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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (248 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 357 of 357 Journals sorted alphabetically
Revue Gouvernance     Open Access  
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rivista trimestrale di scienza dell'amministrazione     Full-text available via subscription  
RP3 : Revista de Pesquisa em Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Public Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
School of Public Policy Publications     Open Access  
Sinergia : Revista do Instituto de Ciências Econômicas, Administrativas e Contábeis     Open Access  
Singapore Economic Review, The     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Social Policy & Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Social Service Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Social Work Education: The International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sosyoekonomi     Open Access  
South Asian Journal of Macroeconomics and Public Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Development Administration     Open Access  
Stat & Styring     Full-text available via subscription  
State and Local Government Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Statistics and Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Studi Organizzativi     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia z Polityki Publicznej     Open Access  
Surveillance and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Teaching Public Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
TEC Empresarial     Open Access  
Tendencias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Territory, Politics, Governance     Hybrid Journal  
The Philanthropist     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Review of International Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences     Open Access  
Visión de futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
WEDANA : Jurnal Kajian Pemerintahan, Politik dan Birokrasi     Open Access  
Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics     Open Access  

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School of Public Policy Publications
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ISSN (Online) 2560-8320
Published by U of Calgary Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Fostering Resilience and Adapting to Climate Change in the Canadian
           North— Implications for Infrastructure in the Proposed Canadian Northern
           Corridor

    • Authors: S. Jeff Birchall, Sarah Kehler , Nicole Bonnett
      Abstract: The Canadian Northern Corridor (CNC) has been proposed to overcome gaps in the northern transportation system that limit social and economic development in the Canadian North (Fellows et al. 2020). Intended to be a multimodal transportation right- of-way through Canada’s North, the CNC seeks to capitalize on shifting global markets and increased access to northern resources (Pearce et al. 2020; Fellows et al. 2020). However, transportation infrastructure has remained constrained across northern Canada. Significant challenges exist for northern infrastructure due to isolation, restricted access and extraordinary environmental conditions — all of which climate change is projected to radically intensify (Palko and Lemmen 2017; Pearce et al. 2020). Climate change drastically reduces the feasibility of expanding northern infrastructure. Significant increases in environmental risk threaten existing infrastructure and magnify maintenance costs. Adaptation in remote northern locations can be exceedingly difficult and costly (Palko and Lemmen 2017). Additional Arctic warming is guaranteed to have systemic effects and pose significant challenges for northern infrastructure: temperature and precipitation will continue to increase; permafrost thaw will be amplified through changes in seasonal snow cover and land ice; ice loss of mountain and polar glaciers is virtually certain; coastal impacts such as erosion and storm surges will be magnified by increasing sea level and extreme volatility; and Arctic sea ice extent will decline to the point of likely being practically ice free in September before 2050 (IPCC 2021). Determining how to facilitate long-term, effective climate change adaptation is critical to overcome these challenges. Adaptation planning seeks to anticipate and mitigate the risks that result from climate change. This is done through two methods: hard and soft adaptation. Hard adaptations provide a physical barrier to the source of risk, such as a sea wall. In contrast, soft adaptations reduce risk by adjusting human behaviour through a variety of methods, including regulating development out of high-risk areas through land use bylaws or development permits, and fostering environmental stewardship to bolster ecosystem services, such as wetland preservation to reduce flooding (Bonnett and Birchall 2020). However, common misunderstandings about which adaptation initiatives are effective often disable adaptation planning (Kehler and Birchall 2021). This often results in maladaptation — when adaptation measures result in unintended negative consequences that further increase risks. Hard infrastructure adaptations intended to reduce physical risk, despite typically being used as the foundation of adaptation planning, magnify the risk of maladaptation when used alone (Bonnett and Birchall 2020). Due to the capital-intensive nature of hard measures, both upfront and in long- term maintenance, and their predisposition to environmental degradation, the need to go beyond hard measures to address vulnerability is well understood (Bonnett and Birchall 2020; Kehler and Birchall 2021; Naylor et al. 2020). Adapting infrastructure to climate change in the Canadian North presents a formidable challenge. Limits and constraints to effective adaptation, such as lagging implementation, isolation, low population and limited tax base to fund local-level adaptation and infrastructure maintenance, result in significant challenges and limited capacity to overcome them (Bonnett and Birchall 2020; Birchall and Bonnett 2020; Birchall et al. 2021; Ford et al. 2015). While climate change is perceived to have the potential to increase access to the North — allowing trade, tourism and transport of much-needed goods and services to northern communities — in reality, existing and new construction will be progressively vulnerable to unprecedented climatic effects and the resulting infrastructure maintenance will grow increasingly costly. This increase in vulnerability and costs is likely to restrict the anticipated socioeconomic boons of expanded connectivity and resource development, potentially straining already vulnerable communities and Indigenous Peoples. Considerable uncertainty requires a planning approach to infrastructure adaptation that focuses on mitigating risks of climate change while also bolstering community resilience. Infrastructure expansion such as the CNC necessitates adaptation planning that includes fostering economic diversity and infrastructure resilience. Increased disaster risk due to climate change could push communities already overwhelmed by maintenance and adaptation to being unable to cope, resulting in vulnerabilities across northern Canada. Balancing hard adaptations with other forms of policy, such as soft adaptations intended to increase adaptive capacity and adaptation readiness, is critical to avoid maladaptation of infrastructure. Regardless of cost or feasibility, for infrastructure adaptation to be effective it must coincide with a reduction of socioeconomic stressors, and all decision making must be done through a localized, participatory and equitable process (IPCC 2014). Addressing adaptation and resilience for northern infrastructure requires exploring what is necessary to foster resilience, examining what avenues for adaptation are most effective and then maximizing the benefits of limited funding allocated toward these strategies. Effective adaptation strategies focus on the reduction of vulnerability through place- and context-specific approaches, using low-risk, high-benefit policy measures that are supported through significant int...
      PubDate: 2022-09-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74463
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Provincial Transfers and Financing Municipal Infrastructure in Alberta

    • Authors: Bev Dahlby, Melville McMillan
      Abstract: Municipal finances have been an ongoing public issue in Alberta. See for example, McMillan and Dahlby (2014), Dahlby and McMillan (2021) and Peterson (2021).  These issues have recently become more prominent as the Alberta government has adopted a variety of policies that impact municipal finances as well as announcing plans to transition the Municipal Sustainability Initiative program to the Local Government Fiscal Framework.  This has created new uncertainties about municipal finances, especially in the context of provincial government fiscal restraint.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74919
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Evaluation of Housing First Programs in Calgary

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone, Ali Jadidzadeh
      Abstract: Calgary is one of many cities internationally that has implemented a Housing First (HF) model for reducing homelessness. The HF model is based on the philosophy that stable housing, provided without preconditions, is a necessary prerequisite for helping someone deal with the issues that have caused them to become homeless. The original HF model, New York City’s Pathways Housing First (PHF) model, has been closely studied with the use of controlled experiments involving clients whose personal characteristics match those for whom the model is designed. Based on the favourable evidence drawn from these controlled experiments, many jurisdictions have implemented HF programs. These include many programs that have drifted a considerable distance from the design of the Pathways model. Despite this drift in program design, HF programs continue to find support from governments comforted by the favourable results of controlled experiments. In this paper we evaluate HF programs implemented in a real world, non-experimental setting over many years. Evaluating HF programs as they are implemented in large scale non-experimental settings is important for determining their practical usefulness to system operators and policymakers. Using richly detailed administrative datasets, we evaluate the success of HF programs as implemented in Calgary over the period 2012 to 2018.
      We identify the extent of the drift of these HF programs from the original Pathways model and show how the personal characteristics of people chosen for HF programs influence the rate of program success. We find that HF programs in Calgary have proven very successful in graduating people to permanent housing and reducing the number of people returning to homelessness. Fifty-five per cent of clients enrolled in HF programs, many of whom are dealing with the debilitating effects if mental health challenges, substance abuse, and prolonged periods of homelessness, remained housed in HF programs or graduate to permanent housing without case management support. We argue that this rate of success is comparable to that claimed for PHF programs evaluated under controlled conditions and for much shorter periods. Although the devil is in his usual place when it comes to evaluating the success of any HF program, our results are suggestive that limited deviations from the Pathways model, such as those we observed in Calgary, do not significantly affect the rates of success reported from controlled experiments.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75034
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Traps Have Sprung' Sino-American Challenges for Hegemonic
           Leadership

    • Authors: Charlie Gaudreault, Érick Duchesne
      Abstract: In an ambivalent twist of foreign policy, the Trump administration reordered Washington’s stance towards Beijing. In the wake of its tense relationship with China, the United States has abandoned much of its international leadership. There were high hopes of renewed American commitment to the international order when Joe Biden was elected in November 2020. The prospect for a greater international guidance from the Biden administration has yet to lead to a cohesive policy. In contrast, under the strong hand of Xi Jinping, China has taken a more decisive role in international affairs. It remains to be seen, however, if the rest of the world is ready to follow in China’s footsteps. This state of affairs leaves us in the uncomfortable situation where we must assess two daunting traps facing the future of the international system. On one hand, reminiscent of Thucydides’ trap, we face the possibility of an escalation of tension that could inexorably lead to a direct confrontation between the two superpowers. On the other hand, an even less appealing scenario would take the form of a rudderless world bringing back painful memories of the 1930s. In this paper, we assess these two eventual consequences of the Sino-American confrontation, as well as possibilities of escaping those traps.
      PubDate: 2022-09-06
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75011
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Canadian Immigration Policy and the Russo-Ukraine War

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Millions of Ukrainians have been displaced since Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine earlier this year. Yet, Canada has only received a small number of Ukrainian refugees compared to other countries, despite citizens’ overwhelming willingness to receive them. Canadian immigration policies are the issue and need to be revised to allow faster and easier access for Ukrainians. While the federal government has launched a program to fast-track Ukrainian refugees, Canada-Ukraine Authorization for Emergency Travel (CUAET), statistics show that it isn’t enough. Under CUAET, visas and temporary residency permits are expedited for Ukrainians and their families. While the number of applications is increasing, the program’s number of approvals is slowing. That Canadian visa policies are the cause of the comparatively low number of Ukrainian arrivals is supported by empirical evidence from Ireland and the United Kingdom. Both countries are similar in ways that attract displaced Ukrainians, but only Ireland lifted its visa requirements in response to the war; the U.K. has maintained a Canada-like visa process. As a result, approximately 13 times the number of Ukrainian refugees per capita arrived in Ireland than in the U.K. during the first two months of the invasion. The visa requirements in Canada have, in a similar way, stymied the arrival of Ukrainian refugees. There are several options that could be implemented to increase the flow of Ukrainian refugees to Canada. The first, visa-free travel, is already in place in Ireland and has proven very successful, allowing an additional estimated 23,000 arrivals above what might have been expected under pre-war Irish visa policies. The second is a visa-on-arrival system. Security checks are done at the port-of-entry and a visa can be issued onsite. The third option is a hybrid of CUAET and options 1 or 2 — allow visa-free travel or a visa-on-arrival program for Ukrainians with proper documentation while those without documentation go through CUAET. This will speed up the CUAET process since documented refugees will not be part of the list anymore. National security concerns are one of the reasons for Canada’s more strict immigration policies. However, research shows that foreign agents are less likely to infiltrate strong, stable countries through refugee streams. As well, refugees tend to be targets of espionage themselves and can be a valuable source of intelligence. Canada could invest more in counterespionage to help identify high-risk entries and mitigate the small risk of infiltration. Approximately 80 per cent of Canadians are willing for this country to receive Ukrainian refugees. The chance of refugee-related espionage is minuscule while the impact of Canada’s humanitarianism is huge. The federal government needs to consider this trade-off and amend immigration policies for Ukrainian war refugees.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75498
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Fiscal Policy Trends: Census 2020: Government Transfers to Albertans

    • Authors: Gillian Petit, Lindsay M. Tedds
      Abstract: On July 13, 2022, Statistics Canada released Census 2020 data related to income (Statistics Canada 2022). In this piece, we examine trends in income poverty and government transfers in Alberta.
      PubDate: 2022-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Incomes of Refugees in Canada

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Interventions that provide social and financial capital can help refugees and protected persons achieve significantly higher incomes in Canada.
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Income Support, Inflation, and Homelessness

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone, Margarita Wilkins
      Abstract: In this note, we provide measures of the effects of high rates of inflation in food prices
      and the costs of housing on Canadian households reliant on government-provided income assistance. Inflation puts these households at risk because little of their income is indexed to inflation. That which is indexed to inflation varies by province and by family composition. In most provinces, protection from inflation depends on periodic ad hoc adjustments to income support payments, adjustments that are sometimes separated by many years.
      A notable exception is Quebec, where nearly full indexation ensures recipients of income support are protected from inflation. In other provinces, the general lack of full indexation means that during periods of inflation, Canadians reliant on social assistance are subject
      to two types of risk, one economic and one political. The economic risk is due to the fact inflation threatens to cause them to endure a catastrophic fall in what is already a low standard of living. The political risk arises because in most provinces, whether inflation results in a fall in living standards is entirely dependent upon whether politicians choose to provide periodic, unscheduled increases in social assistance incomes, euphemistically referred to as income “enrichments.” With a single stroke of a legislative pen the political risk can be eliminated and the economic risk minimized. The high rates of inflation currently being experienced add urgency to this consideration. We show that deteriorating health, increased reliance on food banks and rising rates of homelessness are just some of the inevitable consequences of delay.
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75658
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mitigating Non-Tariff Measures in Agriculture: Preferential Trade
           Agreements and Conversations

    • Authors: May Yeung
      Abstract: Regulatory divergence between countries is creating barriers to market access in international agri-food trade, becoming what are known as non-tariff measures (NTMs). NTMs create friction in international trade, increasing fulfillment costs and, if sufficiently burdensome, pose a very real threat to global food security. More countries, including Canada, are turning to preferential trade agreements (PTAs) to liberalize trade. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between Canada and the European Union was heralded as comprehensive in its coverage, reducing or eliminating tariffs in virtually all aspects of trade. Overall bilateral trade has increased since CETA came into force but not for many of Canada’s agri-food exporters. CETA’s tariff-focused agenda did little to mitigate the NTMs impeding many Canadian agri-food exports. NTMs are not unique to Canada-EU trade. They are an increasing factor impeding world food trade as more governments are basing policy decisions on ideological or political factors rather than sound science. As a result, regulatory divergence in NTMs is widening among a greater number of countries. The agri-food trade system becomes less predictable, riskier and more volatile. For international trade, it has been described as a slow death by 1,000 regulations. The only means to address regulatory divergence is to facilitate regulatory convergence. This is not an easy task given the number of multi-disciplinary stakeholders involved, both domestic and international. While PTAs are not well equipped to legislatively force convergence, they do provide informal and formal opportunities for building networks, strengthening relationships and opening communication channels that can foster and facilitate regulatory convergence. Every opportunity to do so, whether bilaterally, through PTAs or multilaterally, must be taken advantage of.
      PubDate: 2022-07-07
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75305
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Guaranteed Basic Income for Canadians: Off the Table or Within
           Reach'

    • Authors: Lee Stevens, Wayne Simpson, Harvey Stevens, Herb Emery
      Abstract: Pilot projects in the past that have experimented with a Guaranteed Basic Income (GBI) in Manitoba and Ontario, and a recent study of the feasibility of a GBI in British Columbia, indicate that provinces are not in an ideal position to successfully implement an affordable and effective GBI. However, a GBI implemented by the federal government, financed by eliminating the GST credit and lowering personal tax exemptions, could be both effective and affordable. It could also do so without requiring the elimination of those provincial social assistance programs that are more deeply targeted toward people’s needs. By using its revenue powers, the federal government could create more fiscal capacity for the provinces to provide other cash and in-kind social supports, allowing for greater provincial benefit targeting. The federal government’s centrality in designing and implementing tax structures and collecting tax revenue make it singularly suitable for administering and delivering a GBI. Financing the GBI by eliminating the modest GST credit and lowering the current basic personal income tax exemption could provide a significant reduction in the rate, depth and intensity of poverty in Canada, without imposing an excessive tax burden on Canadians. If provinces use the GBI as a replacement for certain less-targeted provincial social assistance income transfers, the freed-up payments and reduced caseloads could also allow provinces to target more effectively those needs not addressed by the GBI. The recent COVID-19 pandemic exposed longstanding gaps in Canada’s income- support frameworks, with lower-income workers facing exceptional economic vulnerability. At the same time, the Canadian Emergency Response Benefit proved edifying in terms of how to best design a basic-income program. In addition, the federal government’s experiences with the poverty-reducing impacts of the Canada Child Benefit, the Old Age Supplement and the Guaranteed Income Supplement have moved Canada closer than ever to a workable GBI. While it comes with additional costs, those costs will be less burdensome than many GBI skeptics might believe. They must also be put into perspective, by comparing them against the costs of current and, in many cases ineffective income transfers and, just as importantly, against the human cost of leaving more Canadians living in poverty.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75092
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Tax Policy Trends: Implications of Taxation without Indexation in Alberta

    • Authors: Lindsay Tedds, Gillian Petit
      Abstract: In the Alberta 2019 Budget (Alberta Treasury Board and Finance 2019), then Finance Minister Travis Toews announced that Alberta would “temporarily pause indexation of non-refundable tax credits and tax bracket thresholds...” (p. 11). This tax policy trends piece examines the implications of this freeze to Alberta tax payers.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Career Success Plans for Immigrants

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: For the next several months, the Social Policy team will investigate the role played by social agencies in the economic inclusion of newcomers to Canada. This month, we identify the benefits of value-added programs aimed at helping immigrants navigate the Canadian job market.
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: The Benefits of a (Tax) Holiday

    • Authors: Gregory Galay
      Abstract: On April 1, 2022, the Government of Alberta stopped collecting the provincial fuel tax in an effort to support Albertans dealing with high fuel prices. The “tax holiday” applies to gasoline and diesel and will last until West Texas Intermediate prices fall below $80 US per barrel. A recent Energy & Environmental Policy Trends quantifies how much Alberta families could benefit from the tax holiday and the cost to the Government of Alberta. This note examines how retail fuel prices have historically responded to changes in fuel taxes and assesses how drivers in Alberta are benefitting from the holiday.
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Population Growth and Population Aging in Alberta Municipalities

    • Authors: Kevin McQuillan, Michael Laszlo
      Abstract: Between 2011 and 2021, a significant number of Alberta’s towns, villages and rural areas experienced population stagnation or decline, while the cities and many nearby municipalities continued to grow. As smaller municipalities’ populations shrink or fail to grow, they also become disproportionately older—trends that can threaten tax bases and community involvement. This demographic trend has two main causes. First, Alberta’s cities offer increasing employment opportunities in the rapidly growing service sector, while many smaller communities have seen declines in employment in the resource and manufacturing sectors important to their economies and struggle to attract new industries. Thus, as in the rest of the country, towns, villages and municipal districts lose residents, especially young people, to where the jobs are. Second, while the province’s birth rate continues to decline, and overall growth has come to depend almost as much on international immigration as on natural growth, newcomers to the province tend to prefer the major urban areas. Following Alberta’s boom years, the last decade saw decreased migration from other provinces into Alberta and a declining fertility rate. The province’s economy is now on the mend, with the highest employment rate in Canada; however, the once-high birth rates and elevated rates of internal migration from other provinces are unlikely to return. The pace of growth will depend on Alberta’s ability to attract a healthy share of the many new immigrants Canada intends to welcome over the decade ahead. Alberta’s smaller municipalities, in turn, need strategies to attract immigrants. For this, they will require employment opportunities and dedicated resources to assist newcomers. Manitoba has had success in doing this and may offer Alberta an example of how to proceed. Some emerging economic and social trends may work to the benefit of smaller municipalities. For example, industries that require large amounts of land or significant storage facilities often opt to locate outside the big cities. New developments in agriculture and energy, especially in geothermal and hydrogen, may open new opportunities for growth in towns and rural areas. While Alberta is unlikely to replicate B.C.’s success in attracting retirees, the popularity of outdoor recreation provides a chance for many municipalities to attract new residents. Although changes in work practices brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic make future trends difficult to predict, as people continue to work at a distance from their places of employment, it is possible that Alberta could see a demographic shift away from the urban centres. Smaller municipalities may attract both city dwellers and immigrants seeking the benefits of life away from the cities, including bigger and less costly properties. Nevertheless, slower growth and population aging are likely to continue, and communities must use the coming years to prepare, putting in place necessary services, especially those related to health care. This is especially vital in communities far from the urban centres.
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74699
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Disinformation and Russia-Ukrainian War on Canadian Social Media

    • Authors: Jean-Christophe Boucher
      Abstract: The Russia-Ukrainian war has led to a large disinformation campaign, largely spread through social media. Canada has been a target of these influence campaigns to affect Canadian public opinions. In this policy brief, we venture to examine the prevalence of pro-Russian narratives on Canadian social media as well as identify major influencers creating and spreading such narratives. Additionally, using artificial intelligence, we seek to examine the reach and nature of pro-Russian disinformation narratives. Our research team has been collecting more than 6.2 million Tweets globally since January 2022 to monitor and measure Russian influence operations on social media. We find that pro-Russian narratives promoted in the Canadian social media ecosystem on twitter are divided into two large communities:
      1) accounts influenced by sources from the United States and 2) those largely influenced by sources from international sources from Russia, Europe, and China. First, pro-Russian discourse on Canadian Twitter blames NATO for the conflict suggesting that Russia’s invasion was a result of NATO’s expansionism or aggressive intentions toward Russia. In this context, pro-Russian propaganda argues that the West has no moral high ground to condemn the invasion and nations such as Canada, the US, and the UK are trying to force Europe into this conflict to benefit materially. Second, it is suggested that Western nations are propping up fascists in Ukraine, thus justifying Russia’s actions. Thirdly, pro-Russian narrative attempts to amplify mistrust of democratic institutions, be it the media, international institutions, or the Liberal government. Faced with the challenges associated with foreign interference, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of the spread of disinformation in Canada.
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.75449
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBEM) for Meaningful
           Incorporation of Indigenous and Local Knowledge Within the Context of the
           Canadian Northern Corridor Program

    • Authors: Jen Sidorova, Luis D. Virla
      Abstract: Meaningful incorporation of Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts is key to accelerating effective action plans. This study argues that community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM), if done properly, can be more effective in incorporating ILK than environmental impact and monitoring based only on Western science. The paper examines successful elements, benefits, challenges and limitations in the existing CBEM studies that incorporate ILK to recognize how to design comprehensive CBEM policy for large-scale infrastructure projects such as the Canadian Northern Corridor (CNC) concept. Based on a proposed framework for CBEM implementation (CBEM-IF), the study examines three Canadian CBEM case studies: berry pollution monitoring (AB), water quality monitoring (AB, BC, NWT, NT, SK and YT) and caribou monitoring (QC and NL), to evaluate lessons learned and to inform future CNC policy development. This study illustrates how knowledge co-production provides more opportunities for actions in sustainable development and incorporates emotional and spiritual components that entail different conceptualizations of human-nature connectedness. CBEM facilitates the incorporation of ILK and science, engages community members in the monitoring process and produces research outcomes which stakeholders perceive as more legitimate and relevant. CBEM can be a powerful tool in land-use conflict resolution, and it represents an inexpensive approach to monitoring the Arctic and near-
      North. Indigenous leadership, technology incorporation and equal partnership with communities, and availability of institutional guidelines were identified as required to enable the proper implementation of CBEM programs within the CNC. However, certain limitations of CBEM include lack of policy and guidelines; high reliance on volunteers; lack of standardized methods; focus on specific types of a landscape; general issues with TEK incorporation into science; and policy issues due to the incommensurability
      of Western science and the ILK epistemologies. Such challenges can be generalized as technical, organizational, financial and environmental issues and can be addressed by applying successful elements from previous international and Canadian CBEM studies. The authors suggest a series of policy recommendations to enable the implementation of CBEM as a means for meaningful incorporation of ILK on sustainable development projects and the CNC.
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73981
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Alberta’s
           Homeless Serving Sectors

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone, Margarita Wilkins
      Abstract: Instructions to self-isolate after testing positive for COVID-19 are challenging for people to follow if they are experiencing homelessness. But for this population, the need to self-isolate may be greater than for any other.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • An Overview of Major Engineering Challenges for Developing Transportation
           Infrastructure in Northern Canada

    • Authors: Guy Doré, Eva Stephani, Julie Malenfant Lepage
      Abstract: The transportation corridor proposed to support the development of northern Canada travels extensively through areas of permafrost. The main concern for sustainably developing infrastructure in permafrost terrain arises from melting the ground ice contained in the frozen soils, which can yield to ground subsidence and other geohazards. Permafrost degradation may be triggered by natural processes or anthropogenic activities; it is compounded with climate change, and its impacts on infrastructure are widespread in the Arctic. Advancing our understanding of permafrost dynamics is critical to minimize impacts from geohazards on infrastructure and detrimental consequences on the surrounding natural environment. Permafrost dynamics involve the interactions between factors from the climate,
      ground surface and subsurface, and in some instances with anthropogenic activities (e.g., infrastructure). Assemblage of these components forms a permafrost geosystem where interactions and feedback are key to the state of permafrost; this aligns with Aristotle’s concept that “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.” To comprehend permafrost dynamics and interactions with infrastructure, we must characterize the system components and monitor changes. Using comprehensive and interdisciplinary approaches is important because critical linkages may fall at the intersection
      of disciplines. Infrastructure construction in the North is challenging in many ways. Construction and material sites are remote, harsh weather conditions are frequent and construction methods and infrastructure maintenance in permafrost-affected soils can be difficult and costly. The most common approach is to build and maintain. This strategy involves allowing permafrost degradation to occur and preserving serviceability by intensive maintenance. It generally results in a reduced level of service, comfort, safety and shorter life cycles. Stabilization techniques are required when loss or low level of service are not acceptable. In the context of climate change and widespread permafrost degradation, mitigation techniques are also becoming important for infrastructure that was previously developed according to the build-and-maintain strategy. The different mitigation methods used to limit permafrost degradation along infrastructure can be classified into four main categories:
      Limitation of ground heat intake in summer;
      Enhancement of heat extraction from the ground in winter;
      Reinforcement of the infrastructure embankment and ground stability improvement; and
      Watermanagementtoreducethermalerosion. There is no generic solution to control permafrost degradation along infrastructure, and rather, the selection of mitigation methods is based on site-specific conditions and is part of the infrastructure management strategy. Maintaining adequate structural
      and functional conditions of infrastructure, which implies proper investments, is
      at the heart of solutions for sustainable northern development. All governments, designers, contractors and operators must recognize the need for proper infrastructure management and embrace the role it plays in ensuring the predictability and safety of our public infrastructure. Our understanding of permafrost science and engineering has largely progressed
      in the last decades, yet important knowledge gaps remain and these need to
      be addressed for sustainably developing infrastructure in northern Canada. The following were identified as important remaining challenges: intensify efforts to develop knowledge, expertise and reference documents using an interdisciplinary
      and collaborative approach; foster communication between stakeholders, scientists, engineers and planners and involve First Nations; develop new, affordable and effective technology for permafrost characterizations and monitoring; improve infrastructure design and develop new adaptation technologies; and develop management tools for infrastructure and risk management adapted to northern conditions.
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73187
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Organizing Canadian Local Government

    • Authors: Zachary Spicer
      Abstract: Finding the right organizational structure to govern local communities is a long-standing concern amongst municipal decision-makers. Canada provides a range of local governance arrangements, including service cooperation, single-tier and two-tier models. These types of arrangements have implications for how a municipality is governed and financed. Underlying these concerns, are factors such as local identity, culture and values.
      PubDate: 2022-05-06
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74147
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Canadian Agriculture: Policies and Reduction
           Measures

    • Authors: Ymène Fouli, Margot Hurlbert, Roland Kröbel
      Abstract: Despite numerous national and international climate conferences, meetings
      and workshops leading to various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets and agreements since the 1970s, total GHG emissions in Canada continue to increase. They reached 729 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2 eq) in 2018, with the Canadian agricultural sector contributing approximately 10 per cent of total GHGs emitted. Different regions of the country contribute different levels, face different challenges and have different capacities to address their GHG emissions. Designing climate guidelines, programs, policies and adopting best management practices (BMPs) that promote relevant local and regional adaptation and mitigation efforts is important. Mechanisms such as setting a carbon price, cap- and-trade systems and tax-based policies contribute to decreased GHG emissions. GHG emissions in Canada are regulated at the federal level via a national carbon pricing policy and provinces have set limitations on GHG emissions via pricing or taxation. Agriculture has the potential to mitigate GHG emissions by applying BMPs that reduce emissions and increase carbon storage in soils. Meanwhile, the pressure is increasing on the agricultural sector to increase production, both for local commodities and those destined for export, to feed a growing population. This paper explores agricultural policies and measures that encourage farmers and producers across Canada to reduce their GHG emissions. Specifically, national and provincial measures and implications are presented and compared to international measures and outcomes. Finally, recommendations are made for future climate policy research and adoption.
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74843
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Family Homelessness

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone
      Abstract: It is not just adults who experience homelessness. Their children do as well. This creates challenges for providers of emergency shelter for families.
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy & Environmental Policy Trends: Why Are Power Prices So Darn
           High'

    • Authors: Blake Shaffer
      Abstract: It’s a question we keep hearing from Albertans. In this Policy Trends, we leverage new research to break down what’s behind Alberta’s rising power prices.
      PubDate: 2022-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Carbon Credit Systems in Agriculture: A Review of Literature

    • Authors: Nimanthika Lokuge, Sven Anders
      Abstract: Carbon-credit systems allow agricultural producers to earn an extra revenue through selling their surplus of carbon credits to producers who emit higher amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, agricultural carbon-credit systems are still at early stage; hence, these benefits cannot be guaranteed due to their uncertain nature and the paucity of scientific evidence about agricultural carbon credits. The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive literature review to highlight the gaps in existing knowledge related to agricultural carbon credits/offsets. Our particular interest is on Alberta because the province indicates the highest agricultural GHG emissions from 1990 to 2019 and, therefore, developing strategies to reduce the sector’s carbon intensity without compromising its economic contribution to the provincial economy poses a challenge. Literature is evident for promising GHG-mitigation strategies such as adoption of 4R practices (the right source at the right rate, right time and right place) as a package and improved efficiency in cattle farm management. Reduced tillage has been found to be less efficient. Researchers favour the concept of regenerative agriculture, which is more likely to return better outcomes compared to tillage practices. Moreover, ranchers are willing to upgrade their farms with efficient cattle breeds to take advantage of decreased feed costs. Conversely, farmers are reluctant to participate in the Alberta Emission Offset System unless rewarded with incentives. However, carbon-credit markets are still growing; consequently, farmers may have more opportunities in the future. If the Alberta credit price continues to grow with no expected increase in transaction costs, agricultural producers would be more attracted to participate in the Alberta Emission Offset System. Moreover, endorsing farmers for carbon-crediting mechanisms by emphasizing the co-benefits and associated economic incentives is recommended, instead of prioritizing its potential financial gains. Nevertheless, due to the scarcity of published studies, it is too early to project the economic and climate-mitigative potential of carbon-offset–credit markets for Canadian farmers. Literature suggests farmers wait until the carbon market becomes more stable before making a decision. Future research and scientific evidence will be crucial to filling these gaps and to guaranteeing future protocols.
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74591
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Reducing Transaction Costs on Infrastructure Corridor Projects in Canada

    • Authors: André Le Dressay
      Abstract: Infrastructure corridors are among the most complicated transactions in Canada. Establishing a pre-determined corridor and completing linear infrastructure projects within it requires transactions related to property rights, infrastructure planning, design, construction, financing, operation and maintenance, securing public support or social license, and because of the long overdue recognition of Indigenous rights and title, informed support from impacted Indigenous communities. This paper uses a comparative systems analysis to identify specific transaction costs in four areas – historic, infrastructure development process, fiscal and economic systems. We argue these transaction costs can be significantly reduced by systematically implementing Indigenous fiscal, infrastructure and lands jurisdictions because this will permanently ensure that Indigenous communities and people are able to receive similar fiscal and economic benefits generated from infrastructure corridor projects as those enjoyed by other Canadians and other governments.
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73464
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Material Deprivation and Low Income

    • Authors: Geranda Notten
      Abstract: Measures of material deprivation show that the experience of poverty may coincide with an income that is both below and above the poverty line.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Falling Fertility in Canadian Cities

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Since 2009, the fertility rate in all Canadian cities has fallen below the replacement rate. Without immigration city populations will shrink, and economic growth in those cities will slow.
      PubDate: 2022-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Sensitivity of Food Bank Visits to Social Assistance, Housing and
           Labour Market Conditions in Toronto

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone, Margarita Wilkins
      Abstract: We make use of monthly data describing the number of visits to food banks operated by the Daily Bread Food Bank in Toronto. We identify the extent to which food bank visits may be associated with changes to public policies, to changes in the cost of shelter and to changes in labour market conditions. Our measures of these changes are those that are relevant to individuals and families with limited incomes and limited abilities to borrow or save. We find that the number of visits to food banks is sensitive to measures of all three of these types of changes; food bank visits increase with increases in rent, with falls in the minimum wage and with reductions in the disability benefits available to people requiring social assistance.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73848
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: The accelerating pace of electric
           vehicle adoption

    • Authors: Sara Hastings-Simon
      Abstract: Sales of electric cars are taking off. In this policy trends we look at global progress in the context of a net zero target.
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • AN OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF KEY CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RELEVANT TO THE
           CANADIAN NORTHERN CORRIDOR

    • Authors: Dwight Newman
      Abstract: This report considers at a high level a number of constitutional issues associated with the development of the proposed Northern Corridor, seeking to flag areas for further examination.  It seeks to show how the Canadian Constitution offers mechanisms for such a multi-modal corridor but also poses barriers.  In some ways, the challenge the Northern Corridor seeks to overcome is the presence of too many decision-makers on each individual transportation infrastructure project.  The Canadian Constitution both offers ways past this problem and also replicates it.  The first part of the paper examines constitutional rules relating to inter-delegation between the federal and provincial governments and suggests that cooperation and inter-delegation, drawing on models of past infrastructure projects, may offer a constitutional mechanism toward development of the Northern Corridor but that they require leadership and a lot of support from different actors.  The second part considers what powers the federal government has on its own in relation to transportation infrastructure and concludes that these are very significant in the context of interprovincial/international transportation infrastructure but that unilateral federal action may still be undesirable for other reasons and that this power may just signal the role of federal leadership on the file.  The third part considers the implications of constitutionalized Indigenous rights and suggests that there will be a need for close examination of various contexts and early engagement of Indigenous peoples in a project that could be beneficial for northern Indigenous communities, with many legal complexities otherwise present, including implications from Canada’s new legislation on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).  A concluding section draws together key implications and suggests that the constitutional landscape calls for federal leadership but extensive engagement and cooperation with other actors, even while there remain many constitutional and legal issues that would warrant closer examination.
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72946
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Energy and Environmental Policy Trends: Making Sense of Alberta’s Fuel
           Tax Holiday and Electricity Bill Credit

    • Authors: Jennifer Winter, Trevor Tombe
      Abstract: On March 7, 2022 — in response to rapidly rising crude oil and gas prices (and therefore utility costs) following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and inflation at generational highs — the Government of Alberta announced it will suspend provincial fuel taxes effective April 1, 2022. In addition, it will provide a $150 credit on households’ electricity bills. What will this mean for Alberta families' Will it “reverse” the federal carbon tax, as Premier Kenney claimed when announcing the new policy'
      PubDate: 2022-03-11
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Infrastructure Policy Trends: Global Rare Earth Elements Market

    • Authors: Alaz Munzur
      Abstract: The use of REEs (rare earth elements) has become fundamental to many high- technology end-use applications including the electronics and transportation sectors, but manufacturers may face significant challenges to procuring sufficient REE supplies due to supply-chain disruptions and long project lead times for new mines. A strong policy agenda is needed if Canada is to position itself as the “global supplier of choice” for these minerals.
      PubDate: 2022-03-04
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • How Governments Could Best Engage Community Organizations to Co-Design
           COVID-19 Pandemic Policies for Persons with Disabilities

    • Authors: Ash Seth, Meaghan Edwards, Katrina Milaney, Jennifer Zwicker
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the policy measures adopted in response have disproportionately impacted persons with disabilities. Given the increased risk of COVID-19 and the resulting health impact for this vulnerable population, governments must engage stakeholders such as community organizations to co-design pandemic response plans. Collaboration with key stakeholders could assist in transforming services in crucial areas, such as health, where emergency policies are organized around the needs of persons with disabilities. Unfortunately, there is inadequate data collection and insufficient emergency preparedness planning and responses for persons with disabilities. This knowledge gap means consideration of health and social policy implications specific to the needs and experiences of persons with disabilities is lacking. This research study aimed to evaluate strategies through which decision-makers could engage stakeholders, such as community organizations, to co-design disability-inclusive policy responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in Alberta. Through interviews, the study focused on understanding the level of engagement, barriers to community organizations’ engagement and participatory policy aspects best suited for co-design. Key findings from the research highlighted the participants’ viewpoints on barriers, facilitators, preferences and other critical approaches through which decision-makers engage with community organizations. Results highlighted that top-down and tokenistic consultation approaches limit community organizations’ engagement in designing pandemic planning and response. Inaccessible ways of consultation and navigation barriers exacerbate obstacles to stakeholder engagement. Stakeholder engagement in data surveillance efforts was unclear, and the impact assessment process needs strengthening. The study results also showed that having COVID-19 disability advisory groups at the federal and provincial levels are a robust mechanism to connect communities with the government. However, the process of influencing government decision-making and policy actions needs to be openly communicated to civil society. Solutions are achievable. Political commitment, long-term investments and an accessible engagement environment would significantly improve stakeholder engagement. Governments must transition from traditional consultative methods to sustainable engagement practices while sharing how public policies reflect communities’ input. Financial investments must create an accessible consultation environment for designing participatory pandemic policies that reflect the priorities of persons with disabilities. Some key recommendations emerging from our analysis include:
      Invest financially to create an accessible consultation environment for co- designing policies.
      Consult stakeholders to develop new regulations or adjust existing ones to create inclusive pandemic response plans.
      Inform how pandemic response plans include and address community inputs and concerns in a transparent manner.
      Professionally contract stakeholders to co-design and communicate pandemic information.
      Engage with multiple stakeholders to evaluate the impact of pandemic response plans.
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73020
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Proposal for a “Big Bang” Corporate Tax Reform

    • Authors: Jack Mintz
      Abstract: In the 2020 Tax Competitiveness report (Bazel and Mintz 2021), four conclusions were reached about Canada’s investment climate and corporate tax system.   
      Despite accelerated depreciation and other tax preferences introduced in recent years, the existing corporate income tax is failing to spur Canada’s investment performance, which has been virtually flat since 2015 even before the pandemic.Overall, business investment has lagged most countries even in some resource-based economies with 2015-19 investment cumulative increases being stronger in Norway (16 percent), New Zealand (14 percent) and Russia (8 percent).  As a result of weak labour productivity and per capita GDP growth in Canada, companies pay lower labour compensation. 
      Canada’s corporate tax system is attractive to encourage investment in marginal projects although it has become much more distortionary and non-neutral due to incentives, thereby undermining the productive use of resources.
      Canada has a relatively high corporate income tax rate than most countries, thereby making Canada less attractive for greenfield projects with high economic rents from intangible or resource investments.
      Some countries have benefited from significant growth in capital investment from 2015 to 2019 especially Ireland (112 percent) Hungary (40 percent) and Estonia (37 percent) with competitive corporate tax systems that are quite different than other countries.Major tax reforms have also spurred stronger investment responses from 2015 to 2019 including France (16 percent), United States (14 percent) and India (24 percent).   Canada could pursue further its corporate tax reforms by lowering rates and broadening tax bases to reflect economic income. However, this common approach to reform, which has been focus for Canada since 1985, seems to have reached its limit in reducing corporate tax distortions.   Instead, a fundamental tax reform could help tilt the playing field towards Canada to boost investment, reduce tax distortions and simplify administration and compliance, without a significant loss in revenue.  I call this a “big-bang reform”.  As explained below, the basic proposal is to convert the corporate tax into a tax on distributed profits that would improve static and dynamic efficiency in the corporate tax system.[1] It is not a perfect system, but it could be a practical approach to boost growth and make the corporate tax more efficient and fairer.   As shown below, there are some important advantages to the approach, particularly reducing tax distortions that discourage investment especially for the service sectors in the economy.  The proposed structure would also be compatible with international tax systems and continue support for small businesses.  It does have one disadvantage – it would potentially be distortionary in financing decisions by favouring retained earnings over other funding sources.  Recommendations will be made to the taxation of share buybacks and capital gains that would create potentially greater neutrality among financing sources compared to the existing system.   Much of this detail will be explained further below.  The paper begins with a discussion of the current problems with the corporate income tax in Canada. This will be followed by a description of the proposed corporate tax on distributed profits, including a review of both the positive and negative aspects of the proposal. A rent-based approach to the taxation of corporate distributions is considered, which would be consistent with a personal tax reform along the lines of the expenditure approach, as explained below.   [1] Our proposal could also be adjusted to tax only corporate rents by redefining the tax base as distributed profits net of the new equity financing (although this would require a substantially higher corporate income tax rate to make up for the loss of revenues).  This approach would be appropriate if the personal income tax is also reformed to remove the tax on savings.  We will discuss this further below.  
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.73545
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Canadian Arctic Marine Transportation Issues, Opportunities and Challenges

    • Authors: Frédéric Lasserre, Kristin Bartenstein
      Abstract: Melting sea ice Although ice will always be present in the Arctic in winter, global warming induces a steady decline of the extent of sea ice and a rapid decrease in the share of multi-year ice, giving way to younger, thinner sea ice and giving credit to modelled scenarios of ice-free summers during the 21st century. However, ice remains a hazard and an impediment to navigation. Thinner and more fragmented ice moves faster and in patterns that are difficult to predict. It also seems more prone to building compression ridges. Ice arches preventing hard multi-year ice of the Arctic Ocean basin from penetrating into the Canadian Archipelago are weakening. In Baffin Bay, accelerated iceberg calving from Greenland is likely to increase the number of growlers, which pose a serious risk for navigation. From this emerges a nuanced picture of shipping conditions in the Canadian Arctic. Expanding commercial shipping Shipping in the Canadian Arctic is mainly driven by fishing, mining activities and community resupply, while transit shipping remains marginal. Fishing, mostly carried out by vessels based in Newfoundland and still less developed than in Greenland, is gradually moving north to Baffin Bay. As extraction sites are opening up, mining generates heavy traffic, in terms of both voyages and tonnage. Inland mining sites, faced with complex and costly land transportation due to melting permafrost, may further drive marine transportation. However, fluctuating world prices for commodities, not the extent of sea ice, are the main driver – or constraint – of mining activities. Community resupply is expanding as well, but strategies pursued by the four shipping companies involved differ. MTS took over from bankrupt NTCL in 2016 with a more limited service. Coastal Shipping Ltd, Desgagnés and NEAS all expanded westwards and opted for larger, heavier vessels without, however, expanding frequency of service. Regulatory framework Canada’s regulatory framework on Arctic was overhauled in 2018 to incorporate the Polar Code and modernize the regime. As IMO negotiations are ongoing, new regulatory adjustments are foreseeable. Area-based protection efforts are underway, but shipping needs and rights are considered carefully. Overall, Canada’s shipping regulation is not seen as an unnecessary impediment, but as warranted by prevailing shipping conditions. Future Shipping Trends Due to the constraints to shipping, destinational traffic is likely to remain dominant in the foreseeable future. Traffic generated by mining activities is likely to keep expanding provided no severe collapse of world commodity prices occurs. Community resupply may also experience continued expansion, partly fueled by mining ventures, provided operators can take advantage of improved port facilities in the Canadian archipelago.
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72626
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • EXISTING AND PLANNED INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS: IMPACTS AND POTENTIAL
           COMPATIBILITY WITH THE CANADIAN NORTHERN CORRIDOR

    • Authors: Alaz Munzur
      Abstract: Rigorous planning of a multi-modal corridor at a national scale involves identifying current and future infrastructure needs and determining opportunities for co-location of linear infrastructure. Ensuring compatibility of such a major and complex infrastructure expansion with existing and planned projects is necessary to avoid potential redundancies, minimize environmental impact, optimize resource allocation and enable long-term, sustainable economic growth. For this purpose, this paper reviews linear infrastructure projects in Canada’s North and Near-North that could feasibly constitute a segment of the Canadian Northern Corridor (CNC). The CNC concept connects Canada’s Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coasts and Hudson Bay through a linear infrastructure corridor. In accordance with the aims and scope of the CNC, this assessment covers linear infrastructure modes like rail, road, pipeline, electrical transmission and communications infrastructure, and ports as supporting infrastructure and gateways to the rest of the world. The assessment reviews infrastructure projects in two categories: existing and planned. For each infrastructure project reviewed under these categories, geographical characteristics, compatibility with the CNC in terms of purpose and scope, and details about funding and regulatory processes are provided. Corridor development is a lengthy, costly and complex process. Planning stages often involve a risky assessment of possible future changes in economic activity, regional priorities, land use and environmental conditions (like changing needs for climate adaptation strategies). However, there is no universal methodology for the design and development phases of corridors. Determining the regions to be served by the CNC requires a comprehensive investigation of the needs and priorities of the stakeholders and economic potential of the areas to be served. Adopting this basic principle, the assessment in this paper serves as a step towards determining a multi-modal route for a corridor with a northern focus that efficiently and purposefully integrates the existing infrastructure network of Canada. There is also no single rule for determining the level of compatibility of an existing piece of infrastructure with a planned corridor project. Although integrating previously independent sets of infrastructure potentially eliminates redundancies, saves time and resources, and reduces habitat fragmentation, aiming for achieving full integration can also result in inefficient outcomes by creating bottlenecks and delays in the movement of goods and services. Successful integration of infrastructure primarily depends on the design principles and priorities determined and agreed upon by the stakeholders in the planning and design phases of a corridor. In this preliminary assessment, I rely on the following key considerations which ensures widespread benefits for all Canadians, and evaluate the potential compatibility of existing and planned infrastructure projects with the objectives of the CNC concept: a. Improve transportation infrastructure (like road, rail, marine, aviation and commodity pipelines) b. Improve access to utilities (like electricity and broadband infrastructure) c. Improve access to resources The projects included in this paper does not represent an exhaustive list but are chosen based on the potential level of compatibility with the notional route of the CNC. Technical feasibility and engineering challenges should be extensively investigated in future research. Although this paper only discussed a selected set of infrastructure projects, a database of all relevant existing and planned infrastructure projects will be provided as an online resource for interested stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2022-01-26
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.72528
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Social Policy Trends: Types of Homelessness

    • Authors: Ronald Kneebone
      Abstract: People who experience homelessness do so in many ways. Staying in an emergency shelter is just one of those ways.
      PubDate: 2022-01-19
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • From National Accords to Bilateral Agreements: Transforming Canadian
           Health Care Intergovernmentalism

    • Authors: Tom McIntosh , Alanna DeCorby
      Abstract: This paper examines the transition from the “era of the health accords” (from 2000 to 2017) to the new regime of individual bilateral agreements between Ottawa and each of the provinces and territories, allocating federal health transfers and setting agreed-upon health-reform priorities in each jurisdiction. The paper argues that the health accords of 2000, 2003 and 2004 were essentially unsuccessful for a number of reasons. First, they tended to raise expectations among the public, health system actors and health policy experts about the ability to transform health care in Canada in a relatively short period of time. This was, in part, a result of the accords’ very broad and general commitments to change, but also their lack of recognition of the barriers to change that exist within the system. Second, and related to the first, attention was paid mostly to the amount of the transfer from the federal government to the provinces and territories, rather than to how those dollars were to be spent. At best, governments bought only a modest amount of change in the system, despite the billions of dollars of new investment. Unlike other industrialized federations, Canada appears to be the only one that relies on an ongoing, highly politicized process of intergovernmental diplomacy to negotiate the fiscal relationship in health care. This, combined with a somewhat amorphous and changeable understanding of the federal government’s overall role in health care, complicates the process of reform and heightens the political stakes around the negotiations. The new model of bilateral agreements negotiated under an umbrella statement
      of common principles around health-reform priorities may yet prove to be an improvement in both process and outcomes. Bilateralism can serve to de-escalate the political stakes inherent in the federal-provincial diplomacy around Canada’s most popular social program, by moving away from the “grand bargains” that characterized the accords. In short, there will be less opportunity for the kind of political rhetoric that unduly raises expectations of rapid change. More importantly, the bilateral agreements, although far from perfect, may actually better serve to focus attention on the specific health-service organization and delivery issues the provinces and territories intend to improve, restructure or expand. Under very broad principles such as “improving access to mental health and community care,” the bilateral agreements articulate some very clear plans about specific approaches, programs and policies on which the transfers will be spent. This should provide a
      much greater opportunity for the Canadian public to hold governments to account for progress in those areas, something the accords never really managed to do. Going forward, there is still room for improvement. Some provincial plans are decidedly vague, and governments should be urged to be more specific in their commitments and intentions. Common indicators continue to be difficult to develop, although big strides have been made in recent decades. Governments would be well advised to talk seriously and openly about the challenges and barriers to change that exist within the system and, in doing so, marshal public support to dismantle them. And the federal government itself needs to actively engage in assisting jurisdictions in learning from and adapting the successful reforms and initiatives of other jurisdictions. This could be an act of true system stewardship.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74113
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Innovation in the U.S. Health Care System’s Organization and
           Delivery

    • Authors: Michael DiStefano, So-Yeon Kang , Mariana Socal, Gerard Anderson
      Abstract: Over the past decades, the U.S. has attempted a wide array of innovations in the areas of health care organization and delivery. Canadian policy makers may be interested in some of the successes and failures in the United States health care system. This briefing summarizes recent trends in six areas: fiscal federalism, expanding benefits, payment reform, virtual and digital health, supply chain reforms and healthcare workforce. The federal government allocates money to the states based on per capita income in that state to support state health care programs such as the Medicaid program and Children’s Health Insurance Program. Additional fiscal transfers are also used to incentivize states to provide other services. Benefit expansion currently focuses on expanding Medicare to include hearing care, broadening the benefits covered by Medicare Advantage (managed care plans) plans, and using Medicaid waiver programs to expand eligibility and benefits for low-income individuals. Alternative Payment Models and expanding Medicare Advantage are transforming the system from fee-for-service toward a value-based system. Accelerated use of digital and virtual care is being promoted by waiving restrictions on coverage of telehealth services for acute and chronic conditions and primary care. Shortages of health care inputs, especially pharmaceuticals, were a chronic problem exacerbated by COVID-19. In response, onshoring of pharmaceutical production and expanding drug shortage surveillance and transparency in the drug supply chain is starting. Finally, the federal government has established research centers to track the number of primary care doctors and improve the distribution of physicians in the most disadvantaged areas. 
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v14i1.74116
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The CHA and Beyond The Role of Legislation in National Reform in Health
           Care

    • Authors: Pierre-Gerlier Forest, Lori Stoltz
      Abstract: This paper is centred on the use of legislation as a tool of public action in health policy. We suggest that as with the Canada Health Act of 1984, this option should be considered to direct future reform efforts and pursue our collective aims of health and wellness.   The CHA is the legislative expression of the federal government’s exercise of its spending power, serving to consolidate key national agreements governing the circumstances under which the federal government contributes to the costs of medically necessary health services delivered by the provinces and territories.   Two features of the CHA merit highlighting. The first is that its core provisions – in particular, the five criteria often referred to as Canada’s “national standards” for health care – were not new or original to the CHA. The CHA was nonetheless an important step in the development of Canada’s health system because it enshrined together, in one statute, longstanding commitments. A second feature of the CHA worth highlighting is that it does not stand alone. The CHA is one of 13 statutes across the country, including one in each province and territory, that serve together to establish the basic legal infrastructure of Canada’s health insurance system.   The CHA’s powers to make regulations and issue policy interpretation letters offer important potential to achieve needed health system reforms without needing to “open” the Act.  Even where these powers are unrestricted by an express requirement for consultation with the provinces and territories, however, this would undoubtedly be required given the fundamentally consensual nature of the CHA.   Finally, the federal government’s legislative options are not limited to the CHA.  Jurisdiction over health and health care in Canada is shared between the federal and provincial and territorial governments. The various federal powers with health aspects allocated by the Constitution Act, 1867 are significant, including the residual “federal health power” to make laws “for the peace, order and good government of Canada” (POGG).  It therefore makes good sense to consider federal policy objectives in the health domain with regard for the full spectrum of federal legislative competence.  
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74114
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Advancing Supply Chain Resilience for Canadian Health Systems

    • Authors: Anne Snowdon
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed significant fragilities in the current capacity and function of global healthcare supply chains. During the first wave of the pandemic, long, undiversified, and lean global supply chains were destabilized by a massive surge in demand for care, that required high volumes of critical health products for care delivery (Snowdon, Saunders & Wright, 2021). China, the primary manufacturer of a number of critical health products and the first site of a COVID-19 outbreak, temporarily shuttered its manufacturing capacity. As a result, there were severe product shortages across every global health system. Manufacturers were unable to rapidly scale their production capacity to meet the sudden and dramatic increase in the demand for critical products, which resulted in a destabilizing “ripple effect” across global healthcare supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic, and the surge in supply demands it created, exposed the fragility that rapidly destabilized these global healthcare supply chains. This destabilization of healthcare supply chains impacted every jurisdiction in Canada and touched the lives of healthcare workers, patients, citizens, and non-permanent residents (such as temporary foreign workers).  
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.11575/sppp.v15i1.74115
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY TRENDS : WHAT’S DRIVING THE COST
           OF DRIVING'

    • Authors: G. Kent Fellows, Gregory Galay
      Abstract: The price of gasoline has returned to pre-pandemic levels and the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s October Short-term Energy Outlook (STEO) suggests prices could remain at these levels for the rest of 2021 and throughout 2022.
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • International Policy Trends: Travel Bans and Omicron

    • Authors: Robert Falconer
      Abstract: Since the identification of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, the Canadian Government has banned travel from several African countries, even as the variant spreads in other countries globally.
      PubDate: 2022-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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