 - ISSN (Online) 2211-1069
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Sweat therapy, a novel treatment of psoriasis: prospective pre-post
           intervention design

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      Abstract: Abstract This study was conducted to confirm the potential of normal sweating as an important prognostic factor for the onset and treatment of psoriasis. A total of 97 patients who visited the Haeng-Pa Korean Medicine Clinic, a traditional Korean medical clinic for psoriasis, from January 2018 to October 2018 were enrolled in this prospective pre-post intervention study. Participants’ baseline characteristics, psoriasis state, seasonal and sweating factors, and treatment effects were analyzed with frequency analysis (%). All of 97 (100%) patients had problems with sweating in the psoriasis site and 50 (51.55%) patients had problems with sweating even in normal skin. 71 patients (73.20%) saw improvements from medicinal plants such as Ephedra sinica and Cinnamomi cassia Presl that promote perspiration. Psoriasis patients have problems with their sweating, and Korean medical sweat therapy was highly effective for treating psoriasis. Therefore, a sweating problem may be an important component in the onset and treatment of psoriasis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
       
  • Antiamnesic effect of Mesua ferrea (L.) flowers on scopolamine-induced
           memory impairment and oxidative stress in rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Mesua ferrea Linn. flowers have been used in Ayurveda as a brain tonic and as an ingredient in memory-enhancing formulations such as Brahma Rasayan and Chyawanprash. However, this ethnomedicinal use has not been investigated scientifically. This study evaluated the effect of the ethanolic extract of Mesua ferrea flowers (MFE) on memory in scopolamine-induced models of cognitive dysfunction. MFE was administered to rats (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) for a period of 14 days, after which amnesia was induced by giving scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c) on the 14th day. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o) was given as a positive control. The models employed to assess memory in the rats were the T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) and novel object recognition test (NORT). Pretreatment with MFE ameliorated the memory deficit caused by scopolamine; which was evidenced by a significantly greater relative proportion of spontaneous alternation percentage in the T-CAT, and a significant increase of discrimination index in the NORT. Further, MFE significantly inhibited anticholinesterase activity in the brain, elevated the levels of reduced glutathione and catalase, and decreased malondialdehyde and nitrite levels in the brain. The results of this study show that MFE exhibited significant anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in scopolamine treated rats, which could be the possible underlying mechanism of its memory-enhancing activity and of its ethnomedicinal use as a brain tonic.
      PubDate: 2022-06-21
       
  • Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of β-sitosterol isolated from
           Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A. Lawson (Combretaceae) on Jurkat-T
           cells and protection by glutathione

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      Abstract: Abstract Combretum species are distributed widely in Southern Africa and are known for their medicinal properties. The species have potential as sources of anticancer agents. Combrestanin-A4 isolated from Combretum caffrum is one of the pure compounds now under clinical trials. The aim of this study was to fractionate and isolate plant phytoconstituents of C. platypetalum and determine their antiproliferative effects on a human leukemic cancer cell line, Jurkat-T cells. Dried powdered leaf plant samples were extracted serially with hexane, DCM, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water. The total combined extracts were run on a silica gel column using a mobile phase of increasing polarity. β-Sitosterol was isolated from pool 94–98 of the fractions and identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and its molecular formula confirmed by mass spectrometry. The effects of β-sitosterol on proliferation of cells, effect of combining β-sitosterol and glutathione, effect of combining β-sitosterol and camptothecin and effect of β-sitosterol on glutathione S-transferase activity were determined. β-sitosterol showed dose-dependent antiproliferative effects against Jurkat-T cells and these effects were shown to be irreversible. Reduced glutathione protected the cells from the effects of β-sitosterol. Enhance antiproliferative effects were observed when β-sitosterol was combined with camptothecin. β-sitosterol was also shown to inhibit the activity of glutathione S-transferases in the cancer cell line. The results of the study suggested that β-sitosterol has antiproliferative effects in the Jurkat-T cells. Further work needs to be done on normal cells to determine if β-sitosterol affects cancer cells only.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Test comparison of seeds and skins extract of duku’s fruit (Lansium
           domesticum Corr.) against the amount of melanin pigment of skin mencit
           (Mus musculus) to prevent premature aging of the skin

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      Abstract: Abstract Premature aging can occur due to excessive sun exposure which causes hyperpigmentation problems and causes brown or black patches on the skin. Duku (Lansium domesticum Corr.) contains flavonoids and vitamin C compounds that are effective in protecting the skin from sun exposure. This study aims to see the benefits of the extract of the seeds and peel of duku fruit (Lansium domesticum Corr.) On the amount of melanin pigment in the skin of mice (Mus musculus) as an anti-hyperpigmentation so that the dapjekal is a skin pen. Group P0 was a negative control, group P1 was exposed to sunlight for 20 days, group P2 mice were exposed to duku seed extract and then exposed to sunlight for 20 days, group P3 were exposed to duku peel and exposed to local sunlight for 20 days, P4 mice were exposed to sunlight 20 days, 21–30 days exposed to peel extract, and P5 mice exposed to sunlight 20 days, 21–30 days exposed to seed extract. The results showed that the P0 group had the amount of melanin pigment with an average of 7 grains, the P1 group: 68.4, P2 group: 26.6, P3 group: 29, P4 group: 7.2, and group P5 group: 12. The conclusion is that exposure to sunlight the amount of melanin pigment and offers the extract of the peel and seeds of duku fruit can reduce the amount of melanin pigment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Neuroprotective effect of chia seed oil nanoemulsion against rotenone
           induced motor impairment and oxidative stress in mice model of
           Parkinson’s disease

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      Abstract: Chia seed oil (CSO) was reported to possess various pharmacological effects, however, its usefulness is restricted due to its inadequate solubility, bioavailability and stability. In the present work, efforts were put forward to develop chia seed oil nanoemulsion (CSO NE). The developed CSO NE was exposed to pharmacodynamic evaluation against Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone (RT) in the mice. Here, the animals were classified into 6 groups: (I) Vehicle control, (II) RT (1 mg/kg s.c.), (III) CSO (200 mg/kg p.o.) + RT, (IV) CSO (400 mg/kg p.o.) + RT, (V) CSO NE (200 mg/kg p.o.) + RT, (VI) CSO NE (400 mg/kg p.o.) + RT. Animals received the treatment 30 min before RT administration for 14 days. The outcomes of the motor/behavioural evaluations (rotarod test and locomotor activity), biochemical evaluations (estimation of malondialdehyde, nitrite, acetylcholine esterase, reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) and histopathological evaluation affirmed that the CSO NE treatment rendered a significant enhancement in the neuroprotective effects as compared to CSO administered alone. These results suggest that the oral bioavailability of CSO was escalated by its conversion to nanoform, thus imparting greater neuroprotection. The potential application of CSO NE was established in the management of PD. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
       
  • Development of antibacterial nanofibrous wound dressing and conceptual
           reaction mechanism to deactivate the viral protein by Nigella sativa
           extract

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      Abstract: Abstract Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is extensively used as medicinal plant all over the world. It has the potential properties as the antiviral and antibacterial application. Its seed contain thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), thymol (THY), p-cymene as major and other minor components. TQ and THQ exhibit broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties against the activity of bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma and fungi. This work provides credence to the fabrication of antibacterial nanofibrous membrane by electrospinning machine from N. sativa extract with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution for wound dressing. The morphology of the developed membrane is also characterized using scanning electron microscope. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data has been showed that the functional groups of N. sativa are present in the prepared PVA-N. sativa nanofibrous membrane and its antibacterial activity was investigated. The disk diffusion method has been used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of PVA-N. sativa nanofibrous membrane against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria and the inhibition zone with a value of 10 mm is formed. Considering the inherent properties of N. sativa, a conceptual reaction mechanism has been proposed to deactivate the viral proteins by the action of TQ and THQ.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ethnobotanical research in Sürmene district (Trabzon-Turkey, Black
           Sea Region)

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      Abstract: Abstract Traditional knowledge of plants is inter-generationally transferred. It is important to keep proper records in order to avoid the loss of the ethnobotanical heritage. This study is an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Sürmene district in the Black Sea Region of Trabzon-Turkey. The study was conducted between 2018 and 2019. Plants were collected from different altitudes in the district. The required information was collected through ethnobotanical interviews with local people. Use value of species was determined and informant consensus factor was calculated for medicinal plants included in the study. In this study, eighty-two taxa belonging to 42 families were identified. Sixty-six of them are natural, while 16 of them are cultivated plants. One of the species is endemic, Anthemis melanoloma subsp. trapezuntica Grierson. Of the collected plants, 54 taxa are used for medical purposes, 31 is used for food, 17 is used for animal fodder, 16 is used as fuel, 3 is used as honey plant, 2 is used as organic fertilizers, and 16 is used for different purposes. Most of the plants used in the district belong to the families Asteraceae (11 species), Rosaceae (9 species), Lamiaceae (6 species), Poaceae (4 species), and Ericaceae (4 species). Of all the medicinal plants, Citrus sinensis, Actinidia deliciosa, Mentha × piperita, and Thymus nummularius seem are well-known to the locals, as indicated by their high UV. In conclusion, this study collected information regarding the traditional uses of plants in Sürmene district and also helped to preserve the valuable information. Ethnobotanical studies are increasing the possibilities of identifying new molecules; thus, this study may serve as a basis for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies which could lead to the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Protective effect of Prunus amygdalus nut extract on chronic unpredictable
           stress (CUS) induced memory deficits and biochemical alterations in rats

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      Abstract: Stress intervenes in the brain’s capability to encode and regain information from a person, it alters the biochemical parameters in specific regions of the brain can cause long-term damage to various parts of brain. The present investigations aid in understanding the effect of the Prunus amygdalus nut extract on CUS induced memory deficits in rats. The methanolic extract with an antioxidant potential (~ 60%) and was selected for in vivo analysis. CUS was induced in rats using different stress paradigms for 10 days. On day 11 and 12, acquisition trials for memory evaluation were performed using Morris Water Maze. On day 13 and 10 days later on, i.e. day 23, short-term and long-term memory retrievals trials were evaluated, respectively. Treatment groups were given test methanolic extract an hour before the subjection of CUS. Biochemical estimations and histopathological studies were carried out using brain tissue homogenate and brain tissue section, respectively. CUS altered the Transfer Latency time in both acquisition and retrieval trials, indicating memory impairment, which was reduced significantly in extract-treated groups. Administration of P. amygdalus nut methanolic extract protected the rat brains against CUS-induced neuroinflammatory changes. The observed beneficial effects could be attributed to the antioxidant potential of P. amygdalus. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Olax psittacorum (Lam.) Vahl. (Olacaceae): current status and future
           prospects as an herbal plant

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      Abstract: Abstract Olax psittacorum (Lam.) Vahl. traditionally used by the tribal community of ‘INDIA’ to heal conditions such as pain, psoriasis, mouth-ulcer, anemia, constipation as well as diabetes. Documented scientific shreds of evidence like antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-cancer, toxicity profile improved its medicinal value. Chromatographic evaluation (GC–MS) proven near about presence of 25 compounds. Among them, hexadecanoic methyl ester, β-sitosterol, phytol, methyl salicylate, 13-docosenamide, and oleanolic acid are significant and contribute to its successful medicinal properties. The toxicity study also revealed the safety of the consumption of the leaf part. Still, consecutive gaps need to be exploring to gather evidence of its contribution to curing different ailments, especially upon the ulcer, anemia, and identification of the presence of lead compounds as an upcoming future research proposal. The ‘Internet Scholar’, ‘Study Guide’, ‘PubMed’, ‘ScienceDirect’, ‘Scopus’, and ‘Sodhganga’ web site have been accessed to gather information about detailed scientific research as well as traditional information from authenticated sources that have been published in the English language. The various folklore claimed medicinal properties like anti-ulcer, aphthous ulcer, analgesic, anti-diabetic, anti-anemic, etc. yet to be justified scientifically with lead compounds that can support the rationality being used as folklore. This plant could be a good choice to explore its importance within the pharmacognostic field of drug development and might be a better source of herbal derived lead compounds which can help to heal ulcer or anemia that can effectively make a credible addition to treatment among the civilization as a natural source of therapeutic compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Tetrorchidium didymostemon leaf extract reduces Plasmodium berghei
           induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Oxidative stress, already implicated in malaria infection has been identified as one of the major contributors to the pathophysiology of malaria. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of methanol extracts of Tetrorchidium didymostemon leaf and stem bark on Plasmodium berghei induced oxidative stress in the liver, spleen and brain of mice. P. berghei-infected mice were sacrificed on day 5 of the experiment after four days of consecutive administration of T. didymostemon extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Thereafter, biochemical analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. The leaf extract had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ability to reduce parasite induced alterations of antioxidant enzyme activities compared with the stem bark extract. Malondialdehyde level was significantly higher (P < 0.05) while glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were lower in the negative control (infected mice, without treatment) relative to the treated groups. The leaf extract at 500 mg/kg body weight had a higher ability to ameliorate changes in oxidative stress and reduce hepatic injury induced by P. berghei in comparison with the other doses. The leaf extract (500 mg/kg) was able to reduce significantly hepatomegaly induced by P. berghei. Similarly, histopathological observation of the organs (liver and spleen) shows relative reversal of the cellular and morphological alteration induced by P. berghei infection following leaf extract administration. Our study suggests that treatment of P. berghei infected mice with T. didymostemon leaf extract during early infection reduces oxidative stress by preventing lipid peroxidation and normalizing glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Potential bioactive molecules from natural products to combat against
           coronavirus

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      Abstract: Abstract Covid-19 is terribly spreading around the globes and there is no stoppage. It is causing mass destruction in mankind allowing them to lock inside home to contain the disease. At present, there are no remedial medicines, drugs, or vaccines available in the market. Researchers are trying their best level to produce drugs to fight againts the disease. Various efforts are being considered by using different directions of scientific knowledge and technologies on treating the disease. The existing antiviral drugs such as lopinavir/ritonavir, pitavastatin, nelfinavir, perampanel, and praziquantel are being administered as remedies of covid-19 patients. Unfortunately, none of these drugs works absolutely against the current pandemic. Therefore, bioactive molecules from plants, animals, and microorganisms could be a better option to treat against the covid-19 and its family. Plants can treat many diseases due to the presence of bioactive molecules and their antiviral properties. Presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols, curcumin, kaempferol, catechin, naringenin, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, oleuropein, and epigallocatechin can fight against the coronavirus including covid-19. The listed plants such as litchi seeds, Houttuynia cordata, Chinese Rhubarb extracts, beta-sistosterol from Isatis indigotica root extract have capacity to obstruct the enzymatic activity of SARS. In this article, we have highlighted the bioactive molecules from different plants, animals, and microorganism and their potential activity against the coronavirus. It is a need of the hour to come together to explore more on such bioactive compounds of plants, animals and other microorganism to fight against the covid-19.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Optimization of plant compositions of Trisattakula to maximize
           antibacterial activity and formulation development of film-forming
           polymeric solution containing Nigella sativa ethanolic extract

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      Abstract: Abstract The Trisattakula herbal recipe has been used for a long time for the treatment of the symptom of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the plant compositions, it exhibits antibacterial activity. This work sought to optimize the mass ratios of plant compositions of Trisattakula recipe (equal mass ratios of dried seeds of Nigella sativa L., dried fruits of Coriandrum sativum L., and fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) to maximize the anti-Staphylococcus aureus and anti-S. epidermidis activities. The simplex lattice design was applied in the optimization process. Results showed that dried seeds of N. sativa alone gave the highest extraction yield, and the extract of dried seeds of N. sativa alone exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity. The ethanolic extract of dried seeds of N. sativa was further used as an active ingredient of film-forming polymeric solution (FFPS). The three film-forming agents, including hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5, xanthan gum, and Eudragit® RL 30D, were used. However, 5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose E5 blended 0.5% xanthan gum FFPS system containing 9.2% N. sativa extract was the best formulation. It showed good antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The release of thymoquinone determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography approached the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. In summary, the FFPS containing N. sativa extract could be used as an alternative antibacterial product for the treatment of skin infection caused by the two pathogens: S. aureus and S. epidermidis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Baccaurea ramiflora Lour.: a comprehensive review from traditional usage
           to pharmacological evidence

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      Abstract: Abstract Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. syn. Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Muell. Arg. widely known as Burmese grape is native to Southeast Asia. Its leaves, fruits, stem, bark, seeds forms an ingredient in many herbal prescriptions which have been used to treat jaundice, constipation, indigestion, cellulitis, as antidote for sanke venome, antiphlogistic and anodyne against rheumatoid arthritis etc. In the recent years, this plant has been largely explored on scientific grounds to identify the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. The present review work is an effort to revisit the scientific works done to evaluate the scope for bioprospection of B. ramiflora. Based on the study designed, a number of research papers were reviewed, but only about 35 articles having information on B. ramiflora were evaluated in detail. In total, thirty compounds have been isolated and characterised so far from different parts of this evergreen tree, which accounts for its myriad medicinal value including analgesic, anthelmintic, antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, haemolytic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, insecticidal, neuropharmacological, thrombocytic, anti-fungal and antimicrobial activities. This compilation of assorted information underpins the basic perceptive of B. ramiflora and opens up new horizon for further phytochemical evaluation, safety efficacy, and clinical trials.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Algerian Sonchus oleraceus L.: a comparison of different extraction
           solvent on phytochemical composition, antioxidant properties and
           anti-cholinesterase activity

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      Abstract: Abstract Aerial parts of Sonchus oleraceus L. were studied for the antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities in different solvent and fractions. Extracts/fractions were analysed for total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents. The chemical constituents of the most active extracts/fractions were analysed using LC–MS/QTOF in the positive ion mode. Ethyl acetate and butanolic fractions exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH, galvinoxyl and phenanthroline assays due to high contents of phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Whereby total alkaloid extract had the highest scavenging activity in ABTS•+ assay. Besides, methanolic extract was noted for the highest inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. Total 24 compounds were identified by LC–MS/QTOF which were phenolic acids, sesquiterpene lactones and phenylpropanoid derivatives. As conclusion, the study revealed that the aerial parts of S. oleraceus are potential sources of natural antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase compounds.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Bioactivity assessment of ethanolic extracts from Theobroma cacao and Cola
           spp. wastes after solid state fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus and
           Calocybe indica

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of agro-industrial residues for production of bio-functional products has aroused the interest of scientists as a positive step towards ecological sustainable. In this study, Pleurotus ostreatus or Calocybe indica was used in solitary and were combined in solid state fermentation to improve bioactivities of extracts from cocoa pod husk (CPH) and kolanut pod (KP). The bioactive compounds in extracts were revealed using Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS). Phenolic and flavonoid contents of studied extracts were within 34.80–56.9 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent and 11.50–31.5 mg/g Quercertin equivalent, respectively. Extracts from unfermented and fermented pods of Theobroma cacao and Cola spp. displayed notable antimicrobial activity against indicator microorganisms with zones of inhibition ranged from 5.0 to 18.0 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts against microorganisms ranged from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/ml. IC50 of extracts against free radicals ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 mg/ml, 0.4–1.7 mg/ml and 0.4–1.8 mg/ml for DPPH, Fe and OH−, respectively. Some of bioactive compounds identified using GCMS were phenol, glycerine, pimelic ketone, D-ribonic acid, methyl myristate, palmitic acid methyl ester, oleic acid ethyl ester, lauramide, oleic acid amide, 1,2-cyclododecanediol, resorcinol, phytol and others. The bioactivities of extracts from unfermented and fermented CPH and KP can be attributed to the presence of assorted bioactive compounds, which can be exploited as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumor promoting agents and therefore, useful for production of functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluation of the extraction process of Arenaria hispanica L. using
           response surface methodology on amounts of total phenolic content, total
           flavonoid content and the antioxidant activity

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      Abstract: Abstract The selection of appropriate conditions for increasing the extraction efficiency is important. The response surface method (RSM) is a statistical and mathematical technique which it can be used to examine the dependence between the responses with variables in a process and also determine the optimal conditions. In this study, the experimental design of General full factorial (GFF) was used by Minitab 17 software. The variables were time (30, 60 and 90 min), solvent (water, methanol and n-hexane) and method (maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction). The main effects and also interaction terms were investigated on amounts of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and the antioxidant activity (according to DPPH, FRAP, IC50 and BCB) of extract of Arenaria hispanica L.. A multiple regression, first degree model was used to express the responses. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence level was then carried out for each response (TPC, TFC, FRAP, IC50 and BCB) in order to test the model significance and suitability. In optimum conditions, the maceration method was optimum method for TPC, FRAP and BCB, while for TFC was ultrasound-assisted extraction. Water was optimal solvent for TPC, FRAP and BCB, but methanol was obtained as the best solvent for TFC and IC50. Also, the extraction time of TPC was 60 min and for TFC, IC50, FRAP and BCB obtained 30 min. The mounts of TPC, TFC, IC50, FRAP and BCB in the optimum conditions obtained 173.93 ± 0.50 (mg GAE/g extract), 184.27 ± 4.04 (mg QC/g extract), 0.69 ± 0.03 (mg/mL), 734.80 ± 2.02 (mmol Fe2+/g exctract) and 21.23 ± 0.22; respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Influence of harvest season and different polarity solvents on biological
           activities, phenolic compounds and lipid-soluble pigment contents of
           Spirogyra sp. from Algeria

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      Abstract: Abstract Effects of extraction solvent and harvest period on phytochemical analysis and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained from the freshwater macroalga, Spirogyra sp. were evaluated. The experiment lasted five months, where five crude extracts were obtained by maceration using different solvents: hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol. Higher values of yields were recorded in methanolic extracts on February (7.304%) and March (4.812%). All extracts were rich in proanthocyanidins compared to total phenolics and flavonoids. The total amounts of carotenoids were very low (0.060 ± 0001 to 0.171 ± 0.005 mg/g) compared to chlorophylls which were higher in February (6.365 ± 0.075 mg/g) and in March (5.501 ± 0.118 mg/g). The antioxidant activities indicated that the chloroformic and dichloromethanic extracts of February and March exhibited a good activity. The correlation using the Pearson test of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity tests have confirmed the strong contribution of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. The greatest antimicrobial activity was found in hexanic extracts at 0.1 to 1 mg/disk. The present findings suggest that Spirogyra sp. can be exploited not only for human health, but also for screening new economic natural antioxidants that could be used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Nephroprotective effect of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm f.:
           Sivakaranthai (a Siddha Kayakalpa drug) against gentamicin induced
           nephrotoxicity

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      Abstract: Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is described as a disorder with a sudden loss of kidney function. AKI is also attributed to several aetiologies such as diabetes, cardiac problems, etc. Developing a therapy for AKI is challenging due to its complex pathophysiology. The present study investigated the effect of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm f. aqueous extract, a Siddha Kalpha drug, against gentamicin-induced AKI. Animals were initially pre-administered with different concentrations of S. amaranthoides and later induced with gentamicin on the 8th day. Biochemical, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers were analysed. Further, HRLCMS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive components. Components including myo-inositol, traumatic acid, rosmarinic acid, etc. were identified. In the animals induced with gentamicin, KIM1, LDH, GGT, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes were elevated in both serum and urine, while noted within normal range in S. amaranthoides pre-administered groups. Histopathology analysis revealed prevention of necrosis, tubular epithelial cell degeneration and glomerular congestion in S. amaranthoides administered animals. Lipid peroxidation, KIM1, Cystatin C, TNFα, IL6 and NFκB were within normal range in tissues. Thus, it is evident that S. amaranthoides is effective in protecting kidney damage and treating AKI. Further studies will be conducted to analyse the pathways resurrecting kidney damage.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Effect of Anthonotha macrophyla (P. Beauv) leaf extract on
           carrageenan-induced paw oedema, oxidative stress makers and hyperalgesia
           in murine models

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      Abstract: Abstract Anthonotha macrophylla leaf (AML) is employed in the management of pain, inflammation, and some diseases associated with oxidative stress in African traditional medicine. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, the acute toxicity and anti-oxidant properties of AML, characterised the phytochemical constituents, and quantified its total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of AML extract were evaluated using carrageenan-induced oedema assay in rats’ paw and acetic acid-induced writhing assays respectively. Anti-oxidant effect of the extract was assessed in vivo by measuring liver antioxidant enzymes and in vitro by using DPPH radical scavenging assay and the acute toxicity of the extract was investigated in vivo in mice. The phytochemicals were characterised using basic phytochemical screening and total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified using established methods. The AML extract exhibited significantly high anti-inflammatory activity and moderate analgesic activity compared to diclofenac sodium. The extract exhibited moderate DPPH scavenging activity, significantly increased Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, and did not have any effect on lipid peroxidation. AML was found to contain high phenolic and low flavonoids. The LD50 of the extract was above 5000 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion, the AML extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory and moderate analgesic activities, which may be mediated through its strong antioxidant properties due to its phenolic contents. The LD50 value showed that the extract was safe in the short-term utilization. The extract may therefore serve as a source of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant agents.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Evaluating the effect of cinnamon and rosuvastatin, on the formation of
           foam cells in macrophages co-cultured with platelets

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      Abstract: Abstract Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory disease caused by the deposition of lipids in the arterial endothelial cells. Various medications, including rosuvastatin, are recommended to treat the atherosclerosis, in other hand, Cinnamon extract has been shown to treatment atherosclerosis by modulate macrophage activation. According to these properties, we evaluate the synergistic effect of cinnamon and rosuvastatin on the formation of foam cells in the macrophages-derived from U937 cells. To investigate the toxicity of rosuvastatin and cinnamon, MTT assay was employed. The formation of foam cells was evaluated by Oil red O staining. Flow cytometry was employed to determinate CD 163 marker. RQ-PCR was used to determine the expression level of the genes which involved in cholesterol metabolism in foam cells. Data were analyzed using t-student and ANOVA tests. Our finding indicated that, the foam cells formation significantly decreased in the presence of rosuvastatin and cinnamon extraction. Expression of the CD163 on foam cell surface was also increased during exposure to these two agents. The expression level of LXR and PPARγ genes in foam cells in accompany with platelet and ox-LDL was significantly increased (p < 0.01), but the expression of SRA was reduced. The expression of SRB1 and ACAT1 significantly increased (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) in PLT and ox-LDL groups. Both cinnamon and rosuvastatin could robustly induce M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory properties and reduce foam cell formation, suggesting that the combination of two agents may treat the atherosclerosis.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
 
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