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Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.169
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 1598-2386 - ISSN (Online) 2211-1069
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Nigella sativa tea mitigates type-2 diabetes and edema: a case report

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      Abstract: Abstract Diabetes is a major deadly disease. In 2019 alone, it caused an estimated 1.5 million deaths world-wide. Cases of diabetes are rising rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Natural remedies that can lower the glucose level would be very useful, particularly to people living in low- and middle-income countries. A 2-year case study was carried out, therefore, to determine if Nigella sativa tea can lower the glucose level in a 72-year-old man with type-2 diabetes, stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. Changes in body weight, lipids, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were also studied. N. sativa tea was prepared with N. sativa, barley, and wheat seeds. The 72-year-old drank approximately 50 ml of N. sativa tea daily, in the morning. Results showed that after drinking N. sativa tea daily, hypoglycemia started to occur and occurred more frequently as time went by and that the glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, was decreasing. Subsequently, the dosages of insulin glargine and insulin aspart were reduced by 33% and 50%, respectively. Results also showed that weight loss led to the 72-year-old cutting back his intake of the diuretic furosemide by at least 50%. His triglycerides level was also lower and there were no changes in his total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. His eGFR was stable but his UACR was worsening. N. sativa tea is easy to prepare, costs very little, and could be a natural remedy for mitigating diabetes and edema. Many more studies on N. sativa are warranted.
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
       
  • Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny Pigweed) methanol leaf extract alleviates
           oxidative and inflammation induced by doxorubicin in male sprague dawley
           rats

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      Abstract: Abstract This study evaluated the ameliorative effect of Amaranthus spinosus leaf methanol extract (ASLME) against doxorubicin-induced multi-organ damage in Sprague Dawley Rats. Forty-nine (49) male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly stratified into 7 groups with 7 rats per group. Groups A and B received distilled water for 7 days. Groups C, D, and E were pretreated for 7 days with 200 mg/kg silymarin, 500 and 1000 mg/kg ASLME, respectively followed by intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX) to groups B, C, D, and E on the 8th day. Groups F and G were orally administered 500 and 1000 mg/kg ASLME respectively for 7 days with an intraperitoneal injection of distilled water on the 8th day. After 48 h of DOX administration, blood was withdrawn by cardiac puncture, and organs were excised for biochemical and histopathological assays. Pretreatment with ASLME decreased the levels of tissues malondialdehyde and nitric oxide as well as serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) with a concomitant (p < 0.05) increase in the levels of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tissues reduced glutathione in a dose-dependent manner compared to group B. The activities of antioxidant enzymes increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the ASLME pretreated groups as well as groups F and G when compared to group B. Administration of doxorubicin induced degenerative hepatic, nephrotic and cardiac biomarkers and histological changes in Group B, while remarkable reversal of these pathological features was observed in groups pretreated with ASLME. Our findings suggest the chemo-protective effect of ASLME against doxorubicin-induced multi-organ damage, by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation in rats.
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
       
  • Gastroprotective and ulcer healing potentials of Nigerian Bee Propolis
           flavonoid extract on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in albino rats
           (Wistar Strains)

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      Abstract: Abstract Gastric ulcer is a serious global health challenge, and various natural products are being investigated to prevent and manage the condition. This study evaluated the gastroprotective and ulcer healing potentials of Nigerian bee propolis flavonoid-rich extract (NPE) on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats (222 ± 6.4 g) randomised into 5 groups (n = 12) were studied. Group A (SHAM) was left untreated, while gastric ulcer was induced in groups B (NPE), C (omeprazole) and D (saline). Group E (PRPE) was pre-treated with NPE prior to ulcer induction. The rate of ulcer contraction, volume and pH of gastric juice, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. The results showed a significantly higher rate of contraction (P = 0.001) between days 9 and 12 (NPE > OME > PRPE > SAL) and a significant decrease (P = 0.003) in the volume of gastric juice between days 9 and 12 (NPE < OME < PRPE). Gradual increase in pH was observed in all the groups from days 3 to 12, with a significantly higher rate (P < 0.001) between day 6 and 12 (SHAM > NPE > OME > PRPE > SAL). Histological evaluation showed significantly high neutrophils and macrophages on day 6 (P = 0.006) and lymphocytes (P = 0.004) between day 6 and 12 in the OME and NPE groups. NPE showed gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties by inhibiting ulcer formation and facilitating the curation of induced ulcers and is, therefore, a valuable alternative to conventional gastric ulcer therapy, especially in poor resource settings.
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
       
  • A versatile untargeted metabolomics-driven technology for rapid
           phytochemical profiling of stem barks of Zanthoxylum species with
           antioxidant and antimicrobial activities

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      Abstract: Zanthoxylum species are credited with various uses in ethnomedicine due to their rich metabolite composition. In Kenya, these include management of cancer and microbial related ailments. However, there are limited reports showing how the bioactivity of Kenyan Zanthoxylum species is linked to their phytochemical profiles. This study therefore aimed at examining the chemical variation among five Zanthoxylum species found in Kenya (Z. chalybeum, Z. gilletii, Z. holtzianum, Z. paracanthum and Z. usambarense) using metabolomics approaches and the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of these species. In a Folin–Ciocalteu test, the phenolic content of the stem bark extracts of these species were 73.083–145.272 mg TAE/g, while the alkaloids (in bromothymol blue chromogenic test) and flavonoids (in aluminium chloride test) were found to be 152.39–207.19 mg ME/g, and 109.416–186.413 mg CE/g, respectively. These extracts also exerted strong antioxidant activities in the 2,2-iphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assays. In a broth dilution assay, the extract of the stem bark of Z. holtzianum ability showed the highest antimicrobial activity, followed by Z. chalybeum stem bark extract. The activities were positively correlated to both flavonoids and alkaloids concentrations, while the concentration of phenolics had weak negative correlation to antimicrobial activities. A chemometric analysis of the liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry profiles led to grouping of the species into three clusters. This study illustrates the variation in the bioactivity of Zanthoxylum species based on metabolite composition and justifies the wide usage of Zanthoxylum species in Kenyan traditional medicinal practices. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
       
  • Effectiveness of hyper and hypothermic application revulsively on range of
           motion, symptom score and quality of life in patients with cervical
           spondylosis: a randomized controlled trial

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      Abstract: Abstract Cervical spondylosis (CS) is a degenerative age-related disorder affecting the cervical region of the spinal cord which manifests mainly with radiating pain in the neck, numbness in fingers, and headache. To control the symptoms and manage the disease progression, a combination of Complementary and Alternative Medicine with conventional management is necessary. Hence this study is aimed to evaluate the effect of Revulsive Compress (RC) along with the Integrated Naturopathy and Yoga (INY) approach in patients with CS. Out of 210 subjects screened, 60 subjects between the ages of 40 to 85 years were selected for the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, Group 1 (n = 30) Case group taking RC with INY and Group 2 (n = 30) control group taking only INY protocol for 10 days. Pain, Symptom score, Range of Motion (ROM), and Quality of life (QOL) were assessed before and after the intervention on the 11th day. The result of this study shows that with 10 days of RC and INY intervention, there was a significant reduction in the pain [Visual analog scale (VAS): p = 0.001] and symptom score [Neck disability index: p = 0.001] when compared to the control group. There was a significant improvement in QOL and ROM. The results of this study show that RC intervention with INY is having a substantial effect on patients with CS. Pain and Symptom score have been reduced significantly with marked improvement in QOL and ROM. Hence, this intervention can be used in the management of patients with CS, either as an individual or accompanied by management.
      PubDate: 2022-12-11
       
  • Tetrapleura tetraptera curtails oxidative and proinflammatory biochemical
           events in lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus

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      Abstract: Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub. (Fabaceae), commonly known as Aidan is ethnopharmacologically used for the management of health conditions such as diabetes mellitus, leprosy, epilepsy, and stroke in Nigeria. This study evaluated the anti-oxidoinflammatory properties of T. tetraptera methanol leaf extract (TTE) in lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in Wistar rats. The extract was phytochemically screened and HPLC fingerprinting was performed. Animals were intraperitoneally administered with 127 mg/kg lithium chloride followed by 25 mg/kg pilocarpine 20 h later to induce status epilepticus. The animals were post treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg TTE with 10 mg/kg valproic acid as the reference standard drug. Phytochemical screening of TTE confirmed the presence of tannins, phenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and steroids. Quantitative phytochemical and antioxidant analyses of the extract indicated significant in vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. HPLC analysis of the extract confirmed the presence of aridanin and polyphenols. TTE ameliorated redox imbalance by increasing markers for oxidative stress such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, glutathione level, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities. Moreover, TTE ameliorated pro-inflammatory events by reducing the level of the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide, attenuating lipid peroxidation (which produces inflammatory lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes), and decreasing the activities of xanthine oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the brain. These results indicated that the leaf of Tetrapleura tetraptera has therapeutic potential against status epilepticus by reversing oxidoinflammatory events. Tetrapleura tetraptera leaf extracts could be used to produce novel plant-based pharmaceuticals for treating status epilepticus and associated disorders. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-10
       
  • Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. induced mitodepression and
           chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa, and reproductive genotoxicity in
           male mice

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      Abstract: Abstract Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant with nutritional and medicinal value. Despite its widely acclaimed therapeutic benefits in traditional medicine, there are reports on its toxicity in living cells. Information is however, limited on toxic effect of the plant on the genetic component and male reproductive cells. We evaluated genotoxicity of aqueous extract of the leaves of M. oleifera using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration (CA) and mouse sperm morphology assays. Roots of onion bulbs were exposed to 0.5–20% of the extract for analysis of root growth inhibition, mitotic index (MI) and CA. Swiss male mice orally exposed to the aqueous extract (50–800 mg/kg) for 35 consecutive days were analysed for body and testes weight, testicular histology and sperm morphology. There was a significant (p < 0.05) root growth inhibition, decrease in MI and induction of CA compared to the negative control bulbs. The extract did not cause adverse effect on body and testes weight, but maturation arrest, atrophy and germ cell sloughing and degeneration were observed in testicular sections of exposed mice. A significant increase in sperm morphology was observed in exposed mice relative to the control group. Aqueous extract of M. oleifera was cytotoxic, mitodepressive and genotoxic in A. cepa. It induced DNA damage in the sperm head and interfered with spermatogenesis. This suggests potentials of M. oleifera to modulate somatic cell cycle and impact male fertility.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00564-9
       
  • Ameliorative effects of Guilandina bonduc L. aqueous seed extract on
           letrozole induced polycystic ovary syndrome in female wistar albino rats

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      Abstract: Abstract The current study aims to identify the phytochemical constituents of Guilandina bonduc L. aqueous seed extract to evaluate their antioxidant potential through in vitro and in vivo toxicity models in female wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activities of G. bonduc aqueous seed extract (GBASE), were evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical along with the estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Three different doses (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) were used for the proposed study to evaluate the efficacy against Letrozole induced PCOS in rats. Renal toxicity and hepatotoxicity were evaluated by quantifying the serum levels of Kidney Function Test (KFT) and Liver Function Test (LFT). Histopathologic changes of kidney and liver were also evaluated. In vitro studies revealed that G. bonduc seed extracts strongly scavenging the DPPH with an IC50 value of 276.95 μg/ml and hydroxyl scavenging radical with an IC50 value of 296.34 μg/ml. Our phytochemical evaluation reveals the presence of phenolic compounds (2.834 ± 0.09 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (0.905 ± 0.01 mg of catechol equivalents/g dried extract) content. In vivo activity was evaluated in rats as an PCOS model, when compared to control and vehicle group, a normal arrangement of the hepatocyte sheath and central vein was observed. The letrozole induced by PCOS groups also exhibited no remarkable changes in hepatic histology but a minor irregularity in hepatocyte arrangement was observed. In the treatment group, the histopathological evaluation of the kidneys showed a prevalent control-like morphology with a sufficient mobile structure and a standard atrophy free glomerulus. Moreover, the treated animals showed significant changes in their liver and kidney weights. The biochemical evaluation shows elevated levels of serum AST and it indicates harm to the liver due to necrosis, inflammation, or bruising, indicating ill health. The aqueous seed extracts of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant response compare favorably to that of the standard drug treated group (PCOS + Pioglitazone) which also had substantially reduced KFT and LFT levels in their serum when compared to the PCOS induced group. Herbal medications strengthen the immune system and help regulate the menstrual cycle. The results suggest that G. bonduc L. could be considered as an important candidate for its possible role in the treatment of PCOS and for the future drug discoveries.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-022-00652-4
       
  • Diuretic efficacy and prophylactic effects of hydroethanolic extract from
           Musa balbisiana fruits against urolithiasis

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      Abstract: Abstract The use of herbs as prophylactic and prevent recurrence of urolithiasis was counseled. Musa balbisiana fruits have long been used folk in the treatment of urinary stones. However, there is no clear scientific evidence. This study was designed to investigate the diuretic and prophylactic effects of M. balbisiana fruit extract in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats. In this study, crude extracts were extracted by maceration, hot extraction, and decoction methods. The extracts were examined in vitro biological activities of anti-urolithiatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties. For in vivo study, the experimental groups of rats were given the extract for 7-day to evaluate the diuretic potential. In prophylactic activity against urolithiasis, rats were given the extract for 28-day on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in male Wistar rats. The results showed that all extracts of M. balbisiana fruits exhibited in vitro anti-urolithiatic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities with the hydroethanolic extract by hot extraction presented the highest activities. The hydroethanolic extract at the doses of 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg had diuretic effect after 7-day of treatment. The extract at these two doses had significantly prophylactic activity restored the parameters in urine and serum to near-normal level. The histopathological examinations revealed that calcium oxalate crystal deposits in the renal tubules and congestion and dilation of the renal tubules were significantly reverted after the extract treatment for 28-day. Taken together, the hydroethanolic extract of M. balbisiana fruits had diuretic effect and reduced the growth of urinary stones showing its effect as an antiurolithiatic support agent.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-022-00629-3
       
  • In vitro and in silico evaluation of some plant extracts and
           phytocompounds against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

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      Abstract: Abstract The spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MDR) bacteria is a global public health problem, as infections caused by MDR Gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat. New antibiotic agents need to be developed to overcome this problem, and phytochemicals show promise at this point. In this study, methanol extracts were prepared from cinnamon, thyme, nettle, white tea, rosehip, and antibacterial activity of the methanol extracts was studied against two MDR Gram-Negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii) by broth microdilution method. The MICs of methanol extracts of cinnamon, rosehip, thyme, white tea for A. baumannii were found as 0.015125 g/ml, 0.07825 g/ml, 0.030625 g/ml, 0.00796875 g/ml, respectively. It was found that only cinnamon methanol extract had antibacterial activity in the used extract concentrations against K. pneumoniae and the MIC value was 0.0605 g/ml. The effects of plant methanol extract with antibacterial activity and imipenem combinations were studied in vitro using the checkerboard method. The FIC Indexes were obtained from the checkerboard results and it was observed that the combination of methanol extract and imipenem showed an antagonistic or additive/indifferent effect but not a synergistic effect. We evaluated the binding affinity of epigallocatechin 3-gallate, quercetin, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and thymol phytocompounds using in silico methods, which are well known as a phytocompounds in white tea, cinnamon, thyme, nettle, and rosehip and have antibacterial activities. The results suggested that these phytocompounds should be supported with in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate their potential for being inhibitor candidates.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00602-6
       
  • Antimicrobial evaluation and molecular docking studies of Swertiamarin and
           Quercetin targeting dihydropteroate synthase enzyme

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      Abstract: Present study was aimed to evaluate synergistic antimicrobial activity of iridoid (Swertiamarin) and flavonoid glycoside (Quercetin). Swertiamarin (Sw) was isolated from methanol extract of Enicostemma axillare and quercetin (Qu) was purchased. The antimicrobial activity of Sw, Qu and combination of swertiamarin and quercetin (SQC) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using turbidimetric method. Molecular docking study of Sw and Qu was done on the target site of dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) of protein data bank (PDB) ID: 3TYC (Dihydropteroate Synthase in complex with DHP +). Sw and Qu exhibited good antimicrobial activity in all the tested microorganisms at lower concentration (2.5 µg/ml). The SQC displayed significant antimicrobial activity and found high percentage of inhibition and comparable to standard ciprofloxacin. In molecular docking study, Sw and Qu have found good binding energy and interaction energy with the selected target site of DHPS of 3TYC. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-022-00643-5
       
  • Phytochemicals from Nigerian medicinal plants modulate
           therapeutically-relevant diabetes targets: insight from computational
           direction

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      Abstract: Abstract Traditional medicines have played critical roles in the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria. Since plants extracts contain many phytochemical compounds, it is quite challenging to experimentally determine the exact pharmacological agent responsible for their antidiabetic activity from the abundant constituents. In this study, the antidiabetic potentials of compounds identified from Nigerian plants was explored using computational technique. Fifty chemical compounds commonly found in Nigerian medicinal plants were docked with diabetes prime targets adiponectin, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-iv, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and glucose transporter-1 using autodock vina software. From the analysis, rutin, 1, 5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, vitexin, chlorogenic acid, taxifolin, luteolin and alstonine had better docking score than the standard drug for each target. The seven top-scoring compounds were stable with the targets after calculating their binding free energy. DFT calculations (HOMO/LUMO and global descriptive parameters) was performed to determine the compounds reactivity, and it shows that alstonine, Dicaffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid are the most chemical reactive ligands. The AMET filtering of the compounds through pain alert, RO5, carcinogenicity and oral availability showed that alstonine and vitexin exhibited better profile among the rest. Finally, the intrinsic biological activity of the ligands by webserver identified the compounds as potential antidiabetic compounds, with more potency to act as aldose reductase inhibitor. Although this study identified alstonine and vitexin as the most suitable ligands against the understudied diabetes implicated proteins, all the 7-top scoring compounds possess promising features which may be useful to develop drug targeting multiple therapeutically-relevant proteins of diabetes.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00598-z
       
  • Microwave-assisted extraction of Clausena anisata leaves and Vernonia
           cinerea whole plants to maximize nitrate content: optimization approach,
           antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity

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      Abstract: Nitrate-rich plants—Clausena anisata leaves and Vernonia cinerea whole plants—are used as smoking cessation aids in Thailand. This work sought to optimize the extraction condition of nitrate from the two plants using microwave-assisted extraction. The Box-Behnken design was applied in this work. Antioxidant activity and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were also evaluated. Three factors including microwave power, duration time, and irradiation cycle, were varied from 300 to 600 W, 10 to 30 s, and 1 to 3 cycles, respectively. Two responses including extraction yield and nitrate content were monitored. Results demonstrated that the low microwave power (300 W) with short duration time (10 s), and low irradiation cycle (one cycle) gave the highest nitrate content. The optimum condition provided extraction yield of 26.0 ± 1.1% and nitrate content of 1.31 ± 0.03% for C. anisata leaves, and extraction yield of 15.9 ± 0.2% and nitrate content of 1.32 ± 0.01% for V. cinerea whole plants. Furthermore, their crude extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and safety profile. In summary, microwave-assisted extraction was an alternative modern technique for the extraction of nitrate from C. anisata leaves and V. cinerea whole plants. Recently, only V. cinerea was officially included in the National List of Essential Medicines. This work could be used to support the potential of C. anisata leaves as a smoking cessation aid like V. cinerea. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00581-8
       
  • Evaluation of the antiproliferative effect of β-sitosterol isolated from
           Combretum platypetalum Welw. ex M.A. Lawson (Combretaceae) on Jurkat-T
           cells and protection by glutathione

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      Abstract: Abstract Combretum species are distributed widely in Southern Africa and are known for their medicinal properties. The species have potential as sources of anticancer agents. Combrestanin-A4 isolated from Combretum caffrum is one of the pure compounds now under clinical trials. The aim of this study was to fractionate and isolate plant phytoconstituents of C. platypetalum and determine their antiproliferative effects on a human leukemic cancer cell line, Jurkat-T cells. Dried powdered leaf plant samples were extracted serially with hexane, DCM, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and water. The total combined extracts were run on a silica gel column using a mobile phase of increasing polarity. β-Sitosterol was isolated from pool 94–98 of the fractions and identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR and its molecular formula confirmed by mass spectrometry. The effects of β-sitosterol on proliferation of cells, effect of combining β-sitosterol and glutathione, effect of combining β-sitosterol and camptothecin and effect of β-sitosterol on glutathione S-transferase activity were determined. β-sitosterol showed dose-dependent antiproliferative effects against Jurkat-T cells and these effects were shown to be irreversible. Reduced glutathione protected the cells from the effects of β-sitosterol. Enhance antiproliferative effects were observed when β-sitosterol was combined with camptothecin. β-sitosterol was also shown to inhibit the activity of glutathione S-transferases in the cancer cell line. The results of the study suggested that β-sitosterol has antiproliferative effects in the Jurkat-T cells. Further work needs to be done on normal cells to determine if β-sitosterol affects cancer cells only.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-022-00650-6
       
  • An overview on pharmaceutical properties and biotechnological advancement
           of Withania coagulans

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      Abstract: Abstract Withania coagulans is a therapeutic plant, commonly known as Rishyagandha. It is used in treatment of various diseases like indigestion, diabetes mellitus, liver disorders, purification of blood and controls blood pressure. In addition, it is reported to control plasma glucose levels and preventing renal complications. The plant contains various metabolites, and the most important being withanolides isolated from its fruits. Apart from above, the plant is known for its various pharmacological effects viz. cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activity. The current review includes information about pharmacological effects, therapeutic uses, extraction of plant metabolites and its use in treatment of various diseases. Furthermore, biotechnological advancement of W. coagulans has also been discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00558-7
       
  • Study of compounds, cytotoxicity and biological activities of essential
           oil of Satureja rechingeri Jamzad

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      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, the essential oil has received a special position for the treatment of diseases. Although Satureja rechingeri Jamzad is an endemic species of Iran, unfortunately few studies have been conducted on its biological properties. In this study, along with the analysis of the compounds of Satureja rechingeri essential oil, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the essential oil of this species were investigated. The compounds of prepared essential oil were analyzed by GC-FID and GC–MS using Clevenger. Disc diffusion and MTT methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was measured by two methods of reducing power assay and DPPH free radical scavenging. p-Cymene (46.5%) was the most identified compound in the essential oil. The essential oil showed higher inhibitory effect on seven bacterial strains relative to the standard antibiotics. The studied essential oil showed significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on four cancer cells of Vero, SW480, MCF7 and JET3 with 50% lethal effect of 15.6, 125, 15.6 and 250 µg/mL for each line, respectively. The highest adsorption (2.6 nM) was at 500 µg/mL for reducing power assay and 50% free radical inhibition at a concentration of 375 µg/mL for DPPH antioxidant assay. In general, the essential oil of Satureja rechingeri with high antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activity can be used as a cheap and affordable natural product in clinical and pharmaceutical fields.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00596-1
       
  • Evaluation of biologically active secondary metabolites isolated from the
           toothache plant Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae)

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      Abstract: Acmella ciliata (HBK) Cass. (basionym: Spilanthes ciliata HBK) is an herb of high medicinal value. Spilanthol, the prime N-alkamide in A. ciliata, is used as an active ingredient in several anti-ageing herbal tonics and in mouth washes. Here we describe quantification of spilanthol, phenolics, flavonoid and antioxidant activity in the methanol extracts prepared from flower, leaf, root and stem of the plant. HPLC of the sample extracts revealed that spilanthol was found to be maximum in flowers (18.44 mg/g), as compared to other parts of the plant as well as several of other Acmella (syn: Spilanthes) species. Estimation of phenolics and flavonoids in the extract by spectrophotometry with their values expressed respectively as equivalence of gallic acid (GAE) and quercetin (QE), revealed that phenolics content was highest in the flower extract (5.58 mg GAE/g), whereas, flavonoid content was found maximum in the leaf extract (31.65 mg QE/g). Antioxidant activity of the extract remained proportional to phenolic content of the extract. Flower extract further showed highest free radical scavenging activity in DPPH and ABTS assays, as compared to the extracts from other parts of the plant. Pearson’s correlation for antioxidant activity with respect to the phenolic and flavonoid content turned out to be positive. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on quantification of the three secondary metabolites considered here and the antioxidant activity in the methanol extract prepared from different parts of A. cilitata. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00584-5
       
  • Antibacterial phytocomplexes and compounds from Psychotria sycophylla
           (Rubiaceae) against drug-resistant bacteria

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, we examined the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance reversal properties of methanol (MeOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and compounds from Psychotria sycophylla aerial parts against drug-resistant bacteria. The tests were performed using the microdilution method. The mechanisms of action were investigated on growth kinetic and proton pumps of Escherichia coli. The structures of isolated compounds including oleanolic acid (1), ursolic acid (2), lupeol (3), betulinic acid (4), β-sitosterol glucoside (5), and stigmasterol (6), were established based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI–MS). The extracts displayed noteworthy antibacterial activities, with recorded minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 4 to 1024 µg/mL. Significant activities (MIC < 100 µg/mL) were obtained with the MeOH extract against Providencia stuartii PS2636 and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA9 (MIC of 16 µg/mL) as well as the EtOAc extract against S. aureus MRSA3 (MIC of 32 µg/mL) and Enterobacter aerogenes EA27 (MIC of 4 µg/mL). MeOH extract displayed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, acting against 21 out of 22 studied bacteria. The MICs of compounds (1–6) varied from 16 to 256 µg/mL. Oleanolic acid (1) appeared to be the most effective, preventing the growth of 100% of studied bacteria. The MeOH extract significantly enhanced the efficacy of conventional antibiotics against selected multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanistic investigations showed interference of MeOH with bacterial growth kinetic (by extending the lag phase) and inhibition of proton pumps. The current study provides a strong experimental baseline to consider P. sycophylla extracts and compounds as potent antibacterial natural products.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00608-0
       
  • Curcuma longa extract ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits of
           6-hydroxydopamine-infused Parkinson’s disease model rats

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      Abstract: Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) results mostly from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It is characterized by the manifestations of anxiety, tremor, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia and cognitive impairments. Oxidative stress is attributed to the neurodegeneration of PD. Curcuma longa is a commonly used spice and has high levels of anti-oxidative phyto-constituents. Here, we evaluated whether the chronic oral administration of C. longa extract affects the degree of anxiety, neuromotor and cognitive deficits of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-infused PD model rats. Following the surgery, animals were orally administered with C. longa extract for twelve weeks. The degree of anxiety/depression, motor and cognitive performances were determined with a variety of neurobehavioral experimental paradigms, including elevated plus, Morris water maze task, rotarod, open field, forced swim, sucrose preference and tail suspension tests. Brain levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) were measured by standard method. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), α-synuclein, synaptosome-associated protein-25 (SNAP25) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of the brain tissues were measured by ELISA. Oral administration of C. longa significantly (P < 0.05) protected the deterioration of the motor activity, learning-related memory cognitions and the degree of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in PD model rats. The preventive effects were accompanied with decreased brain levels of LPO, TNFα, α-synuclein and increased levels of cognition-related proteins SNAP-25 and BDNF. The experimental results suggest that C. longa ameliorates PD-like symptoms by suppressing the oxidative/pro-inflammatory stress and levels of α-synuclein and increasing the levels of SNAP-25 and BDNF.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-021-00606-2
       
  • Effectiveness and safety of Korean medicine for pain management after
           musculoskeletal surgery: a retrospective study

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      Abstract: Abstract To assess the effectiveness and safety of Korean medicine in managing postoperative pain. Retrospective, observational study. Medical records of 233 inpatients at a Korean medicine hospital who underwent Korean medicine treatments such as acupuncture, moxibustion, cuppping, bee-venom and herbal acupuncture, electrical therapy, herbal medicine, and carbon-beam therapy after musculoskeletal surgery were reviewed, and numeric ratings for pain were compared between baseline and follow-up. A correlation analysis between pain improvement and therapeutic factors was performed, and a regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of pain reduction. Serum laboratory test results at baseline and follow-up were subsequently compared to identify safety. Numeric rating scale scores for pain; presence of infection, drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) for safety. After Korean medicine treatment, the pain scores decreased from an average of 4.09 to 1.79 in the numeric rating scale (p < 0.001). Frequency of acupuncture therapy during hospitalization showed the strongest positive correlation with pain improvement (r = 0.341, p = 0.000) and was a predictor of pain reduction (adjusted R2 = 0.145). Improvements in serum laboratory data to reference limits were observed. All kappa coefficient values, except for white blood cell (WBC) count, were between 0.3 and 0.7, indicating that the follow-up data matched the baseline data. The low kappa coefficient value of WBC count was due to the high ratio of outliers. One (0.43%) and no cases of DILI and DIKI were identified, respectively. Korean medicine could be used for managing pain after musculoskeletal surgery.
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s13596-022-00660-4
       
 
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