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Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery
Number of Followers: 6  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1098-612X - ISSN (Online) 1532-2750
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1175 journals]
  • Clinical/research abstracts accepted for presentation at the 2022 ISFM
           Feline Congress

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page e435-e441, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221118780
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists abstract 2022

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page e442-e442, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128767
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Continuing the ‘cat friendly’ evolution

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      Authors: Nathalie Dowgray, Samantha Taylor, Kelly St Denis, Ilona Rodan
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1083-1084, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128720
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • ISFM’S Cat Friendly Principles for Veterinary Professionals

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      Authors: Claire Bessant, Nathalie Dowgray, Sarah LH Ellis, Samantha Taylor, Sarah Collins, Linda Ryan, Vicky Halls
      Pages: 1087 - 1092
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1087-1092, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128750
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • 2022 AAFP/ISFM Cat Friendly Veterinary Interaction Guidelines: Approach
           and Handling Techniques

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      Authors: Ilona Rodan, Nathalie Dowgray, Hazel C Carney, Ellen Carozza, Sarah LH Ellis, Sarah Heath, Lee Niel, Kelly St Denis, Samantha Taylor
      Pages: 1093 - 1132
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1093-1132, November 2022.
      Practical relevance:The ‘2022 AAFP/ISFM Cat Friendly Veterinary Interaction Guidelines: Approach and Handling Techniques’ (hereafter the ‘Cat Friendly Veterinary Interaction Guidelines’) support veterinary professionals with feline interactions and handling to reduce the impact of fear and other protective (negative) emotions, in so doing enhancing feline welfare and In implementing these Guidelines, team satisfaction and cat caregiver confidence in the veterinary team will increase as the result of efficient examinations, better experience, more reliable diagnostic testing and improved feline wellbeing. Veterinary professionals will learn the importance of understanding and appropriately responding to the current emotional state of the cat and tailoring each visit to the individual.Clinical challenges:Cats have evolved with emotions and behaviors that are necessary for their survival as both a predator and prey species. A clinical setting and the required examinations and procedures to meet their physical health needs can result in behavioral responses to protective emotions. Cat friendly interactions require understanding, interpreting and appropriately responding to cats’ emotional states and giving them a perceived sense of control while performing the required assessment.Evidence base:These Guidelines have been created by a Task Force of experts convened by the American Association of Feline Practitioners and the International Society of Feline Medicine, based on an extensive literature review and, where evidence is lacking, the authors’ experience.Endorsements:These Guidelines have been endorsed by a number of groups and organizations, as detailed on page 1127 and at catvets.com/interactions and icatcare.org/cat-friendly-guidelines.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128760
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • 2022 ISFM/AAFP Cat Friendly Veterinary Environment Guidelines

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      Authors: Samantha Taylor, Kelly St Denis, Sarah Collins, Nathalie Dowgray, Sarah LH Ellis, Sarah Heath, Ilona Rodan, Linda Ryan
      Pages: 1133 - 1163
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1133-1163, November 2022.
      Practical relevance:The ‘2022 ISFM/AAFP Cat Friendly Veterinary Environment Guidelines’ (hereafter the ‘Cat Friendly Veterinary Environment Guidelines’) describe how the veterinary clinic environment can be manipulated to minimise feline patient distress. Many components of a veterinary clinic visit or stay may result in negative experiences for cats. However, much can be done to improve a cat’s experience by making the veterinary clinic more cat friendly. Exposure to other cats and other species can be reduced, and adjustments made with consideration of the feline senses and species-specific behaviour. Caregivers can prepare cats for a clinic visit with appropriate advice. Waiting rooms, examination rooms, hospital wards and other clinic areas can be designed and altered to reduce stress and hence encourage positive emotions. Changes need not be structural or expensive in order to be effective and make a difference to the cats and, in turn, to cat caregivers and the veterinary team. Moreover, by improving the all-round experience at the veterinary clinic, there are positive effects on preventive healthcare, identification of and recovery from illness, and compliance with treatment.Clinical challenges:Good feline healthcare necessitates visiting the veterinary clinic, which, simply by being outside of a cat’s territory and familiar surroundings, may lead to negative experiences. Such experiences can trigger negative (protective) emotions and associated physiological stress, which can result in misleading clinical findings, patient distress, prolonged recovery from illness, further difficulties with handling at subsequent visits and potential veterinary personnel injury. There may be a mistaken belief that veterinary clinics must undergo significant renovation or building work to become cat friendly, and that, if species cannot be separated, then clinics cannot improve their care of cats. These Guidelines aim to dispel any such misconceptions and provide detailed practical advice.Evidence base:These Guidelines have been created by a Task Force of experts convened by the International Society of Feline Medicine and American Association of Feline Practitioners, based on an extensive literature review and, where evidence is lacking, the authors’ experience. Endorsements: These Guidelines have been endorsed by a number of groups and organisations, as detailed on page 1161 and at icatcare.org/cat-friendly-guidelines and catvets.com/environment.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128763
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • 10 years of Cat Friendly

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      Pages: 1164 - 1165
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1164-1165, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221118781
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • News & Views

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      Pages: 1167 - 1168
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Volume 24, Issue 11, Page 1167-1168, November 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T09:57:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221118782
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 11 (2022)
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘Recognising and assessing feline emotions during the
           consultation: history, body language and behaviour’

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-30T12:02:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221142200
       
  • Serum amyloid A and other clinicopathological variables in cats with
           intermediate- and large-cell lymphoma

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      Authors: Luca Schiavo, Petros Odatzoglou, Cassia Hare, Tim L Williams, Jane M Dobson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesSerum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations are increased in cats with lymphoma vs healthy cats; however, the association between SAA concentrations and prognosis in cats with lymphoma is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate if SAA concentrations were different in cats with nasal vs non-nasal lymphoma, if SAA concentrations are prognostic in patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and if SAA concentrations are correlated with other clinicopathological variables.MethodsCats diagnosed with intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma between 2012 and 2022 with SAA concentration data available were included. Associations between tumour site (nasal vs non-nasal), stage, response to treatment and SAA concentration were evaluated using non-parametric statistics. Associations between SAA concentrations and stage with survival time were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Patients with nasal tumours and those not receiving high-dose chemotherapy were excluded from the survival analyses.ResultsThirty-nine cats were included. Median SAA concentrations were significantly higher in non-nasal compared with nasal lymphoma (42 µg/ml [range
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-23T11:20:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221135118
       
  • Use of mechanical thresholds in a model of feline clinical acute pain and
           their correlation with the Glasgow Feline Composite Measure Pain Scale
           scores

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      Authors: Daniel Pang, Andrew Bell
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T05:06:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221137376
       
  • Cardiopulmonary and propofol-sparing effects of dexmedetomidine in total
           intravenous anesthesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy

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      Authors: Mariana C Sanches, Wellington H Bessi, Elidiane Rusch, Marianna B Schaffhausser, Ana A Cassoli, Silvio H Freitas, Martielo I Gehrcke, Adriano B Carregaro
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study aimed to assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on the propofol-based anesthesia of cats subjected to ovariohysterectomy.MethodsTwenty-eight cats were randomly allocated to four groups (seven cats in each) and premedicated with either 5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (groups Dex 1, Dex 3 and Dex 5) or 0.05 ml saline (Prop group) intramuscularly. After the induction of anesthesia with propofol, total intravenous anesthesia was initiated with 300 µg/kg/min propofol plus 3 ml/kg/h NaCl 0.9% (Prop), or 200 µg/kg/min propofol plus dexmedetomidine at the rates of 1 µg/kg/h (Dex 1), 3 µg/kg/h (Dex 3) or 5 µg/kg/h (Dex 5). Cardiorespiratory variables were assessed 5 mins after induction and every 10 mins thereafter, until the end of anesthesia. The propofol infusion rate was adjusted every 10 mins (± 50 µg/kg/min) to maintain anesthetic depth. The times to extubation, sternal recumbency, ambulation and total recovery were recorded. Pain scoring was performed 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after the end of anesthesia.ResultsDexmedetomidine produced a propofol-sparing effect of 72.8%, 71.1% and 74.6% in the Dex 1, Dex 3 and Dex 5 groups, respectively. Cats in the Prop group maintained higher heart rate values than the other groups, and the mean arterial pressure remained higher in the Dex 3 and Dex 5 groups. Rescue intraoperative analgesia (fentanyl bolus) was most frequent in the Prop group. There was no significant difference in the time of extubation. Cats in the Dex 1 and Dex 3 groups had a faster anesthetic recovery, with shorter times to achieving sternal recumbency, regaining ambulation and reaching full recovery. Cats in the Dex 1 and Dex 5 groups presented the best recovery quality scores, with 4 (range 4–5) and 4 (range 3–5), respectively, while the Prop group scored 1 (range 1–3), the worst anesthetic recovery score among the groups.Conclusions and relevanceThe use of dexmedetomidine as a total intravenous anesthesia adjuvant, especially at doses of 1 and 3 µg/kg/h, reduces propofol consumption and improves cardiorespiratory stability and intraoperative analgesia, while promoting a better and quicker recovery from anesthesia.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T04:56:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221130036
       
  • Otitis media and interna with or without polyps in cats: association
           between meningeal enhancement on postcontrast MRI, cerebrospinal fluid
           abnormalities, and clinician treatment choice and outcome

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      Authors: Guillaume F Dutil, Julien Guevar, Daniela Schweizer, Petra Roosje, Filip Kajin, Holger A Volk, Nick J Grapes, Steven De Decker, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, Jad Abouzeid, Paul Freeman, Kiterie ME Faller, Veronika M Stein, Arianna Maiolini
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the association between meningeal enhancement (MgE) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis results, their individual association with bacteriology results from affected ear samples and whether these test results influenced clinicians’ therapeutic choice in cats with otitis media and interna (OMI).MethodsThis was a multicentre retrospective study carried out over an 8-year period. Cats diagnosed with OMI, with or without a nasopharyngeal polyp, leading to peripheral vestibular signs were included. Only cats for which MRI with postcontrast T1-weighted sequences and CSF analyses available were included. Cats with intra-axial MRI lesions or empyema were excluded.ResultsFifty-eight cats met the inclusion criteria. MgE was reported in 26/58 cases, of which nine had an abnormal CSF result (increased total nucleated cell count [TNCC] or total protein); 32/58 cases had no MgE, of which 10 showed abnormal CSF results. There was no association between bacteriology results (external ear canal or bulla) and MgE or abnormal CSF results. CSF abnormalities were statistically significantly more common in acute cases (n = 16/37) than in chronic cases (n = 3/21; Fischer’s test P = 0.04). Prednisolone was prescribed in 10/16 cases with increased TNCC. Among the 42 cases with normal TNCC, 15 received prednisolone and 13 received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Various antimicrobial drugs were prescribed in 53/58 cats. Duration of antimicrobial treatment was similar, regardless of positive bacterial culture (5.58 vs 4.22 weeks), abnormal CSF (5.83 vs 4.76 weeks) or MgE (5.33 vs 4.90 weeks).Conclusions and relevanceNo association was found between the CSF and MgE results. Furthermore, no association was found between MgE, CSF or bacteriology findings. In addition, abnormal CSF results might lead the clinician to treat with corticosteroids, but they did not have any impact on duration of antimicrobial treatment. CSF abnormalities were seen significantly less frequently in chronic cases. The outcome tended to be poorer when MgE was detected on MRI.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-21T04:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221125573
       
  • Renoprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid in cats with early chronic
           kidney disease due to polycystic kidney disease: a pilot study

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      Authors: Saori Kobayashi, Masataka Kawarasaki, Ayami Aono, Junko Cho, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Reeko Sato
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesLipids containing n-3 fatty acids have been reported to have protective effects on renal function, with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) expected to be particularly effective. However, no reports have demonstrated the renoprotective effects of DHA-enriched lipids in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to examine the renoprotective effects of DHA-enriched fish oil in cats.MethodsFive healthy cats and five cats with early non-azotaemic CKD due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) were orally administered DHA-enriched fish oil in liquid form (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight [BW] and 250 mg/kg BW of DHA, respectively) for 28 days. Inappropriately dilute urine and markedly increased urinary N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (NAG) index were detected in cats with PKD before DHA-enriched fish oil administration. Changes in the fatty acid composition ratio in the blood of all 10 cats were assessed after orally administering 250 mg/kg of DHA.ResultsPost-administration, no adverse clinical effects were observed, and blood and urine tests were within the reference intervals in healthy cats. Cats with PKD showed significantly decreased serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and urinary NAG index at post-administration. Furthermore, oral administration of DHA-enriched fish oils significantly decreased the blood concentration ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) in cats with PKD post-administration. Furthermore, the concentration ratio of DHA in the blood significantly increased in both healthy cats and cats with PKD, and the DHA:AA ratio also increased.Conclusions and relevanceOral administration of DHA-enriched fish oils for 28 days significantly decreased blood AA levels and significantly increased DHA concentration and DHA:AA ratios in cats with PKD, and improved the SDMA, UPC and urinary NAG index, suggesting its potential for renoprotective effects in cats with early non-azotaemic CKD due to PKD.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T03:59:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221136815
       
  • Evaluation of the effects of gabapentin on the physiologic and
           echocardiographic variables of healthy cats: a prospective, randomized and
           blinded study

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      Authors: Tayná M Veronezi, Daniela J Lopes, Izadora L Zardo, João VB Ferronatto, Marcelo M Trojan, Kirian R Franck, André F de Azevedo, Adriana G Spiering, Luciana N Nunes, Leandro Fadel, Fernanda VA da Costa
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate, using echocardiography, the effects of oral administration of a single dose of gabapentin on the physiologic variables (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR] and systolic blood pressure [SBP]) and systolic and diastolic cardiac function of healthy cats.MethodsThis was a prospective, randomized and blinded study with 40 healthy cats aged between 6 months and 2 years. The cats’ health status was assessed on the first appointment (T1) when they underwent a physical examination, complete blood count, biochemical profile, assessment of physiologic variables and echocardiogram. The echocardiogram was used to measure the left ventricle’s (LV) internal diameter during systole and diastole, isovolumic relaxation time, transmitral flow, E-wave deceleration time and HR. The cats were randomly divided into two groups: (1) a treatment group with 20 cats that received a single oral dose of gabapentin (100 mg/cat); and (2) a control group with 20 cats that received a single oral dose of placebo. All variables of the physiologic and echocardiographic variables were re-evaluated 1–3 weeks after T1 (T2), 90 mins after medication or placebo administration.ResultsThere was no difference in the physiologic variables evaluated in both groups. The proportion of cats in the treatment group that had their ventricular filling waves fused on T1 but did not have them fused on T2 was significantly higher (45%) compared with cats in the control group (15%; P = 0.0384).Conclusions and relevanceThere was no difference between the groups in regard to SBP, HR, RR and echocardiographic variables. Gabapentin improved evaluation of diastolic function on echocardiogram because it reduced the fusion of ventricular filling waves during the evaluation of the diastolic function of the LV. Gabapentin did not cause adverse effects on the cardiovascular hemodynamics of young healthy cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-16T03:51:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221131270
       
  • Bilateral lysis of aortic saddle thrombus with early tissue plasminogen
           activator (BLASTT): a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study in
           feline acute aortic thromboembolism

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      Authors: Julien Guillaumin, Teresa C DeFrancesco, Brian A Scansen, Rebecca Quinn, Megan Whelan, Rita Hanel, Isabelle Goy-Thollot, Isabelle Bublot, James B Robertson, John D Bonagura
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the impact of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) on the treatment of feline aortic thromboembolism (FATE).MethodsCats diagnosed with FATE involving ⩾2 limbs were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study within 6 h of an event. Diagnosis was made by clinical findings and one confirmatory criterion. Cats received placebo or TPA (1 mg/kg/h with the first 10% by bolus). All cats received pain control and thromboprophylaxis. The primary outcome was a change from baseline in a published limb score at 48 h. Secondary outcomes included 48 h survival, survival to discharge and complication proportions. Statistical analyses included pattern-mixture models, logistic regression and Fisher’s exact, Student’s t- and Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon tests.ResultsBased on a power analysis, 40 cats were enrolled; however, only 20 survived to 48 h (TPA, n = 12; placebo, n = 8 [P = 0.34]). There was a statistically significant improvement in limb scores compared with baseline for both groups (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T05:20:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221135105
       
  • Feline maxillary sarcoma: clinicopathologic features of spindle cell
           sarcomas from the maxilla of 25 cats

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      Authors: Alexandra Harvey, Jason W Soukup, Cynthia M Bell
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Case series summaryFeline maxillary sarcomas are aggressive spindle cell neoplasms that occur within the maxilla, palate and upper lip of cats. This diagnosis includes fibrosarcoma and sarcomas with indeterminate histomorphology, excluding melanocytic tumors and sarcomas that can be differentiated by histomorphology. In this study of feline maxillary sarcomas in 25 cats, the cats’ ages ranged from 4 to 16 years (median 12.5). These sarcomas presented as smooth thickenings or mass lesions of the gingiva and palate, often involving both the right and left quadrants of the maxilla. Radiographic bone loss was typically absent to mild at the time of diagnosis. Histologically, feline maxillary sarcomas were composed of spindle cells with varying amounts of fibrous stroma and mild inflammation. Metastasis was not documented for any cat in the study, although clinical staging was limited. Cats were often euthanized because of local recurrence following incomplete tumor excision and local tumor progression. Median survival time from the date of histologic diagnosis was 70 days (n = 12).Relevance and novel informationFeline maxillary sarcomas are aggressive neoplasms that may be difficult to differentiate from a benign, reactive process or other types of spindle cell neoplasms. Our findings indicate that feline maxillary sarcoma has distinctive clinical and histopathologic features, and the information provided in this paper will facilitate early and specific diagnosis of this tumor.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T05:11:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221128260
       
  • Treatment strategies for hyperkalemia secondary to urethral obstruction in
           50 male cats: 2002–2017

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      Authors: Jessica M Jones, Jamie M Burkitt-Creedon, Steven E Epstein
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were: to describe the potassium-lowering treatment strategies used to manage moderate-to-severe hyperkalemia in male cats with urethral obstruction (UO); to determine how much dextrose was required per unit of insulin to prevent hypoglycemia; to determine whether early initiation of a dextrose continuous rate infusion (CRI) prevented hypoglycemia; and to determine whether in-hospital mortality was associated with presenting plasma potassium concentration ([K+]).MethodsThe medical records of male cats presenting with a [K+] ⩾7.0 mEq/l due to UO that had another [K+] measured within 6 h were reviewed retrospectively. All [K+] values within the first 6 h, blood glucose concentrations, treatments for hyperkalemia and survival to discharge were recorded. Analyses were performed to test for associations between dextrose:insulin ratios or method of dextrose administration and the development of hypoglycemia; and for presenting [K+] and mortality. Normally distributed groups of continuous data were compared with a t-test and categorical data were compared with a Fisher’s exact test.ResultsFifty cats were included. Mean presenting [K+] was 8.9 ± 1.0 mEq/l, while the mean final [K+] within 6 h was 6.6 ± 1.4 mEq/l. Forty-two (84%) cats were treated with intravenous fluids and 40 (80%) were treated with dextrose and insulin. Median dextrose:insulin ratio was 2 g/u (range 0.4–100). No dextrose:insulin ratio was found to protect against hypoglycemia, and 3/8 cats that became hypoglycemic had received ⩾2 g dextrose per unit of insulin. There was no association between the early initiation of a dextrose-containing CRI and avoidance of hypoglycemia. No association was found between presenting [K+] and mortality.Conclusions and relevanceWhile no specific dextrose:insulin ratio was found to protect against hypoglycemia, there is evidence that the commonly recommended dextrose:insulin ratio of 2 g/u may be inadequate in preventing hypoglycemia in every cat. Severity of hyperkalemia was not associated with mortality.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T05:06:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221127234
       
  • Feline pulmonary hypertension: are we overlooking an important
           comorbidity'

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      Authors: Kerry E Rolph, Sarah M Cavanaugh
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potential complication in many disease states, yet it has been largely overlooked in feline medicine. Recently, increased awareness of potential underlying causes has led to a wider understanding of the disease process in humans, with a focus on tailoring therapy to include specific treatment of the underlying etiology. Most of these treatments are not yet available in veterinary medicine, but as they move from the human to the veterinary field, it would be beneficial to better understand the forms of PH encountered in different species. Recently, diagnosis and classification of PH in dogs has been the focus of an American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement, yet this condition has received little attention in cats. It is therefore our intention to raise awareness of this condition in cats and to propose a classification system for the types of PH seen in feline patients. As new medications are developed for the treatment of PH, it is important to recognize which forms of PH are seen in feline patients and understand the etiology of the disease. There are many reports of PH (or suspected PH based on echocardiographic assessment) in cats. In this review, we highlight the large number of conditions, and different etiologies, that are associated with PH. Improving understanding of this condition will bring us closer to being able to investigate the benefits of potential new diagnostics and therapies as they become available.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:59:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221127233
       
  • Use of serum procalcitonin (PCT) level and PCT mRNA expression as a
           potential clinical biomarker in cats with bacterial and viral infections

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      Authors: Erdal Matur, Mukaddes Özcan, Elif Ergül Ekiz, Ezgi Ergen, Mert Erek, Erman Or, Banu Dokuzeylül, Songül Erhan, Bengü Bilgiç
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to investigate the use of procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker in differentiating bacterial infections from viral infections in cats. In addition, the relationship between PCT and mortality rate was also examined.MethodsForty-five cats were included in the study. The cats were categorised into two groups: bacterial (n = 20) and viral (n = 25) infection. Serum PCT level and PCT mRNA expression were analysed from blood samples collected before treatment.ResultsSerum PCT level and PCT mRNA expression of the cats with presumed bacterial infection were higher than those with viral infection (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an area under the ROC curve value of 0.888 for serum PCT and 0.850 for PCT mRNA expression. There was no statistically significant difference among respiratory, urinary and gastrointestinal tract infections regarding serum PCT level and PCT mRNA expression in the presumed bacterial infection group (P = 0.741 and P = 0.141, respectively). In the presumed bacterial infection group, serum PCT level and PCT mRNA expression in the non-surviving cats were higher than those of the surviving cats (P = 0.021 and P = 0.026, respectively).Conclusions and relevanceSerum PCT level and PCT mRNA expression were considered efficient biomarkers in cats to distinguish a bacterial infection from a viral infection. Moreover, ROC curve analysis was highly accurate in the discriminative capacity of these two parameters. PCT level and PCT mRNA expression offer substantial assistance in an efficient therapeutic approach and in avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use in feline clinical practice, particularly in emergency patients and those with non-specific clinical signs, decreasing the mortality rate. However, it should be noted that these data are only research data. More detailed future studies are needed.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:41:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221125570
       
  • No evidence of pulmonary hypertension revealed in an echographic
           evaluation of right-sided hemodynamics in hyperthyroid cats

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      Authors: Laury Lachance, Bérénice Conversy, Kelly Wiggen, Christophe Pavard, Carol Reinero, Isabelle Masseau
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesHyperthyroidism is a common endocrinopathy affecting middle-aged to elderly cats, with multisystemic repercussions. Hyperthyroid humans show decreased lung compliance and increased cardiac output with subsequent left heart failure leading to pulmonary capillary congestion. Prognosis worsens with the development of increased pulmonary vascular pressures (ie, pulmonary hypertension [PH]) in hyperthyroid humans. The effect of excess thyroid hormone concentration on pulmonary arterial hemodynamics is unknown in cats. Assessing pulmonary vascular pressures in veterinary medicine relies heavily on echocardiographic measurements performed at the level of the heart and pulmonary trunk. This study investigated right-sided cardiac and pulmonary arterial hemodynamics in hyperthyroid cats using echocardiography.MethodsEchocardiographic examinations of hyperthyroid cats identified through a bi-institutional database search were reviewed for the determination of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and 20 other metrics. Values were compared with those of a healthy cat group using non-parametric statistical analyses.ResultsSystolic PAP could not be determined in 23/26 hyperthyroid and 13/14 healthy cats owing to unmeasurable tricuspid regurgitation flow velocity. Hyperthyroid cats were roughly twice as old (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:35:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221127102
       
  • Veterinary services during the COVID-19 pandemic: less stressful for cats
           and their carers'

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      Authors: Sarah MA Caney, Natalie J Robinson, Danielle A Gunn-Moore, Rachel S Dean
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe COVID-19 pandemic saw major changes to small animal veterinary practice, many of which may have had an impact on stress in cats presented to the clinic. The aim of this study was to examine the nature of feline outpatient visits before and during the pandemic, and examine signs of stress noted in cats before, during and after these visits.MethodsA questionnaire was used to gather data on cat owner experiences of visits to the veterinary clinic. Data were gathered on the owner’s most recent experience of a consultation, with consultations occurring in February 2020 or earlier coded as a standard consultation, and consultations occurring in March 2020 or later coded as COVID-19 consultations.ResultsA total of 371 responses were received, with 210 coded as standard consultations and 161 coded as COVID-19 consultations. Consultation type varied significantly between standard and COVID-19 consultations (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221124360
       
  • Behavioral and cardiovascular effects of a single dose of gabapentin or
           melatonin in cats: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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      Authors: Giovana Lais Ruviaro Tuleski, Matheus Folgearini Silveira, Rodrigo Franco Bastos, Maria Jose Garcia Ribeiro Pscheidt, Wiliam da Silva Prieto, Marlos G Sousa
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to verify whether a single oral dose of gabapentin (100 mg) or melatonin (3 mg) given 60 mins before a cardiac evaluation would reduce anxiety without interfering with heart rate (HR), systemic blood pressure (SBP), electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiographic indexes.MethodsSeventy-five client-owned healthy cats underwent two sets of cardiac assessments 60 mins apart, randomly divided into gabapentin, melatonin and placebo groups. The interval between treatment and the second ECG and SBP measurement was 60 mins, and 70 mins for echocardiography. A compliance score (CS) classified the behavior, focusing on the ease of handling.ResultsMost variables did not change between the examinations. The placebo group showed more significant changes (SBP, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, HR during echocardiography, aortic flow velocity, S′ wave from lateral mitral annulus), but they were not considered to be hemodynamically relevant. Gabapentin and melatonin significantly increased the cats’ compliance without interfering with cardiac assessment. Eight cats presented with mild sedation, seven after gabapentin and one after melatonin. No major side effects were observed.Conclusions and relevanceGabapentin tranquilized the cats when it was given 60 mins prior to ECG and SBP measurement, and 70 mins prior to echocardiography, without interfering with systolic echocardiographic indexes. Melatonin also decreased the CS, but without sedation in most cases. The waiting period may have relaxed the cats in the placebo group, resulting in lower SBP measurements. However, this tranquility did not last as some echocardiographic changes signaled a sympathetic predominance.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:21:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221124359
       
  • Palliative radiation therapy as a treatment for feline urinary bladder
           masses in four cats

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      Authors: Paula Yoon, Keiko Murakami, Ilektra Athanasiadi, Nicholas J Rancilio
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Case series summaryUrinary bladder masses in four cats were treated with palliative radiation therapy (RT). Three cats were previously diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD): International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) stage 2 in two cats and IRIS stage 3 in one cat. One cat had a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and inflammatory bowel disease. Three cats had urinary tract infections diagnosed by urine culture and susceptibility testing prior to or during treatment. All patients had urine cytospin cytology performed; one case showed suspect urothelial carcinoma and three had no cytological evidence of neoplasia. All clients declined further sampling from the bladder masses. Therefore, cytologic/histologic diagnosis in all cases was not available. An abdominal ultrasound was performed in all cats, which revealed urinary bladder mass(es) prior to referral for RT. Three cats had pretreatment thoracic radiographs, which revealed no evidence of pulmonary metastasis. An abdominal CT was performed in all cases and one case had thoracic CT performed for staging. The thoracic CT showed a focal lesion of unknown etiology in the right caudal lung lobe. Palliative RT was performed with four weekly 6 Gy fractions (24 Gy in total). The urinary signs in all cats resolved over the course of RT: after the first RT treatment in two cats and after the second RT treatment in two cats. There were two Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 1 gastrointestinal and one grade 2 genitourinary acute RT side effects.Relevance and novel informationThis is the first report in the literature of a standardized RT protocol as a treatment option for feline urinary bladder masses.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T04:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221124127
       
  • Hemangiosarcoma of the nasal planum in cats: five cases (2010–2021)

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      Authors: Alysha M McGrath, Matthew R Cook, William TN Culp, Michelle L Oblak, Alberto Oramas, Judith Bertran, Giovanni Tremolada, Janis Lapsley, Laura E Selmic
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      Case series summaryNasal planum tumors are rare in cats, with squamous cell carcinoma over-represented. Other skin tumors have been reported in this location and though hemangiosarcoma frequently occurs on the skin of the head, these tumors localized to the nasal planum have not been specifically reported. The objectives of this study were to report the clinical findings and outcomes in cats diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma of the nasal planum. Medical records from four different institutions were reviewed to identify cats with a definitive diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma of the nasal planum. Five cats met the inclusion criteria. One cat was treated with palliative radiation therapy (RT) alone, two cats had lesions removed via an excisional biopsy by the primary care veterinarian and two cats had excisional biopsies performed at a referral institution. All four cats that received surgical treatment were treated with adjuvant strontium-90 therapy. The cat receiving palliative RT alone was lost to follow-up 311 days after treatment. At the time of writing, the survival time for 2/3 cats receiving surgery and strontium-90 was 365 days and 1381 days, respectively. One cat receiving this combination of therapy was lost to follow-up immediately after treatment. One cat developed tumor recurrence and a revision surgery via nasal planectomy and upper lip resection was performed 376 days following the initial surgery. Following revision, palliative RT was pursued. The cat was still alive at the time of writing 618 days after the initial procedure, with no evidence of recurrence.Relevance and novel informationIn this case series, surgery was the primary treatment used, but due to the location, only narrow or incomplete surgical margins were possible. RT (strontium-90 and/or palliative) was utilized to decrease the risk of recurrence.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T03:54:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221123772
       
  • Ultrasonographic findings of feline aortic thromboembolism

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      Authors: Olivia Eberlé, Céline Pouzot-Nevoret, Aurélie Thomas-Cancian, Thibaut Lurier, Alexandra Nectoux, Emilie Ségard-Weisse
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of feline aortic thromboembolism (ATE) and determine potential associations between ultrasonographic findings and prognosis.MethodsData were retrospectively collected from the medical records (2013–2021) of cats that were diagnosed ultrasonographically with ATE based on the presence of a thromboembolus (TE) in the distal aorta beginning after the departure of the renal arteries.ResultsTwenty-nine cats were included in this study. The most frequent location for an ATE was at the aortic trifurcation. The median length of TEs was 9 mm (range 3.5–42.9). TEs appeared homogeneous and isoechoic to surrounding tissues in all cases. No correlation was found between the appearance of the TE and the duration of clinical signs. The obstruction of blood flow in the distal aorta at the aortic trifurcation was complete in 66% of cases and incomplete in 34% of cases. The survival rate was significantly lower when the obstruction was complete (11%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2–34) compared with incomplete (70%, 95% CI 35–92). The arterial wall characteristics were as follows: smooth and thin (62%), and hyperechoic (38%).Conclusions and relevanceIncreased vascular obstruction of TEs was associated with a lower survival rate.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T03:49:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221123770
       
  • Radiographic features of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema in cats with
           left-sided cardiac disease: 71 cases

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      Authors: Alessia Diana, Simone Perfetti, Carlotta Valente, Marco Baron Toaldo, Pascaline Pey, Mario Cipone, Helen Poser, Carlo Guglielmini
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to describe the radiographic features of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (CPE) in a large group of cats with left-sided cardiac disease, and to determine the association between the radiographic features of CPE and the underlying cardiac disease.MethodsThoracic radiographs of cats with CPE and echocardiographic evidence of left-sided cardiac disease and left atrial enlargement (LAE) were reviewed, and cardiac silhouette, pulmonary vessels and pulmonary parenchyma evaluation were performed. Interstitial and/or alveolar patterns were classified according to their distribution (ie, diffuse, multifocal or focal) and location (ie, craniodorsal, cranioventral, caudodorsal, caudoventral and perihilar). A Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test, or the two-proportion z-test, were used to compare continuous or categorical variables, respectively, between cats affected by the two most represented cardiac diseases, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).ResultsSeventy-one cats were included; among them, 46 (64.7%) and 13 (18.3%) had presented for HCM and RCM, respectively. Subjective and objective cardiomegaly, and subjective and objective LAE were detected in 97.2% and 91.9% of cats and in 80.3% and 40.6% of cats, respectively. Pulmonary artery abnormalities, in particular caudal pulmonary artery dilation, were found in 77.5% of cats. Pulmonary artery to pulmonary vein ratio = 1 was found in 71.8% and 55% cats on right lateral and ventrodorsal or dorsoventral views, respectively. Interstitial (57.8%) and mixed interstitial–alveolar (38%) pattern, multifocal (84.5%) and symmetrical (75%) distribution with prevalent ventrocaudal (65.6% of cats) and ventrocranial (60.9% of cats) locations were most frequently observed. No difference was found for any of these radiographic features between cats with HCM and RCM.Conclusions and relevanceModerate-to-severe cardiomegaly and LAE, caudal pulmonary artery and vein dilation, as well as a ventral, multifocal and symmetrical interstitial pulmonary pattern, were the main radiographic features of CPE in evaluated cats. Underlying cardiac disease did not influence the aforementioned radiographic features.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-09T03:46:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121922
       
  • Happy cats: stress in cats and their carers associated with outpatient
           visits to the clinic

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      Authors: Sarah MA Caney, Natalie J Robinson, Danièlle A Gunn-Moore, Rachel S Dean
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe importance of the effects of stress on cats is well recognised, with visits to the veterinary clinic a common cause of stress. The aim of this study was to explore owners’ experiences of stress, both for themselves and their cat, during veterinary visits, and to gather data on owners’ perception of resources within the clinic to reduce stress in their cats.MethodsA questionnaire aimed at cat owners with recent experience of an outpatient visit to the veterinary clinic was developed and distributed. Questions covered demographics; their most recent veterinary visit; their general experience of visits over the past 3 years; measures taken by the clinic to reduce stress; and awareness of the Cat Friendly Clinic programme. There were various question types, with owners often asked to rate stress from 1 (least stressful) to 10 (most stressful).ResultsA total of 277 respondents gave details about their experience of consultations over the past 3 years. Owners rated the stress of travelling to the clinic, other animals in the waiting room and the consultation itself (all median 6, interquartile range 4–8) as the most stressful elements. Most owners reported gentle methods of removing the cat from their carrier; however, almost a third (n = 81/263; 30.8%) had seen their cat scruffed during a consultation. Cat-only waiting rooms were viewed as the most effective measure to reduce stress in the clinic.Conclusions and relevanceVeterinary clinics are already taking steps to address stress in cats, and owners have a good awareness of stress in their cats. Future work should focus on trialling specific interventions to determine their effectiveness in reducing stress in feline patients, and measures currently perceived by owners to be highly effective, such as cat-only waiting rooms, should be used where feasible.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T04:31:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121907
       
  • Survey of Belgian owners’ perspectives on quality of life and
           difficulties during a weight-loss programme in obese cats

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      Authors: Camila Baptista da Silva, Yang Lyu, Norberto Ruiz-Suárez, Francis Pastoor, Lobke Heip, Wendy Wambacq, Marie Celine Hottat, Myriam Hesta
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to determine owners’ perception of their cats’ quality of life (QoL), and whether there is a correlation with weight-loss variables, as well as to identify the main difficulties owners encounter during controlled weight loss in their obese cats.MethodsThe study was carried out as an e-questionnaire survey addressed to owners of cats starting a weight-loss programme. The e-questionnaire was provided at a single time point after the conclusion of the study (24 weeks).ResultsNineteen completed questionnaires were included. Eighteen cats had a lower weight at the end of the weight-loss period, two of which had successfully reached their target weight. Mean weight loss was 13.84% body weight at a rate of 0.53% weight loss/week. Although the perceived QoL was not correlated with weight-loss variables (P>0.05), it increased over time, even in cats that did not reach their target weight, and was statistically correlated with increased activity (r = 0.73; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-11-02T02:44:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121920
       
  • Intra-socket application of medical-grade honey after tooth extraction
           attenuates inflammation and promotes healing in cats

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      Authors: Carlos CF Pleeging, Hilde de Rooster, Bas Van Wijk, Frank ADTG Wagener, Niels AJ Cremers
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesDental diseases are a major problem in cats and often necessitate tooth extraction. Medical-grade honey (MGH) has antimicrobial and wound-healing properties, and therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether intra-socket application improved healing after tooth extraction. It was postulated that applying MGH would reduce inflammation, improve the viability of the surgical flap and enhance healing following tooth extraction.MethodsA prospective randomised controlled trial was performed in client-owned cats undergoing bilateral tooth extractions of the same element of the canine or (pre)molar tooth. A split-mouth design was used in which every animal served as its own control. After surgical extraction of the elements, the sockets on one side were filled with an MGH-based ointment (L-Mesitran Soft), whereas the contralateral side received no treatment (control). A mucoperiosteal flap was used on both sides, and simple interrupted monofilament sutures were placed. No antimicrobial drugs were administered. Clinical parameters (inflammation/redness, flap viability and wound healing) were subjectively analysed on days 3 and 7 post-extraction by a veterinarian blinded to the treatment.ResultsTwenty-one cats were included. MGH significantly decreased signs of inflammation (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-31T05:18:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221125772
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘Investigation of monotherapy and combined
           anticoronaviral therapies against feline coronavirus serotype II in
           vitro’

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T02:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221134027
       
  • Short-term postprandial changes in select serum biochemistry analytes in
           healthy adult cats

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      Authors: Olivia Wallace, Stacie Summers, Jessica Quimby, Michael Lappin
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude, duration and significance of postprandial changes to select serum biochemistry analytes in healthy adult cats in the 12 h period after a meal.MethodsNine adult research cats fed commercial food were included. Blood samples were taken after a 12 h fast (hour 0), cats were offered and consumed a meal, and postprandial samples were obtained over a 12 h period starting 2 h after the baseline blood draw (hours 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12). Serum samples were run on a Roche Cobas C501 chemistry analyzer to obtain concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus, total calcium, bicarbonate, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride. Serum concentrations of each analyte at hours 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 were compared with concentrations prior to feeding.ResultsSerum concentration for at least one postprandial time point was different from baseline fasted concentration for BUN (hour 2, P = 0.006; hour 4, P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T03:51:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121929
       
  • Defining the safe corridor for transcondylar screw placement in the feline
           humeral condyle

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      Authors: Matthew Simpson, Richard Meeson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to develop guidelines for the optimal location of drill entry and exit points for insertion of a transcondylar screw across the feline humeral condyle.MethodsMultiplanar reconstruction of feline elbow CT scans performed between 2016 and 2021 at one referral institution were reviewed. The optimum medial and lateral epicondylar entry and exit points for transcondylar screw placement were determined. These values were normalised to the humeral condylar diameter (HCD) for each elbow to determine the transcondylar screw placement guidelines. These guidelines were applied to each elbow and tolerance angles were determined in the transverse and frontal plane CT images to determine the safe corridor for screw placement.ResultsTwenty elbows from 12 cats were evaluated in this study. The guidelines for transcondylar screw placement were as follows: the medial entry/exit point was 0.38 × HCD cranial and 0.16 × HCD distal to the medial epicondyle, and the lateral entry/exit point was 0.3 × HCD cranial and 0.16 × HCD distal to the lateral epicondyle. Tolerance angles were statistically significantly (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-10-11T03:47:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121899
       
  • Prevalence, clinical presentation and MRI of intervertebral disc
           herniations in cats

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      Authors: Leonardo Bibbiani, Stefania Gelendi, Marco Bernardini, Federica Balducci, Barbara Contiero, Sara Canal
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and to describe the clinical and diagnostic imaging features of the different types of feline intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH).MethodsMedical records and imaging studies were retrospectively reviewed for cats diagnosed with IVDH between January 2008 and October 2020. Information obtained from the clinical records included signalment, clinical presentation, the presence of spinal hyperaesthesia and neurolocalisation. Diagnostic imaging findings, including type (ie, intervertebral disc extrusion [IVDE], intervertebral disc protrusion [IVDP] or acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE), site and number of IVDHs, were recorded. The association between breed, age, sex, duration and severity of neurological signs, the presence of spinal pain and MRI features was evaluated.ResultsForty-three cats were included. A total of 50 IVDHs were identified: 39 cats were diagnosed with a single IVDH and four with multiple IVDHs. The most common type of IVDH was ANNPE (n = 22), followed by IVDP (n = 19) and IVDE (n = 9). Neuroanatomical localisation included L4–S3 (n = 19/43), T3–L3 (n = 18/43) and C1–C5 (n = 6/43). Cats with a single IVDH were statistically significantly associated with a diagnosis of ANNPE (P = 0.023) compared with cats with multiple IVDHs affected by IVDP (P = 0.004). Males were more commonly affected by IVDE (P = 0.020) and females by ANNPE (P = 0.020). Cats with IVDP had a longer duration of clinical signs (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-09-29T09:28:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221121893
       
  • Erratum to ‘2022 AAFP/EveryCat Feline Infectious Peritonitis
           Diagnosis Guidelines’

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T01:48:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221126448
       
  • Erratum to ‘Rising to the challenge of FIP diagnosis’

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      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-09-06T01:35:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221126447
       
  • Comparison of ultrasonographic renal measurements in kittens up to 3
           months of age and young cats

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      Authors: Maria CR Castiglioni, Sheila C Rahal, Jeana P Silva, Maria J Mamprim
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate renal measurements by B-mode ultrasound in kittens during their first 3 months and compare them with those of young adult cats.MethodsForty-eight healthy mixed-breed cats (24 males and 24 females) were enrolled in this study. The cats were divided into six age groups: groups 1–5 (kittens) and group 6 (young adult cats). Each kidney was examined using B-mode imaging and the following measurements taken: renal length (RL), renal height (RH), renal width (RW), cortical thickness (CoT), medullary thickness (MdT) and corticomedullary ratio (CMr). The ratio and correlation of RL to aortic diameter (AoD) and the length of the fifth/sixth lumbar vertebrae (LLV) were also determined.ResultsAmong groups, there was a statistically significant difference between RW, renal volume (RV), CoT, MdT and CMr. The smallest renal dimensions were obtained in the youngest kittens (up to 10 days of age), including RL (1.84 ± 0.40 cm), RH (1.14 ± 0.17 cm), RW (1.25 ± 0.20 cm) and RV (1.47 ± 0.68 ml). A strong correlation was observed between RL:AoD and RL:LLV, allowing for linear regression equations and reference intervals for RL:AoD and RL:LLV to be created for each age group.Conclusions and relevanceB-mode ultrasound showed that renal measurements in kittens differed from those in young adult cats, and that the renal dimensions, renal CoT and CMr increased with the growth of the cat. The RL-LLV ratio is a reliable method for measuring RL according to age group.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-09-05T10:15:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221119392
       
  • Clinical parameters at time of admission as prognostic indicators in cats
           presented for trauma to an emergency centre in New Zealand: a
           retrospective analysis

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      Authors: William R Fitzgerald, Nick J Cave, Ivayla D Yozova
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of cats presented for trauma in a first-opinion and referral teaching hospital in New Zealand, and to determine the relationship between those features and outcome.MethodsThe electronic medical records of cats presented for trauma to the Massey University Pet Emergency Centre between September 2013 and January 2019 were examined, from which the signalment, clinical parameters and patient outcomes were extracted. Cases were assigned an Animal Trauma Triage (ATT) score and Modified Glasgow Coma Scale (MGCS) score. Variables were selected for inclusion in a logistic regression model to predict survival, and backward elimination was used to find the minimal significant model.ResultsIn total, 530 cats met the inclusion criteria. The cause of injury was not known in the majority of cases (38.0%). The most common location of injury was the hindlimbs/pelvis/tail (n = 247; 41%), and skin lacerations/abrasions were the most common specific injury. Multivariate analysis revealed altered mentation (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, P = 0.029), hypothermia (rectal temperature
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-08-26T03:10:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221115674
       
  • Prevalence of polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian-related
           cats in western Mexico

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      Authors: Néstor G Michel-Regalado, Miguel A Ayala-Valdovinos, Jorge Galindo-García, Theodor Duifhuis-Rivera, Abraham Virgen-Méndez
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequently diagnosed hereditary disease affecting Persian cats, is caused by a cytosine-to-adenine transversion (10063C>A) in PKD1, the gene that codes for polycystin-1. The objective of this study was to provide a preliminary estimate of the frequency of the pathogenic 10063C>A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of PKD1 in Persian and Persian-related cat breeds in western Mexico.MethodsBlood samples were collected from 104 cats (89 Persian, seven Persian crossbreed, five Siamese and three Himalayan cats). Genotyping was performed with our proposed PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, as well as a previously established PCR-RFLP method for validation. The genotypes of control cats were corroborated by a commercial veterinary genetics laboratory.ResultsOur proposed PCR-RFLP assay and the validated PCR-RFLP methodology indicated that 24/104 (23.1%) cats in this study were heterozygous carriers of the 10063C>A SNP, including 23/89 Persian cats (25.8%) and 1/7 Persian crossbreed cats (14.3%). No Siamese or Himalayan cats were carriers. There were no discrepancies between the results obtained with our proposed assay and those obtained with the validation method or with commercial laboratory results.Conclusions and relevanceThe carrier frequency of the PKD1 10063C>A SNP in Persian and Persian-related cat breeds in western Mexico was found to be 23.1%. ADPKD frequencies among cat populations in Mexico have not been published previously. Genotyping assays can be used to facilitate the selection of breeding stocks by local breeders and veterinarians to avoid propagation of ADPKD.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T04:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221114043
       
  • Ophthalmic effects of dexmedetomidine, methadone and
           dexmedetomidine–methadone in healthy cats and their reversal with
           atipamezole

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      Authors: Luciana Wolfran, Rafael Rostirolla Debiage, Danielle Mara Lopes, Fabíola Bono Fukushima
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the effects that dexmedetomidine and methadone, either alone or in combination, have on the ocular variables of healthy adult cats when administered intramuscularly, as well as their reversal with atipamezole.MethodsA randomized crossover blinded study of 10 healthy cats was used to assess the effect of 0.2 mg/kg methadone (MET), 7.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (D7), 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (D10), 7.5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg/kg methadone (DM7) and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg/kg methadone (DM10) on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear production and pupil diameter (PD). The animals were evaluated for 30 mins. Afterwards, atipamezole was administered and ocular variables were evaluated for 30 mins.ResultsD10, DM7 and DM10 significantly decreased mean IOP but MET or D7 did not. Tear production decreased significantly in all treatments, corresponding to 18%, 59%, 63%, 86% and 98% in MET, D7, D10, DM7 and DM10, respectively. PD increased in all treatments, but MET showed the highest PD. Thirty minutes after atipamezole (RT30), IOP returned to baseline with no difference between groups, and there was a significant increase in tear production, but the means were still different from baseline.Conclusions and relevanceDexmedetomidine decreases IOP and tear production but increases PD in healthy cats. Atipamezole can partly reverse those alterations. Low-dose dexmedetomidine (7.5 µg/kg) promotes sedation without changing the IOP. All protocols significantly decrease tear production, and Schirmer tear test after sedation is not representative of non-sedated values. Methadone induces quick onset mydriasis without changing the IOP.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-05-26T09:08:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221077023
       
  • Online survey of owners’ experiences of medicating their cats at
           home

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      Authors: Samantha Taylor, Sarah Caney, Claire Bessant, Danièlle Gunn-Moore
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to use an online survey to obtain information from cat owners about their experiences of medicating their cats.MethodsAn online survey containing 35 questions on experiences of medicating cats was circulated to cat owners globally.ResultsIn total, 2507 surveys from 57 countries were analysed; 1724 from ‘cat owners’ and 783 from ‘cat owners+’ (respondents with significant cat experience, including veterinary professionals). Around half (50.7%) of cat owners were ‘sometimes’ or ‘never’ provided with information or advice on how to administer medication; however, 91.8% of those given information found it ‘somewhat’ or ‘very’ useful. Around half (53.6%) of owners sought information from the internet about how to administer medication. Total cat owners (cat owners and cat owners+) administered liquids (61.3%), pastes (45.3%) or tablets (39.5%) directly into their cat’s mouth; fewer (22.6–24.1%) hid these medications in food. Total cat owners rated tablets significantly harder to administer than liquids; 53.0% chose liquids as their first-choice formulation while 29.3% chose tablets. Insulin injections and ‘spot-ons’ were significantly easier to administer than any oral medications. Over half (51.6%) of owners reported that medicating their cat(s) had changed their relationship with them; 77.0% reported that their cat(s) had tried to bite or scratch them when medicating. Other challenges included the cat(s) spitting out tablets (78.7%), refusing medication in food (71.7%) and running away (52.7%). Of the owners who failed to complete a course of medication (35.4%), 27.8% stopped near the end of the course, while 19.3% stopped after a few doses, in both cases as medicating was too difficult.Conclusions and relevanceOwners appreciate being provided with information about the administration of medication. Frequent challenges when medicating cats include potential human injury and damage to the owner–cat relationship. Pharmaceutical companies should provide a range of formulations to ease compliance. Veterinary clinics should provide information/demonstrations and internet links when prescribing medications.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T12:53:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221083752
       
  • Epidemiology and clinical presentation of feline presumed hereditary or
           breed-related ocular diseases in France: retrospective study of 129 cats

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      Authors: Matthieu MP Bott, Sabine Chahory
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular diseases in a population of cats in France.MethodsMedical records from between September 2013 and August 2017 were reviewed to identify cats with at least one presumed hereditary or breed-related ocular disease. Cats with concurrent, or a history of, ocular or systemic infectious diseases were excluded. Signalment, history and clinical findings were recorded.ResultsOf the 1161 cats that presented to our institution during the study period, 129 were diagnosed with at least one presumed hereditary or presumed breed-related ocular disease (11.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.3–12.9). Five ocular abnormalities had a prevalence of>1%: entropion, corneal sequestration, persistent pupillary membrane, cataract and retinal dysplasia. The prevalence of entropion was 2.2% (95% CI 1.3–3.0), with Persians (P = 0.03), Maine Coons (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-08T01:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221080598
       
  • Ultrasound appearance of the duodenal papilla in clinically healthy cats

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      Authors: Charlotte Coeuriot, Julie Pontarrasse, Nora Bouhsina, Maureen Lazard, Alexis Bertrand, Marion Fusellier
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe duodenal papilla (DP) is an anatomical structure located in the duodenal wall, a few centimetres from the pylorus. In cats, the pancreatic and bile ducts merge as they enter the DP, and this explains why cats are more likely than dogs to have concomitant digestive, pancreatic and hepatic infections. Ultrasonography of the DP has been previously established in dogs but not in cats. The purpose of our prospective study was to describe the ultrasound features of the DP in 30 adult clinically healthy cats.MethodsA full abdominal ultrasound was performed. Five measurements were recorded: the width and the height in a transverse section; the length and the height in a longitudinal section; and the thickness of the duodenal wall adoral to the DP in a longitudinal section. The subjective appearance (echogenicity and shape) of the DP was described.ResultsThe dimensions of the DP were a mean ± SD width of 3.13 ± 0.68 mm and height of 2.47 ± 0.63 mm in the transverse section, and length of 3.98 ± 1.27 mm and height of 2.44 ± 0.57 mm in the longitudinal section. The DP was homogeneous, subjectively isoechoic to fat and had a round and oval shape in the transverse and longitudinal sections, respectively. There was no correlation between the DP measurements and the weight, age or sex of the cats. The animals that were fed a mixed diet had a longer DP than those fed dry food.Conclusions and relevanceThis study provides reference values for the dimensions of the DP, as well as information on its ultrasonographic appearance in clinically healthy adult cats. We did not find any correlation between the age of the cats and the size of the papilla, but the age range was small and another study in older cats should be undertaken to address this more thoroughly.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T02:18:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221078783
       
  • Serum concentrations of gabapentin in cats with chronic kidney disease

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      Authors: Jessica M Quimby, Sarah K Lorbach, Ashlie Saffire, Amanda Kennedy, Luke A Wittenburg, Turi K Aarnes, Karina J Creighton, Sarah E Jones, Rene E Paschall, Emily M King, Clara E Bruner, Jessica N Wallinger, Karen A van Haaften
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to assess serum concentrations of gabapentin in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) vs clinically healthy cats.MethodsFive healthy cats were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study. A single 20 mg/kg dose of gabapentin was administered orally and blood was obtained at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h via a jugular catheter. Serum gabapentin concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. The same five healthy cats plus 25 cats with stable International Renal Interest Society stage 2 (n = 14) and 3 (n = 11) CKD were enrolled in a limited sampling study. Cats in both groups received a single 10 mg/kg dose of gabapentin, and serum gabapentin concentrations and compliance scores were obtained 3 and 8 h post-administration.ResultsCats with CKD had significantly higher dose-normalized serum gabapentin concentrations than normal cats at 3 h (P = 0.0012 CKD vs normal 10 mg/kg; P = 0.008 CKD vs normal 20 mg/kg) and 8 h (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T03:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221077017
       
  • Comparison of ultrasonographic echogenicity and outcome in cats with
           suspected pancreatitis

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      Authors: Kristina A Lederer, Katharina M Hittmair, Alexander Tichy, Florian K Zeugswetter
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether ultrasonographic pancreatic echogenicity, especially hypoechogenicity, has an impact on the prognosis of cats with suspected pancreatitis. We hypothesised that cats with a hypoechoic pancreas have a longer duration of hospitalisation, higher treatment costs and a higher mortality rate.MethodsThis was a retrospective study, which included cats with clinical signs of pancreatitis, a SNAP fPL test result above the reference interval and ultrasonographic abnormalities consistent with pancreatitis. Medical records and follow-up information were retrieved from the local electronic database. Cases were assigned to one of three groups based on pancreatic echogenicity: hypoechoic, hyperechoic or mixed echogenicity. Statistical analysis aimed to assess differences in outcome, ultrasonographic abnormalities, historical features, physical examination findings, laboratory results, concurrent diseases or treatment costs.ResultsThirty-six (64%) cats with a hypoechoic, seven (13%) with a hyperechoic and 13 (23%) cats with a mixed echoic pancreas were included. Cats with a hypoechoic pancreas had a significantly lower median body weight (P = 0.010) and lower median body condition score (P = 0.004) compared with the other cats. Furthermore, they were presented as being lethargic significantly more often (P = 0.014), were more likely to have a homogeneously enlarged pancreas (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T10:44:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221074921
       
  • Beneficial effects of a prescription home-prepared diet and of zucchini on
           urine calcium oxalate supersaturation and urinary parameters in adult cats
           

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      Authors: Géraldine Blanchard, Concetta Amato, Agnès André, Philippe Bleis, Samuel Ninet, Jürgen Zentek, Patrick Nguyen
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesFrom the authors’ experience, the consumption of a balanced prescription home-prepared diet that includes zucchini (courgette) benefits cats with recurrent urolithiasis, but there is no published evidence to support this. The aim was to study the effects on urinary parameters of (1) a balanced prescription home-prepared diet containing zucchini, and (2) the addition of zucchini to a dry food, compared with two commercial therapeutic diets.MethodsEight healthy cats were included in a Latin-square designed protocol. Five diets were evaluated: two commercial diets, designed for cats with urinary disorders, one high-moisture (U-WET) and one high-sodium dry (U-DRY); one home-prepared diet (HOME); one commercial dry food for adult maintenance (DRY); and DRY given together with 10 g of zucchini per kg body weight (DRY-Zuc). After a 7-day adaptation period, urine was collected and daily food and water intakes were assessed for 12 days. Urinary parameters, and relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite, were determined. Data underwent repeated measures ANOVA analysis.ResultsThe digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein and fat was highest with the HOME diet. CaOx RSS was lowest in cats eating the HOME diet, but not significantly different from the U-WET or U-DRY diets. CaOx RSS was lower in cats eating the DRY-Zuc diet than in cats eating the DRY diet. Struvite RSS did not differ significantly among groups.Conclusions and relevanceThis study shows that a balanced prescription home-prepared diet was safe and allowed a very low urinary CaOx RSS. It also showed that adding zucchini to dry food lowered the urine CaOx RSS.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-10T03:13:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211067931
       
  • Association between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations and
           blood calcium levels in chronic kidney disease cats with upper
           urolithiasis

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      Authors: Hirosumi Miyakawa, Huai-Hsun Hsu, Mizuki Ogawa, Ryota Akabane, Yuichi Miyagawa, Naoyuki Takemura
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis study investigated whether serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 concentrations are associated with serum total calcium (tCa) and blood ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urolithiasis.MethodsSerum samples and the medical records of cats with CKD with nephroliths, ureteroliths or both were investigated retrospectively. Cats with a serum creatinine concentration >250 μmol/l and/or a serum phosphorus concentration ⩾1.50 mmol/l were excluded. Based on cut-offs for serum tCa (2.70 mmol/l) or blood iCa (1.40 mmol/l), cats were divided into the following groups: total hypercalcaemia (H-tCa) (>2.70 mmol/l) and total normocalcaemia (N-tCa) (⩽2.70 mmol/l) groups, or ionised hypercalcaemia (H-iCa) (>1.40 mmol/l) and ionised normocalcaemia (N-iCa) (⩽1.40 mmol/l) groups, respectively. Serum FGF-23 concentrations were compared between groups and correlation analysis was performed.ResultsThirty-two cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis were included. Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-tCa group (median 573 pg/ml [range 125–3888]; n = 12) were significantly higher compared with the N-tCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94–627]; n = 20) (P = 0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-iCa group (median 1479 pg/ml [range 509–3888]; n = 6) increased significantly compared with the N-iCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94–637]; n = 26) (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221075278
       
  • Cabergoline treatment in cats with diabetes mellitus and
           hypersomatotropism

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      Authors: Diego D Miceli, Jorge D García, Gustavo A Pompili, Juan P Rey Amunategui, Sergio Ferraris, Omar P Pignataro, Mirtha Guitelman
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cabergoline to control hypersomatotropism (HST) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats.MethodsThis was a prospective cohort study. Twenty-three cats with HST and concurrent DM were enrolled. Cats received a dose of 10 μg/kg cabergoline q48h PO for 6 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and fructosamine concentrations, insulin dose and Insulin Resistance Index (IRI) were measured at the time of diagnosis of HST and at the start of cabergoline treatment (t0), and 3 months (t1) and 6 months (t2) during cabergoline treatment.ResultsA decrease and normalization of serum IGF-1 concentration was observed in 35% and 26% of cats, respectively. Median IGF-1 (t0: 1350 ng/ml [range 832–1501]; t1: 1284 ng/ml [range 365–1501]; t2: 1240 ng/ml [range 263–1501]; P = 0.016) decreased significantly. Twelve cats underwent diagnostic imaging of the pituitary area. The median pituitary height at t0 of cats that experienced an IGF-1 reduction (n = 5/12) was significantly lower compared with those that did not experience an IGF-1 reduction (n = 7/12) (3.2 mm [range 3.1–3.7] vs 6 mm [range 3.5–9.5]; P = 0.011). Median fructosamine (t0: 628 µmol/l [range 400–963]; t1: 404 µmol/l [range 249–780]; t2: 400 µmol/l [range 260–815]; P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221074924
       
  • Fecal shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing
           Enterobacterales in cats admitted to an animal shelter

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      Authors: J Scott Weese, Tyler O’Brien, Shane Bateman
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe objective of this study was to evaluate shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in cats admitted to an animal shelter.MethodsFecal samples were collected from cats admitted to an animal shelter between 12 June and 23 August 2018. Selective enrichment culture for ESBL-producing bacteria was performed and isolates were speciated and tested for selected ESBL genes using PCR.ResultsESBL-producing Enterobacterales were identified in fecal samples from 2/87 (2.3%; 95% confidence interval 0.6–8.0) cats. One isolate was an Escherichia coli that possessed blaCTX-M-1, blaCMY-2 and blaTEM genes. The other was Enterobacter cloacae possessing blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2.Conclusions and relevanceWhile the study sample size and prevalence rate for ESBL-producing bacteria were low, these data document that cats admitted to similar shelters could harbor these agents. The risk posed by ESBL-producing bacterium shedding in cats, both to cats and other species, is currently unclear. However, these findings support the need for more investigation of interspecies transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria and ESBL genes, as well as the importance of antimicrobial stewardship and routine infection control measures.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T02:38:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X221075602
       
  • Use of a cyclical hypofractionated radiotherapy regime (‘QUAD shot’)
           for the treatment of feline sinonasal carcinomas

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      Authors: Petros S Frezoulis, Aaron Harper, Sarah L Mason
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesRadiation therapy is the treatment of choice for cats with sinonasal carcinomas. Different protocols have been described in the literature, though a clear consensus regarding the optimal protocol is lacking. The aim of the study was to describe the tolerability, efficacy and outcome of cats treated with a cyclical hypofractionated protocol.MethodsCats with histologically diagnosed sinonasal carcinomas in a single institution were retrospectively included. All patients were treated with a cyclical hypofractionated protocol (‘QUAD shot’ regime). Cats were treated with 4 Gray (Gy) delivered in four fractions within 48 h, with a minimum of 6 h between two treatments, and repeated every 3–4 weeks for a total dose of 48 Gy in three cycles.ResultsSeven cats met the inclusion criteria. Nasal discharge and sneezing were the most common presenting complaints. All cats presented with advanced stage of disease with CT examination (three with modified Adams stage 3 and four with stage 4). Clinical improvement was seen in six cats. Five cats had a follow-up CT; one had a complete response, two had partial responses, one had stable disease and one had progressive disease. Two cats were still alive at the time of writing while four were euthanased owing to tumour-related causes. The median overall survival time was 460 days. The 1-year survival time was 80% and the 2-year survival time was 0%. Severe acute or late toxicity was not reported.Conclusions and relevanceThis is the first report of a cyclical hypofractionated protocol in the veterinary literature that can provide prolonged survival in cats with advanced stage sinonasal carcinoma. Its use should be considered in patients when prolonged hospitalisation can be detrimental to quality of life, while still delivering a therapeutic total dose of radiation therapy.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211070737
       
  • Online survey to determine client perceptions of feline chronic lower
           airway disease management: response to therapy, side effects and
           challenges encountered

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      Authors: Mathieu V Paulin, Sarah MA Caney, Kevin L Cosford
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe first aim of this survey was to report client experiences associated with the administration of common medications, particularly glucocorticoids and bronchodilators, in managing cats with feline lower airway disease (FLAD). The second aim was to ascertain client perception of response to treatment and level of satisfaction.MethodsThis was a prospective cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed worldwide to cat owners caring for cats with a chronic cough. Only cats reported to have FLAD were included.ResultsA total of 153 complete responses describing cats with FLAD were analyzed. Glucocorticoids and bronchodilators were the predominantly prescribed therapeutics for 140/153 (92%) and 80/153 (52%) of FLAD cats, respectively. Oral and inhalant administration routes were reported most commonly: glucocorticoids (64% oral and 75% inhalant) and bronchodilators (21% oral and 88% inhalant). A review of how air quality could be improved was conducted for 54% of cats. Almost half (43%) of owners reported adverse effects secondary to glucocorticoid administration, the most frequent being polyphagia (26%) and polydipsia (21%). Only 10% of owners reported bronchodilator-associated side effects, with restlessness (9%) being the most common. Difficulties giving glucocorticoid or bronchodilator tablets orally were reported for 33% and 71% of owners, respectively. Glucocorticoid or bronchodilator inhalant therapies were difficult to administer for 28% and 31% of owners, respectively. Frequency and severity of coughing were significantly lower after at least 2 months of treatment, with median numerical input on a slider scale (0–100) of 48 and 42 before, and 10 and 7 after treatment, respectively (P
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-07T09:54:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211070988
       
  • Cross-sectional survey of non-invasive indirect blood pressure measurement
           practices in cats by veterinarians

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      Authors: Iliana Navarro, Stacie Summers, Mark Rishniw, Jessica Quimby
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThis survey of small animal veterinarians endeavored to: (1) determine current methods of indirect blood pressure measurement; (2) detail techniques used to reduce situational hypertension; and (3) better understand the obstacles to performing blood pressure measurement in cats.MethodsAn online survey was produced and circulated to members of the Veterinary Information Network. A total of 733 veterinarians who saw cats in their practice and had access to at least one indirect blood pressure device completed the entirety of the survey.ResultsNinety-six percent (703/733) of veterinarians who completed the survey reported measuring indirect blood pressure in cats in their practice, with veterinary technicians conducting most (600/703; 85.3%) of these measurements. Few veterinarians (30/733; 4.1%) did not measure blood pressure, with these veterinarians citing several obstacles including: difficulty interpreting results with the occurrence of fear, anxiety and stress in cats (20/30; 66.7%); difficulty performing measurements in cats (17/30; 56.7%); and technical staff being uncomfortable performing measurements (12/30; 40.0%). Most veterinarians (300/435; 69.0%) in this survey preferred an ultrasonic Doppler flow detector with sphygmomanometry, with many (272/300; 90.7%) perceiving that the results obtained with this device were more trustworthy compared with results obtained with oscillometry. Ninety percent (633/703) of veterinarians employed techniques to reduce situational hypertension in cats. Techniques perceived to be most helpful among veterinarians included: using a quiet location (454/633; 71.7%); minimizing restraint (316/633; 49.9%); performing blood pressure prior to other procedures (eg, phlebotomy, cystocentesis) (302/633; 47.7%); avoiding other animals (219/633; 34.6%); and allowing time for acclimation (167/633; 26.4%).Conclusions and relevanceThis survey study of veterinarians helps clarify obstacles to routine blood pressure measurement in conscious cats. Veterinarians reported several strategies that they felt reduced situational hypertension in cats. The data inform modifications of techniques to increase the frequency and perceived reliability of blood pressure measurement in at-risk cats.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T09:36:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211067015
       
  • CT characterisation and classification of feline temporomandibular joint
           trauma: a case series of 79 cats

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      Authors: Lisa A Mestrinho, Sónia SF Sebastião, Maciej A Zwierucho, Aaron Lutchman, Lorrie Gaschen, Stephanie Goldschmidt, Graham Thatcher, Yu Izumisawa, Richard L Meeson
      Abstract: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, Ahead of Print.
      ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to characterise and describe patterns of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) injuries occurring in cats using CT.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out in adherence with the STROBE guidelines. Among the medical and CT records of 79 cats, 158 TMJs were reviewed in a collaborative study between six institutions.ResultsTMJ injuries were most commonly unilateral, representing 70.9% of cases. The mandibular condyle was fractured in 88 cases (55.7%) of the 158 TMJs observed. Of those, 84.0% were intra-articular condyle fractures, with the medial half of the mandibular condyle over-represented. Luxations occurred in 32.9% of cases, which was 19.0% of all evaluated TMJs. Rostrodorsal luxations were most common representing 87.0% of all luxations. Temporal bone fractures were observed in 30.4% of all cases, which was 18.4% of TMJs. The majority of fractures were of an unknown cause. When the cause was determined, road traffic accident (RTA) was the most frequent, followed by animal interaction, other external forces (sharp or blunt force) and high-rise trauma. Bilateral injuries were 13.1 times more likely to occur in high-rise trauma (P = 0.01) and temporal bone fracture was significantly associated with RTAs (P = 0.016). No other significant associations were observed between cause of injury and the resulting TMJ injury pattern.Conclusions and relevanceVarious TMJ injury patterns can occur in cats as a result of trauma. Intra-articular fractures of the medial half of the mandibular condyle occur most commonly. Although unilateral injuries are more frequent, high-rise trauma tends to present with bilateral lesions. Further studies with a larger sample size should be performed to better understand TMJ patterns of injury and how they relate to possible causes.
      Citation: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
      PubDate: 2022-01-31T10:56:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1098612X211066654
       
 
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