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Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1098-612X - ISSN (Online) 1532-2750
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian-related
           cats in western Mexico

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      Authors: Néstor G Michel-Regalado, Miguel A Ayala-Valdovinos, Jorge Galindo-García, Theodor Duifhuis-Rivera, Abraham Virgen-Méndez
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequently diagnosed hereditary disease affecting Persian cats, is caused by a cytosine-to-adenine transversion (10063C>A) in PKD1, the gene that codes for polycystin-1. The objective of this study was to provide a preliminary estimate of the frequency of the pathogenic 10063C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PKD1 in Persian and Persian-related cat breeds in western Mexico.MethodsBlood samples were collected from 104 cats (89 Persian, seven Persian crossbreed, five Siamese and three Himalayan cats). Genotyping was performed with our proposed PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, as well as a previously established PCR-RFLP method for validation. The genotypes of control cats were corroborated by a commercial veterinary genetics laboratory.ResultsOur proposed PCR-RFLP assay and the validated PCR-RFLP methodology indicated that 24/104 (23.1%) cats in this study were heterozygous carriers of the 10063C>A SNP, including 23/89 Persian cats (25.8%) and 1/7 Persian crossbreed cats (14.3%). No Siamese or Himalayan cats were carriers. There were no discrepancies between the results obtained with our proposed assay and those obtained with the validation method or with commercial laboratory results.Conclusions and relevanceThe carrier frequency of the PKD1 10063C>A SNP in Persian and Persian-related cat breeds in western Mexico was found to be 23.1%. ADPKD frequencies among cat populations in Mexico have not been published previously. Genotyping assays can be used to facilitate the selection of breeding stocks by local breeders and veterinarians to avoid propagation of ADPKD.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T04:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221114043
       
  • Gastroduodenal ulceration detected endoscopically in cats: retrospective
           study of 61 patients

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      Authors: Enrico Bottero, Alessio Pierini, Pietro Ruggiero, Deborah Cattaneo, Andrea Campanile, Elena Benvenuti
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to describe the endoscopic appearance of gastroduodenal ulcers (GDUs), and to assess the clinical, ultrasonographic and histological data, as well as long-term follow-up, in cats.MethodsThe medical record databases of five veterinary endoscopists were evaluated between January 2016 and 2020, in a retrospective study. Cats with at least one gastric or duodenal ulcer detected by endoscopic examination were included. All the medical records of the selected cats were reviewed and information was collected regarding breed, age, sex, neuter status, medical history, clinical signs, and ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological findings. The cats were evaluated at 6, 12 and 18 months.ResultsSixty-one cats with a median age of 9.0 years (range 2.0–16.0) were included in the study. The most common complaints were vomiting (n = 55; 90%) and hyporexia (n = 40; 66%); haematemesis was reported in 12 (20%) cats. Endoscopy showed GDUs in the following locations: gastric body in 28 cats (46%), antropyloric area in 34 cats (56%), fundus in 13 cats (21%) and duodenum in eight cats (13%). A single GDU was found in 42 cats (69%) and multiple GDUs were seen in 19 cats (31%). Histopathological evaluation revealed benign lesions in 33 (54%) cats and malignant lesions in 28 (46%; 24 high-grade lymphoma, one low-grade lymphoma and three carcinoma). High-grade lymphoma was detected only in the stomach. Cats diagnosed with malignant GDUs (median 10.5, range 4–16) were significantly older than cats with benign lesions (P = 0.002).Conclusions and relevanceGDUs are common and were detected in 5.1% of cats undergoing an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The risk of a malignant ulcer increases proportionally with each year of increasing age. GDU location, number and morphological appearance do not provide any indication of the nature of the ulcer; however, duodenal ulcers are frequently benign. Endoscopic examination facilitates the early and minimally invasive detection of GDUs in cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T11:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221109802
       
  • Use of feeding tubes in 112 cats in an internal medicine referral service
           (2015–2020)

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      Authors: Audrey Brunet, Tarek Bouzouraa, Jean-Luc Cadore, Marine Hugonnard
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to describe diseases, complications and outcomes associated with the use of feeding tubes in a population of sick cats with appetite disturbance managed at an internal medicine referral service.MethodsClinicopathological data from cats receiving nasoenteral (NE) or oesophagostomy (O) tubes were studied. Cats were categorised according to their underlying disease and divided into subgroups (NE or O tube). The following factors associated with survival were analysed: disease category, type of tube and return to appetite.ResultsIncluded in the study were 112 cats, representing 118 cases. Of the 118 cases, 98 (83%) and 20 (17%) received NE or O tubes, respectively. The most common underlying conditions were digestive (13.5%), hepatobiliary (11%) and upper urinary tract (11%) disorders. Hepatobiliary (50%) and upper respiratory tract (30%) conditions were predominant in the O tube group. Digestive (15%) and upper urinary tract (12%) diseases were more common in the NE tube group. Complications following tube placement occurred in 22/118 cases (18.6%). The global survival rate was 73% and did not differ between NE (71.4%) and O tube (80%) groups (P = 1.00) or disease categories (P = 0.61). Return of appetite before feeding tube removal occurred in 56 cases (47%), within a median of 3 days (range 1–30) and was not associated with mirtazapine administration (P = 1.00). Appetite returned earlier for cats with NE tubes (3 days, range 1–17) than for those with O tubes (33 days, range 5–60; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T10:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221108835
       
  • Surgical treatment and outcome of intrahepatic shunts in 12 cats

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      Authors: Lavinia Economu, Rhiannon Strickland, Vicky J Lipscomb
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Case series summary The objective of this case series was to describe the presentation, surgical treatment and outcome of a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IHPSS) in 12 cats. A retrospective case series of cats undergoing surgical treatment for an IHPSS was undertaken. Signalment, clinical signs, imaging, surgical treatment, complications and short-term outcome (1 year after first surgery) was obtained, where possible, using a health-related quality of life owner questionnaire. Seven cats were diagnosed with a left divisional shunt, three with a central divisional shunt and two with a right divisional shunt using intraoperative mesenteric portovenography. Three cats tolerated complete acute suture attenuation, eight cats underwent partial suture attenuation, four of which received complete suture ligation at a second surgery, and one cat underwent partial attenuation with a thin film band. Six cats (50%) developed post-attenuation neurological signs (PANS) after first surgery and two cats (17%) died or were euthanased due to severe PANS. Long-term outcome was available for eight cats (67%), with a median follow-up time of 1743 days (range 364–2228), and was described as excellent in five cats (63%), fair in two cats (25%) and poor in one cat (12%).Relevance and novel information Few papers exist that describe the presentation, intraoperative imaging, treatment and outcome of IHPSSs in cats. This is the first to describe surgical attenuation with a thin film band in a cat with an IHPSS. This case series reports excellent long-term outcomes in a majority of surgically treated cats with IHPSS.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T10:16:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221109325
       
  • Sedation quality of alfaxalone associated with butorphanol, methadone or
           pethidine in cats injected into the supraspinatus or the quadriceps muscle
           

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      Authors: Giacomo Giannettoni, Giulia Moretti, Laura Menchetti, Arianna Pepe, Federica Bellocchi, Antonello Bufalari, Sara Nannarone
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to compare the quality of sedation with three different anaesthetic protocols (alfaxalone combined with butorphanol, methadone or pethidine) administered intramuscularly in cats, and to evaluate the influence of the injection site (between supraspinatus and quadriceps muscles) on the onset and quality of sedation.MethodsA total of 151 cats were selected for this study. Cats were sedated with alfaxalone (3 mg/kg) combined with either butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg; n = 50), methadone (0.3 mg/kg; n = 53) or pethidine (5 mg/kg; n = 48). The combination was injected intramuscularly into the supraspinatus (n = 79) or quadriceps muscle (n = 72). The data included a scoring system for the quality of sedation and physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, body temperature and occurrence of mydriasis, monitored during the first 30 mins of anaesthesia.ResultsThe opioid associated with alfaxalone influenced the overall sedation score, the degree of myorelaxation, the occurrence of mydriasis and HR. The overall sedation score was poorer with butorphanol than with methadone (P = 0.008), and butorphanol induced a lower degree of myorelaxation than methadone (P = 0.013). The injection into the supraspinatus showed better qualitative results for sedation and a faster onset time (in about 3 mins) than that into the quadriceps (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221104747
       
  • Use of tetrasodium EDTA acid for the treatment of intraluminal obstruction
           of subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices

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      Authors: Valerie Duval, Marilyn Dunn, Catherine Vachon
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a 4% tetrasodium EDTA (tEDTA) infusion protocol in the subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices of cats with intraluminal obstruction at a veterinary teaching hospital between July 2017 and April 2020.MethodsThis was a retrospective controlled study. Cats with an obstructed SUB device underwent a 4% tEDTA infusion protocol. Obstruction of the device was diagnosed based on renal pelvic dilation, dilatation of the ureter, mineralized material within the device (cystostomy or nephrostomy catheters) seen on ultrasound, the absence of visible bubbles within the renal pelvis and/or urinary bladder following ultrasound-guided flushing of the device with saline.ResultsA total of 16 tEDTA infusion protocols were performed in 14 cats. The infusion protocol was considered successful in 11/16 SUB devices (68.8%). Six devices (n = 6/11; 54.5%) had recurrence of obstruction with a median time of 87 days. One or more episodes of self-limiting pollakiuria and/or hematuria following infusion was seen in eight patients (n = 8/14; 57.1%).Conclusions and relevanceInfusions of 4% tEDTA successfully relieved intraluminal obstruction in patients with occluded SUB devices; however, the recurrence of obstruction was common. Additional studies evaluating case selection and optimal protocols are warranted.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221107795
       
  • Ear-tipping practices for identification of cats sterilized in
           trap–neuter–return programs in the USA

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      Authors: Aimee M Dalrymple, Lauren J MacDonald, Rachael E Kreisler
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesEar-tipping practices and the meaning of the ear tip in trap–neuter–return (TNR) programs have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to report the frequency of common ear-tipping practices in the USA, to identify the most effective methods and to establish a foundation for ear-tipping practice standards.MethodsAn anonymous 24-question survey was advertised from 4 to 20 October 2021 to individuals who participate in TNR programs that routinely perform ear tipping.ResultsThere were 526 survey responses from individuals who participate in TNR programs, of whom 410 completed the survey. For ear-tip meaning, nearly 100% of respondents indicated that an ear tip meant that a cat had been sterilized. Several respondents answered that it also indicated rabies vaccination or socialization status, with 92 (22%) selecting both, 79 (19%) selecting rabies only and 50 (12%) selecting unsocial only. The majority of respondents tipped the left ear (81%), used a visual estimate to determine the cut (92%) and described the ideal silhouette as straight across (92%). The median percentage of cats where ear tips bled after initial hemostasis was 5% (interquartile range [IQR] 2–10), and the median percentage of negative feedback regarding the ear tip was 1% (IQR 0–5). In terms of weighted rank order, the most common feedback was that too much ear tip was removed (5.5), followed by a cat being ear tipped in error (4.7), persistent bleeding (4.2) and not enough ear tip being removed (4.2). Responses revealed heterogeneity regarding technique for both excision and hemostasis, as well as personnel performing the procedure. There were no significant associations between techniques and bleeding or negative feedback.Conclusions and relevanceThere is variation in the methods for performing an ear tip, as well as what an ear tip signifies. Standards for this procedure would be helpful.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221105843
       
  • Evaluation of a pet-separating automatic feeder and high-frequency meal
           feeding for weight loss in multi-cat households

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      Authors: Angela Witzel-Rollins, Maryanne Murphy, Cary M Springer, Tamberlyn D Moyers, Julia D Albright
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if a feeder system providing individualized food access and automatic dispensing of meals makes weight-loss programs in multi-cat homes easier for cat owners; and (2) to assess if feeding six meals daily reduces food-seeking behavior and increases calorie requirements vs two meals per day.MethodsAdult cats with body condition scores (BCSs) of 7/9 or greater underwent a weight-loss plan for up to 6 months using a traditional feeding bowl with two meals per day (B2) or an automatic feeder with two meals (A2) or six meals (A6) per day. Cats were weighed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 and 26 and food intake was adjusted to maintain weight-loss rates between 0.5% and 1.5% body weight per week. Owner questionnaires were completed at each study visit.ResultsTwenty-three cats were included in the study. Cats fed from the automatic feeders were more likely to reach ideal body condition (P = 0.006), with 83.2% of cats in A6, 40% of cats in A2 and no cats in B2 achieving a BCS of ⩽6/9. Owners of cats fed from automatic feeders reported the weight-loss plan was easier vs owners of cats fed from bowls (P = 0.01). Owners using the automatic feeders also reported fewer incidences of certain food-seeking behaviors. Neither percent body weight lost per week nor calorie intake per kg differed between groups.Conclusions and relevanceFeeding six instead of two meals daily did not result in faster rates of weight loss or the need to increase calorie intake to maintain appropriate rates of weight loss. However, use of an automatic feeder that provided separated, portioned meal feeding made the weight-loss program easier, reduced food-seeking behaviors and improved the overall success of the weight-loss plan.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221105046
       
  • Feline non-erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis: a multicentre,
           retrospective study of 20 cases (2009–2020)

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      Authors: Florence Wootton, Barbara Glanemann, Sorrel Langley-Hobbs, Craig Breheny, Samuel Fowlie, Fiona Whitworth, Paolo Silvestrini, Anna Threlfall, Stephanie Sorrell, Vicki Black
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Case series summaryCats with non-erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) were identified from seven referral hospitals between 2009 and 2020 for a multicentre retrospective case series. Data were obtained from hospital records and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up. Twenty cases were identified: 12 castrated males (60%), one entire male (5%) and seven spayed females (35%). Common clinical signs included lameness (n = 20/20) and pyrexia (n = 10/18). Three cats presented with and two cats developed ligament laxity during treatment. Thirteen cats (65%) were diagnosed with non-associative IMPA and seven (35%) with associative IMPA. Comorbidities identified included chronic enteropathy (n = x/7), feline immunodeficiency virus (n = x/7) feline herpesvirus (n = x/7), bronchopneumonia (n = x/7) and discospondylitis (n = x/7). Sampling of the tarsal joints most frequently identified an increased proportion of neutrophils, consistent with IMPA. Eighteen cats (90%) received immunosuppressants. Eleven cats were started on prednisolone; eight had a poor response resulting in the addition of a second agent, euthanasia or acceptance of the persisting signs. One cat received ciclosporin and required an alternative second agent owing to adverse effects. Five cats were started on prednisolone and ciclosporin; three had a poor response and required an alternative second agent. One cat received prednisolone and chlorambucil and had a good response. Two cats (10%) received meloxicam and had a good response, although the clinical signs recurred when medication was tapered. A good outcome was achieved in 14/20 cats (70%) with IMPA. In the cats with a poor outcome 4/6 were euthanased and 2/6 had chronic lameness.Relevance and novel informationPrognosis for feline IMPA can be good. Multimodal immunosuppression was often required. IMPA should be considered in lame cats, with or without pyrexia, when there is no evidence of trauma or infection. The tarsal joints should be included in the multiple joints chosen for sampling. Ligament laxity can occur in non-erosive feline IMPA.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221107783
       
  • Evaluation of the FreeStyle Libre, a flash glucose monitoring system, in
           client-owned cats with diabetes mellitus

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      Authors: Marieke Knies, Erik Teske, Hans Kooistra
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesHome blood glucose monitoring using a portable blood glucose meter is important in the management of feline diabetes mellitus, but taking blood samples may be stressful for owners and cats. A flash glucose monitoring system measuring interstitial glucose, such as the FreeStyle Libre, overcomes some of these drawbacks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the practical use and analytical and clinical accuracy of the FreeStyle Libre in 41 client-owned diabetic cats.MethodsIn this prospective study, interstitial glucose concentrations were measured with the FreeStyle Libre and compared with blood glucose concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter (AlphaTRAK) on days 1, 7 or 8 and 14 after application of the device. Cat behaviour during application, location, skin reaction at the attachment site and owner satisfaction were assessed. Accuracy was determined by fulfilment of ISO 15197:2013 criteria, including Bland–Altman plotting and error grid analysis.ResultsPlacing the device was easy, with 70% of cats showing no reaction. Most sensors were placed on the thoracic wall. Skin reactions at the attachment site were not present or mild in almost all cats. Owners were very satisfied with the use of the FreeStyle Libre. Median functional life of the sensor was 10 days (range 1–14). Good correlation was found between interstitial and blood glucose measurements (rho[r] = 0.88, P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T08:15:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221104051
       
  • ‘The Mercury Challenge’: feline systolic blood pressure in primary
           care practice – a European survey

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      Authors: Andrew Sparkes, Catherine Garelli-Paar, Thomas Blondel, Emilie Guillot
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to collect data from a substantial number of older cats having their systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in a variety of clinical practices, to describe the findings and assess variables that affected the duration of assessment and the values obtained.MethodsAn international (European-based) multicentre convenience sample survey of cats ⩾7 years of age attending veterinary clinics and having SBP measured as part of their clinical assessment. Information gathered included details of the cat, concomitant disease(s) or therapies, SBP results, device used, time taken to assess SBP and the demeanor of the cat.ResultsUseable data were available from 8884 cats aged 7–26 years, from 811 clinics across 16 countries. The device used to measure SBP was Doppler in 47.4% and oscillometry in 48.5%. The demeanor of the cat was reported to be calm in 45.7%, anxious in 41.9% and nervous in 8.9%; and the duration of assessment was reported to be 10 mins in 7.9%. Concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) was reported in 21.8%, hyperthyroidism in 12.0% or both in 3.1%. The median SBP was 150 mmHg (range 80–310), with 18.6% classified as hypertensive (SBP 160–179 mmHg) and 21.1% as severely hypertensive (SBP ⩾180 mmHg). The measured SBP was significantly affected by the cat’s demeanor, duration of SBP assessment, presence of CKD and/or hyperthyroidism, the cat’s sex and age, and the presence of concomitant therapy. The duration of SBP assessment was significantly affected by the cat’s demeanor.Conclusions and relevanceIn veterinary clinics, SBP can be measured in most cats within a short period of time using either Doppler or oscillometric equipment. The presence of CKD or hyperthyroidism was associated with significantly higher SBP values, and anxious or nervous cats had higher SBP values and took longer to obtain SBP assessments.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T08:10:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221105844
       
  • Alpha-chloralose poisoning in cats: clinical findings in 25 confirmed and
           78 suspected cases

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      Authors: Cecilia Tegner, Sandra Lundgren, Kristoffer Dreimanis, Annica Tevell Åberg, Ulrika Windahl
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to describe the clinical picture in cats with alpha-chloralose (AC) intoxication and to confirm AC in serum from suspected cases of AC poisoning.MethodsSuspected cases of AC poisoning were identified in patient records from a small animal university hospital from January 2014 to February 2020. Clinical signs of intoxication described in respective records were compiled, the cats were graded into four intoxication severity scores and hospitalisation time and mortality were recorded. Surplus serum from select cases in late 2019 and early 2020 was analysed to detect AC with a quantitative ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the AC concentration was compared with the respective cat’s intoxication severity score.ResultsSerum from 25 cats was available for analysis and AC poisoning was confirmed in all. Additionally, 78 cats with a clinical suspicion of AC intoxication were identified in the patient records, most of which presented from September to April. The most common signs of intoxication were ataxia, tremors, cranial nerve deficits and hyperaesthesia. The prevalence of clinical signs and intoxication severity differed from what has previously been reported, with our population presenting with less severe signs and no deaths due to intoxication. The majority had a hospitalisation time
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T08:10:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221107787
       
  • Radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats: results of 165 cats
           treated by an individualised dosing algorithm in Spain

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      Authors: Pilar Xifra, Sara I Serrano, Mark E Peterson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesAlthough radioiodine (131I) is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, 131I-dosing protocols commonly induce iatrogenic hypothyroidism and expose azotaemia. A recently reported patient-specific 131I dosing algorithm minimised the risk of 131I-induced hypothyroidism and azotaemia, while maintaining high cure rates. The aim of the study was to report results of 131I treatment in a European population of hyperthyroid cats using this patient-specific dosing algorithm.MethodsThis prospective case series (before-and-after study) evaluated 165 hyperthyroid cats referred for 131I treatment. All cats had serum concentrations of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measured (off methimazole ⩾1 week). Thyroid volume and percentage uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate (TcTU) were determined using thyroid scintigraphy. An initial 131I dose was calculated by averaging dose scores for T4/T3 concentrations, thyroid volume and TcTU; 70% of that composite dose was then administered. Twenty-four hours later, percentage 131I uptake was measured, and additional 131I administered as needed to deliver an adequate radiation dose to the thyroid tumour(s). Serum concentrations of T4, TSH and creatinine were determined 6–12 months later.ResultsMedian calculated 131I dose was 2.15 mCi (range 1.2–7.5), with only 51 (30.9%) receiving ⩾2.5 mCi. Of 165 cats, 124 (75.2%) became euthyroid, seven (4.2%) became overtly hypothyroid, 27 (16.4%) became subclinically hypothyroid and seven (4.2%) remained hyperthyroid. A higher proportion of overtly (85.7%) and subclinically (26.9%) hypothyroid cats developed azotaemia than euthyroid cats (13.6%; P = 0.0002). Hypothyroid cats were older (P = 0.016) and more likely to have detectable TSH concentrations (P = 0.025) and symmetrical bilateral distribution of 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake (P = 0.0002), whereas persistently hyperthyroid cats had higher severity scores (P = 0.012).Conclusions and relevanceOur results confirm that 131I dosing with this new algorithm results in high cure rates, with a lowered prevalence of 131I-induced overt hypothyroidism and azotaemia. Age, serum TSH concentrations, bilateral, symmetrical uptake and severity score help predict outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221104743
       
  • Pegylated asparaginase in feline high-grade lymphoma: clinical results of
           single injection and continued incorporation into a modified COP regimen

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      Authors: Adriana Krupa, Johan de Vos, Lynn Van Eetvelde, Erik Teske
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this retrospective study was to determine the response to a single injection of pegylated asparaginase (‘pegaspargase’) and to assess the tolerability and outcome of prolonged incorporation of pegaspargase into a modified COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone) regimen in pegaspargase sensitive cats.MethodsFifty-six client-owned cats with confirmed macroscopic high-grade lymphoma at any anatomical site were included. Treatment was commenced with a single pegaspargase injection. Cats showing an objective response were eligible to continue therapy with pegaspargase incorporated into a modified COP protocol and had their survival analysed using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test.ResultsObjective response to pegaspargase was reported in 46 cats (82%), including 21 (38%) complete and 25 (44%) partial responses. Thirty-four responders continued therapy with pegaspargase-COP as the first-line treatment. Of these, 31 cats (92%) achieved complete remission with a median duration of the first remission (disease-free survival [DFS]) of 816 days. The median overall survival time (OST) for all 34 cats treated with pegaspargase-COP was 181 days. Response to the initial pegaspargase injection before COP initiation was significantly associated with DFS (P = 0.04) and OST (P = 0.001). Median DFS/OST for cats with complete response to initial pegaspargase injection was significantly longer compared with those with partial remission (>1273 days/>2066 days vs 77 days/108 days, respectively). Cats with gastric lymphoma showed a significantly longer survival (OST 854 days, 1- and 2-year survival rate 57.1%) compared with cats with intestinal lymphoma (OST 102 days, 1-year survival rate 0%). The pegaspargase-COP protocol was generally well tolerated, but two deaths were likely attributable to treatment-related toxicity during the maintenance phase. Importantly, none of the cats experienced hypersensitivity, despite multiple repeated treatments with pegaspargase.Conclusion and relevancePegaspargase is an effective agent for feline lymphoma. Its incorporation into a COP chemotherapy protocol may confer a survival benefit, especially in cats with complete response to pegaspargase. Treatment is generally well tolerated, but careful monitoring is recommended. Further studies are required to assess the benefits of pegaspargase as monotherapy or as part of different multi-agent chemotherapy regimens.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:11:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221101533
       
  • Urine bacterial culture growth and association with urine sedimentation
           and clinical findings in cats with acute kidney injury

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      Authors: Kenneth Siu, Amanda Diaz, Abigail Chadwick, Deborah Keys, Sarah Shropshire, Stacie C Summers
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesA urine culture is often pursued in cats with acute kidney injury (AKI) to screen for bacterial growth in the urine, but it can be cost prohibitive. The aim of the study was to determine the ability of a urinalysis and lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) to predict urine culture results in cats with AKI.MethodsNinety-seven cats with AKI were included in this study. This was a retrospective, observational study. Medical records from 2008 to 2018 were reviewed to identify cats with AKI that had a paired urinalysis and urine bacterial culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of microscopic bacteriuria, pyuria, hematuria and the presence of LUTS for predicting urine culture results was calculated.ResultsThirty-two percent of cats (n = 31) had a positive urine culture. Of these, 28 (90%) had bacteriuria, 21 (68%) had pyuria, 13 (42%) had hematuria and 10 (32%) had LUTS. Of the 42 cats without hematuria or pyuria, seven had a positive urine culture (17%). Bacteriuria had a high sensitivity (90%) and specificity (92%) for predicting urine culture bacterial growth. The absence of bacteriuria had a high negative predictive value for no bacterial growth (95%). The odds of a positive urine culture were increased with bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 29–621; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:11:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221105309
       
  • Behavior and adoptability of hoarded cats admitted to an animal shelter

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      Authors: Linda S Jacobson, Jacklyn J Ellis, Kyrsten J Janke, Jolene A Giacinti, Jyothi V Robertson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to analyze the behavioral characteristics and success of adoption for previously hoarded cats.MethodsShelter records and post-adoption surveys were analyzed for hoarded cats ⩾6 months old at intake. A non-standard scoring system was used. Intake scores were allocated contemporaneously and socialization scores were applied retrospectively for three time points (TPs): 5–10 days post-intake (shelter TP), ⩽1 week post-adoption (home TP1) and >1 week post-adoption (home TP2). Adoption returns were compared between hoarded and non-hoarded cats.ResultsThe study included 195 hoarded cats, of which 174 were adopted. Of 164 cats with intake scores, 86 (52%) were scored as ‘friendly’ at intake. Forty-five cats had socialization scores for all of the TPs, and of these, the percentages of ‘supersocial’ or ‘social’ decreased from 87% at the shelter TP to 47% at home TP1, then increased to 84% at home TP2. Most cats that scored as ‘tense’ at intake had supersocial or social scores at home TP2. Nine of the 88 cats with survey results had out-of-box (OOB) elimination in either the shelter or home but only 1/88 in both. Adopters expressed positive feelings for 42/43 cats for which feelings-based language was used in their survey responses. Notable behaviors, such as neediness, were recorded for 48/88 cats. Relationships with other household pets were typically positive. Eighteen of 174 hoarded (10%) and 188/2662 non-hoarded (7.1%) cats were returned post-adoption. Of these, six hoarded and 87 non-hoarded returns included behavioral reasons. There were no significant differences between hoarded and non-hoarded cats for total or behavioral returns.Conclusions and relevanceHoarded cats had high adoption rates, high adopter satisfaction and the potential for good emotional well-being in adoptive homes. Behavior at intake and OOB elimination in the shelter may not reflect post-adoption behavior. Behavior-based outcome decisions for these vulnerable animals should be deferred to allow time for habituation.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-20T09:55:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221102122
       
  • Comparing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells with prednisolone for the
           treatment of feline inflammatory bowel disease

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      Authors: Tracy L Webb, Craig B Webb
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of feline mesenchymal stem cells (fMSC) with prednisolone as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in cats.MethodsCats with chronic enteropathy that failed a 2-week diet trial and were not found to have significant concurrent disease were eligible for the study. If endoscopic biopsies confirmed a histopathologic diagnosis of IBD, the cat was randomly assigned to either the fMSC or prednisolone groups. Owners were blinded to the grouping. Stem cell treatment consisted of two intravenous injections of 2 × 106 cells/kg of freshly cultured allogeneic stem cells separated by 2 weeks. Prednisolone treatment was 1–2 mg/kg PO q24h, tapered according to clinical response. Owners were asked to make no changes (eg, diet and other medications) for the first 2 months, at which time they either continued to the 6-month recheck with no changes, or ‘failed’ treatment and owners were unblinded and changes made as necessary.ResultsSix prednisolone and six fMSC treatment cats completed the study. All six prednisolone group cats were spayed females with a mean age of 8.3 years (range 2–14), a mean body weight of 3.6 kg (range 2.5–4.8) and a mean pretreatment Feline Chronic Enteropathy Activity Index (FCEAI) score of 3.6 (range 2–6). The six stem cell cats included three spayed females and three castrated males, and had a mean age of 8.0 years (range 4.5–13), a mean body weight of 4.9 kg (range 4.0–5.9) and a mean pretreatment FCEAI score of 3.7 (range 2–5). One cat in each group failed at the 2-month recheck. At the 6-month recheck, the mean FCEAI score for the prednisolone group was 3.7 (range 0.5–9) and 0.75 (range 0–1.5) for the fMSC group.Conclusions and relevanceThese results suggest that this specific fMSC protocol appears to be as effective in the treatment of feline IBD as a standard course of prednisolone therapy.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T02:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221104053
       
  • Therapy for feline secondary hypertriglyceridemia with fenofibrate

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      Authors: Diego D Miceli, Juan M Guevara, Sergio Ferraris, Omar P Pignataro, María F Gallelli
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to assess the short-term safety and efficacy of fenofibrate in controlling secondary hypertriglyceridemia in cats.MethodsThis was a prospective cohort study. Seventeen adult cats with hypertriglyceridemia (serum triglycerides [TG]>160 mg/dl) were enrolled. Cats received a median dose of 5 mg/kg (range 3.2–6) fenofibrate (q24h PO) for 1 month. Serum TG, total cholesterol (TC), creatine kinase and liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) were evaluated before (t0) and after 1 month (t1) of fenofibrate treatment.ResultsThe causes of secondary hypertriglyceridemia were diabetes mellitus (DM; 29.4%), obesity (29.4%), hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and DM (11.7%), HAC without DM (5.9%), hypersomatotropism (HST) and DM (5.9%), hypothyroidism (5.9%), long-term treatment with glucocorticoids (5.9%) and chylothorax (5.9%). Serum TG (t0 median 920 mg/dl [range 237–1780]; t1 median 51 mg/dl [range 21–1001]; P = 0.0002) and TC (t0 median 278 mg/dl [range 103–502]; t1 median 156 mg/dl [range 66–244]; P = 0.0001) concentrations showed a significant decrease after 1 month of fenofibrate treatment. Fifteen cats normalized their TG concentration at t1 (88.2%). Of the eight cats that were hypercholesterolemic at t0, six (75%) normalized their TC concentrations at t1. One of 17 cats (5.9 %) presented with diarrhea; the remaining 16 did not show any adverse effects.Conclusions and relevanceDM and obesity are the most common endocrine causes of secondary hyperlipidemia, although it can also be found in cats with HAC, HST or hypothyroidism. This study suggests that fenofibrate treatment was associated with reduction and normalization of TG and TC concentrations in cats with moderate and severe hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of the cause of secondary hypertriglyceridemia. Further work should focus on controlled studies with a greater number of cases.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T02:14:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221104066
       
  • Investigated regional apparent diffusion coefficient values of the
           morphologically normal feline brain

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      Authors: Blanca Lindt, Henning Richter, Francesca Del Chicca
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesDiffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI is increasingly available in veterinary medicine for investigation of the brain. However, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have only been reported in a small number of cats or in research settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the ADC values of different anatomical regions of the morphologically normal brain in a feline patient population. Additionally, we aimed to assess the possible influence on the ADC values of different patient-related factors, such as sex, body weight, age, imaging of the left and right side of the cerebral hemispheres and white vs grey matter regions.MethodsThis retrospective study included cats undergoing an MRI (3T) examination with DWI sequences of the head at the Vetsuisse Faculty of the University Zurich between 2015 and 2021. Only cats with morphologically normal brains were included. On the ADC maps, 10 regions of interest (ROIs) were manually drawn on the following anatomical regions: caudate nucleus; internal capsule (two locations); piriform lobe; thalamus; hippocampus; cortex cerebri (two locations); cerebellar hemisphere; and one ROI in the centre of the cerebellar vermis. Except for the ROI at the cerebellar vermis, each ROI was drawn in the left and right hemisphere. The ADC values were calculated by the software and recorded.ResultsA total of 129 cats were included in this study. The ADC varied in the different ROIs, with the highest mean ADC value in the hippocampus and the lowest in the cerebellar hemisphere. ADC was significantly lower in the white cerebral matter compared with the grey matter. ADC values were not influenced by age, with the exception of the hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus.Conclusion and relevanceADC values of different anatomical regions of the morphologically normal feline brain in a patient population of 129 cats in a clinical setting are reported for the first time.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T08:24:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221101535
       
  • Investigation of a relationship between serum concentrations of
           microRNA-122 and alanine aminotransferase activity in hospitalised cats

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      Authors: Susan K Armstrong, Wilna Oosthuyzen, Adam G Gow, Silke Salavati Schmitz, James W Dear, Richard J Mellanby
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesCurrent blood tests to diagnose feline liver diseases are suboptimal. Serum concentrations of microRNA (miR)-122 have been shown in humans, dogs and rodents to be a sensitive and specific biomarker for liver injury. To explore the potential diagnostic utility of measuring serum concentrations of miR-122 in cats, miR-122 was measured in a cohort of ill, hospitalised cats with known serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity.MethodsIn this retrospective study, cats were grouped into those with an ALT activity within the reference interval (0–83 U/l; n = 38) and those with an abnormal ALT activity (>84 U/l; n = 25). Serum concentrations of miR-122 were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and the relationship between miR-122 and ALT was examined.ResultsmiR-122 was significantly higher in the group with high ALT activity than the ALT group, within normal reference limits (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-06-15T12:51:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221100071
       
  • Non-injection-site soft tissue sarcoma in cats: outcome following adjuvant
           radiotherapy

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      Authors: Alenka Lavra Zajc, Aaron Harper, Jerome Benoit, Sarah Mason
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesBiological behaviour and treatment options of non-injection-site soft tissue sarcomas (nFISS) in cats are less well understood than in dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the outcomes of cats with nFISS following treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy.MethodsThe medical records of cats with soft tissue sarcomas in locations not associated with, and histology reports not suggestive of, injection-site sarcomas were reviewed. All cats underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, either hypofractionated (32–36 Gy delivered in weekly 8–9 Gy fractions) or conventionally fractionated (48–54 Gy delivered in 16–18 3 Gy fractions) to microscopic disease.ResultsIn total, 18 cats were included in the study, 17 with extremity nFISS and one with facial nFISS. Nine received radiotherapy after a single surgery and nine after multiple surgeries for recurrent nFISS. Eight cats were treated with a hypofractionated protocol and 10 with a conventionally fractionated protocol. The median follow-up time was 540 days (range 51–3317 days). The tumour recurred in eight (44.4%) cats following adjuvant radiotherapy; it recurred in three (37.5%) cats following a hypofractionated protocol and in five (50%) cats following a conventionally fractionated protocol. The overall median progression-free interval (PFI) for 17/18 cats was 2748 days, while the median PFI for the 7/8 cats with recurrence was 164 days. The recurrence for one cat was reported, but the date was unknown and it was therefore censored from these data. When stratifying based on the protocol, the median PFI for hypofractionated and conventionally fractionated protocols was 164 days and 2748 days, respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the two protocols (P = 0.636).Conclusions and relevanceAdjuvant radiotherapy resulted in good long-term tumour control in 12/18 cats with nFISS. Further studies in larger populations are required to assess the significance of radiation dose and fractionation on tumour control and the effect of multiple surgeries prior to initiation of radiotherapy on outcome.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T03:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221098961
       
  • Lack of association between feline AB blood groups and retroviral status:
           a multicenter, multicountry study

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      Authors: Eva Spada, Hyein Jung, Daniela Proverbio, Roberta Perego, Luciana Baggiani, Silvia Ciuti, Claire R Sharp, Katherine J Nash, Mark Westman, Philippa JP Lait, Elizabeth B Davidow
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe relationship between blood group antigens and disease has been studied in humans. Blood types have been associated with both decreased and increased rates of various infections. In addition, blood group expression has been shown to vary with some cancers and gastrointestinal diseases. The objective of this study was to explore whether there is a relationship between blood type and retroviral infections in cats.MethodsCase records from a veterinary research laboratory, veterinary teaching hospitals and veterinary blood banks were retrospectively searched for cats where both blood type and retroviral status (feline leukemia [FeLV], feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV] or both) were listed (part 1). In addition, a sample of 33 cats with confirmed FIV infection was genotyped to determine blood groups (part 2).ResultsIn part 1, 709 cats were identified, 119 of which were positive for retroviral infection. Among all cases, 621 were type A (87.6%), 68 were type B (9.6%) and 20 were type AB (2.8%). There was no relationship between overall retroviral status (positive/negative) and blood type (P = 0.43), between FeLV status and blood type (P = 0.86) or between FIV status and blood type (P = 0.94). There was no difference in the distribution of blood types between cats that were healthy and typed as possible blood donors vs sick cats that were typed prior to a possible transfusion (P = 0.13). In part 2, of the 33 FIV-infected cats, all blood group genotypes were identified, although this test did not discriminate type A from type AB.Conclusions and relevanceNo relationship was identified between feline retroviral status and blood type in this study. The relationship between blood type and other disease states requires further study in veterinary patients.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T09:28:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221100082
       
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone as a diagnostic tool to identify queens with
           ovarian remnant syndrome

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      Authors: Ulrike Flock, Stine Fischer, Jasmin Weeger, Sven Reese, Beate Walter
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesOvarian remnant syndrome (ORS) is suspected when heat signs occur in spayed individuals, but further diagnostic procedures are necessary to exclude other possible oestrogen sources, such as the adrenal gland or exogenous supplementation. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), secreted by granulosa cells or Sertoli cells, serves to differentiate sexually intact from gonadectomised animals and has been described in dogs as a tool for diagnosing ORS. The aim of this study was to evaluate if AMH determination can be used to diagnose ORS in cats.MethodsAMH was measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay in serum samples of 15 sexually intact, 9 spayed and 16 cats with a history of heat signs after spaying. Abdominal ultrasound (n = 13), vaginal smears (n = 7), progesterone measurement (n = 5) and laparotomy (n = 14) were used to determine the presence of ovarian tissue. After surgery, a histological examination of the obtained tissue was performed in the cats with suspected ORS.ResultsIn 15 cats with ORS the AMH serum concentrations were significantly higher than in spayed cats (n = 10; P = 0.025) and significantly lower than in sexually intact cats (n = 15; P = 0.001). Among the cats with ORS, the highest AMH serum concentrations were measured in the queens with cystic ovarian alterations and in one cat from which a whole ovary was obtained. The cat with the lowest AMH serum concentration had a simultaneous high progesterone serum concentration. Cats with ORS did not show any heat signs after surgical removal of the ovarian tissue.Conclusions and relevanceA single determination of AMH in blood serum is a useful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of ORS in cats, regardless of the hormonal activity of the remnant ovarian tissue.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-30T09:28:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221099195
       
  • Quality of life and response to treatment in cats with hypersomatotropism:
           the owners’ point of view

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      Authors: Andrea Corsini, Stijn JM Niessen, Diego D Miceli, Sarah Caney, Florian K Zeugswetter, Nadja S Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Carolina Arenas, Linda M Fleeman, Rodolfo O Leal, Martina Battellino, Federico Fracassi
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to collect clinical information from owners of cats with hypersomatotropism (HS) distributed worldwide, assessing the impact of HS and its treatments on cats’ quality of life (QoL) and survival time.MethodsA survey focused on clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, treatments, cats’ QoL and disease progression was distributed worldwide to owners of cats with HS. The owner’s perception of the cats’ QoL before and after or during treatment was defined using a score ranging from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Improvement following treatment (IFT) was quantified using a score ranging from 1 (absent) to 5 (obvious). Different treatment groups, including at least five cases, were compared.ResultsA total of 127 cats were included from at least 11 different countries. Among these, 120 (95%) were diabetic and 7 (5%) were not. Out of 120 diabetic cats, 55 (46%) were treated with insulin as a single treatment (INS). Other treatments were not mentioned to owners in 35/120 (29%) cases. The median QoL score at diagnosis was 2 (range 1–5) and improved after treatment in all groups. Cabergoline (4; range 1–5), radiotherapy (4; range 2–5) and hypophysectomy (5; range 4–5) showed better median IFT scores compared with INS (3; range 1–5) (P = 0.046, P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T09:08:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221098718
       
  • Ophthalmic effects of dexmedetomidine, methadone and
           dexmedetomidine–methadone in healthy cats and their reversal with
           atipamezole

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      Authors: Luciana Wolfran, Rafael Rostirolla Debiage, Danielle Mara Lopes, Fabíola Bono Fukushima
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the effects that dexmedetomidine and methadone, either alone or in combination, have on the ocular variables of healthy adult cats when administered intramuscularly, as well as their reversal with atipamezole.MethodsA randomized crossover blinded study of 10 healthy cats was used to assess the effect of 0.2 mg/kg methadone (MET), 7.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (D7), 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (D10), 7.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg/kg methadone (DM7) and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg/kg methadone (DM10) on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear production and pupil diameter (PD). The animals were evaluated for 30 mins. Afterwards, atipamezole was administered and ocular variables were evaluated for 30 mins.ResultsD10, DM7 and DM10 significantly decreased mean IOP but MET or D7 did not. Tear production decreased significantly in all treatments, corresponding to 18%, 59%, 63%, 86% and 98% in MET, D7, D10, DM7 and DM10, respectively. PD increased in all treatments, but MET showed the highest PD. Thirty minutes after atipamezole (RT30), IOP returned to baseline with no difference between groups, and there was a significant increase in tear production, but the means were still different from baseline.Conclusions and relevanceDexmedetomidine decreases IOP and tear production but increases PD in healthy cats. Atipamezole can partly reverse those alterations. Low-dose dexmedetomidine (7.5 µg/kg) promotes sedation without changing the IOP. All protocols significantly decrease tear production, and Schirmer tear test after sedation is not representative of non-sedated values. Methadone induces quick onset mydriasis without changing the IOP.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T09:08:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221077023
       
  • Assessment of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in healthy cats:
           comparison of results acquired by clinicians and cat owners

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      Authors: Chyong-Ying Tsai, Ya-Pei Chang
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in healthy cats using methods performed by the clinician and the cat’s owner at home.MethodsA total of 55 healthy cats without neurological abnormalities were included in this study. CTMR evaluation was performed sequentially in each cat using three methods by a clinician: method A, pinch skin with a straight 14 cm Crile haemostat forceps; method B, displace fur with the tip of a pen or haemostat forceps; and method C, poke skin with the tip of a straightened paper clip. The normal response rates for each method were obtained and compared. A ‘CTMR performance score’ was assigned for each cat, reflecting the presence of a normal CTMR response using one or more of the three methods. An ‘owner performance score’ was also obtained, reflecting the response of the CTMR when performed at home by the cat owner. The two scores were compared as paired data for each cat.ResultsThe CTMR was elicited normally in 17 (31%), 27 (49%) and 16 (29%) cats using methods A, B and C, respectively. Method B delivered a significantly higher percentage of normal responses. When comparing the ‘CTMR performance score’ and ‘owner performance score’, the percentage of normal responses was 60% and 100%, respectively, which was significantly different.Conclusions and relevanceThe overall normal response rate of the CTMR in healthy feline subjects was low when performed by a clinician, regardless of the method applied. Conversely, a high percentage of normal responses was obtained by cat owners performing CTMR at home, potentially indicating the impact of stress on the CTMR performance.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T01:14:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221098716
       
  • Reduced risk of arterial thromboembolism in cats with pleural effusion due
           to congestive heart failure

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      Authors: Francesca Busato, Michele Drigo, Andrea Zoia
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to determine whether cardiogenic pleural effusion in cats is associated with a lower risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) compared with cats with cardiac disease without evidence of pleural effusion.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted on owned cats with natural occurring cardiac diseases. Cats included were classified in three groups: those with cardiac disease but no evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF); those with evidence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema; and those with evidence of cardiogenic pleural effusion. Prevalence of ATE was calculated and the variables analysed for an association with this outcome were the presence and type of CHF, sex and neuter status, age, breed, type of cardiac diseases and left atrial (LA) dimension. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to fit the association between ATE and these variables.ResultsA total of 366 cats with cardiac disease met the inclusion criteria: 179 were included in the group with cardiac disease but no evidence of CHF, 66 in the group with evidence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and 121 in the group with evidence of cardiogenic pleural effusion. Prevalence of ATE (58/366 [15.8%]) was significantly different among groups (with no evidence of CHF, 28/179 [15.6%]; with evidence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, 22/66 [33.3%]; with evidence of cardiogenic pleural effusion, 8/121 [6.6%]; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T10:14:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221094663
       
  • Grapiprant or carprofen following ovariohysterectomy in the cat: analgesic
           efficacy, hematological, biochemical and urinalysis evaluation

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      Authors: Luciana G Teixeira, Charline V Vaccarin, Paula I Schimites, Jean C Gasparotto, Gabriela P Costa, Julia M Griesang, Daniel Vargas, Emanuelle D Bortolotto, Ana BU Soares, Jéssica F Camargo, Cínthia M Andrade, André V Soares, Emerson A Contesini
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study aimed to compare the analgesic effect between carprofen and grapiprant every 12 or 24 h on postoperative pain in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy, in addition to the effects on the hematological, biochemical and urinalysis variables.MethodsA total of 32 female cats were randomly divided into three groups, according to the treatment administered with the first dose given orally 90 mins before surgery, as follows: CAR (cats received 4 mg/kg carprofen, n = 11); GRA1 (cats received 2 mg/kg grapiprant, n = 10); and GRA2 (cats received 2 mg/kg grapiprant q12h, n = 11). Pain was assessed by UNESP-Botucatu Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale (UNESP) and Glasgow Feline Composite Measure Pain Scale (GLASGOW) for cats preoperatively (baseline) and at 1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after extubation. Venous blood was collected at baseline, and 12 and 24 h after the administration of carprofen or grapiprant to perform a complete blood count (CBC), the percentage of Heinz bodies and serum biochemistry (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatinine and urea). Urinalysis was performed at baseline and 24 h after extubation. Glucose levels were evaluated at baseline and 1 h postoperatively.ResultsPain scores were not significantly different among groups in both scales, although pain was higher at 3 h in comparison with 24 h in all groups. In the GRA1 and GRA2 groups, 67% (14/21) of cats needed rescue analgesia compared with 18% (2/11) in the CAR group. Glucose increased from baseline to 1 h in the GRA1 and GRA2 groups. None of the CBC, serum biochemistry and urinalysis variables differed among groups.Conclusions and relevanceGrapiprant did not promote adequate analgesia during the first 3 h postoperatively in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy compared with carprofen, and no benefits were observed by administering grapiprant every 12 h.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-09T10:05:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221097935
       
  • Online survey of owners’ experiences of medicating their cats at
           home

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      Authors: Samantha Taylor, Sarah Caney, Claire Bessant, Danièlle Gunn-Moore
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to use an online survey to obtain information from cat owners about their experiences of medicating their cats.MethodsAn online survey containing 35 questions on experiences of medicating cats was circulated to cat owners globally.ResultsIn total, 2507 surveys from 57 countries were analysed; 1724 from ‘cat owners’ and 783 from ‘cat owners+’ (respondents with significant cat experience, including veterinary professionals). Around half (50.7%) of cat owners were ‘sometimes’ or ‘never’ provided with information or advice on how to administer medication; however, 91.8% of those given information found it ‘somewhat’ or ‘very’ useful. Around half (53.6%) of owners sought information from the internet about how to administer medication. Total cat owners (cat owners and cat owners+) administered liquids (61.3%), pastes (45.3%) or tablets (39.5%) directly into their cat’s mouth; fewer (22.6–24.1%) hid these medications in food. Total cat owners rated tablets significantly harder to administer than liquids; 53.0% chose liquids as their first-choice formulation while 29.3% chose tablets. Insulin injections and ‘spot-ons’ were significantly easier to administer than any oral medications. Over half (51.6%) of owners reported that medicating their cat(s) had changed their relationship with them; 77.0% reported that their cat(s) had tried to bite or scratch them when medicating. Other challenges included the cat(s) spitting out tablets (78.7%), refusing medication in food (71.7%) and running away (52.7%). Of the owners who failed to complete a course of medication (35.4%), 27.8% stopped near the end of the course, while 19.3% stopped after a few doses, in both cases as medicating was too difficult.Conclusions and relevanceOwners appreciate being provided with information about the administration of medication. Frequent challenges when medicating cats include potential human injury and damage to the owner–cat relationship. Pharmaceutical companies should provide a range of formulations to ease compliance. Veterinary clinics should provide information/demonstrations and internet links when prescribing medications.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T12:53:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221083752
       
  • Epidemiology and clinical presentation of feline presumed hereditary or
           breed-related ocular diseases in France: retrospective study of 129 cats

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      Authors: Matthieu MP Bott, Sabine Chahory
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular diseases in a population of cats in France.MethodsMedical records from between September 2013 and August 2017 were reviewed to identify cats with at least one presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular disease. Cats with concurrent, or a history of, ocular or systemic infectious diseases were excluded. Signalment, history and clinical findings were recorded.ResultsOf the 1161 cats that presented to our institution during the study period, 129 were diagnosed with at least one presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular disease (11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.3–12.9). Five ocular abnormalities had a prevalence of>1%: entropion, corneal sequestration, persistent pupillary membrane, cataract and retinal dysplasia. The prevalence of entropion was 2.2% (95% CI 1.3–3.0), with Persians (P = 0.03), Maine Coons (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T01:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221080598
       
  • Ultrasound appearance of the duodenal papilla in clinically healthy cats

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      Authors: Charlotte Coeuriot, Julie Pontarrasse, Nora Bouhsina, Maureen Lazard, Alexis Bertrand, Marion Fusellier
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe duodenal papilla (DP) is an anatomical structure located in the duodenal wall, a few centimetres from the pylorus. In cats, the pancreatic and bile ducts merge as they enter the DP, and this explains why cats are more likely than dogs to have concomitant digestive, pancreatic and hepatic infections. Ultrasonography of the DP has been previously established in dogs but not in cats. The purpose of our prospective study was to describe the ultrasound features of the DP in 30 adult clinically healthy cats.MethodsA full abdominal ultrasound was performed. Five measurements were recorded: the width and the height in a transverse section; the length and the height in a longitudinal section; and the thickness of the duodenal wall adoral to the DP in a longitudinal section. The subjective appearance (echogenicity and shape) of the DP was described.ResultsThe dimensions of the DP were a mean ± SD width of 3.13 ± 0.68 mm and height of 2.47 ± 0.63 mm in the transverse section, and length of 3.98 ± 1.27 mm and height of 2.44 ± 0.57 mm in the longitudinal section. The DP was homogeneous, subjectively isoechoic to fat and had a round and oval shape in the transverse and longitudinal sections, respectively. There was no correlation between the DP measurements and the weight, age or sex of the cats. The animals that were fed a mixed diet had a longer DP than those fed dry food.Conclusions and relevanceThis study provides reference values for the dimensions of the DP, as well as information on its ultrasonographic appearance in clinically healthy adult cats. We did not find any correlation between the age of the cats and the size of the papilla, but the age range was small and another study in older cats should be undertaken to address this more thoroughly.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T02:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221078783
       
  • Serum concentrations of gabapentin in cats with chronic kidney disease

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      Authors: Jessica M Quimby, Sarah K Lorbach, Ashlie Saffire, Amanda Kennedy, Luke A Wittenburg, Turi K Aarnes, Karina J Creighton, Sarah E Jones, Rene E Paschall, Emily M King, Clara E Bruner, Jessica N Wallinger, Karen A van Haaften
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to assess serum concentrations of gabapentin in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs clinically healthy cats.MethodsFive healthy cats were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study. A single 20 mg/kg dose of gabapentin was administered orally and blood was obtained at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h via a jugular catheter. Serum gabapentin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The same five healthy cats plus 25 cats with stable International Renal Interest Society stage 2 (n = 14) and 3 (n = 11) CKD were enrolled in a limited sampling study. Cats in both groups received a single 10 mg/kg dose of gabapentin, and serum gabapentin concentrations and compliance scores were obtained 3 and 8 h post-administration.ResultsCats with CKD had significantly higher dose-normalized serum gabapentin concentrations than normal cats at 3 h (P = 0.0012 CKD vs normal 10 mg/kg; P = 0.008 CKD vs normal 20 mg/kg) and 8 h (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T03:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221077017
       
  • Comparison of ultrasonographic echogenicity and outcome in cats with
           suspected pancreatitis

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      Authors: Kristina A Lederer, Katharina M Hittmair, Alexander Tichy, Florian K Zeugswetter
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether ultrasonographic pancreatic echogenicity, especially hypoechogenicity, has an impact on the prognosis of cats with suspected pancreatitis. We hypothesised that cats with a hypoechoic pancreas have a longer duration of hospitalisation, higher treatment costs and a higher mortality rate.MethodsThis was a retrospective study, which included cats with clinical signs of pancreatitis, a SNAP fPL test result above the reference interval and ultrasonographic abnormalities consistent with pancreatitis. Medical records and follow-up information were retrieved from the local electronic database. Cases were assigned to one of three groups based on pancreatic echogenicity: hypoechoic, hyperechoic or mixed echogenicity. Statistical analysis aimed to assess differences in outcome, ultrasonographic abnormalities, historical features, physical examination findings, laboratory results, concurrent diseases or treatment costs.ResultsThirty-six (64%) cats with a hypoechoic, seven (13%) with a hyperechoic and 13 (23%) cats with a mixed echoic pancreas were included. Cats with a hypoechoic pancreas had a significantly lower median body weight (P = 0.010) and lower median body condition score (P = 0.004) compared with the other cats. Furthermore, they were presented as being lethargic significantly more often (P = 0.014), were more likely to have a homogeneously enlarged pancreas (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221074921
       
  • Beneficial effects of a prescription home-prepared diet and of zucchini on
           urine calcium oxalate supersaturation and urinary parameters in adult cats
           

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      Authors: Géraldine Blanchard, Concetta Amato, Agnès André, Philippe Bleis, Samuel Ninet, Jürgen Zentek, Patrick Nguyen
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesFrom the authors’ experience, the consumption of a balanced prescription home-prepared diet that includes zucchini (courgette) benefits cats with recurrent urolithiasis, but there is no published evidence to support this. The aim was to study the effects on urinary parameters of (1) a balanced prescription home-prepared diet containing zucchini, and (2) the addition of zucchini to a dry food, compared with two commercial therapeutic diets.MethodsEight healthy cats were included in a Latin-square designed protocol. Five diets were evaluated: two commercial diets, designed for cats with urinary disorders, one high-moisture (U-WET) and one high-sodium dry (U-DRY); one home-prepared diet (HOME); one commercial dry food for adult maintenance (DRY); and DRY given together with 10 g of zucchini per kg body weight (DRY-Zuc). After a 7-day adaptation period, urine was collected and daily food and water intakes were assessed for 12 days. Urinary parameters, and relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite, were determined. Data underwent repeated measures ANOVA analysis.ResultsThe digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein and fat was highest with the HOME diet. CaOx RSS was lowest in cats eating the HOME diet, but not significantly different from the U-WET or U-DRY diets. CaOx RSS was lower in cats eating the DRY-Zuc diet than in cats eating the DRY diet. Struvite RSS did not differ significantly among groups.Conclusions and relevanceThis study shows that a balanced prescription home-prepared diet was safe and allowed a very low urinary CaOx RSS. It also showed that adding zucchini to dry food lowered the urine CaOx RSS.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T03:13:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211067931
       
  • Association between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations and
           blood calcium levels in chronic kidney disease cats with upper
           urolithiasis

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      Authors: Hirosumi Miyakawa, Huai-Hsun Hsu, Mizuki Ogawa, Ryota Akabane, Yuichi Miyagawa, Naoyuki Takemura
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study investigated whether serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 concentrations are associated with serum total calcium (tCa) and blood ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urolithiasis.MethodsSerum samples and the medical records of cats with CKD with nephroliths, ureteroliths or both were investigated retrospectively. Cats with a serum creatinine concentration >250 μmol/l and/or a serum phosphorus concentration ⩾1.50 mmol/l were excluded. Based on cut-offs for serum tCa (2.70 mmol/l) or blood iCa (1.40 mmol/l), cats were divided into the following groups: total hypercalcaemia (H-tCa) (>2.70 mmol/l) and total normocalcaemia (N-tCa) (⩽2.70 mmol/l) groups, or ionised hypercalcaemia (H-iCa) (>1.40 mmol/l) and ionised normocalcaemia (N-iCa) (⩽1.40 mmol/l) groups, respectively. Serum FGF-23 concentrations were compared between groups and correlation analysis was performed.ResultsThirty-two cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis were included. Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-tCa group (median 573 pg/ml [range 125–3888]; n = 12) were significantly higher compared with the N-tCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94–627]; n = 20) (P = 0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-iCa group (median 1479 pg/ml [range 509–3888]; n = 6) increased significantly compared with the N-iCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94–637]; n = 26) (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221075278
       
  • Cabergoline treatment in cats with diabetes mellitus and
           hypersomatotropism

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      Authors: Diego D Miceli, Jorge D García, Gustavo A Pompili, Juan P Rey Amunategui, Sergio Ferraris, Omar P Pignataro, Mirtha Guitelman
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cabergoline to control hypersomatotropism (HST) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats.MethodsThis was a prospective cohort study. Twenty-three cats with HST and concurrent DM were enrolled. Cats received a dose of 10 μg/kg cabergoline q48h PO for 6 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and fructosamine concentrations, insulin dose and Insulin Resistance Index (IRI) were measured at the time of diagnosis of HST and at the start of cabergoline treatment (t0), and 3 months (t1) and 6 months (t2) during cabergoline treatment.ResultsA decrease and normalization of serum IGF-1 concentration was observed in 35% and 26% of cats, respectively. Median IGF-1 (t0: 1350 ng/ml [range 832–1501]; t1: 1284 ng/ml [range 365–1501]; t2: 1240 ng/ml [range 263–1501]; P = 0.016) decreased significantly. Twelve cats underwent diagnostic imaging of the pituitary area. The median pituitary height at t0 of cats that experienced an IGF-1 reduction (n = 5/12) was significantly lower compared with those that did not experience an IGF-1 reduction (n = 7/12) (3.2 mm [range 3.1–3.7] vs 6 mm [range 3.5–9.5]; P = 0.011). Median fructosamine (t0: 628 µmol/l [range 400–963]; t1: 404 µmol/l [range 249–780]; t2: 400 µmol/l [range 260–815]; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221074924
       
  • Fecal shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing
           Enterobacterales in cats admitted to an animal shelter

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      Authors: J Scott Weese, Tyler O’Brien, Shane Bateman
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to evaluate shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in cats admitted to an animal shelter.MethodsFecal samples were collected from cats admitted to an animal shelter between 12 June and 23 August 2018. Selective enrichment culture for ESBL-producing bacteria was performed and isolates were speciated and tested for selected ESBL genes using PCR.ResultsESBL-producing Enterobacterales were identified in fecal samples from 2/87 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval 0.6–8.0) cats. One isolate was an Escherichia coli that possessed blaCTX-M-1, blaCMY-2 and blaTEM genes. The other was Enterobacter cloacae possessing blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2.Conclusions and relevanceWhile the study sample size and prevalence rate for ESBL-producing bacteria were low, these data document that cats admitted to similar shelters could harbor these agents. The risk posed by ESBL-producing bacterium shedding in cats, both to cats and other species, is currently unclear. However, these findings support the need for more investigation of interspecies transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, as well as the importance of antimicrobial stewardship and routine infection control measures.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221075602
       
  • Use of a cyclical hypofractionated radiotherapy regime (‘QUAD shot’)
           for the treatment of feline sinonasal carcinomas

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      Authors: Petros S Frezoulis, Aaron Harper, Sarah L Mason
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesRadiation therapy is the treatment of choice for cats with sinonasal carcinomas. Different protocols have been described in the literature, though a clear consensus regarding the optimal protocol is lacking. The aim of the study was to describe the tolerability, efficacy and outcome of cats treated with a cyclical hypofractionated protocol.MethodsCats with histologically diagnosed sinonasal carcinomas in a single institution were retrospectively included. All patients were treated with a cyclical hypofractionated protocol (‘QUAD shot’ regime). Cats were treated with 4 Gray (Gy) delivered in four fractions within 48 h, with a minimum of 6 h between two treatments, and repeated every 3–4 weeks for a total dose of 48 Gy in three cycles.ResultsSeven cats met the inclusion criteria. Nasal discharge and sneezing were the most common presenting complaints. All cats presented with advanced stage of disease with CT examination (three with modified Adams stage 3 and four with stage 4). Clinical improvement was seen in six cats. Five cats had a follow-up CT; one had a complete response, two had partial responses, one had stable disease and one had progressive disease. Two cats were still alive at the time of writing while four were euthanased owing to tumour-related causes. The median overall survival time was 460 days. The 1-year survival time was 80% and the 2-year survival time was 0%. Severe acute or late toxicity was not reported.Conclusions and relevanceThis is the first report of a cyclical hypofractionated protocol in the veterinary literature that can provide prolonged survival in cats with advanced stage sinonasal carcinoma. Its use should be considered in patients when prolonged hospitalisation can be detrimental to quality of life, while still delivering a therapeutic total dose of radiation therapy.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211070737
       
  • Online survey to determine client perceptions of feline chronic lower
           airway disease management: response to therapy, side effects and
           challenges encountered

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      Authors: Mathieu V Paulin, Sarah MA Caney, Kevin L Cosford
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe first aim of this survey was to report client experiences associated with the administration of common medications, particularly glucocorticoids and bronchodilators, in managing cats with feline lower airway disease (FLAD). The second aim was to ascertain client perception of response to treatment and level of satisfaction.MethodsThis was a prospective cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed worldwide to cat owners caring for cats with a chronic cough. Only cats reported to have FLAD were included.ResultsA total of 153 complete responses describing cats with FLAD were analyzed. Glucocorticoids and bronchodilators were the predominantly prescribed therapeutics for 140/153 (92%) and 80/153 (52%) of FLAD cats, respectively. Oral and inhalant administration routes were reported most commonly: glucocorticoids (64% oral and 75% inhalant) and bronchodilators (21% oral and 88% inhalant). A review of how air quality could be improved was conducted for 54% of cats. Almost half (43%) of owners reported adverse effects secondary to glucocorticoid administration, the most frequent being polyphagia (26%) and polydipsia (21%). Only 10% of owners reported bronchodilator-associated side effects, with restlessness (9%) being the most common. Difficulties giving glucocorticoid or bronchodilator tablets orally were reported for 33% and 71% of owners, respectively. Glucocorticoid or bronchodilator inhalant therapies were difficult to administer for 28% and 31% of owners, respectively. Frequency and severity of coughing were significantly lower after at least 2 months of treatment, with median numerical input on a slider scale (0–100) of 48 and 42 before, and 10 and 7 after treatment, respectively (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211070988
       
  • Cross-sectional survey of non-invasive indirect blood pressure measurement
           practices in cats by veterinarians

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      Authors: Iliana Navarro, Stacie Summers, Mark Rishniw, Jessica Quimby
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis survey of small animal veterinarians endeavored to: (1) determine current methods of indirect blood pressure measurement; (2) detail techniques used to reduce situational hypertension; and (3) better understand the obstacles to performing blood pressure measurement in cats.MethodsAn online survey was produced and circulated to members of the Veterinary Information Network. A total of 733 veterinarians who saw cats in their practice and had access to at least one indirect blood pressure device completed the entirety of the survey.ResultsNinety-six percent (703/733) of veterinarians who completed the survey reported measuring indirect blood pressure in cats in their practice, with veterinary technicians conducting most (600/703; 85.3%) of these measurements. Few veterinarians (30/733; 4.1%) did not measure blood pressure, with these veterinarians citing several obstacles including: difficulty interpreting results with the occurrence of fear, anxiety and stress in cats (20/30; 66.7%); difficulty performing measurements in cats (17/30; 56.7%); and technical staff being uncomfortable performing measurements (12/30; 40.0%). Most veterinarians (300/435; 69.0%) in this survey preferred an ultrasonic Doppler flow detector with sphygmomanometry, with many (272/300; 90.7%) perceiving that the results obtained with this device were more trustworthy compared with results obtained with oscillometry. Ninety percent (633/703) of veterinarians employed techniques to reduce situational hypertension in cats. Techniques perceived to be most helpful among veterinarians included: using a quiet location (454/633; 71.7%); minimizing restraint (316/633; 49.9%); performing blood pressure prior to other procedures (eg, phlebotomy, cystocentesis) (302/633; 47.7%); avoiding other animals (219/633; 34.6%); and allowing time for acclimation (167/633; 26.4%).Conclusions and relevanceThis survey study of veterinarians helps clarify obstacles to routine blood pressure measurement in conscious cats. Veterinarians reported several strategies that they felt reduced situational hypertension in cats. The data inform modifications of techniques to increase the frequency and perceived reliability of blood pressure measurement in at-risk cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:36:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211067015
       
  • CT characterisation and classification of feline temporomandibular joint
           trauma: a case series of 79 cats

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      Authors: Lisa A Mestrinho, Sónia SF Sebastião, Maciej A Zwierucho, Aaron Lutchman, Lorrie Gaschen, Stephanie Goldschmidt, Graham Thatcher, Yu Izumisawa, Richard L Meeson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to characterise and describe patterns of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) injuries occurring in cats using CT.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out in adherence with the STROBE guidelines. Among the medical and CT records of 79 cats, 158 TMJs were reviewed in a collaborative study between six institutions.ResultsTMJ injuries were most commonly unilateral, representing 70.9% of cases. The mandibular condyle was fractured in 88 cases (55.7%) of the 158 TMJs observed. Of those, 84.0% were intra-articular condyle fractures, with the medial half of the mandibular condyle over-represented. Luxations occurred in 32.9% of cases, which was 19.0% of all evaluated TMJs. Rostrodorsal luxations were most common representing 87.0% of all luxations. Temporal bone fractures were observed in 30.4% of all cases, which was 18.4% of TMJs. The majority of fractures were of an unknown cause. When the cause was determined, road traffic accident (RTA) was the most frequent, followed by animal interaction, other external forces (sharp or blunt force) and high-rise trauma. Bilateral injuries were 13.1 times more likely to occur in high-rise trauma (P = 0.01) and temporal bone fracture was significantly associated with RTAs (P = 0.016). No other significant associations were observed between cause of injury and the resulting TMJ injury pattern.Conclusions and relevanceVarious TMJ injury patterns can occur in cats as a result of trauma. Intra-articular fractures of the medial half of the mandibular condyle occur most commonly. Although unilateral injuries are more frequent, high-rise trauma tends to present with bilateral lesions. Further studies with a larger sample size should be performed to better understand TMJ patterns of injury and how they relate to possible causes.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T10:56:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211066654
       
 
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